DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.

Production of beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides by the oral mucosa and salivary glands. (1/685)

beta-Defensins are cationic peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that are produced by epithelia at mucosal surfaces. Two human beta-defensins, HBD-1 and HBD-2, were discovered in 1995 and 1997, respectively. However, little is known about the expression of HBD-1 or HBD-2 in tissues of the oral cavity and whether these proteins are secreted. In this study, we characterized the expression of HBD-1 and HBD-2 mRNAs within the major salivary glands, tongue, gingiva, and buccal mucosa and detected beta-defensin peptides in salivary secretions. Defensin mRNA expression was quantitated by RNase protection assays. HBD-1 mRNA expression was detected in the gingiva, parotid gland, buccal mucosa, and tongue. Expression of HBD-2 mRNA was detected only in the gingival mucosa and was most abundant in tissues with associated inflammation. To test whether beta-defensin expression was inducible, gingival keratinocyte cell cultures were treated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. HBD-2 expression increased approximately 16-fold with IL-1beta treatment and approximately 5-fold in the presence of LPS. Western immunoblotting, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry were used to identify the HBD-1 and HBD-2 peptides in human saliva. Human beta-defensins are expressed in oral tissues, and the proteins are secreted in saliva; HBD-1 expression was constitutive, while HBD-2 expression was induced by IL-1beta and LPS. Human beta-defensins may play an important role in the innate defenses against oral microorganisms.  (+info)

Efficient killing of inhaled bacteria in DeltaF508 mice: role of airway surface liquid composition. (2/685)

Cystic fibrosis mice have been generated by gene targeting but show little lung disease without repeated exposure to bacteria. We asked if murine mucosal defenses and airway surface liquid (ASL) Cl(-) were altered by the DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation. Naive DeltaF508 -/- and +/- mice showed no pulmonary inflammation and after inhaled Pseudomonas aeruginosa had similar inflammatory responses and bacterial clearance rates. We therefore investigated components of the innate immune system. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice killed Escherichia coli, and the microbicidal activity was inhibited by NaCl. Because beta-defensins are salt-sensitive epithelial products, we looked for pulmonary beta-defensin expression. A mouse homolog of human beta-defensin-1 (termed "MBD-1") was identified; the mRNA was expressed in the lung. Using a radiotracer technique, ASL volume and Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]) were measured in cultured tracheal epithelia from normal and DeltaF508 -/- mice. The estimated ASL volume was similar for both groups. There were no differences in ASL [Cl(-)] in DeltaF508 -/- and normal mice (13.8 +/- 2.6 vs. 17.8 +/- 5.6 meq/l). Because ASL [Cl(-)] is low in normal and mutant mice, salt-sensitive antimicrobial factors, including MBD-1, may be normally active.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of rat genes encoding homologues of human beta-defensins. (3/685)

beta-Defensins are cationic peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that may play a role in mucosal defenses of several organs. They have been isolated in several species, and in humans, two beta-defensins have been identified. Here, we report the identification of two genes encoding beta-defensin homologues in the rat. Partial cDNAs were found by searching the expressed-sequence-tag database, and primers were designed to generate full-length mRNA coding sequences. One gene was highly similar to the human beta-defensin-1 (HBD-1) gene and mouse beta-defensin-1 gene at both the nucleic acid and amino acid levels and was termed rat beta-defensin-1 (RBD-1). The other gene, named RBD-2, was homologous to the HBD-2 and bovine tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) genes. The predicted prepropeptides were strongly cationic, were 69 and 63 residues in length for RBD-1 and RBD-2, respectively, and contained the six-cysteine motif characteristic of beta-defensins. The beta-defensin genes mapped closely on rat chromosome 16 and were closely linked to the alpha-defensins genes, suggesting that they are part of a gene cluster, similar to the organization reported for humans. Northern blot analysis showed that both RBD-1 and RBD-2 mRNA transcripts were approximately 0.5 kb in length; RBD-1 mRNA was abundantly transcribed in the rat kidney, while RBD-2 was prevalent in the lung. Reverse transcription-PCR indicated that RBD-1 and RBD-2 mRNAs were distributed in a variety of other tissues. In the lung, RBD-1 mRNA expression localized to the tracheal epithelium while RBD-2 was expressed in alveolar type II cells. In conclusion, we characterized two novel beta-defensin homologues in the rat. The rat may be a useful model to investigate the function and contribution of beta-defensins to host defense in the lung, kidney, and other tissues.  (+info)

Human beta-defensin-1 mRNA is transcribed in tympanic membrane and adjacent auditory canal epithelium. (4/685)

The external auditory canal is less susceptible to infections than the sensitive middle-ear cavity. Since recent research has provided insight to the production of potent antimicrobial peptides from various surface epithelia, we wanted to investigate whether protection of the external auditory canal in part could be explained by the production of human beta-defensin-1 (HBD-1). This particular peptide is known to be constitutively expressed in various surface epithelia, such as airway, skin, and urogenital tissues. By reverse transcriptase PCR we demonstrate HBD-1 mRNA in the pars tensa and pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane and in the meatal skin. In situ hybridization studies localized the HBD-1 mRNA to the epidermal layer of these tissues. The HBD-1 transcripts were also evident in the sebaceous glands and in hair follicles of the meatal skin. In contrast, HBD-1 mRNA was not detected in the tympanal epithelium of the eardrum. The widespread presence of mRNA encoding for this broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide in the meatal skin and tympanic membrane suggests that HBD-1 participates in the innate antimicrobial defense of the external auditory canal and middle-ear cavity.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of bovine neutrophil beta-defensins. Biosynthetic profile during neutrophilic maturation and localization of mature peptide to novel cytoplasmic dense granules. (5/685)

beta-Defensins are microbicidal peptides implicated in host defense functions of phagocytic leukocytes and certain surface epithelial cells. Here we investigated the genetic structures and cellular expression of BNBD-4, -12, and -13, three prototypic bovine neutrophil beta-defensins. Characterization of the corresponding cDNAs indicated that BNBD-4 (41 residues) derives from a 63-amino acid prepropeptide and that BNBD-12 (38 residues) and BNBD-13 (42 residues) derive from a common 60-amino acid precursor (BNBD-12/13). The peptides were found to be encoded by two-exon genes that are closely related to bovine epithelial beta-defensin genes. BNBD-4 and BNBD-12/13 mRNAs were most abundant in bone marrow, but were expressed differentially in certain non-myeloid tissues. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that BNBD-4 synthesis is completed early in myelopoiesis. BNBD-12 was localized exclusively to the novel dense granules, organelles that also contain precursors of cathelicidins, antimicrobial peptides that undergo proteolytic processing during phagocytosis. In contrast to cathelicidins, Western blot analyses revealed that mature beta-defensins are the predominant organellar form in myeloid cells. Stimulation of neutrophils with phorbol myristate acetate induced secretion of BNBD-12, indicating that it is co-secreted with pro-cathelicidins. The exocytosis of BNBD-12 by activated neutrophils reveals different mobilization pathways for myeloid alpha- and beta-defensins.  (+info)

Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6. (6/685)

Defensins contribute to host defense by disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms. This report shows that human beta-defensins are also chemotactic for immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. Human beta-defensin was selectively chemotactic for cells stably transfected to express human CCR6, a chemokine receptor preferentially expressed by immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. The beta-defensin-induced chemotaxis was sensitive to pertussis toxin and inhibited by antibodies to CCR6. The binding of iodinated LARC, the chemokine ligand for CCR6, to CCR6-transfected cells was competitively displaced by beta-defensin. Thus, beta-defensins may promote adaptive immune responses by recruiting dendritic and T cells to the site of microbial invasion through interaction with CCR6.  (+info)

Expression and regulation of the human beta-defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2 in intestinal epithelium. (7/685)

The intestinal epithelium forms a physical barrier to limit access of enteric microbes to the host and contributes to innate host defense by producing effector molecules against luminal microbes. To further define the role of the intestinal epithelium in antimicrobial host defense, we analyzed the expression, regulation, and production of two antimicrobial peptides, human defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2, by human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The human colon epithelial cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 constitutively express hBD-1 mRNA and protein but not hBD-2. However, hBD-2 expression is rapidly induced by IL-1alpha stimulation or infection of those cells with enteroinvasive bacteria. Moreover, hBD-2 functions as a NF-kappaB target gene in the intestinal epithelium as blocking NF-kappaB activation inhibits the up-regulated expression of hBD-2 in response to IL-1alpha stimulation or bacterial infection. Caco-2 cells produce two hBD-1 isoforms and a hBD-2 peptide larger in size than previously described hBD-2 isoforms. Paralleling the in vitro findings, human fetal intestinal xenografts constitutively express hBD-1, but not hBD-2, and hBD-2 expression, but not hBD-1, is up-regulated in xenografts infected intraluminally with Salmonella. hBD-1 is expressed by the epithelium of normal human colon and small intestine, with a similar pattern of expression in inflamed colon. In contrast, there is little hBD-2 expression by the epithelium of normal colon, but abundant hBD-2 expression by the epithelium of inflamed colon. hBD-1 and hBD-2 may be integral components of epithelial innate immunity in the intestine, with each occupying a distinct functional niche in intestinal mucosal defense.  (+info)

