DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.
The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.
A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.
A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.

Production of beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides by the oral mucosa and salivary glands. (1/685)

beta-Defensins are cationic peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that are produced by epithelia at mucosal surfaces. Two human beta-defensins, HBD-1 and HBD-2, were discovered in 1995 and 1997, respectively. However, little is known about the expression of HBD-1 or HBD-2 in tissues of the oral cavity and whether these proteins are secreted. In this study, we characterized the expression of HBD-1 and HBD-2 mRNAs within the major salivary glands, tongue, gingiva, and buccal mucosa and detected beta-defensin peptides in salivary secretions. Defensin mRNA expression was quantitated by RNase protection assays. HBD-1 mRNA expression was detected in the gingiva, parotid gland, buccal mucosa, and tongue. Expression of HBD-2 mRNA was detected only in the gingival mucosa and was most abundant in tissues with associated inflammation. To test whether beta-defensin expression was inducible, gingival keratinocyte cell cultures were treated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. HBD-2 expression increased approximately 16-fold with IL-1beta treatment and approximately 5-fold in the presence of LPS. Western immunoblotting, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry were used to identify the HBD-1 and HBD-2 peptides in human saliva. Human beta-defensins are expressed in oral tissues, and the proteins are secreted in saliva; HBD-1 expression was constitutive, while HBD-2 expression was induced by IL-1beta and LPS. Human beta-defensins may play an important role in the innate defenses against oral microorganisms.  (+info)

Efficient killing of inhaled bacteria in DeltaF508 mice: role of airway surface liquid composition. (2/685)

Cystic fibrosis mice have been generated by gene targeting but show little lung disease without repeated exposure to bacteria. We asked if murine mucosal defenses and airway surface liquid (ASL) Cl(-) were altered by the DeltaF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation. Naive DeltaF508 -/- and +/- mice showed no pulmonary inflammation and after inhaled Pseudomonas aeruginosa had similar inflammatory responses and bacterial clearance rates. We therefore investigated components of the innate immune system. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice killed Escherichia coli, and the microbicidal activity was inhibited by NaCl. Because beta-defensins are salt-sensitive epithelial products, we looked for pulmonary beta-defensin expression. A mouse homolog of human beta-defensin-1 (termed "MBD-1") was identified; the mRNA was expressed in the lung. Using a radiotracer technique, ASL volume and Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]) were measured in cultured tracheal epithelia from normal and DeltaF508 -/- mice. The estimated ASL volume was similar for both groups. There were no differences in ASL [Cl(-)] in DeltaF508 -/- and normal mice (13.8 +/- 2.6 vs. 17.8 +/- 5.6 meq/l). Because ASL [Cl(-)] is low in normal and mutant mice, salt-sensitive antimicrobial factors, including MBD-1, may be normally active.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of rat genes encoding homologues of human beta-defensins. (3/685)

beta-Defensins are cationic peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that may play a role in mucosal defenses of several organs. They have been isolated in several species, and in humans, two beta-defensins have been identified. Here, we report the identification of two genes encoding beta-defensin homologues in the rat. Partial cDNAs were found by searching the expressed-sequence-tag database, and primers were designed to generate full-length mRNA coding sequences. One gene was highly similar to the human beta-defensin-1 (HBD-1) gene and mouse beta-defensin-1 gene at both the nucleic acid and amino acid levels and was termed rat beta-defensin-1 (RBD-1). The other gene, named RBD-2, was homologous to the HBD-2 and bovine tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) genes. The predicted prepropeptides were strongly cationic, were 69 and 63 residues in length for RBD-1 and RBD-2, respectively, and contained the six-cysteine motif characteristic of beta-defensins. The beta-defensin genes mapped closely on rat chromosome 16 and were closely linked to the alpha-defensins genes, suggesting that they are part of a gene cluster, similar to the organization reported for humans. Northern blot analysis showed that both RBD-1 and RBD-2 mRNA transcripts were approximately 0.5 kb in length; RBD-1 mRNA was abundantly transcribed in the rat kidney, while RBD-2 was prevalent in the lung. Reverse transcription-PCR indicated that RBD-1 and RBD-2 mRNAs were distributed in a variety of other tissues. In the lung, RBD-1 mRNA expression localized to the tracheal epithelium while RBD-2 was expressed in alveolar type II cells. In conclusion, we characterized two novel beta-defensin homologues in the rat. The rat may be a useful model to investigate the function and contribution of beta-defensins to host defense in the lung, kidney, and other tissues.  (+info)

Human beta-defensin-1 mRNA is transcribed in tympanic membrane and adjacent auditory canal epithelium. (4/685)

The external auditory canal is less susceptible to infections than the sensitive middle-ear cavity. Since recent research has provided insight to the production of potent antimicrobial peptides from various surface epithelia, we wanted to investigate whether protection of the external auditory canal in part could be explained by the production of human beta-defensin-1 (HBD-1). This particular peptide is known to be constitutively expressed in various surface epithelia, such as airway, skin, and urogenital tissues. By reverse transcriptase PCR we demonstrate HBD-1 mRNA in the pars tensa and pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane and in the meatal skin. In situ hybridization studies localized the HBD-1 mRNA to the epidermal layer of these tissues. The HBD-1 transcripts were also evident in the sebaceous glands and in hair follicles of the meatal skin. In contrast, HBD-1 mRNA was not detected in the tympanal epithelium of the eardrum. The widespread presence of mRNA encoding for this broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide in the meatal skin and tympanic membrane suggests that HBD-1 participates in the innate antimicrobial defense of the external auditory canal and middle-ear cavity.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of bovine neutrophil beta-defensins. Biosynthetic profile during neutrophilic maturation and localization of mature peptide to novel cytoplasmic dense granules. (5/685)

beta-Defensins are microbicidal peptides implicated in host defense functions of phagocytic leukocytes and certain surface epithelial cells. Here we investigated the genetic structures and cellular expression of BNBD-4, -12, and -13, three prototypic bovine neutrophil beta-defensins. Characterization of the corresponding cDNAs indicated that BNBD-4 (41 residues) derives from a 63-amino acid prepropeptide and that BNBD-12 (38 residues) and BNBD-13 (42 residues) derive from a common 60-amino acid precursor (BNBD-12/13). The peptides were found to be encoded by two-exon genes that are closely related to bovine epithelial beta-defensin genes. BNBD-4 and BNBD-12/13 mRNAs were most abundant in bone marrow, but were expressed differentially in certain non-myeloid tissues. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that BNBD-4 synthesis is completed early in myelopoiesis. BNBD-12 was localized exclusively to the novel dense granules, organelles that also contain precursors of cathelicidins, antimicrobial peptides that undergo proteolytic processing during phagocytosis. In contrast to cathelicidins, Western blot analyses revealed that mature beta-defensins are the predominant organellar form in myeloid cells. Stimulation of neutrophils with phorbol myristate acetate induced secretion of BNBD-12, indicating that it is co-secreted with pro-cathelicidins. The exocytosis of BNBD-12 by activated neutrophils reveals different mobilization pathways for myeloid alpha- and beta-defensins.  (+info)

Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6. (6/685)

Defensins contribute to host defense by disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms. This report shows that human beta-defensins are also chemotactic for immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. Human beta-defensin was selectively chemotactic for cells stably transfected to express human CCR6, a chemokine receptor preferentially expressed by immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. The beta-defensin-induced chemotaxis was sensitive to pertussis toxin and inhibited by antibodies to CCR6. The binding of iodinated LARC, the chemokine ligand for CCR6, to CCR6-transfected cells was competitively displaced by beta-defensin. Thus, beta-defensins may promote adaptive immune responses by recruiting dendritic and T cells to the site of microbial invasion through interaction with CCR6.  (+info)

Expression and regulation of the human beta-defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2 in intestinal epithelium. (7/685)

The intestinal epithelium forms a physical barrier to limit access of enteric microbes to the host and contributes to innate host defense by producing effector molecules against luminal microbes. To further define the role of the intestinal epithelium in antimicrobial host defense, we analyzed the expression, regulation, and production of two antimicrobial peptides, human defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2, by human intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The human colon epithelial cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 constitutively express hBD-1 mRNA and protein but not hBD-2. However, hBD-2 expression is rapidly induced by IL-1alpha stimulation or infection of those cells with enteroinvasive bacteria. Moreover, hBD-2 functions as a NF-kappaB target gene in the intestinal epithelium as blocking NF-kappaB activation inhibits the up-regulated expression of hBD-2 in response to IL-1alpha stimulation or bacterial infection. Caco-2 cells produce two hBD-1 isoforms and a hBD-2 peptide larger in size than previously described hBD-2 isoforms. Paralleling the in vitro findings, human fetal intestinal xenografts constitutively express hBD-1, but not hBD-2, and hBD-2 expression, but not hBD-1, is up-regulated in xenografts infected intraluminally with Salmonella. hBD-1 is expressed by the epithelium of normal human colon and small intestine, with a similar pattern of expression in inflamed colon. In contrast, there is little hBD-2 expression by the epithelium of normal colon, but abundant hBD-2 expression by the epithelium of inflamed colon. hBD-1 and hBD-2 may be integral components of epithelial innate immunity in the intestine, with each occupying a distinct functional niche in intestinal mucosal defense.  (+info)

Inducible expression of human beta-defensin 2 by Fusobacterium nucleatum in oral epithelial cells: multiple signaling pathways and role of commensal bacteria in innate immunity and the epithelial barrier. (8/685)

Human gingival epithelial cells (HGE) express two antimicrobial peptides of the beta-defensin family, human beta-defensin 1 (hBD-1) and hBD-2, as well as cytokines and chemokines that contribute to innate immunity. In the present study, the expression and transcriptional regulation of hBD-2 was examined. HBD-2 mRNA was induced by cell wall extract of Fusobacterium nucleatum, an oral commensal microorganism, but not by that of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontal pathogen. HBD-2 mRNA was also induced by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an epithelial cell activator. HBD-2 mRNA was also expressed in 14 of 15 noninflamed gingival tissue samples. HBD-2 peptide was detected by immunofluorescence in HGE stimulated with F. nucleatum cell wall, consistent with induction of the mRNA by this stimulant. Kinetic analysis indicates involvement of multiple distinct signaling pathways in the regulation of hBD-2 mRNA; TNF-alpha and F. nucleatum cell wall induced hBD-2 mRNA rapidly (2 to 4 h), while PMA stimulation was slower ( approximately 10 h). In contrast, each stimulant induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) within 1 h. The role of TNF-alpha as an intermediary in F. nucleatum signaling was ruled out by addition of anti-TNF-alpha that did not inhibit hBD-2 induction. However, inhibitor studies show that F. nucleatum stimulation of hBD-2 mRNA requires both new gene transcription and new protein synthesis. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides isolated from Escherichia coli and F. nucleatum were poor stimulants of hBD-2, although they up-regulated IL-8 mRNA. Collectively, our findings show inducible expression of hBD-2 mRNA via multiple pathways in HGE in a pattern that is distinct from that of IL-8 expression. We suggest that different aspects of innate immune responses are differentially regulated and that commensal organisms have a role in stimulating mucosal epithelial cells in maintaining the barrier that contributes to homeostasis and host defense.  (+info)