Inducible expression of human beta-defensin 2 by Fusobacterium nucleatum in oral epithelial cells: multiple signaling pathways and role of commensal bacteria in innate immunity and the epithelial barrier. (8/685)

Human gingival epithelial cells (HGE) express two antimicrobial peptides of the beta-defensin family, human beta-defensin 1 (hBD-1) and hBD-2, as well as cytokines and chemokines that contribute to innate immunity. In the present study, the expression and transcriptional regulation of hBD-2 was examined. HBD-2 mRNA was induced by cell wall extract of Fusobacterium nucleatum, an oral commensal microorganism, but not by that of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen. HBD-2 mRNA was also induced by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an epithelial cell activator. HBD-2 mRNA was also expressed in 14 of 15 noninflamed gingival tissue samples. HBD-2 peptide was detected by immunofluorescence in HGE stimulated with F. nucleatum cell wall, consistent with induction of the mRNA by this stimulant. Kinetic analysis indicates involvement of multiple distinct signaling pathways in the regulation of hBD-2 mRNA; TNF-alpha and F. nucleatum cell wall induced hBD-2 mRNA rapidly (2 to 4 h), while PMA stimulation was slower ( approximately 10 h). In contrast, each stimulant induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) within 1 h. The role of TNF-alpha as an intermediary in F. nucleatum signaling was ruled out by addition of anti-TNF-alpha that did not inhibit hBD-2 induction. However, inhibitor studies show that F. nucleatum stimulation of hBD-2 mRNA requires both new gene transcription and new protein synthesis. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides isolated from Escherichia coli and F. nucleatum were poor stimulants of hBD-2, although they up-regulated IL-8 mRNA. Collectively, our findings show inducible expression of hBD-2 mRNA via multiple pathways in HGE in a pattern that is distinct from that of IL-8 expression. We suggest that different aspects of innate immune responses are differentially regulated and that commensal organisms have a role in stimulating mucosal epithelial cells in maintaining the barrier that contributes to homeostasis and host defense.  (+info)