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View more ,PURPOSE: Artificial materials such as dental implants are at risk of bacterial contamination in the oral cavity. Human beta defensins (HBDs), small cationic antimicrobial peptides that exert a broad-spectrum antibacterial function at epithelial surfaces and within some mesenchymal tissues, could probably help to reduce such contamination. HBDs also have protective immunomodulatory effects and have been reported to promote bone remodeling. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the influence of recombinant HBD-2 on the proliferation and survival of cells in culture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), human osteoblasts, human keratinocytes (control), and the HeLa cancer cell line (control) were incubated with recombinant HBD-2 (1, 5, 10, or 20 姯mL). Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were evaluated via a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) and lactate dehydrogenase assays, respectively. RESULTS: HBD-2 was not toxic in any tested ...
Beta defensins are a family of mammalian defensins. The beta defensins are antimicrobial peptides implicated in the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonization. Defensins are 2-6 kDa, cationic, microbicidal peptides active against many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and enveloped viruses, containing three pairs of intramolecular disulfide bonds. On the basis of their size and pattern of disulfide bonding, mammalian defensins are classified into alpha, beta and theta categories. Every mammalian species explored thus far has beta-defensins. In cows, as many as 13 beta-defensins exist in neutrophils. However, in other species, beta-defensins are more often produced by epithelial cells lining various organs (e.g. the epidermis, bronchial tree and genitourinary tract. Human, rabbit and guinea-pig beta-defensins, as well as human beta-defensin-2 (hBD2), induce the activation and degranulation of mast cells, resulting in the release of histamine and prostaglandin D2. ...
Although, the human epithelium is constantly challenged by a broad spectrum of microorganisms, invasive infections are rather rare. Recent findings suggest the expression of antimicrobial peptides by
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid sequence divergence in mammalian beta-defensins by adaptive evolution. AU - Maxwell, A I. AU - Morrison, G M. AU - Dorin, J R. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - beta-Defensin genes encode broad spectrum antimicrobial cationic peptides. We have analysed the largest murine and human clusters of these genes, which localise to mouse and human chromosome 8. Using hidden Markov models, we identified novel mouse and human beta-defensin genes. We subsequently found full-length expressed transcripts for these novel genes. Expression in the mouse was high in brain and reproductive tissues. Fourteen murine beta-defensins could be grouped into two clear sub-groups by virtue of their position and high signal sequence (exon 1 encoded) identity. In contrast, there was a very low level of sequence conservation in the exon 2 region encoding the mature antimicrobial peptide. Evolutionary analysis revealed strong evidence that following gene duplication, exon 1 and surrounding non-coding DNA show ...
Myeloid Elf-1 like factor (MEF) is an ETS protein, which activates the promoters of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3, lysozyme, human beta defensin-2 and perforin. In spite
The solution structure is reported for bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12 (BNBD-12), a member of the beta-defensin family of antimicrobial peptides. Structural constraints in the form of proton-proton distances, dihedral angles, and hydrogen bond constraints were derived from two-dimensional, homonu …
The authors characterize the recombinant human beta-defensin DEFB114 peptide, demonstrating its anti-microbial potential, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding and neutralization, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Data suggest that DEFB114 could also protect human sperm from motility loss when challenged with LPS. Affinity measurements of interaction between LPS and DEFB114 were performed using the Octet system. Purified DEFB114 was biotinylated and loaded onto Streptavidin biosensors, followed by association/dissociation with purified LPS.
1BNB: Solution structure of bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12: the peptide fold of the beta-defensins is identical to that of the classical defensins.
International Journal of Peptides is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of peptide research.
Background: Smoking increases the susceptibility to pulmonary infection and is a risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We postulated that cigarette smoke suppresses the activation of the innate immune system in response to bacterial infection. Methods: With sensitive ex-vivo analysis we measured the level of the endogenous antibiotic peptide human beta-defensin-2 in pharyngeal washing fluids and sputum of patients with community acquired pneumonia. The regulation of antibacterial host defense molecules was studied in vitro. The effect of cigarette smoke on the antibacterial activity of differentiated airway epithelium and the expression of host defense molecules was studied in an infection model in vitro. Results: Current or former smoking was associated with significantly reduced hBD-2 levels in pharyngeal washing fluid and sputum from patients with acute pneumonia. Exposure of airway epithelium to smoke in vitro inhibited the induction of hBD-2 by ...
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a pathogenic acid-fast bacterium causes ten million infections and two million deaths per year. Multidrug resistance of Mtb has been in part attributed to its lipid rich cell wall and tendency to aggregate. Mucosal surfaces in the respiratory tract secrete antimicrobial peptides including human beta-defensins (HBD) which typically exert their effects at low μM concentrations. HBD2 has been thought to primarily act as chemoattractant. However, considering its association with lipid membranes direct activity against Mtb is conceivable. Objective: Using Mycobacterium smegmatis (Ms) as a model organism for Mtb, this study aimed to establish a protocol to homogenize Ms and test the effectiveness of HBD-2 against Ms. Methods: Ms was grown for 48 h in 7H9 medium, adjusted to McF 0.5, sonicated for 3, 5, and 9 rounds of five second durations, and diluted 1:50 in 7H9 media. Aliquots in five replicates were further incubated in a microtiter plate for 48 h and
AMP play an important role in the innate immune response against infections. Two major classes of AMP have been identified: the beta defensins (HBD) (Harder 1997) and cathelicidins (LL-37) (Gallo 2002). AMP have been shown to have antibacterial activities against S. aureus (Ong 2002) and antiviral activity against vaccinia virus (VV) (Howell 2004).. The skin of AD patients is characterized by a deficiency in AMP, which may account for their propensity to skin infections (Ong 2002). This AMP deficiency is believed to be due to an increase in Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, expression (Ong 2002), as well as an increase of IL-10 expression (Howell 2005). Other cytokines known to affect AMP expression are TNF-alpha (TNFa), IL-6, IL-1 and interferon-gamma (IFN-g). These cytokines induce the expression of AMP (Erdag 2002, Liu 2002, Ong 2002, Nomura 2003). However, negligible levels of TNF-a and IFN-g have been shown in AD skin possibly due to their downregulation by Th2 cytokines (Nomura 2003). ...
Hyperbranched polyimide-silica hybrids (HBPI-silica HBDs) and hyperbranched polyimide-silica composites (HBPI-silica CPTs) were prepared, and their general and gas transport properties were investigated to clarify the effect of silica sources and preparation methods. HBPI-silica HBDs and HBPI-silica CPTs were synthesized by two-step polymerization of A2 + B3 monomer system via polyamic acid as precursor, followed by hybridizing or blending silica sources. Silica components were incorporated by the sol-gel reaction with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) or the addition of colloidal silica. In HBPI-silica HBDs, the aggregation of silica components is controlled because of the high affinity of HBPI and silica caused by the formation of covalent bonds between HBPI and silica. Consequently, HBPI-silica HBDs had good film formability, transparency, and mechanical properties compared with HBPI-silica CPTs. HBPI-silica HBD and CPT membranes prepared via the sol-gel reaction with TMOS showed specific gas permeabilities
Hyperbranched polyimide-silica hybrids (HBPI-silica HBDs) and hyperbranched polyimide-silica composites (HBPI-silica CPTs) were prepared, and their general and gas transport properties were investigated to clarify the effect of silica sources and preparation methods. HBPI-silica HBDs and HBPI-silica CPTs were synthesized by two-step polymerization of A2 + B3 monomer system via polyamic acid as precursor, followed by hybridizing or blending silica sources. Silica components were incorporated by the sol-gel reaction with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) or the addition of colloidal silica. In HBPI-silica HBDs, the aggregation of silica components is controlled because of the high affinity of HBPI and silica caused by the formation of covalent bonds between HBPI and silica. Consequently, HBPI-silica HBDs had good film formability, transparency, and mechanical properties compared with HBPI-silica CPTs. HBPI-silica HBD and CPT membranes prepared via the sol-gel reaction with TMOS showed specific gas permeabilities
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Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate immune system. The alpha-defensins which include NP-1, NP-2 and NP-3, are distinguished from the beta-defensins by the pairing of their three disulfide bonds. In addition to antimicrobial activity, NP-1 exhibits chemotactic activity on dendritic cells. NP-1 is expressed as the C-terminal portion of an inactive precursor protein, which also contains a 19 amino acid N-terminal signal sequence and a 45 amino acid polypeptide. NP-1 contains a six-cysteine motif that forms three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant human NP-1 is a 3.4 kDa protein containing 30 amino acid residues ...
GPR29 [ENSP00000343952]. Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6; Receptor for the C-C type chemokine CCL20. Binds to CCL20 and subsequently transduces a signal by increasing the intracellular calcium ion levels. Although CCL20 is its major ligand it can also act as a receptor for non-chemokine ligands such as beta-defensins. Binds to defensin DEFB1 leading to increase in intracellular calcium ions and cAMP levels. Its binding to DEFB1 is essential for the function of DEFB1 in regulating sperm motility and bactericidal activity. Binds to defensins DEFB4 and DEFB4A/B and mediates their chemotactic effects. The ligand-receptor pair CCL20-CCR6 is responsible for the chemotaxis of dendritic cells (DC), effector/ memory T-cells and B-cells and plays an important role at skin and mucosal surfaces under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions, as well as in pathology, including cancer and various autoimmune diseases. CCR6-mediated signals are essential for immune responses to microbes in the intestinal mucosa ...
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DEFB119 - DEFB119 (untagged)-Human defensin, beta 119 (DEFB119), transcript variant 3 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for DEFB126 gene (Protein Coding), Defensin Beta 126, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for DEFB107A gene (Protein Coding), Defensin Beta 107A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Human beta defensins (hBDs) are small cationic peptides, expressed in mucosal epithelia and important agents of innate immunity, act as antimicrobial and chemotactic agents at mucosal barriers. In this perspective, we present evidence supporting a novel strategy by which the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum induces hBDs and other antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in normal human oral epithelial cells and thereby protects them from other microbial pathogens. The findings stress (1) the physiological importance of hBDs, (2) that this strategy may be a mechanism that contributes to homeostasis and health in body sites constantly challenged with bacteria and (3) that novel properties identified in commensal bacteria could, one day, be harnessed as new probiotic strategies to combat colonization of opportunistic pathogens. With that in mind, we highlight and review the discovery and characterization of a novel lipo-protein, FAD-I (Fusobacterium Associated Defensin Inducer) associated with the outer
Hata, T., Kotol, P., Boguniewicz, M., Taylor, P., Paik, A., Jackson, M., ... et al, . U. (2011). History of eczema herpeticum is associated with the inability to induce human beta-defensin (HBD)-2, HBD-3 and cathelicidin in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. British Journal of Dermatology, 163(3), 659 - 661 ...
Beta-defensin 106 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB106A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 106, DEFB106A and DEFB106B, in head-to-head orientation. This gene, DEFB106A, represents the more centromeric copy. The purified DEFB106 showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186579 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Schutte BC, Mitros JP, Bartlett JA, Walters JD, Jia HP, Welsh MJ, Casavant TL, McCray PB Jr (Feb 2002). Discovery of ...
Defensin-1 was prepared by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. We showed that different types of honey (manuka and honeydew) were able to significantly reduced cell viability of wound pathogens (S. aureus, S. agalactiae and P. aeruginosa) in polymicrobial biofilm. None of the tested honeys showed the ability to eradicate E. faecalis in biofilm. In addition, recombinant defensin-1 successfully reduced the viability of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa cells within established polymicrobial biofilm after 24 and 48 hours of treatment. Interestingly, recombinant defensin-1 did not affect the viability of S. agalactiae cells within the biofilm whereas both natural honeys significantly reduced the viable bacteria. Although E. faecalis was highly resistant to defensin-1, defensin-1 significantly affected biofilm formation of E. faecalis and S. agalactiae after 24 hours of treatment, most likely through the inhibiting its extracellular polymeric substances production ...
Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in the innate immune response in the intestine. Up to date, only one ß-defensin (pBD-1), has been described in pig, which was found to be expressed at low levels in the intestine. We set-up a quantitative PCR method to detect the gene expression of pBD-1 and a newly discovered porcine ß-defensin, pBD-2. Expression of pBD-1 mRNA increased from the proximal to the distal part of the intestine whereas pBD-2 expression decreased. The main gene expression sites for pBD-2 were kidney and liver, whereas pBD-1 was mainly expressed in tongue. The porcine small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique was used to investigate effects of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 on intestinal morphology and pBD-1 and pBD-2 mRNA levels in vivo. The early responses were studied 2, 4 and 8 h post-infection in four separate jejunal and ileal segments. Immunohistochemistry showed invasion of the mucosa by Salmonella and changes in intestinal morphology. ...
α-Defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and play an important role in innate immunity. We have previously shown that α-defensin-1 can inhibit HIV-1 replication following viral entry. Here we examined the molecular mechanism(s) of α-defensin-1-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. α-Defensin-1 had a direct effect on HIV-1 virions at a low MOI in the absence of serum. The direct effect on HIV-1 virions was abolished by the presence of serum or an increase in virus particles. Studying the kinetics of the HIV life cycle revealed that α-defensin-1 inhibited steps following reverse transcription and integration. Analysis of PKC phosphorylation in primary CD4+ T cells in response to α-defensin-1 indicated that α-defensin-1 inhibited PKC activity. Pretreatment of infected CD4+ T cells with a PKC activator, bryostatin 1, partially reversed α-defensin-1-mediated HIV inhibition. Like α-defensin-1, the PKC isoform-selective inhibitor Go6976 blocked HIV-1 infection in a ...
To identify the component responsible for inducing MMP-9 production, RJ extract was fractionated using C18 RP-HPLC. In fractions exhibiting stimulatory activity, we immunochemically detected the bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1. Defensin-1 was cloned, and recombinant peptide was produced in a baculoviral expression system. Defensin-1 stimulated MMP-9 secretion from keratinocytes and increased keratinocyte migration and wound closure in vitro. In addition, defensin-1 promoted re-epithelisation and wound closure in uninfected excision wounds ...
Fitschen-Oestern S, Weuster M, Lippross S et al.. Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Strasse 3, 24105, Kiel, Germany.. BMC musculoskeletal disorders. Mar 2017.. Human-beta defensins (HBD) belong to the family of acute phase peptides and hold a broad antimicrobial spectrum that includes gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. HBD are up-regulated after severe injuries but the source of posttraumatic HBD expression has not been focused on before. In the current study we analysed the role of liver tissue in expression of HBD after multiple trauma in human and mice.HBD-2 expression has been detected in plasma samples of 32 multiple trauma patients (ISS > 16) over 14 days after trauma by ELISA. To investigate major sources of HBD-2, its expression and regulation in plasma samples, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and human tissue samples of liver and skin were analysed by ELISA. As liver samples of trauma patients are hard to ...
Antimicrobial peptides of the beta-defensin family are expressed in all human epithelial tissues tested to date and have recently been the subject of vigorous investigation. Their localization and characteristics support the hypothesis that these peptides play a role in mucosal and skin defense. The …
INTRODUCTION. Defensins and cathelicidins constitute the two major groups of antimicrobial peptides in most mammalian species. The most abundant group of antimicrobial peptides is comprised by the α-, β- and θ-defensins.[alpha, beta, theta (circle w/horizontal line)] Mammalian defensins are endogenous cysteine-rich peptide antibiotics classically produced either by epithelial cells of the respiratory, urogenital and digestive tracts, or by circulating cells including granulocytes and macrophages. More recently, however, β-defensins have also been identified in the heart of different species. BETA-DEFENSINS. β-defensins are small (3.5-4.5 kDa) highly basic cationic peptides. These peptides are ancient and universal molecules of innate immunity with functions extending far beyond simple antibiotics, including anti-tumor and mitogenic activity, as well as immunomodulation and signal transduction characteristics. The overall effectiveness of an innate immunity based host defense is shown by the ...
This application is in response to PA-09-164 (NIH Exploratory Developmental Research Grant Program). Given the high rate of hospital-acquired infection in criti...
PURPOSE Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are cationic host defense peptides with microbicidal and cell-signaling properties. They show promise as potential therapeutic agents. In the present study, a beta-defensin AMP gene was isolated from the ocular surface for the first time, and its expression was characterized in the presence of ocular inflammation and/or infection. METHODS Total RNA was obtained from impression cytology samples of the conjunctiva and cornea of normal patients and of those with bacterial, viral, acanthamoeba, or dry eye disease. The expression of the beta-defensin AMP DEFB-109 was determined by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Relative quantification of the gene in the various groups was performed by means of real-time PCR. RESULTS DEFB-109 was constitutively expressed in all samples. The gene showed significantly decreased expression in the presence of all types of inflammation/infection. Reduced expression featured most prominently in acanthamoeba
Responding to a test challenge: I clearly stated that The ciliary epithelial cells produce antimicrobial peptides like beta-defensins. On page 6 it states that the Primary granules in neutrophils contain myeloperoxidase enzyme, lysozyme and alpha-defensins. The statement indicating that neutrophils produce alpha-defensins is again reiterated in the same page. I appreciate the fact that you did a literature search and found an article from 1995 demonstrating defensin production from macrophages. This is an outdated report. There are more than 292 research articles reporting the production of alpha-defensins by neutrophils. I have pasted the PubMed link below. The challenge is denied. ...
Purified Recombinant Human DEFB110 Protein, GST-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human DEFB110 Protein, GST-tagged can be used for research.
摘要 旨在研究氨基酸平衡低蛋白质日粮对育肥猪肠道抗菌肽与微生物区系的影响。将20头(60±2.5)kg的育肥猪(杜×长×大)随机分为4个处理:14.0% CP日粮(14.0% CP),添加Glu、Lys、Met、Thr和Trp的12.5% CP日粮(12.5% CP),添加Glu、Lys、Met、Thr和Trp的11.0% CP日粮(11.0% CP),添加Glu、Lys、Met、Thr、Trp和BCAA(Val、Ile、Leu)的11.0% CP日粮(11.0% CP+BCAA)。每个处理5个重复,每个重复1头猪。试验分为5 d预试期和30 d正试期。结果表明:(1)尿液尿素氮和尿酸含量随日粮蛋白质水平降低而显著降低(P,0.05);(2)低蛋白质水平日粮显著降低空肠黏膜、回肠黏膜β-defensin-2水平和ANG1、ANG4 mRNA表达水平(P,0.05);(3)不同蛋白质水平日粮对部分回肠、直肠食糜微生物氨基酸组成有显著影响(P,0.05);(4)与14.0% CP组相比,12.5% CP组Observed species显著提高(P,0.05),11.0% ...
Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate
Defb2 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN304451G1|/strong|, Defb2 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=http://www.origene.com/CRISPR-CAS9/Detail.
TrizCHLOR 4 Wipes are antimicrobial to provide an easy way to support healthy skin in both cats and dogs. TrizCHLOR 4 Wipes are Convenient wet wipes indicated for coat and skin conditions where the following properties would be beneficial to the patient: antifungal and antibacterial.
Polyclonal antibody for DEFB1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. DEFB1 information: Molecular Weight: 7420 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted; Tissue Specificity: Plasma.
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) are a promising new class of natural-source drugs that may avoid the shortcomings of conventional chemotherapy because certain CAPs exhibit selective cytotoxicity against a broad spectrum of human ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Release of Luminal Exosomes Contributes to TLR4-Mediated Epithelial Antimicrobial Defense. AU - Hu, Guoku. AU - Gong, Ai Yu. AU - Roth, Amanda L.. AU - Huang, Bing Q.. AU - Ward, Honorine D.. AU - Zhu, Guan. AU - LaRusso, Nicholas F.. AU - Hanson, Nancy D.. AU - Chen, Xian Ming. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles released by most cell types from multi-vesicular endosomes. They are speculated to transfer molecules to neighboring or distant cells and modulate many physiological and pathological procedures. Exosomes released from the gastrointestinal epithelium to the basolateral side have been implicated in antigen presentation. Here, we report that luminal release of exosomes from the biliary and intestinal epithelium is increased following infection by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. Release of exosomes involves activation of TLR4/IKK2 signaling through promoting the SNAP23-associated vesicular exocytotic process. Downregulation of ...
Identification of a cell-penetrating peptide domain from human beta-defensin 3 and characterization of its anti-inflammatory activity Jue Yeon Lee,1,* Jin Sook Suh,2,* Jung Min Kim,1 Jeong Hwa Kim,1 Hyun Jung Park,1 Yoon Jeong Park,1,2 Chong Pyoung Chung1 1Central Research Institute, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea; 2Dental Regenerative Biotechnology, Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are crucial factors of intrinsic immunity that function in the immunologic response to a variety of invading enveloped viruses, bacteria, and fungi. hBDs can cause membrane depolarization and cell lysis due to their highly cationic nature. These molecules participate in antimicrobial defenses and the control of adaptive and innate immunity in every mammalian species and are produced by various cell