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View more ,PURPOSE: Artificial materials such as dental implants are at risk of bacterial contamination in the oral cavity. Human beta defensins (HBDs), small cationic antimicrobial peptides that exert a broad-spectrum antibacterial function at epithelial surfaces and within some mesenchymal tissues, could probably help to reduce such contamination. HBDs also have protective immunomodulatory effects and have been reported to promote bone remodeling. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the influence of recombinant HBD-2 on the proliferation and survival of cells in culture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), human osteoblasts, human keratinocytes (control), and the HeLa cancer cell line (control) were incubated with recombinant HBD-2 (1, 5, 10, or 20 姯mL). Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were evaluated via a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) and lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively. RESULTS: HBD-2 was not toxic in any tested ...
Beta defensins are a family of mammalian defensins. The beta defensins are antimicrobial peptides implicated in the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonization. Defensins are 2-6 kDa, cationic, microbicidal peptides active against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses, containing three pairs of intramolecular disulfide bonds. On the basis of their size and pattern of disulfide bonding, mammalian defensins are classified into alpha, beta and theta categories. Every mammalian species explored thus far has beta-defensins. In cows, as many as 13 beta-defensins exist in neutrophils. However, in other species, beta-defensins are more often produced by epithelial cells lining various organs (e.g. the epidermis, bronchial tree and genitourinary tract. Human, rabbit and guinea-pig beta-defensins, as well as human beta-defensin-2 (hBD2), induce the activation and degranulation of mast cells, resulting in the release of histamine and prostaglandin D2. ...
Although, the human epithelium is constantly challenged by a broad spectrum of microorganisms, invasive infections are rather rare. Recent findings suggest the expression of antimicrobial peptides by
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid sequence divergence in mammalian beta-defensins by adaptive evolution. AU - Maxwell, A I. AU - Morrison, G M. AU - Dorin, J R. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - beta-Defensin genes encode broad spectrum antimicrobial cationic peptides. We have analysed the largest murine and human clusters of these genes, which localise to mouse and human chromosome 8. Using hidden Markov models, we identified novel mouse and human beta-defensin genes. We subsequently found full-length expressed transcripts for these novel genes. Expression in the mouse was high in brain and reproductive tissues. Fourteen murine beta-defensins could be grouped into two clear sub-groups by virtue of their position and high signal sequence (exon 1 encoded) identity. In contrast, there was a very low level of sequence conservation in the exon 2 region encoding the mature antimicrobial peptide. Evolutionary analysis revealed strong evidence that following gene duplication, exon 1 and surrounding non-coding DNA show ...
Myeloid Elf-1 like factor (MEF) is an ETS protein, which activates the promoters of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3, lysozyme, human beta defensin-2 and perforin. In spite
The solution structure is reported for bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12 (BNBD-12), a member of the beta-defensin family of antimicrobial peptides. Structural constraints in the form of proton-proton distances, dihedral angles, and hydrogen bond constraints were derived from two-dimensional, homonu …
The authors characterize the recombinant human beta-defensin DEFB114 peptide, demonstrating its anti-microbial potential, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding and neutralization, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Data suggest that DEFB114 could also protect human sperm from motility loss when challenged with LPS. Affinity measurements of interaction between LPS and DEFB114 were performed using the Octet system. Purified DEFB114 was biotinylated and loaded onto Streptavidin biosensors, followed by association/dissociation with purified LPS.
1BNB: Solution structure of bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12: the peptide fold of the beta-defensins is identical to that of the classical defensins.
International Journal of Peptides is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of peptide research.
Background: Smoking increases the susceptibility to pulmonary infection and is a risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We postulated that cigarette smoke suppresses the activation of the innate immune system in response to bacterial infection. Methods: With sensitive ex-vivo analysis we measured the level of the endogenous antibiotic peptide human beta-defensin-2 in pharyngeal washing fluids and sputum of patients with community acquired pneumonia. The regulation of antibacterial host defense molecules was studied in vitro. The effect of cigarette smoke on the antibacterial activity of differentiated airway epithelium and the expression of host defense molecules was studied in an infection model in vitro. Results: Current or former smoking was associated with significantly reduced hBD-2 levels in pharyngeal washing fluid and sputum from patients with acute pneumonia. Exposure of airway epithelium to smoke in vitro inhibited the induction of hBD-2 by ...
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a pathogenic acid-fast bacterium causes ten million infections and two million deaths per year. Multidrug resistance of Mtb has been in part attributed to its lipid rich cell wall and tendency to aggregate. Mucosal surfaces in the respiratory tract secrete antimicrobial peptides including human beta-defensins (HBD) which typically exert their effects at low μM concentrations. HBD2 has been thought to primarily act as chemoattractant. However, considering its association with lipid membranes direct activity against Mtb is conceivable. Objective: Using Mycobacterium smegmatis (Ms) as a model organism for Mtb, this study aimed to establish a protocol to homogenize Ms and test the effectiveness of HBD-2 against Ms. Methods: Ms was grown for 48 h in 7H9 medium, adjusted to McF 0.5, sonicated for 3, 5, and 9 rounds of five second durations, and diluted 1:50 in 7H9 media. Aliquots in five replicates were further incubated in a microtiter plate for 48 h and
AMP play an important role in the innate immune response against infections. Two major classes of AMP have been identified: the beta defensins (HBD) (Harder 1997) and cathelicidins (LL-37) (Gallo 2002). AMP have been shown to have antibacterial activities against S. aureus (Ong 2002) and antiviral activity against vaccinia virus (VV) (Howell 2004).. The skin of AD patients is characterized by a deficiency in AMP, which may account for their propensity to skin infections (Ong 2002). This AMP deficiency is believed to be due to an increase in Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, expression (Ong 2002), as well as an increase of IL-10 expression (Howell 2005). Other cytokines known to affect AMP expression are TNF-alpha (TNFa), IL-6, IL-1 and interferon-gamma (IFN-g). These cytokines induce the expression of AMP (Erdag 2002, Liu 2002, Ong 2002, Nomura 2003). However, negligible levels of TNF-a and IFN-g have been shown in AD skin possibly due to their downregulation by Th2 cytokines (Nomura 2003). ...
Hyperbranched polyimide-silica hybrids (HBPI-silica HBDs) and hyperbranched polyimide-silica composites (HBPI-silica CPTs) were prepared, and their general and gas transport properties were investigated to clarify the effect of silica sources and preparation methods. HBPI-silica HBDs and HBPI-silica CPTs were synthesized by two-step polymerization of A2 + B3 monomer system via polyamic acid as precursor, followed by hybridizing or blending silica sources. Silica components were incorporated by the sol-gel reaction with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) or the addition of colloidal silica. In HBPI-silica HBDs, the aggregation of silica components is controlled because of the high affinity of HBPI and silica caused by the formation of covalent bonds between HBPI and silica. Consequently, HBPI-silica HBDs had good film formability, transparency, and mechanical properties compared with HBPI-silica CPTs. HBPI-silica HBD and CPT membranes prepared via the sol-gel reaction with TMOS showed specific gas permeabilities
Hyperbranched polyimide-silica hybrids (HBPI-silica HBDs) and hyperbranched polyimide-silica composites (HBPI-silica CPTs) were prepared, and their general and gas transport properties were investigated to clarify the effect of silica sources and preparation methods. HBPI-silica HBDs and HBPI-silica CPTs were synthesized by two-step polymerization of A2 + B3 monomer system via polyamic acid as precursor, followed by hybridizing or blending silica sources. Silica components were incorporated by the sol-gel reaction with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) or the addition of colloidal silica. In HBPI-silica HBDs, the aggregation of silica components is controlled because of the high affinity of HBPI and silica caused by the formation of covalent bonds between HBPI and silica. Consequently, HBPI-silica HBDs had good film formability, transparency, and mechanical properties compared with HBPI-silica CPTs. HBPI-silica HBD and CPT membranes prepared via the sol-gel reaction with TMOS showed specific gas permeabilities
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Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate immune system. The alpha-defensins which include NP-1, NP-2 and NP-3, are distinguished from the beta-defensins by the pairing of their three disulfide bonds. In addition to antimicrobial activity, NP-1 exhibits chemotactic activity on dendritic cells. NP-1 is expressed as the C-terminal portion of an inactive precursor protein, which also contains a 19 amino acid N-terminal signal sequence and a 45 amino acid polypeptide. NP-1 contains a six-cysteine motif that forms three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant human NP-1 is a 3.4 kDa protein containing 30 amino acid residues ...
GPR29 [ENSP00000343952]. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6; Receptor for the C-C type chemokine CCL20. Binds to CCL20 and subsequently transduces a signal by increasing the intracellular calcium ion levels. Although CCL20 is its major ligand it can also act as a receptor for non-chemokine ligands such as beta-defensins. Binds to defensin DEFB1 leading to increase in intracellular calcium ions and cAMP levels. Its binding to DEFB1 is essential for the function of DEFB1 in regulating sperm motility and bactericidal activity. Binds to defensins DEFB4 and DEFB4A/B and mediates their chemotactic effects. The ligand-receptor pair CCL20-CCR6 is responsible for the chemotaxis of dendritic cells (DC), effector/ memory T-cells and B-cells and plays an important role at skin and mucosal surfaces under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, as well as in pathology, including cancer and various autoimmune diseases. CCR6-mediated signals are essential for immune responses to microbes in the intestinal mucosa ...
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DEFB119 - DEFB119 (untagged)-Human defensin, beta 119 (DEFB119), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for DEFB126 gene (Protein Coding), Defensin Beta 126, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for DEFB107A gene (Protein Coding), Defensin Beta 107A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Human beta defensins (hBDs) are small cationic peptides, expressed in mucosal epithelia and important agents of innate immunity, act as antimicrobial and chemotactic agents at mucosal barriers. In this perspective, we present evidence supporting a novel strategy by which the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum induces hBDs and other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in normal human oral epithelial cells and thereby protects them from other microbial pathogens. The findings stress (1) the physiological importance of hBDs, (2) that this strategy may be a mechanism that contributes to homeostasis and health in body sites constantly challenged with bacteria and (3) that novel properties identified in commensal bacteria could, one day, be harnessed as new probiotic strategies to combat colonization of opportunistic pathogens. With that in mind, we highlight and review the discovery and characterization of a novel lipo-protein, FAD-I (Fusobacterium Associated Defensin Inducer) associated with the outer