Cole was recently awarded about $4 million of National Institutes of Health grants through 2011 for the HIV-1 research and similar studies. The grants were provided through the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.. Cole started his research into theta-defensins at the University of California, Los Angeles, before he moved to UCF in 2003. Drs. Otto Yang and Robert Lehrer, infectious disease specialists at UCLA, and researchers at the University of Pittsburgh and Emory University are collaborating with Cole.. There are three classes of defensin peptides, and most research around the world has focused on alpha and beta defensins, the two types that humans still make. Cole studies theta-defensins called retrocyclins, which are no longer made by humans or advanced primates such as chimpanzees. However, theta-defensins are more active against HIV-1 than the other two types of ...
en] Animals are colonized by coevolved bacterial communities, which contribute to the hosts health. This commensal microbiota is often highly specific to its host-species, inferring strong selective pressures on the associated microbes. Several factors, including diet, mucus composition, and the immune system have been proposed as putative determinants of host-associated bacterial communities. Here we report that species-specific antimicrobial peptides account for different bacterial communities associated with closely related species of the cnidarian Hydra. Gene family extensions for potent antimicrobial peptides, the arminins, were detected in four Hydra species, with each species possessing a unique composition and expression profile of arminins. For functional analysis, we inoculated arminin-deficient and control polyps with bacterial consortia characteristic for different Hydra species and compared their selective preferences by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial microbiota. In contrast ...
Sandrine Ménard, Valentina Förster, Michael Lotz, Dominique Gütle, Claudia U. Duerr, Richard L. Gallo, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Katrin Pütsep, Mats Andersson, Erik O. Glocker, Mathias W. Hornef ...
Inducible expression of hBD2, hBD3, and CAP18 has been found in various inflamed regions in vivo (8, 29, 33, 44) and also in cultured keratinocytes in contact with bacteria in vitro (13, 14, 25, 26). However, coordinate expression of these peptides in human keratinocytes was first demonstrated in this study. Exposure of keratinocytes to S. aureus resulted in upregulation of hBD2, hBD3, and CAP18 production, whereas hBD1 was constitutively expressed. Interestingly, the mode of expression was different for different peptides (Fig. 1), suggesting that different signals are associated with expression of each peptide. Several reports have indicated that activation of NF-κBsignaling by binding of lipopolysaccharide or a lipopolysaccharide-CD14 (lipopolysaccharide-binding protein) complex to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces hBD2 expression in various regions of the epithelium (3, 25, 38, 41). Lipoteichoic acid or cell wall peptidoglycan in gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated to stimulate ...
Objectives High-dose vitamin D3increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function. Methods In a double blind, randomized controlled trial, critically ill ventilator-dependent adults (N = 30) received enteral vitamin D3(250,000 or 500,000 IU total over 5 d) or placebo. Plasma was obtained serially for ...
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A method pioneered by MIT researchers might offer hope in finding a new generation of antibiotics, made of antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides a
Zhu SY,Gao B. Positive Selection in Cathelicidin Host Defense Peptides: Adaptation to Exogenous Pathogens or Endogenous Receptors?[J]. Heredity,2017,118(5):453-465 ...
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Fig. 6. Nasal carriers of S. aureus are deficient in antimicrobial components that are restored by the addition of noncarrier secretions. (A) S. aureus, isolated from donor 24, was used as the target bacterium in a CFU microassay of nasal fluid from two noncarriers (donors 4 and 11) and two carriers (donors 20 and 24, gamma-irradiated fluid). While the noncarriers fluids were bacteriostatic or bactericidal, the carriers fluids did not inhibit bacterial growth. (B) The 1:1 mix of nasal secretions from an S. aureus carrier (donor 24) with fluid from a noncarrier (donor 4) is bactericidal to indigenous flora, while the mix of nasal secretions from an S. aureus carrier with heat-inactivated (boiling for 10 min) secretions from a noncarrier promoted the growth of indigenous bacteria. ...
We have designed and chemically synthesized an artificial β-defensin based on a minimal template derived from the comparative analysis of over 80 naturally occurring sequences. This molecule has the disulfide-bridged β-sheet core structure of natural β-defensins and shows a robust salt-sensitive antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeast, as well as a chemotactic activity against immature dendritic cells. An SAR (structure-activity relationship) study using two truncated fragments or a Cys→Ser point-mutated analogue, from which one or two of the three disulfide bridges were absent, indicated that altering the structure resulted in a different type of membrane interaction and a switch to different modes of action towards both microbial and host cells, and that covalent dimerization could favour antimicrobial activity. Comparison of the structural, aggregational and biological activities of the artificial defensin with those of three human β-defensins and their primate orthologues ...
Defensin 1 and defensin 2 have antibacterial, fungicide and antiviral activities. Has antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Defensins are thought to kill microbes by permeabilizing their plasma membrane.
Scientists from Novozymes have now in collaboration with researchers at University of Bonn, Aalborg and others found the mechanism by which plectasin, an anti-microbial peptide, kills bacteria that cause severe infections in humans.
சளிப்படலம் போன்ற ஒரு வண்ணமயமான திரவத்தினை சுரக்கும் தவளையானது (ஹைட்ரோஃபிளாஸ் பேஹுவிஸ்தாரா)( Hudrophylax bahuvistara) கேளராவில் கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டு உள்ளது. தவளையின் தோலிலிருந்து வெளிப்படும் பிசுப்பிசுப்பான திரவத்தினை ஆய்வு செய்ததில் host defence peptides இருப்பது கண்டுபிடிக்கப்பட்டு உள்ளது. இந்த புதிய பெப்டைட்களுக்கு உருமின் என்று கேரளாவின் உறுமி வாளை நினைவுபடுத்தும் வகையில் பெயர்
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"Entrez Gene: DEFB119 defensin, beta 119". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Lehrer RI, Ganz T (2002). "Defensins of ... Beta-defensin 119 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB119 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000180483 - ... "Discovery of five conserved beta -defensin gene clusters using a computational search strategy". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99 ( ... Raj PA, Dentino AR (2002). "Current status of defensins and their role in innate and adaptive immunity". FEMS Microbiol. Lett. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found ... Beta-defensin 129 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB129 gene. Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB129 defensin, beta 129". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. ( ... Kao CY, Chen Y, Zhao YH, Wu R (2003). "ORFeome-based search of airway epithelial cell-specific novel human [beta]-defensin ...
... alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic ... Beta-defensin 106 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB106A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB106A defensin, beta 106A". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Xin A (Jan 2014). "Soluble fusion ... Kao CY, Chen Y, Zhao YH, Wu R (2003). "ORFeome-based search of airway epithelial cell-specific novel human [beta]-defensin ...
... alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic ... Beta-defensin 104 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB104A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB104A defensin, beta 104A". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Patil AA, Cai Y, Sang Y, Blecha F, Zhang G ... Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical ...
... human beta-defensin 118 (DEFB118) (formerly ESC42), is an antimicrobial beta-defensin". Endocrinology. 145 (7): 3165-73. doi: ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB118 defensin, beta 118". van Wetering S, Sterk PJ, Rabe KF, Hiemstra PS (Dec 1999). "Defensins: key players or ... Beta-defensin 118 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB118 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000131068 - ... Kao CY, Chen Y, Zhao YH, Wu R (Jul 2003). "ORFeome-based search of airway epithelial cell-specific novel human [beta]-defensin ...
The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found ... Beta-defensin 127 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB127 gene. Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB127 defensin, beta 127". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) van Wetering S, Sterk PJ, Rabe KF, Hiemstra ... 2003). "Distribution of new human beta-defensin genes clustered on chromosome 20 in functionally different segments of ...
Lehrer RI, Barton A, Daher KA, Harwig SS, Ganz T, Selsted ME (August 1989). "Interaction of human defensins with Escherichia ... AG and the University of Zurich are based on the use of the beta hairpin-stabilizing D-Pro-L-Pro template which promote a beta ... Yasin B, Harwig SS, Lehrer RI, Wagar EA (March 1996). "Susceptibility of Chlamydia trachomatis to protegrins and defensins". ... Lai JR, Huck BR, Weisblum B, Gellman SH (October 2002). "Design of non-cysteine-containing antimicrobial beta-hairpins: ...
2002). "Identification of a novel, multifunctional beta-defensin (human beta-defensin 3) with specific antimicrobial activity. ... Beta-defensin 103 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB103A gene. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. This gene encodes defensin, beta 103B, which has broad ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB103A defensin, beta 103A". Candille SI, Kaelin CB, Cattanach BM, Yu B, Thompson DA, Nix MA, Kerns JA, Schmutz ...
One important antimicrobial agent produced by odontoblast is beta-defensins (BDs). BDs kill microorganisms by forming ... while the rest are A-Beta Fibres. A relatively low-threshold sensory apparatus. Mainly located at pulp-dentine border at the ...
TGF beta - important in maintaining immune privilege P.G. McMenamin, The distribution of immune cells in the uveal tract of the ... The latter, defensins, have a wide range of antimicrobial affects against bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as effects in ... 74(2): p. 293-9. Gottsch, J.D., et al., Defensin gene expression in the cornea. Curr Eye Res, 1998. 17(11): p. 1082-6. Oakes, J ... It has also been found that the presence of secreted defensins secreted by corneal keratocytes is correlated with cases of ...
1999). "Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6". Science. 286 (5439): 525-8. ... Linking antimicrobial and CC chemokine receptor-6-binding activities with human beta-defensins". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (40): 37647 ... V beta 11(+) NKT cell subsets with distinct cytokine-producing capacity". Blood. 100 (1): 11-6. doi:10.1182/blood-2001-12-0196 ...
These studies have been expanded to include additional beta defensins, theta defensins, and the human cathelicidin LL-37 and ... HD5 and Beta-defensin 2 composed entirely of D-amino acids suggested differing mechanisms of defensin activity against Gram- ... Subsequently, mutated forms of some of those six defensins were studied by VCC. A conserved glycine in a beta bulge in HNP2 was ... This effect is often observed with beta lactams when assayed against beta lactamase producing bacteria. The inoculum effect was ...
Paneth cells produce antimicrobial peptides such as human beta-defensin. Microfold cells (commonly referred to as M cells) ...
DEFB118, DEFB119, DEFB126, DEFB127, DEFB129: Beta-defensin genes. *DLGAP4: Disks large-associated protein 4 ...
1999). "Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6". Science. 286 (5439): 525-528. ... 1997). "Cloning and characterization of exodus, a novel beta-chemokine". Blood. 89 (9): 3315-22. PMID 9129037. Baba M, Imai T, ... immature dendritic cells generated from monocytes in the presence of TGF-beta 1 express functional C-C chemokine receptor 6". J ...
... avian defensins) and mammals (e.g. cathelicidins, alpha- and beta-defensins, regIII peptides) Research has increased in recent ... In fact human beta-defensin 2 have now been shown to kill the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans through interactions with ... Sawaki K, Mizukawa N, Yamaai T, Yoshimoto T, Nakano M, Sugahara T (2002). "High concentration of beta-defensin-2 in oral ... KIDA-TAKAOKA, SAORI (2014). "Surrounding cells affect the gene expression pattern of human beta-defensins in squamous cell ...
Other innate immune mediators include beta-defensin 2, and lipocalin-2; pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukins IL6, and IL8; ...
Lu Z, Kim KA, Suico MA, Shuto T, Li JD, Kai H (March 2004). "MEF up-regulates human beta-defensin 2 expression in epithelial ...
"Epithelial cell-derived antibacterial peptides human beta-defensins and cathelicidin: multifunctional activities on mast cells ... The AMP family also includes the defensins. Whilst the defensins share common structural features, cathelicidin-related ... Additionally cathelicidins may also be small-sized molecules (12-18 residues) with beta-hairpin structures, stabilized by one ... 3 and cathelicidin Beta-1 Tasmanian Devil: Saha-CATH5 Salmonids: CATH1 and CATH2 Patients with rosacea have elevated levels of ...
She led an EPSRC platform grant to study the structure-activity relationships of Beta defensins. She works with Cait MacPhee, ...
Alpha defensins, Beta defensins and Theta defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic ... Beta-defensin 105 is a protein that is encoded by the DEFB105A gene in humans. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB105A defensin, beta 105A". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Patil AA, Cai Y, Sang Y, et al. (2006). " ... Semple CA, Rolfe M, Dorin JR (May 2003). "Duplication and selection in the evolution of primate beta-defensin genes". Genome ...
Some of the isoforms contain regions of similarity to beta-defensins, a family of antimicrobial peptides. The gene is located ... "Organization of the human gene encoding the epididymis-specific EP2 protein variants and its relationship to defensin genes". ... on chromosome 8p23 near the defensin gene cluster. Alternative splicing of this gene results in seven transcript variants ...
The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found ... Beta-defensin 126 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB126 gene. Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides ... "Entrez Gene: DEFB126 defensin, beta 126". Tollner TL, Venners SA, Hollox EJ, Yudin AI, Liu X, Tang G, Xing H, Kays RJ, Lau T, ... "Discovery of five conserved beta -defensin gene clusters using a computational search strategy". Proceedings of the National ...
Zhao C, Wang I, Lehrer RI (November 1996). "Widespread expression of beta-defensin hBD-1 in human secretory glands and ... Defensin, alpha 5 (DEFA5) also known as human alpha defensin 5 (HD5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFA5 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: DEFA5 defensin, alpha 5, Paneth cell-specific". Jones DE, Bevins CL (January 1993). "Defensin-6 mRNA in human ... Several of the human alpha defensin genes appear to be clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, α-defensin- ...
Furthermore, the secondary structure of APETx1 is similar to that of BDS1, yet differs by at least one beta-turn. The scorpion ... Through its folding pattern, APETx1 is classified as a member of the Defensin family. APETx1 has an 88% homology with APETx4, ... Furthermore, the secondary structure of the peptide consists of four-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheets. ...
Zhao C, Wang I, Lehrer RI (24 Nov 1996). "Widespread expression of beta-defensin hBD-1 in human secretory glands and epithelial ... Defensin, alpha 6 (DEFA6) also known as human alpha defensin 6 (HD6) is a human protein that is encoded by the DEFA6 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: DEFA6 defensin, alpha 6, Paneth cell-specific (Homo sapiens)". Jones DE, Bevins CL (January 1993). "Defensin-6 ... The alpha defensins are a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides that defend the host against bacteria and viruses. HD6 ...
This beta-defensin K locus mutation is a dominant black mutation that occurs in many domestic dog breeds. However, a recessive ... Barsh observed that beta-defensin is involved in providing immunity to viral and bacterial skin infections, which might be more ... It was discovered that a gene mutation responsible for the protein beta-defensin 3, known as the K locus, is responsible for ... November 2007). "A -defensin mutation causes black coat color in domestic dogs". Science. 318 (5855): 1418-23. doi:10.1126/ ...
Bøe R, Silvola J, Yang J, Moens U, McCray PB, Stenfors LE, Seljfelid R (September 1999). "Human beta-defensin-1 mRNA is ...
Alpha- and beta- thionins are related to each other. The gamma thionins have a superficially similar structure but are an ... unrelated class of protein, now called plant defensins. The proteins are toxic to animal cells, presumably attacking the cell ...
As a result, the intestinal epithelial cells express chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) and Beta defensin 3. CCL20 and Beta-defensin 3 ... S. epidermidis secretes a small molecule AMP which leads to increased expression of Human β-defensins. S. epidermidis also ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
flushing, thiocyanate,[2] defensins,[2] gut flora[2] Respiratory airways and lungs. Mucociliary escalator,[3] surfactant,[2] ... For example, beta-lysine, a protein produced by platelets during coagulation, can cause lysis of many Gram-positive bacteria by ... Several species of insect produce antimicrobial peptides known as defensins and cecropins. ...
CCR5 protein pripada familiji beta hemokinskih receptora, integralnih membranskih proteina.[2][3] On je G protein spregnuti ... Cutler CW, Jotwani R (2006). „Oral mucosal expression of HIV-1 receptors, co-receptors, and alpha-defensins: tableau of ...
... long peptides such as amyloid beta have been referred to as proteins, and smaller proteins like insulin have been considered ... Defensin family. Tachykinin peptidesEdit. Main article: Tachykinin peptides. *Substance P. *Kassinin ...
"Human beta-defensin-1 mRNA is transcribed in tympanic membrane and adjacent auditory canal epithelium". Infection and Immunity ...
... new insight into the Staphylococcal beta-barrel pore-forming toxins. In: The Journal of biological chemistry. Band 279, Nummer ... Defensin und Sarcotoxin. Andere dienen in giftigen Eukaryoten als Toxin, z. B. Melittin im Bienengift. Eukaryotische MACPF- ...
1999). "Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6.". Science 286 (5439): 525-8. ... 1997). "Cloning and characterization of exodus, a novel beta-chemokine.". Blood 89 (9): 3315-22. PMID 9129037. CS1 održavanje: ... immature dendritic cells generated from monocytes in the presence of TGF-beta 1 express functional C-C chemokine receptor 6.". ...
E. coli Nissle 1917 induces human beta defensin-2 by a NF-êB dependent mechanism in Caco-2 cells. Gastroenterology 126[4], A- ... NF-ÊB- and AP-1-Mediated Induction of Human Beta Defensin-2 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Escherichia coli Nissle 1917:a ...
G protein-spregnuti receptor (Hedgehog, Wnt) • RTK (TGF beta, MAPK/ERK) • Notch • JAK-STAT • Akt/PKB • Fas apoptoza • Hippo • ... antimikrobni katjonski peptid (Catelicidin, Cecropin, Defensin, Dermcidin, Histatin, Magainin, Meliten, Polimiksin, Tionin) • ... Hedgehog signalni put • Wnt signalni put • TGF beta signalni put • MAPK/ERK put • Notch signalni put • JAK-STAT signalni put • ...
antimikrobni katjonski peptid (Catelicidin, Cecropin, Defensin, Dermcidin, Histatin, Magainin, Meliten, Polimiksin, Tionin) • ... Beta-bareli su nađeni samo u spoljašnjim membranama Gram-negativnih bakterija, lipid-bogatih ćelijskih zidova nekoliko Gram- ... Transmembranski regioni proteina su bilo beta-barelni ili alfa-heliksni. Alfa-heliksni domeni su prisutni u svim tipovima ... ali mogu da se agregiraju i ireverzibilno vežu za lipidni dvoslog i formiraju alfa-heliksne ili beta-barelne transmembranske ...
The lungs also have a sympathetic tone from norepinephrine acting on the beta 2 receptors in the respiratory tract, which ... which also contains several antimicrobial compounds such as defensins, antiproteases, and antioxidates.[51] A rare type of ...
... Example defensins with alpha helix in red, beta strands in blue, disulphide bonds in yellow (PDB: 1MR4, 2KOZ, 1FJN, ... Trans-defensinsEdit. Vertebrate defensins are primarily α-defensins and the β-defensins. Some primates additionally have the ... Only alpha and beta defensins are expressed in humans.[19]. Although the most well studied defensins are from vertebrates, a ... Cis-defensinsEdit. Arthropod defensins are the best-characterised defensins from invertebrates (especially those from insects). ...
... and beta-carotene, and are a good source of vitamin K and vitamin B6. (Full article...) ... other peptides activate defensins and modify root growth. They have also been shown to affect plants' responses to salt stress ...
... beta-glucanases, or peroxidases Hypersensitive response - a rapid host cell death response associated with defence mediated by ... or more complex phytoalexins such as genistein or camalexin Antimicrobial proteins such as defensins, thionins, or PR-1 ...
... which also contains several antimicrobial compounds such as defensins, antiproteases, and antioxidants.[70] A rare type of ... The lungs also have a sympathetic tone from norepinephrine acting on the beta 2 adrenoceptors in the respiratory tract, which ... "Molecular mechanisms of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor function, response, and regulation". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical ...
Philpott, M. (2003). "Defensins and acne". Mol. Immunol. 40 (7): 457-62. PMID 14568392. doi:10.1016/S0161-5890(03)00154-8.. ... poleg tega pa naj bi inhibicija beta-defenzinov v epiteliju pljuč in sapnika zaradi povišane količine soli (NaCl) prispevala k ... Plant defensins. COPE: Horst Ibelgaufts' Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia. Pridobljeno 17.01.2010. ... Münk C., Wei G., Yang O.O., Waring A.J., Wang W., Hong T., Lehrer R.I., Landau N.R. in Cole A.M. (2003). "The theta-defensin, ...
"Characterisation of UGP and its relationship with beta-core fragment". Br. J. Cancer. 67 (4): 686-92. doi:10.1038/bjc.1993.127 ... Defensins. *neutral serine proteases (Proteinase 3). *Lysozyme. *Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein. *Collagenase ...
The other ADP-receptor P2Y1 couples to Gq that activates phospholipase C-beta 2 PLCB2, resulting in inositol 1,4,5- ... defensins, kinocidins and proteases, killing the bacteria directly.[40] Platelets also secrete proinflammatory and procoagulant ... Platelets release platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a potent chemotactic agent; and TGF beta, which stimulates the ...
... beta-defensins and cathelicidins) and immunoglobulins.[13] Terminally differentiated, superficial keratinocytes extrude the ...
In 2017 researchers genetically modified a virus to express spinach defensin proteins. The virus was injected into orange trees ... "GUS fusions: beta-glucuronidase as a sensitive and versatile gene fusion marker in higher plants". The EMBO Journal. 6 (13): ...
... (LAP) is a beta-defensin found in bovine internal epithelial tissue, in particular, that of the ... and primary structures of hamster neutrophil defensins". Infection and Immunity. 64 (11): 4444-9. doi:10.1128/IAI.64.11.4444- ...
Beta defensins, a family of antimicrobial peptides found in the respiratory tract, are responsible for further inflammation in ... Neutrophils, beta-defensins, leukotrienes, and chemokines can also be detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid injected then ...