Hata, T., Kotol, P., Boguniewicz, M., Taylor, P., Paik, A., Jackson, M., ... et al, . U. (2011). History of eczema herpeticum is associated with the inability to induce human beta-defensin (HBD)-2, HBD-3 and cathelicidin in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. British Journal of Dermatology, 163(3), 659 - 661 ...
Beta-defensin 106 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB106A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 106, DEFB106A and DEFB106B, in head-to-head orientation. This gene, DEFB106A, represents the more centromeric copy. The purified DEFB106 showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186579 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Schutte BC, Mitros JP, Bartlett JA, Walters JD, Jia HP, Welsh MJ, Casavant TL, McCray PB Jr (Feb 2002). Discovery of ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_001037668): Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 107, DEFB107A and DEFB107B, in tail-to-tail orientation. This gene, DEFB107A, represents the more centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014 ...
Defensin-1 was prepared by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. We showed that different types of honey (manuka and honeydew) were able to significantly reduced cell viability of wound pathogens (S. aureus, S. agalactiae and P. aeruginosa) in polymicrobial biofilm. None of the tested honeys showed the ability to eradicate E. faecalis in biofilm. In addition, recombinant defensin-1 successfully reduced the viability of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa cells within established polymicrobial biofilm after 24 and 48 hours of treatment. Interestingly, recombinant defensin-1 did not affect the viability of S. agalactiae cells within the biofilm whereas both natural honeys significantly reduced the viable bacteria. Although E. faecalis was highly resistant to defensin-1, defensin-1 significantly affected biofilm formation of E. faecalis and S. agalactiae after 24 hours of treatment, most likely through the inhibiting its extracellular polymeric substances production ...
Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in the innate immune response in the intestine. Up to date, only one ß-defensin (pBD-1), has been described in pig, which was found to be expressed at low levels in the intestine. We set-up a quantitative PCR method to detect the gene expression of pBD-1 and a newly discovered porcine ß-defensin, pBD-2. Expression of pBD-1 mRNA increased from the proximal to the distal part of the intestine whereas pBD-2 expression decreased. The main gene expression sites for pBD-2 were kidney and liver, whereas pBD-1 was mainly expressed in tongue. The porcine small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique was used to investigate effects of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 on intestinal morphology and pBD-1 and pBD-2 mRNA levels in vivo. The early responses were studied 2, 4 and 8 h post-infection in four separate jejunal and ileal segments. Immunohistochemistry showed invasion of the mucosa by Salmonella and changes in intestinal morphology. ...
Research Opportunities: We encourage the fellow to participate in at least two clinical research projects throughout the year (in conjunction with a resident and Case Western medical student). There are a myriad of opportunities to choose from. The fellow has the ability to present any successfully submitted research projects at the AHNS spring meeting. This is fully supported by the department.. Involvement in the Case Head and Neck Research Collaborative. Clinical: Besides retrospective studies, the fellow can work with the clinical trial unit (team, CTU) to better understand the role head and neck surgeons play in institutional and national clinical trials and how to integrate this important aspect of research into their future practice.. Molecular Biology: A collaboration between Drs. Ge Jin, PhD, Aaron Weinberg, PhD of Case Western Reserve University and Chad Zender, MD obtained an R01 to study innate immune molecules (human beta defensins) role in the development of head and neck cancer. ...
α-Defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and play an important role in innate immunity. We have previously shown that α-defensin-1 can inhibit HIV-1 replication following viral entry. Here we examined the molecular mechanism(s) of α-defensin-1-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. α-Defensin-1 had a direct effect on HIV-1 virions at a low MOI in the absence of serum. The direct effect on HIV-1 virions was abolished by the presence of serum or an increase in virus particles. Studying the kinetics of the HIV life cycle revealed that α-defensin-1 inhibited steps following reverse transcription and integration. Analysis of PKC phosphorylation in primary CD4+ T cells in response to α-defensin-1 indicated that α-defensin-1 inhibited PKC activity. Pretreatment of infected CD4+ T cells with a PKC activator, bryostatin 1, partially reversed α-defensin-1-mediated HIV inhibition. Like α-defensin-1, the PKC isoform-selective inhibitor Go6976 blocked HIV-1 infection in a ...
To identify the component responsible for inducing MMP-9 production, RJ extract was fractionated using C18 RP-HPLC. In fractions exhibiting stimulatory activity, we immunochemically detected the bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1. Defensin-1 was cloned, and recombinant peptide was produced in a baculoviral expression system. Defensin-1 stimulated MMP-9 secretion from keratinocytes and increased keratinocyte migration and wound closure in vitro. In addition, defensin-1 promoted re-epithelisation and wound closure in uninfected excision wounds ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ageing and free-living daily physical activity effects on salivary beta-defensin 2 secretion. AU - Shimizu, Kazuhiro. AU - Hanaoka, Yukichi. AU - Akama, Takao. AU - Kono, Ichiro. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the Science Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan [grant numbers 21700705 and 25750358 to Kazuhiro Shimizu]. Publisher Copyright: © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.. PY - 2017/4/3. Y1 - 2017/4/3. N2 - This study examined ageing and free-living daily physical activity effects on salivary human beta-defensin 2 (hBD2). A total of 168 healthy elderly and 26 healthy young volunteers underwent saliva sampling. Free-living step count, energy expenditure and activity durations at specific intensity levels (inactive, light, moderate and vigorous) were evaluated. The results show significantly lower salivary hBD2 secretion rates for elderly than for young participants (P , 0.05). ...
Fitschen-Oestern S, Weuster M, Lippross S et al.. Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 3, 24105, Kiel, Germany.. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. Mar 2017.. Human-beta defensins (HBD) belong to the family of acute phase peptides and hold a broad antimicrobial spectrum that includes gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. HBD are up-regulated after severe injuries but the source of posttraumatic HBD expression has not been focused on before. In the current study we analysed the role of liver tissue in expression of HBD after multiple trauma in human and mice.HBD-2 expression has been detected in plasma samples of 32 multiple trauma patients (ISS > 16) over 14 days after trauma by ELISA. To investigate major sources of HBD-2, its expression and regulation in plasma samples, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and human tissue samples of liver and skin were analysed by ELISA. As liver samples of trauma patients are hard to ...
Antimicrobial peptides of the beta-defensin family are expressed in all human epithelial tissues tested to date and have recently been the subject of vigorous investigation. Their localization and characteristics support the hypothesis that these peptides play a role in mucosal and skin defense. The …
INTRODUCTION. Defensins and cathelicidins constitute the two major groups of antimicrobial peptides in most mammalian species. The most abundant group of antimicrobial peptides is comprised by the α-, β- and θ-defensins.[alpha, beta, theta (circle w/horizontal line)] Mammalian defensins are endogenous cysteine-rich peptide antibiotics classically produced either by epithelial cells of the respiratory, urogenital and digestive tracts, or by circulating cells including granulocytes and macrophages. More recently, however, β-defensins have also been identified in the heart of different species. BETA-DEFENSINS. β-defensins are small (3.5-4.5 kDa) highly basic cationic peptides. These peptides are ancient and universal molecules of innate immunity with functions extending far beyond simple antibiotics, including anti-tumor and mitogenic activity, as well as immunomodulation and signal transduction characteristics. The overall effectiveness of an innate immunity based host defense is shown by the ...
This application is in response to PA-09-164 (NIH Exploratory Developmental Research Grant Program). Given the high rate of hospital-acquired infection in criti...
PURPOSE Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic host defense peptides with microbicidal and cell-signaling properties. They show promise as potential therapeutic agents. In the present study, a beta-defensin AMP gene was isolated from the ocular surface for the first time, and its expression was characterized in the presence of ocular inflammation and/or infection. METHODS Total RNA was obtained from impression cytology samples of the conjunctiva and cornea of normal patients and of those with bacterial, viral, acanthamoeba, or dry eye disease. The expression of the beta-defensin AMP DEFB-109 was determined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Relative quantification of the gene in the various groups was performed by means of real-time PCR. RESULTS DEFB-109 was constitutively expressed in all samples. The gene showed significantly decreased expression in the presence of all types of inflammation/infection. Reduced expression featured most prominently in acanthamoeba
Responding to a test challenge: I clearly stated that The ciliary epithelial cells produce antimicrobial peptides like beta-defensins. On page 6 it states that the Primary granules in neutrophils contain myeloperoxidase enzyme, lysozyme and alpha-defensins. The statement indicating that neutrophils produce alpha-defensins is again reiterated in the same page. I appreciate the fact that you did a literature search and found an article from 1995 demonstrating defensin production from macrophages. This is an outdated report. There are more than 292 research articles reporting the production of alpha-defensins by neutrophils. I have pasted the PubMed link below. The challenge is denied. ...
Purified Recombinant Human DEFB110 Protein, GST-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human DEFB110 Protein, GST-tagged can be used for research.
摘要 旨在研究氨基酸平衡低蛋白质日粮对育肥猪肠道抗菌肽与微生物区系的影响。将20头(60±2.5)kg的育肥猪(杜×长×大)随机分为4个处理:14.0% CP日粮(14.0% CP),添加Glu、Lys、Met、Thr和Trp的12.5% CP日粮(12.5% CP),添加Glu、Lys、Met、Thr和Trp的11.0% CP日粮(11.0% CP),添加Glu、Lys、Met、Thr、Trp和BCAA(Val、Ile、Leu)的11.0% CP日粮(11.0% CP+BCAA)。每个处理5个重复,每个重复1头猪。试验分为5 d预试期和30 d正试期。结果表明:(1)尿液尿素氮和尿酸含量随日粮蛋白质水平降低而显著降低(P,0.05);(2)低蛋白质水平日粮显著降低空肠黏膜、回肠黏膜β-defensin-2水平和ANG1、ANG4 mRNA表达水平(P,0.05);(3)不同蛋白质水平日粮对部分回肠、直肠食糜微生物氨基酸组成有显著影响(P,0.05);(4)与14.0% CP组相比,12.5% CP组Observed species显著提高(P,0.05),11.0% ...
Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate
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Defb2 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN304451G1|/strong|, Defb2 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
TrizCHLOR 4 Wipes are antimicrobial to provide an easy way to support healthy skin in both cats and dogs. TrizCHLOR 4 Wipes are Convenient wet wipes indicated for coat and skin conditions where the following properties would be beneficial to the patient: antifungal and antibacterial.
Polyclonal antibody for DEFB1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. DEFB1 information: Molecular Weight: 7420 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted; Tissue Specificity: Plasma.
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) are a promising new class of natural-source drugs that may avoid the shortcomings of conventional chemotherapy because certain CAPs exhibit selective cytotoxicity against a broad spectrum of human ...