Beta defensins are a family of mammalian defensins. The beta defensins are antimicrobial peptides implicated in the resistance ... beta and theta categories. Every mammalian species explored thus far has beta-defensins. In cows, as many as 13 beta-defensins ... α-defensins and insect defensins. Subsequent structural analyses have suggested that the β-defensins, α-defensins, θ-defensins ... Human, rabbit and guinea-pig beta-defensins, as well as human beta-defensin-2 (hBD2), induce the activation and degranulation ...
Beta-defensin 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB3 gene. HBD-3 was first isolated from human lesional ... Bensch KW, Raida M, Mägert HJ, Schulz-Knappe P, Forssmann WG (July 1995). "hBD-1: a novel beta-defensin from human plasma". ... Dhople V, Krukemeyer A, Ramamoorthy A (September 2006). "The human beta-defensin-3, an antibacterial peptide with multiple ...
Human beta-defensins.. Pazgier M1, Hoover DM, Yang D, Lu W, Lubkowski J. ... Structural studies of beta-defensins provide the molecular basis for a better understanding of their properties, functions and ... Growing interest in beta-defensins steadily enhances our knowledge about various aspects of their gene location, expression ... The hallmark property of beta-defensins, their antimicrobial activity, is clearly only the tip of the iceberg in the extensive ...
All six parotid gland samples studied were negative for human beta-defensin 2 messenger RNA. Thus, human beta-defensin 1 gene ... Expression of beta-defensin genes by human salivary glands.. Bonass WA1, High AS, Owen PJ, Devine DA. ... Human beta-defensin 1 messenger RNA was detected in all 25 samples that generated amplifiable cDNA, as assessed using abl- ... This study investigated expression of genes encoding human beta-defensins 1 and 2 by human salivary glands. Tissues from ...
Beta-defensin 1 antimicrobial peptideImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,E5KV52,E5KV52_CHICK Beta-defensin 1 antimicrobial peptide OS=Gallus gallus OX=9031 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Buy our Recombinant mouse beta 2 Defensin protein. Ab125748 is an active full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and ... Recombinant mouse beta 2 Defensin protein. See all beta 2 Defensin proteins and peptides. ...
Compare avian beta-defensin 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews ... avian beta-defensin 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 2 avian beta-defensin 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
Anti-beta Defensin 1 antibody (Biotin) (ab84245) has been cited in 1 publications. Find out more about the references ...
Human beta defensin-2 (HBD-2) is produced by human keratinocytes, and has a potent bactericidal activity against a wide ... Defensins are a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides that participate in innate host defence. ... Defensins are a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides that participate in innate host defence. Human beta defensin-2 (HBD-2 ... Human beta defensin is absent in burn blister fluid Burns. 2000 Dec;26(8):724-6. doi: 10.1016/s0305-4179(00)00052-8. ...
Human beta-defensin 2 but not beta-defensin 1 is expressed preferentially in colonic mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease. Eur ... Schröder JM and Harder J (1999) Human beta-defensin-2. Int J Biochem Cell Biol J 31:645-651Google Scholar ... Bensch KW, Raida M, Magert HJ, Schulz-Knappe P, Forssmann WG (1995) hBD-1: a novel beta-defensin from human plasma. FEBS Lett ... Zhao C, Wang I, Lehrer RI (1996) Widespread expression of beta-defensin hBD-1 in human secretory glands and epithelial cells. ...
This study reports the first successful recombinant expression of cationic antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-26 and ... human beta-defensin-27 in Escherichia coli. HBD26 and HBD27 genes were... ... the first successful recombinant expression of cationic antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensin-26 and human beta-defensin- ... Huang L, Wang JF, Zhong ZX, Peng L, Chen HQ, Xu ZN, Cen PL (2006) Production of bioactive human beta-defensin-3 in Escherichia ...
... defensin beta 124) Canis lupus familiaris (dog) : DEFB124 (defensin beta 124) Sus scrofa (pig) : DEFB124 (defensin beta 124) ... beta-defensin 124. Orthologs:. Homo sapiens (human) : DEFB124 (defensin beta 124) HGNC Alliance Mus musculus (house mouse) : ... DEFB124 (defensin beta 124). NCBI. Ortholog. Mus musculus (house mouse):. Defb25 (defensin beta 25). Transitive Ortholog ... defensin beta 25) MGI Alliance Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) : Defb25 (defensin beta 25) Alliance Pan paniscus (bonobo/pygmy ...
Browse our beta-Defensin 4/2 Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Alternate Names for beta-Defensin 4/2 Antibodies. anti-beta-Defensin 4/2 antibody, anti-DEFB4A antibody, anti-Beta-defensin 2 ... anti-Defensin, beta 2Skin-antimicrobial peptide 1 antibody, anti-defensin, beta 4 antibody, anti-defensin, beta 4A antibody, ... beta-Defensin 4/2 Antibodies. We offer beta-Defensin 4/2 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, ...
Browse our Defensin beta 2 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Diseases related to Defensin beta 2. Discover more about diseases related to Defensin beta 2.. Neoplasms. Infective Disorder. ... Bioinformatics Tool for Defensin beta 2. Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Defensin beta 2. Need help? Read the ... Human Defensin beta 2 Assay K ... Human Defensin beta 2 Assay Kit (C... ...
... the peptide fold of the beta-defensins is identical to that of the classical defensins. ... SOLUTION STRUCTURE OF BOVINE NEUTROPHIL BETA-DEFENSIN 12: THE PEPTIDE FOLD OF THE BETA-DEFENSINS IS IDENTICAL TO THAT OF THE ... Solution structure of bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12: ...
PubMed journal article Defensin like peptide from Panulirus argus relates structurally with beta defensin from vertebrate were ... Defensin Like Peptide From Panulirus Argus Relates Structurally With Beta Defensin From Vertebrates. Fish Shellfish Immunol. ... Defensin like peptide from Panulirus argus relates structurally with beta defensin from vertebrates. Fish Shellfish Immunol. ... Defensin like peptide from Panulirus argus relates structurally with beta defensin from vertebrates.. Fish Shellfish Immunol ...
Beta-defensin 3, BD-3, Defensin beta 3, Defb3.. Introduction. Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides ... Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. This gene encodes defensin, beta 103A, which has broad ...
... show lower human Beta Defensin-1 mRNA expression and higher human Beta Defensin-2 and human Beta Defensin-3 mRNA expression. ... Beta Defensin is highly expressed by epithelial cells. Beta-defensin 1 may play a role in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis. ... Beta-defensin 1, BD-1, Defensin beta 1, hBD-1, HBD1, HBP1, DEFB1, HBD-1, HBP-1, DEFB101, DEFB-1, MGC51822. ... Beta Defensin-1 has close proximity to Defensin Alpha-1 and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis.. Skin ...
... defensin, beta 4A) for ELISA, WB. Anti-beta 2 Defensin pAb (GTX59679) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance. ... Beta-defensin, Skinantimicrobial peptide 1, DEFB4, BD 2, Betadefensin 2, BD2, Betadefensin, Beta defensin, Beta defensin 2, ... Skin-antimicrobial peptide 1, beta 2, Skinantimicrobial peptide1, Betadefensin2, BD-2, Beta-defensin 2, SAP1, beta2, Defensin, ... defensin, beta 4A. Background. Produced from sera of goats pre-immunized with highly pure (>98%) recombinant human beta 2 ...
beta 2 Defensin recombinant protein, GTX65071, Applications: Apuri, Blocking, ELISA, Functional Assay; Affinity purification, ... Recombinant human beta-defensin-2 (BD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide which belongs to the distinct family of beta-defensins. ... defensin, beta 4A. Synonyms. Skin-antimicrobial peptide 1, Skinantimicrobial peptide1, DEFB2, SAP1, Skinantimicrobial peptide 1 ... beta 2 Defensin recombinant protein See all beta 2 Defensin products. Full Name. ...
Beta Defensin 3 exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria S.aureus and S.pyogenes, Gram-negative bacteria ... BD3, Beta-defensin 103, DEFB103, DEFB103A, DEFB103B, DEFB3, Defensin beta 103, Defensin-like protein, HBD3, HBP3. ... Beta Defensin 3 belongs to the beta-defensin family.. Storage. Prior to reconstitution store at 2-8°C.. Following ... Product Description for Defensin beta 3. Rabbit anti Human Defensin beta 3.. Presentation: Biotin. Product is tested for Enzyme ...
Alternative names for Defensin beta 10 antibody. DEFB10, Beta-defensin 110, Defensin beta 110, Beta-defensin 10, DEFB110 ... Background of Defensin beta 10 antibody. Kit Component:. - KN213753G1, DEFB110 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector. - KN213753G2 ... Lenti ORF particles, DEFB110 (mGFP-tagged)-Human defensin, beta 110 locus (DEFB110), transcript variant 2, 200 uL, ,10^7 TU/mL ... Lenti ORF particles, DEFB110 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human defensin, beta 110 locus (DEFB110), transcript variant 2, 200 uL, ,10^7 TU/ ...
... beta 3 contains 45 amino acid residues and is an antimicrobial peptide belonging to the distinct family of beta-defensins.,/p ... p,Background: Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicr ... Beta-defensins contain a six-cysteine motif that forms three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. Beta-Defensins are 3-5 kDa ... To date, four human beta-defensins have been identified; BD-1, BD-2, BD-3 and BD-4. Beta-defensins are expressed on some ...
Vega: OTTMUSG15853 (Defb22, defensin beta 22)*CCDS: 16887, 16887.1*Gene Ontology: Defb22 *Mouse Phenome DB: Defb22 *UCSC: Chr.2 ... defensin beta 22. Synonyms: 9230002F21Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID associations are ...
Beta-defensin genes of the Colubridae snakesPhalotris mertensi,Thamnodynastes hypoconia, andT. strigatus. ... The deduced amino acid sequence presented the characteristics of β-defensin family. The phylogenetic analysis using β-defensin ... Using a PCR approach, we described β-defensin sequences with two exons in three species of Colubridae snakes with high sequence ... β-Defensins are cationic antimicrobial peptides showing little sequence similarity but highly conserved tertiary structure ...
... a member of the beta-defensin family of antimicrobial peptides. Structural constraints in the form of proton-proton distances, ... The solution structure is reported for bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12 (BNBD-12), ... Solution structure of bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12: the peptide fold of the beta-defensins is identical to that of the ... The solution structure is reported for bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12 (BNBD-12), a member of the beta-defensin family of ...
human beta-defensin-2 - molecular-cloning - innate immunity - mast-cells - peptide - gene - disease - pcr - quantitation - ... Expression of beta-defensins pBD-1 and pBD-2 along the small tract of the pig: Lack of upregulation in vivo upon Salmonella ... Defensins are antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in the innate immune response in the intestine. Up to date, ... We set-up a quantitative PCR method to detect the gene expression of pBD-1 and a newly discovered porcine ß-defensin, pBD-2. ...
History of eczema herpeticum is associated with the inability to induce human beta-defensin (HBD)-2, HBD-3 and cathelicidin in ... History of eczema herpeticum is associated with the inability to induce human beta-defensin (HBD)-2, HBD-3 and cathelicidin in ...
Creative Biogene offers challenging job opportunities for people looking for career growth in an entrepreneurial environment that recognizes individual contributions. More ...
To investigate human beta-defensins (HBDs) and cathelicidin LL-37 (LL-37) expressions in patients with pterygium. METHODS: In ... PURPOSE: To investigate human beta-defensins (HBDs) and cathelicidin LL-37 (LL-37) expressions in patients with pterygium. ... An investigation of human beta-defensins and cathelicidin expression in patients with pterygium. ... "An investigation of human beta-defensins and cathelicidin expression in patients with pterygium." (2017). Wills Eye Hospital ...
  • Expression of beta-defensin genes by human salivary glands. (nih.gov)