DEFB118, DEFB119, DEFB126, DEFB127, DEFB129: Beta-defensin genes. *DLGAP4: Disks large-associated protein 4 ...
The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found ... Beta-defensin 129 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB129 gene. Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB129 defensin, beta 129". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. ( ... Kao CY, Chen Y, Zhao YH, Wu R (2003). "ORFeome-based search of airway epithelial cell-specific novel human [beta]-defensin ...
... alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic ... Beta-defensin 106 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB106A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB106A defensin, beta 106A". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Xin A (Jan 2014). "Soluble fusion ... Kao CY, Chen Y, Zhao YH, Wu R (2003). "ORFeome-based search of airway epithelial cell-specific novel human [beta]-defensin ...
... alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic ... Beta-defensin 104 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB104A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB104A defensin, beta 104A". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Patil AA, Cai Y, Sang Y, Blecha F, Zhang G ... Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical ...
TGF beta - important in maintaining immune privilege P.G. McMenamin, The distribution of immune cells in the uveal tract of the ... The latter, defensins, have a wide range of antimicrobial affects against bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as effects in ... 74(2): p. 293-9. Gottsch, J.D., et al., Defensin gene expression in the cornea. Curr Eye Res, 1998. 17(11): p. 1082-6. Oakes, J ... It has also been found that the presence of secreted defensins secreted by corneal keratocytes is correlated with cases of ...
2002). "Identification of a novel, multifunctional beta-defensin (human beta-defensin 3) with specific antimicrobial activity. ... Beta-defensin 103 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB103A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. This gene encodes defensin, beta 103B, which has broad ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB103A defensin, beta 103A". Candille SI, Kaelin CB, Cattanach BM, Yu B, Thompson DA, Nix MA, Kerns JA, Schmutz ...
1999). "Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6". Science. 286 (5439): 525-8. ... Linking antimicrobial and CC chemokine receptor-6-binding activities with human beta-defensins". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (40): 37647 ... V beta 11(+) NKT cell subsets with distinct cytokine-producing capacity". Blood. 100 (1): 11-6. doi:10.1182/blood-2001-12-0196 ...
These studies have been expanded to include additional beta defensins, theta defensins, and the human cathelicidin LL-37 and ... HD5 and Beta-defensin 2 composed entirely of D-amino acids suggested differing mechanisms of defensin activity against Gram- ... Subsequently, mutated forms of some of those six defensins were studied by VCC. A conserved glycine in a beta bulge in HNP2 was ... This effect is often observed with beta lactams when assayed against beta lactamase producing bacteria. The inoculum effect was ...
1999). "Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6". Science. 286 (5439): 525-528. ... 1997). "Cloning and characterization of exodus, a novel beta-chemokine". Blood. 89 (9): 3315-22. PMID 9129037. Baba M, Imai T, ... immature dendritic cells generated from monocytes in the presence of TGF-beta 1 express functional C-C chemokine receptor 6". J ...
... avian defensins) and mammals (e.g. cathelicidins, alpha- and beta-defensins, regIII peptides) Research has increased in recent ... In fact human beta-defensin 2 have now been shown to kill the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans through interactions with ... Sawaki K, Mizukawa N, Yamaai T, Yoshimoto T, Nakano M, Sugahara T (2002). "High concentration of beta-defensin-2 in oral ... KIDA-TAKAOKA, SAORI (2014). "Surrounding cells affect the gene expression pattern of human beta-defensins in squamous cell ...
Other innate immune mediators include beta-defensin 2, and lipocalin-2; pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukins IL6, and IL8; ...
"Epithelial cell-derived antibacterial peptides human beta-defensins and cathelicidin: multifunctional activities on mast cells ... The AMP family also includes the defensins. Whilst the defensins share common structural features, cathelicidin-related ... Additionally cathelicidins may also be small-sized molecules (12-18 residues) with beta-hairpin structures, stabilized by one ... 3 and cathelicidin Beta-1 Tasmanian Devil: Saha-CATH5 Salmonids: CATH1 and CATH2 Patients with rosacea have elevated levels of ...
She led an EPSRC platform grant to study the structure-activity relationships of Beta defensins. She works with Cait MacPhee, ...
Alpha defensins, Beta defensins and Theta defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic ... Beta-defensin 105 is a protein that is encoded by the DEFB105A gene in humans. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB105A defensin, beta 105A". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Patil AA, Cai Y, Sang Y, et al. (2006). " ... Semple CA, Rolfe M, Dorin JR (May 2003). "Duplication and selection in the evolution of primate beta-defensin genes". Genome ...
Some of the isoforms contain regions of similarity to beta-defensins, a family of antimicrobial peptides. The gene is located ... "Organization of the human gene encoding the epididymis-specific EP2 protein variants and its relationship to defensin genes". ... on chromosome 8p23 near the defensin gene cluster. Alternative splicing of this gene results in seven transcript variants ...
Zhao C, Wang I, Lehrer RI (November 1996). "Widespread expression of beta-defensin hBD-1 in human secretory glands and ... Defensin, alpha 5 (DEFA5) also known as human alpha defensin 5 (HD5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFA5 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: DEFA5 defensin, alpha 5, Paneth cell-specific". Jones DE, Bevins CL (January 1993). "Defensin-6 mRNA in human ... Several of the human alpha defensin genes appear to be clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, α-defensin- ...
Zhao C, Wang I, Lehrer RI (24 Nov 1996). "Widespread expression of beta-defensin hBD-1 in human secretory glands and epithelial ... Defensin, alpha 6 (DEFA6) also known as human alpha defensin 6 (HD6) is a human protein that is encoded by the DEFA6 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: DEFA6 defensin, alpha 6, Paneth cell-specific (Homo sapiens)". Jones DE, Bevins CL (January 1993). "Defensin-6 ... The alpha defensins are a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides that defend the host against bacteria and viruses. HD6 ...
Bøe R, Silvola J, Yang J, Moens U, McCray PB, Stenfors LE, Seljfelid R (September 1999). "Human beta-defensin-1 mRNA is ...
Alpha- and beta- thionins are related to each other. The gamma thionins have a superficially similar structure but are an ... unrelated class of protein, now called plant defensins. The proteins are toxic to animal cells, presumably attacking the cell ...
As a result, the intestinal epithelial cells express chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) and Beta defensin 3. CCL20 and Beta-defensin 3 ... S. epidermidis secretes a small molecule AMP which leads to increased expression of Human β-defensins. S. epidermidis also ...
"Beta-defensin 1, aryl hydrocarbon receptor and plasma kynurenine in major depressive disorder: metabolomics-informed genomics ...
The epithelium further provides a barrier to microbes by the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (beta-defensins and ...
... involvement in beta-defensin-1 expression". Infection and Immunity. 73 (11): 7133-41. doi:10.1128/IAI.73.11.7133-7141.2005. PMC ...
... A is thought to have an antimicrobial activity similar to defensins. Fujitani N, Kawabata S, Osaki T, Kumaki Y, ... These small proteins contain a cysteine-stabilised triple-stranded beta-sheet with an inhibitor cystine knot motif and show ...
... implication of naturally occurring human antimicrobial agents beta-defensins, cathelicidin LL-37 and lysozyme". J. Dermatol. ...
On the other hand, TFF3 activated the epithelial cells in culture to produce beta defensins 2 (hBD2) and beta defensins 4 (hBD4 ... and promotes human beta defensin (hBD2 and hBD4) expression in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29". Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 12 (4 ... and promotes human beta defensin (hBD2 and hBD4) expression in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29". Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 12 (4 ... such as defensins. Two main mechanisms have been described for the activation of PAR-2: (A) by specific cleavage that unmask ...
Dhople V, Krukemeyer A, Ramamoorthy A, The human beta-defensin-3, an antibacterial peptide with multiple biological functions, ...
2010). "Measurement methods and accuracy in copy number variation: failure to replicate associations of beta-defensin copy ...
The project took samples from 38 different breeds to find the gene (a beta defensin gene) responsible for dog coat color. One ... Nov 2007). "A -defensin mutation causes black coat color in domestic dogs". Science. 318 (5855): 1418-23. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Beta Defensin. *Betacellulin. *Bone Morphogenetic Protein. *EBI3. *Endoglin. *Flt3 Ligand. *Hedgehog Progein ...
Canine Beta-Defensin CBD103. Antibody Production & Evaluation. Catalog #. H-003-50. Standard Size. 50 l. ...
  • The hallmark property of beta-defensins, their antimicrobial activity, is clearly only the tip of the iceberg in the extensive network of inter-relations within the immune system in which these peptides function. (nih.gov)
  • The beta defensins are antimicrobial peptides implicated in the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defensins are 2-6 kDa, cationic, microbicidal peptides active against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses, containing three pairs of intramolecular disulfide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes are responsible for production of antimicrobial peptides found in white blood cells such as macrophages, granulocytes and NK-cells, β-defensins are also found in epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defensins are small cationic peptides that are crucial components of innate immunity, serving as both antimicrobial agents and chemoattractant molecules. (rcsb.org)
  • Ganz, T. (2005) Defensins and other antimicrobial peptides: A historical perspective and an update. (scirp.org)
  • Defensins are a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides that participate in innate host defence. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, peptides of the β-defensin family offer antimicrobial activity against different pathogens including bacteria and fungi. (springer.com)
  • This study reports the first successful recombinant expression of cationic antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-26 and human beta-defensin-27 in Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • Jones DE, Bevins CL (1993) Defensin-6 messenger-Rna in human paneth cells-implications for antimicrobial peptides in host defense of the human bowel. (springer.com)
  • β-defensins are among the most abundant antimicrobial peptides in mammals, and thought to be solely found in vertebrates until a recent report describing the cloning and sequencing of defensin like peptides in the spiny lobster Panulirus japonicus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the current study, we cloned and sequenced two genes from the hemocytes of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus encoding for two isoforms of defensin-like peptides, thus confirming the presence of this protein in the Panulirus genus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The 44 amino acids mature peptides showed the conservation of cysteine pattern characterizing the β-defensins, as well as known amino acids residues critical to exert their antimicrobial activity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The tertiary structure obtained by homology modeling indicated that likely conformations of lobster peptides are highly similar to β-defensins from vertebrates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The finding of a putative defensin-like peptide in the expressed sequence tag (EST) of the lobster Homarus americanus with high homology with those of P. argus described in this study, would indicate the presence of this peptides in Palinuridae family. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Taking into account all similarities between these peptides with β-defensins from vertebrates, it is conceivable to further support the finding of a new family of β-defensins in invertebrate. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. (prospecbio.com)
  • The Defensin family are highly similar in their protein sequence and are microbicidal & cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. (prospecbio.com)
  • Background: Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate immune system. (cellsciences.com)
  • Beta-Defensins are 3-5 kDa peptides ranging in size from 33-47 amino acid residues. (cellsciences.com)
  • β-Defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides showing little sequence similarity but highly conserved tertiary structure stabilized by a six-cysteines-motif. (ovid.com)
  • The solution structure is reported for bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12 (BNBD-12), a member of the beta-defensin family of antimicrobial peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in the innate immune response in the intestine. (wur.nl)
  • Hybrid peptides were rationally designed through combination of functional amino acids in parent HDPs, including human cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin (HBD)-1 to -3. (arvojournals.org)
  • Antimicrobial peptides, such as beta-defensins, are essential components of the innate immune system and are the first line of defence against invaders of the eye. (dryeyezone.com)
  • beta-defensins are small cationic peptides that exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beta-defensins are small cationic peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties and contribute to mucosal immune responses at epithelial sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human beta defensins (HBDs), a group of important antimicrobial peptides expressed by the epithelium, are crucial for local defense and tissue homeostasis of oral cavity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beta-defensins are antimicrobial peptides that protect tissues and organs from infection by a variety of microorganisms. (nih.gov)
  • Human-beta defensins (HBD) belong to the family of acute phase peptides and hold a broad antimicrobial spectrum that includes gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (hepaton.com)
  • The human β-defensin (hBD) class of antimicrobial peptides is the focus of our research. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, defensin peptides appear to play multiple roles in vivo and exhibit an immunomodulatory function, similar to cytokines or chemokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human defensins are small cationic peptides that can be divided into α- and β-defensins based on the topology of their three intramolecular cysteine disulphide bonds. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Human defensins are Cys-rich antimicrobial peptides which specifically react against Gram-negative bacteria. (nordicmubio.com)
  • beta-Defensin genes encode broad spectrum antimicrobial cationic peptides. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Paneth cells reside in the small intestine and produce antimicrobial peptides essential for the host barrier, principally human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and HD6. (pnas.org)
  • α-Defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and play an important role in innate immunity. (jci.org)
  • Defensins and cathelicidins constitute the two major groups of antimicrobial peptides in most mammalian species. (vin.com)
  • The most abundant group of antimicrobial peptides is comprised by the α-, β- and θ-defensins. (vin.com)
  • β-defensins are small (3.5-4.5 kDa) highly basic cationic peptides. (vin.com)
  • Defensins are antimicrobial peptides which play a key role in innate immunity. (northwestern.edu)
  • The name 'defensin' was coined in the mid 1980s, though the proteins have been variously called 'Cationic Antimicrobial Proteins', 'Neutrophil peptides', 'Gamma thionins' amongst others. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the defensins involved in host defence, there are a number of related Defensin-Like Peptides (DLPs) that have evolved to have other activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) contain three α-defensin peptides, called HNP-1, -2, and -3 ( 18 , 59 ). (asm.org)
  • Although the studies described below focused on human α-defensins, some studies also examined human β-defensin peptides hBD-1, hBD-2, and hBD-3. (asm.org)
  • The antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin-1 (hBD1), hBD2, hBD3, and CAP18 expressed by keratinocytes have been implicated in mediation of the innate defense against bacterial infection. (asm.org)
  • Human beta defensins (HBDs), small cationic antimicrobial peptides that exert a broad-spectrum antibacterial function at epithelial surfaces and within some mesenchymal tissues, could probably help to reduce such contamination. (edu.au)
  • As components of the innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides in the form of human defensins play an important role in host defense by serving as the epithelial layer's biochemical barrier against local infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Defensins are small (3.5~5 kDa) cationic antimicrobial peptides that have a broad spectrum of activity that includes gram-negative bacterias, yeasts and enveloped viruses . (bvsalud.org)
  • β-defensins, initially identified as broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides, increasingly have been observed to exhibit numerous other in vitro and in vivo activities that do not always relate directly to host defense. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-defensins are coding for genes which impact the function of the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are found in genes coding for β-defensins. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-defensins genes are found across the vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, birds and fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of beta-defensin genes by human salivary glands. (nih.gov)
  • This study investigated expression of genes encoding human beta-defensins 1 and 2 by human salivary glands. (nih.gov)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Defensin beta 2. (novusbio.com)
  • The phylogenetic analysis using β-defensin coding sequences of different snakes grouped them in two main branches: genes organized in three or two exons. (ovid.com)
  • Previous work has suggested copy number variation of a cluster of beta-defensin genes affects HIV load in treatment-na " ive sub-Saharan Africans and rate of response to antiretroviral treatment. (epfl.ch)
  • Previous work has shown that it is encoded in a cluster of beta-defensin genes at 8p23.1, which varies in copy number between 2 and 12 in different individuals. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 20p13. (mybiosource.com)
  • This gene is found in a cluster with other beta-defensin genes on the long arm of chromosome 20. (nih.gov)
  • Two gene knock down methods - dominant negative (DN) plasmid and small interfering RNA (siRNA) - were employed to detect and confirm the involvement of several key genes in the signaling cascade resulting from the NTHi stimulated β-defensin 2 expression in human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC-1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over 30 previously unrecognized β-defensin genes have recently been identified in the human genome, many with yet to be determined functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. (genecards.org)
  • Using hidden Markov models, we identified novel mouse and human beta-defensin genes. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In order to look at function of these rapidly evolving genes, we characterised one of the novel mouse beta-defensin genes. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The activation of the TLRs and the NF- κ B pathway is responsible for the induction of the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes, including beta-defensins. (vin.com)
  • In all families, the underlying genes responsible for defensin production are highly polymorphic . (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, both α- and β-defensins are encoded by two- exon genes, where the first exon encodes for a hydrophobic leader sequence (that is removed after translation ) and the cysteine-rich sequence (the mature peptide). (wikipedia.org)
  • GWAS for baseline plasma KYN concentrations identified SNPs across the beta-defensin 1 (DEFB1) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) genes that were cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for DEFB1 and AHR mRNA expression, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • The adaptation of chiropterans to different environments and ecological niches with diverse pathogen profiles seems to have shaped the evolution of Defensin beta 103a and hepcidin genes in a suborder and family specific manner respectively. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Bajaj-Elliott M, Fedeli P, Smith GV, Domizio P, Maher L, Ali RS, Quinn AG, Farthing MJ (2002) Modulation of host antimicrobial peptide (beta-defensins 1 and 2) expression during gastritis. (springer.com)
  • Beta Defensin-1 is an antimicrobial peptide having the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonization. (prospecbio.com)
  • Recombinant human beta-defensin-2 (BD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide which belongs to the distinct family of beta-defensins. (genetex.com)
  • Recombinant human Defensin beta 3 contains 45 amino acid residues and is an antimicrobial peptide belonging to the distinct family of beta-defensins. (cellsciences.com)
  • 2. Valore EV, Park CH, Quayle AJ, Wiles KR, McCray PB, Ganz T. Human beta-defensin-1: an antimicrobial peptide of urogenital tissues. (nordicmubio.com)
  • 1999) Mouse ß-Defensin 3 is an inducible antimicrobial peptide expressed in the epithelia of multiple organs. (exalpha.com)
  • To examine the effect of the natural antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-3 (hBD-3), on the migration of a head and neck cancer cell line in vitro using microfabrication and soft-lithographic techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Growing interest in beta-defensins steadily enhances our knowledge about various aspects of their gene location, expression patterns and the transcription factors involved in their regulation in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • The fact that alpha and theta defensins are absence in older vertebrates, like birds and fishes, indicates that defensins must have evolved from the same ancestral gene coding for β-defensins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-defensin 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, human beta-defensin 1 gene expression occurred in all human major and minor salivary glands studied, whereas human beta-defensin 2 expression occurred only in a small number of gland samples. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes defensin, beta 103A, which has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and may play an important role in innate epithelial defense. (prospecbio.com)
  • We set-up a quantitative PCR method to detect the gene expression of pBD-1 and a newly discovered porcine ß-defensin, pBD-2. (wur.nl)
  • This gene encodes defensin, beta 4, an antibiotic peptide which is locally regulated by inflammation. (mybiosource.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. (mybiosource.com)
  • RNAs isolated from male reproductive tract tissues of rat were reverse transcribed and PCR amplified using gene specific primers for defensins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the possible association between the SNP in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of the human beta defensin 1 (DEFB1) gene and the susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Chinese Han population. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the beta subfamily of defensins. (nih.gov)
  • By 2-color fluorescence in situ hybridization on both metaphase chromosomes and released chromatin fiber, the DEFB1gene is mapped to 8p23.2-p23.1, within 100 to 150 kb of the gene for human neutrophil defensin-alpha-1. (bosterbio.com)
  • DEFB107A (Defensin Beta 107A) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This gene deviates from the canonical six cysteine motif present in the mature functional peptide of all other beta defensins. (ed.ac.uk)
  • This defensin related gene (Defr1) is most highly expressed in testis and heart and the genomic organisation is highly similar to Defb3-6. (ed.ac.uk)
  • High gene expression levels of α-defensin-3 and -4 have been detected in benign oral neoplasia, α-defensin-6 is considered to be a tumor marker for colon cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to semiquantitate HBD-1 and HBD-2 mRNA using the housekeeping gene beta-actin as an internal control . (bvsalud.org)
  • There have been conflicting reports in the literature on association of gene copy number with disease, including CCL3L1 and HIV susceptibility, and ß-defensins and Crohn's disease. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • In conclusion, these observed evolutionary patterns and unique tissue gene expression profiles (defensin beta 103 and hepcidin) foretell potential functional difference between human and bat AMPs. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The objective of the study was to clone avian beta-defensin (AvBD) 5 gene from pigeon bone marrow tissues and liver tissues , to express the recombinant AvBD5 protein in E. coli, and to determine its antimicrobial activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Each beta-Defensin 4/2 Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our beta-Defensin 4/2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our beta-Defensin 4/2 monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography employing immobilized human beta 2 Defensin matrix. (genetex.com)
  • This antibody is specific for beta 2 Defensin. (genetex.com)
  • This antibody reacts with Human BD3 (Defensin beta 3). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Rabbit IgG polyclonal antibody for Beta-defensin 1(DEFB1) detection. (bosterbio.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Cattle Defensin Beta 103A (DEFb103A) in serum, plasma and other biological fluids. (gkts.net)
  • The microtiter plate provided in this kit has been pre-coated with an antibody specific to Defensin Beta 103A (DEF?103A). (gkts.net)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Mouse Defensin Beta 119 (DEFb119) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (gkts.net)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Defensin Beta 119 (DEFb119) in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. (gkts.net)
  • View detailed β-defensin 2 antibody specifications by linking to the specific product blocks. (scbt.com)
  • Harder J, Bartels J, Christophers E, Schroder JM (2001) Isolation and characterization of human beta -defensin-3, a novel human inducible peptide antibiotic. (springer.com)
  • Garcia JRC, Krause A, Schulz S, Rodriguez-Jimenez FJ, Kluver E, Adermann K, Forssmann U, Frimpong-Boateng A, Bals R, Forssmann WG (2001) Human beta-defensin 4: a novel inducible peptide with a specific salt-sensitive spectrum of antimicrobial activity. (springer.com)
  • An ensemble of structures with low NOE constraint violation energies revealed a precisely defined triple-stranded, antiparallel beta-sheet as the structural core of the peptide. (nih.gov)
  • The authors characterize the recombinant human beta-defensin DEFB114 peptide, demonstrating its anti-microbial potential, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding and neutralization, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. (moleculardevices.com)
  • A synthetic peptide corresponding to a sequence at the C-terminus of human beta Defensin 1(52-68aa FTKIQGTCYRGKAKCCK). (bosterbio.com)
  • Human beta-defensins (hBDs) belong to a family of small cationic peptide antibiotics produced by human epithelial cells and are characterized by wide spectrum of biologic activities. (exp-oncology.com.ua)
  • The peptide sequences of HBD-3/MBD-3 used for immunisation contain very little consensus aa with any of the other human or mouse defensins. (exalpha.com)
  • Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. (genecards.org)
  • alpha, beta, theta (circle w/horizontal line)] Mammalian defensins are endogenous cysteine-rich peptide antibiotics classically produced either by epithelial cells of the respiratory, urogenital and digestive tracts, or by circulating cells including granulocytes and macrophages. (vin.com)
  • However, in other species, beta-defensins are more often produced by epithelial cells lining various organs (e.g. the epidermis, bronchial tree and genitourinary tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta Defensin is highly expressed by epithelial cells. (prospecbio.com)
  • Our hypothesis is that cigarette smoke exposure will affect the expression of β-defensins in human lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549). (biomedcentral.com)
  • α-defensins are not expressed in epithelial cells, and were not measured in the present study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The β-defensins are mainly produced by epithelial cells in various tissues and organs including the skin, trachea, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital system, kidneys, pancreas and mammary gland. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Beta-defensins are involved also in wound healing processes and may affect proliferation of epithelial cells. (exp-oncology.com.ua)
  • In recent years it has been shown that epithelial cells are capable of actively counteracting H. pylori by the secretion of human beta defensin 3 (hBD-3). (fu-berlin.de)
  • Although the shape and charge distribution of the monomer are similar to those of other defensins, an additional alpha-helical region makes this protein topologically distinct from the mammalian alpha- and beta-defensin structures reported previously. (rcsb.org)
  • Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. (prospecbio.com)
  • Human beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4, also known as DEFB2 or hBD-2) is a salt-sensitive antimicrobial protein that is expressed in lung epithelia. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • [23] Other invertebrates known to produce defensins from this protein superfamily include molluscs , annelids and cnidaria . (wikipedia.org)
  • PURPOSE: To investigate human beta-defensins (HBDs) and cathelicidin LL-37 (LL-37) expressions in patients with pterygium. (jefferson.edu)
  • 3 Among the most promising AMPs is the human β-defensins (hBDs) family that displays potent antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. (dovepress.com)
  • Should the Human Defensin Beta 103A (DEFb103A) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free replacement. (gkts.net)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Human Defensin Beta 103A (DEFb103A) in samples from serum, plasma or other biological fluids. (gkts.net)
  • Schutte, B.C. and McCray, P.B.J. (2002) Beta-defensins in lung host defense. (scirp.org)
  • Ganz T (1999) Immunology-defensins and host defense. (springer.com)
  • Upregulated HBD-2 expression in renal tubulus epithelium indicates a role of a wider range of human defensins for antimicrobial host defense in the urogenital tract than previously recognized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that healthy monocytes can induce the expression of these defensins via Wnt ligands, especially in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), who normally display reduced levels of human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and HD6, resulting in impaired host defense and, consequently, mucosal inflammation. (pnas.org)
  • Every mammalian species explored thus far has beta-defensins. (wikipedia.org)
  • pression in whole-heart-homogenate has been reported in different species, and plasma alpha-defensins have been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (scirp.org)
  • Our beta-Defensin 4/2 Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Using a PCR approach, we described β-defensin sequences with two exons in three species of Colubridae snakes with high sequence similarity between them. (ovid.com)
  • More recently, however, β-defensins have also been identified in the heart of different species. (vin.com)
  • Both beta-defensins and their signaling molecules, Toll-Like Receptors, have been identified in the heart of various species. (vin.com)
  • Select appropriate β-defensin 2 antibodies for your research by isotype, epitope, applications and species reactivity. (scbt.com)
  • In addition, phylogenetic relationships between amino acid sequence of the pigeon AvBD5, AvBDs from other avian species, and some mammalian beta-defensin -5 were analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
  • The last decade led to the discovery and characterization of several human beta-defensins. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of novel defensins in the male reproductive tract can lead to increased understanding of their dual roles in immunity and sperm maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, characterization of Defensin beta 103a, hepcidin and cathelicidin is reported for the first time in bats. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Your search returned 2 avian beta-defensin 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Human, rabbit and guinea-pig beta-defensins, as well as human beta-defensin-2 (hBD2), induce the activation and degranulation of mast cells, resulting in the release of histamine and prostaglandin D2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report two high resolution x-ray structures of human beta-defensin-2 (hBD2). (rcsb.org)
  • These structures provide the first detailed description of dimerization of beta-defensins, and we postulate that the mode of dimerization of hBD2 is representative of other beta-defensins. (rcsb.org)
  • The structural and electrostatic properties of the hBD2 octamer support an electrostatic charge-based mechanism of membrane permeabilization by beta-defensins, rather than a mechanism based on formation of bilayer-spanning pores. (rcsb.org)
  • The discovery of human β-defensin 2 (hBD2), as a Kv1.3 channel inhibitor with the unique molecular mechanism and novel immune modulatory function, suggests that human β-defensins are a novel class of channel ligands. (usda.gov)
  • Page, R.A. and Malik, A.N. (2003) Elevated levels of beta defensin-1 mRNA in diabetic kidneys of GK rats. (scirp.org)
  • Skin of patients having atopic dermatitis patients and mycosis fungoides (non-lesional and lesional) show lower human Beta Defensin-1 mRNA expression and higher human Beta Defensin-2 and human Beta Defensin-3 mRNA expression. (prospecbio.com)
  • In a prior exploratory study investigating patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the investigators demonstrated a highly significant correlation between the expression level of Defensin-alpha 4 (DEFA4) mRNA in blood and the adrenal function assessed via low-dose ACTH tests. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • β-defensin-1 mRNA expression has been identified in the heart of mice (murine beta-defensin-1, mBD1), pig (porcine beta-defensin-1, pBD1), and horse (equine beta-defensin-1, eBD1). (vin.com)
  • To understand beta-defensin function in H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, we investigated susceptibility, human beta-defensin mRNA expression, and DNA methylation changes to promoters in the gastric mucosa with or without H. pylori infection. (gastrocourse.ru)
  • High levels of human beta defensin-1 (hBD-1) have previously been detected in the kidney and pancreas, but the cell-specific location of hBD-1 mRNA has not been determined. (northwestern.edu)
  • Defensins not only have the ability to strengthen the innate immune system but can also enhance the adaptive immune system by chemotaxis of monocytes, T-lymphocytes, dendritic cells and mast cells to the infection site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Defensins and Innate Immune System . (genecards.org)
  • Beta defensins are a family of mammalian defensins. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of their size and pattern of disulfide bonding, mammalian defensins are classified into alpha, beta and theta categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha-defensins are distinguished from the beta-defensins by the pairing of their three disulfide bonds. (cellsciences.com)
  • Beta-defensins contain a six-cysteine motif that forms three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. (cellsciences.com)
  • Expression of at least two subfamilies of defensins (α- and β-defensins) has been shown in insects, plants and humans in respect to a difference in the position and connectivity of cystein disulfide bonds [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They are classified as α-, β-, and θ-defensins depending on their disulfide bond pairing and secondary structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have designed a cyclic 17-amino acid β-defensin analog featuring a single disulfide bond. (dovepress.com)
  • The defensins contain six cysteine residues forming three disulfide bridges depending on the spacing of the cysteine residues and the connectivity of the disulfide bridge, defensins are classified into two families , the alpha-defensins (HNP) and beta-defensins (HBD). (bvsalud.org)
  • Structural studies of beta-defensins provide the molecular basis for a better understanding of their properties, functions and their potential for practical applications. (nih.gov)
  • Beta Defensin-3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 45 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 5161.2 Dalton. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Establishing differential β-defensin expression following CSE treatment will add to our understanding of the molecular response of the lung alveolar epithelium to cigarette smoke exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beta Defensin-2 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 41 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 4.3 kDa. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Here we examined the molecular mechanism(s) of α-defensin-1-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. (jci.org)
  • Analysis of genomic information indicates that the number of beta-defensin-like molecules encoded by the human genome may number in the tens. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-defensin genomic copy number is not a modifier locus for cystic fibrosis. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • We determined the copy number of this locus in 355 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and tested for correlation between beta-defensin cluster genomic copy number and lung disease associated with CF. No significant association was found. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • In silico rat genomic analyses were used to identify novel beta-defensins related to human defensins 118-123. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. (mybiosource.com)
  • β-defensins are structurally defined by the conserved cysteine-rich motif forming three disulphide bonds, which stabilize a β-sheet formation. (vin.com)
  • In cows, as many as 13 beta-defensins exist in neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants defensins were discovered in 1990 and have subsequently been found in most plant tissues with antimicrobial activities against both bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defensins play a role in cell division, attraction and maturation of immune cells, differentiation and reorganization of epithelial tissues, wound healing and tumor suppression. (mdpi.com)
  • qPCR was carried out on a panel of bat tissues and the panel of expression of β defensin 103a and hepcidin is very different between the bat and the human. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Notably, an increased expression of defensin beta 103a and hepcidin is reported in many bat tissues as compared to humans. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Human β-defensin (hBD) expression has been identified in many tissues, almost uniformly in the epithelium of the oral cavity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We selected most pathways defb104a participated on our site, such as Beta defensins, Defensins, Immune System, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The majority of beta-defensins identified in humans are predominantly expressed in the male reproductive tract and have roles in non-immunological processes such as sperm maturation and capacitation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High concentrations of L-arginine and L-lysine are necessary for the expression of beta-defensins. (dryeyezone.com)
  • The expression of beta-defensins was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Constitutive expression and localization of antimicrobial human β-defensin-1 (HBD-1) in human kidneys as a potential mechanism of antimicrobial defense has been previously reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human beta defensins (HBD)-1, HBD-2, and HBD-3 are key elements of innate immunity that represent the first line of defense against different pathogen microorganisms associated with preterm labor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epithelial β-defensins constitute a rapidly mobilized local defense against microbial intruders at the epithelial and mucosal surfaces, and different studies have reported induction of epithelial β-defensins at sites of inflammation, injury, infection as well as other disease processes. (vin.com)
  • The α-defensins can be further subdivided into those that were first isolated from neutrophil granules (HNP1-4) and those that are expressed by Paneth cells in the crypts of the small intestine (HD5 and HD6). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • An organism usually produces many different defensins, some of which are stored inside the cells (e.g. in neutrophil granulocytes to kill phagocytosed bacteria), and others are secreted into the extracellular medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • defensin, beta 2: Has antibacterial activity (Potential). (mybiosource.com)
  • Huang L, Ching CB, Jiang RR, Leong SSJ (2008) Production of bioactive human beta-defensin 5 and 6 in Escherichia coli by soluble fusion expression. (springer.com)
  • Huang L, Wang JF, Zhong ZX, Peng L, Chen HQ, Xu ZN, Cen PL (2006) Production of bioactive human beta-defensin-3 in Escherichia coli by soluble fusion expression. (springer.com)
  • E.coli derived recombinant Human Beta Defensin-3 (Cat. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Beta Defensin 3 exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria S.aureus and S.pyogenes, Gram-negative bacteria P.aeruginosa and E.coli and the yeast C.albicans. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Recombinant defensins were tested against E. coli in a colony forming unit assay to analyze their antimicrobial activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli BL21 and the bacteria were induced with Isopropyl beta-D-1-Thiogalactopyranoside ( IPTG ). (bvsalud.org)
  • We offer beta-Defensin 4/2 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Immunohistochemistry, Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • 17 Defensin beta 3 (DEFB3) ELISA Kits from 5 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Recombinant Human beta Defensin-3. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • 15 Defensin, alpha 1 (DEFA1) ELISA Kits from 2 manufacturers are available on www.antibodies-online.com. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. offers a broad range of β-defensin 2 antibodies. (scbt.com)
  • Select β-defensin 2 antibodies from monoclonal antibodies listed below. (scbt.com)
  • An investigation of human beta-defensins and cathelicidin expression i" by Remzi Karadag, Nurettin Bayram et al. (jefferson.edu)
  • An investigation of human beta-defensins and cathelicidin expression in patients with pterygium. (jefferson.edu)
  • In addition to α and β defensins, humans possess one member of the cathelicidin class of AMP, LL-37, which was also assessed in these experiments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Association between human beta defensin-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inducible expression of human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2) has been described in various epithelial organs but not for the urogenital tract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the AIIMs, human β-defensin 2 is the most potent molecule and is inducible by exposure to inflammatory stimuli such as bacterial components or proinflammatory cytokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bensch KW, Raida M, Magert HJ, Schulz-Knappe P, Forssmann WG (1995) hBD-1: a novel beta-defensin from human plasma. (springer.com)
  • RT-competitive multiplex PCR is a simple and accurate method that enables new insights into defensin regulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the human CATs that appear to be integrated in causal regulation cascades of beta-defensins, thereby offering novel concepts for therapeutic perspectives. (dryeyezone.com)
  • RT-PCR analysis was performed to analyze the tissue distribution, developmental expression and androgen regulation of these defensins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, very little is known about the androgenic regulation on the production and secretion of the epididymal beta-defensins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of androgen regulation on epididymal beta-defensins, enabling a better understanding of the function of beta-defensins in sperm maturation and fertility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, up to now, very little is known about the regulation of the production and secretion of epididymal beta-defensins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study found that the induction of β-defensin 2 is highest in whole cell lysate (WCL) preparations of NTHi, suggesting that the ligand(s) responsible for this up-regulation may be soluble macromolecule(s). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression and regulation of the human beta-defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2 in intestinal epithelium. (nordicmubio.com)
  • Paneth cell defensins (human α-defensins 5 and 6) are central players in the regulation of the human microbiome in the small intestine, but their regulation remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • ß-defensin-1 (HBD-1) whole molecule and 17AA N-terminal fraction of HBD-1, no cross-reactivity to alpha-defensin and other beta-defensins. (nordicmubio.com)
  • ß-defensin-3 of human and mouse origin, N-terminal fragments of HBD-3 and MBD-3, no cross-reactivity with other known ß-defensins or alpha-defensins. (exalpha.com)
  • ß-defensin-2 (HBD-2) whole molecule and N-terminal fragments of HBD-2, no cross-reactivity to alpha-defensin and other beta-defensins, full cross-reaction with mouse and rat beta-defensin-2. (exalpha.com)
  • [17] [18] Theta defensins form a single beta hairpin structure and therefore also represent a distinct group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pore complex will be created as a result of breaking the hydrogen bonds between the amino acids in the terminal end of the strands connecting defensins monomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deduced amino acid sequence presented the characteristics of β-defensin family. (ovid.com)
  • 10. The method of claim 1, wherein any amino acid substitution in the beta-defensin relative to SEQ ID NO: 5 is a conservative substitution. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Amino acid sequences of alpha-defensins 1-4 (HNP1-4) and beta-Defensins 1-4 (HBD1-4) are known. (nordicmubio.com)
  • Beta-defensin-1 and beta-defensin-2 share 34% amino acid sequence homology. (nordicmubio.com)
  • Defensins are a family of cationic proteins (3-4 kD) typically containing 6 cystein residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The phylogenetic study carried out by probabilistic methods confirmed the relation with ancestral β-defensin from vertebrates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Although the most well studied defensins are from vertebrates, a family of trans-defensins called ' big defensins ' are found in molluscs , arthropods and lancelets . (wikipedia.org)
  • At least four β-defensins (HBD-1, HBD-2, HBD-3, HBD-4) have been characterized in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The majority of beta-defensin family members are exclusively expressed in the epididymis, and some members have been shown to play essential roles in sperm maturation and fertility in rats, mice and humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In humans the predominant AMPs are the defensins. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Only alpha and beta defensins are expressed in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other human α-defensins, HD-5 and HD-6, are primarily expressed in small intestinal Paneth cells and are believed to protect the intestinal tract against food- and waterborne pathogens, to modulate the intestinal flora, and to be key factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease in genetically susceptible humans ( 3 , 67 ). (asm.org)