  • This study investigated expression of genes encoding human beta-defensins 1 and 2 by human salivary glands. (nih.gov)
  • Discover related pathways, diseases and genes to Defensin beta 2. (novusbio.com)
  • In the current study, we cloned and sequenced two genes from the hemocytes of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus encoding for two isoforms of defensin-like peptides, thus confirming the presence of this protein in the Panulirus genus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The phylogenetic analysis using β-defensin coding sequences of different snakes grouped them in two main branches: genes organized in three or two exons. (ovid.com)
  • Previous work has suggested copy number variation of a cluster of beta-defensin genes affects HIV load in treatment-na " ive sub-Saharan Africans and rate of response to antiretroviral treatment. (epfl.ch)
  • Previous work has shown that it is encoded in a cluster of beta-defensin genes at 8p23.1, which varies in copy number between 2 and 12 in different individuals. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 20p13. (mybiosource.com)
  • This gene is found in a cluster with other beta-defensin genes on the long arm of chromosome 20. (nih.gov)
  • Two gene knock down methods - dominant negative (DN) plasmid and small interfering RNA (siRNA) - were employed to detect and confirm the involvement of several key genes in the signaling cascade resulting from the NTHi stimulated β-defensin 2 expression in human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC-1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over 30 previously unrecognized β-defensin genes have recently been identified in the human genome, many with yet to be determined functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In all families, the underlying genes responsible for defensin production are highly polymorphic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, both α- and β-defensins are encoded by two-exon genes, where the first exon encodes for a hydrophobic leader sequence (that is removed after translation) and the cysteine-rich sequence (the mature peptide). (wikipedia.org)
  • All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. (genecards.org)
  • The activation of the TLRs and the NF- κ B pathway is responsible for the induction of the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes, including beta-defensins. (vin.com)
  • GWAS for baseline plasma KYN concentrations identified SNPs across the beta-defensin 1 (DEFB1) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) genes that were cis-expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for DEFB1 and AHR mRNA expression, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • The adaptation of chiropterans to different environments and ecological niches with diverse pathogen profiles seems to have shaped the evolution of Defensin beta 103a and hepcidin genes in a suborder and family specific manner respectively. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The copy number variation in beta-defensin genes on human chromosome 8 has been proposed to underlie susceptibility to inflammatory disorders, but presents considerable challenges for accurate typing on the scale required for adequately powered case-control studies. (upm.edu.my)
  • 15 ) conducted a phylogenetic survey that revealed the existence of θ-defensin genes in other Old World monkeys and two apes (the siamang and orangutan), but none in New World monkeys or prosimians. (asm.org)
  • Bajaj-Elliott M, Fedeli P, Smith GV, Domizio P, Maher L, Ali RS, Quinn AG, Farthing MJ (2002) Modulation of host antimicrobial peptide (beta-defensins 1 and 2) expression during gastritis. (springer.com)
  • Beta Defensin-1 is an antimicrobial peptide having the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonization. (prospecbio.com)
  • Recombinant human beta-defensin-2 (BD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide which belongs to the distinct family of beta-defensins. (genetex.com)
  • Recombinant human Defensin beta 3 contains 45 amino acid residues and is an antimicrobial peptide belonging to the distinct family of beta-defensins. (cellsciences.com)
  • 2. Valore EV, Park CH, Quayle AJ, Wiles KR, McCray PB, Ganz T. Human beta-defensin-1: an antimicrobial peptide of urogenital tissues. (nordicmubio.com)
  • 1999) Mouse ß-Defensin 3 is an inducible antimicrobial peptide expressed in the epithelia of multiple organs. (exalpha.com)
  • Each beta-Defensin 4/2 Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our beta-Defensin 4/2 polyclonal antibodies and browse our beta-Defensin 4/2 monoclonal antibody catalog. (novusbio.com)
  • The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography employing immobilized human beta 2 Defensin matrix. (genetex.com)
  • This antibody is specific for beta 2 Defensin. (genetex.com)
  • This antibody reacts with Human BD3 (Defensin beta 3). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Rabbit IgG polyclonal antibody for Beta-defensin 1(DEFB1) detection. (bosterbio.com)
  • View detailed β-defensin 2 antibody specifications by linking to the specific product blocks. (scbt.com)
  • Anti-θ-defensin antibody localized the peptides in circulating neutrophils and monocytes and in immature and mature myeloid elements in bone marrow. (asm.org)
  • Beta Defensin is highly expressed by epithelial cells. (prospecbio.com)
  • Our hypothesis is that cigarette smoke exposure will affect the expression of β-defensins in human lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549). (biomedcentral.com)
  • α-defensins are not expressed in epithelial cells, and were not measured in the present study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The β-defensins are mainly produced by epithelial cells in various tissues and organs including the skin, trachea, gastrointestinal tract, urogenital system, kidneys, pancreas and mammary gland. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Human beta-defensins (hBDs) belong to a family of small cationic peptide antibiotics produced by human epithelial cells and are characterized by wide spectrum of biologic activities. (exp-oncology.com.ua)
  • Beta-defensins are involved also in wound healing processes and may affect proliferation of epithelial cells. (exp-oncology.com.ua)
  • alpha, beta, theta (circle w/horizontal line)] Mammalian defensins are endogenous cysteine-rich peptide antibiotics classically produced either by epithelial cells of the respiratory, urogenital and digestive tracts, or by circulating cells including granulocytes and macrophages. (vin.com)
  • In recent years it has been shown that epithelial cells are capable of actively counteracting H. pylori by the secretion of human beta defensin 3 (hBD-3). (fu-berlin.de)
  • We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization) in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. (springer.com)
  • Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. (springer.com)
  • Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway. (springer.com)
  • We previously reported that Treponema denticola, a periodontal pathogen, suppressed the expression of human beta-defensins (HBDs) and IL-8 in human gingival epithelial cells. (snu.ac.kr)
  • Growing interest in beta-defensins steadily enhances our knowledge about various aspects of their gene location, expression patterns and the transcription factors involved in their regulation in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, human beta-defensin 1 gene expression occurred in all human major and minor salivary glands studied, whereas human beta-defensin 2 expression occurred only in a small number of gland samples. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes defensin, beta 103A, which has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and may play an important role in innate epithelial defense. (prospecbio.com)
  • We set-up a quantitative PCR method to detect the gene expression of pBD-1 and a newly discovered porcine ß-defensin, pBD-2. (wur.nl)
  • This gene encodes defensin, beta 4, an antibiotic peptide which is locally regulated by inflammation. (mybiosource.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. (mybiosource.com)
  • RNAs isolated from male reproductive tract tissues of rat were reverse transcribed and PCR amplified using gene specific primers for defensins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the possible association between the SNP in the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of the human beta defensin 1 (DEFB1) gene and the susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Chinese Han population. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the beta subfamily of defensins. (nih.gov)
  • DEFB1,Beta-defensin 1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB1 gene. (bosterbio.com)
  • By 2-color fluorescence in situ hybridization on both metaphase chromosomes and released chromatin fiber, the DEFB1gene is mapped to 8p23.2-p23.1, within 100 to 150 kb of the gene for human neutrophil defensin-alpha-1. (bosterbio.com)
  • DEFB129 (Defensin Beta 129) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • High gene expression levels of α-defensin-3 and -4 have been detected in benign oral neoplasia, α-defensin-6 is considered to be a tumor marker for colon cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • There have been conflicting reports in the literature on association of gene copy number with disease, including CCL3L1 and HIV susceptibility, and ß-defensins and Crohn's disease. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • In conclusion, these observed evolutionary patterns and unique tissue gene expression profiles (defensin beta 103 and hepcidin) foretell potential functional difference between human and bat AMPs. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Beta-defensin 1 gene polymorphisms at 5' untranslated region are not associated with a susceptibility to recurrent aphthous stomatitis. (cdc.gov)
  • G polymorphisms of the β-defensin 1 gene. (cdc.gov)
  • The role of the tested single nucleotide polymorphisms of the β-defensin 1 gene in the aetiology of recurrent aphthous stomatitis has not been confirmed. (cdc.gov)
  • PURPOSE: To investigate human beta-defensins (HBDs) and cathelicidin LL-37 (LL-37) expressions in patients with pterygium. (jefferson.edu)
  • Human beta defensins (HBDs), a group of important antimicrobial peptides expressed by the epithelium, are crucial for local defense and tissue homeostasis of oral cavity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human beta defensins (HBDs), small cationic antimicrobial peptides that exert a broad-spectrum antibacterial function at epithelial surfaces and within some mesenchymal tissues, could probably help to reduce such contamination. (edu.au)
  • 3 Among the most promising AMPs is the human β-defensins (hBDs) family that displays potent antimicrobial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. (dovepress.com)
  • Harder J, Bartels J, Christophers E, Schroder JM (2001) Isolation and characterization of human beta -defensin-3, a novel human inducible peptide antibiotic. (springer.com)
  • Garcia JRC, Krause A, Schulz S, Rodriguez-Jimenez FJ, Kluver E, Adermann K, Forssmann U, Frimpong-Boateng A, Bals R, Forssmann WG (2001) Human beta-defensin 4: a novel inducible peptide with a specific salt-sensitive spectrum of antimicrobial activity. (springer.com)
  • The finding of a putative defensin-like peptide in the expressed sequence tag (EST) of the lobster Homarus americanus with high homology with those of P. argus described in this study, would indicate the presence of this peptides in Palinuridae family. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • An ensemble of structures with low NOE constraint violation energies revealed a precisely defined triple-stranded, antiparallel beta-sheet as the structural core of the peptide. (nih.gov)
  • The authors characterize the recombinant human beta-defensin DEFB114 peptide, demonstrating its anti-microbial potential, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding and neutralization, and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. (moleculardevices.com)
  • A synthetic peptide corresponding to a sequence at the C-terminus of human beta Defensin 1(52-68aa FTKIQGTCYRGKAKCCK). (bosterbio.com)
  • The peptide sequences of HBD-3/MBD-3 used for immunisation contain very little consensus aa with any of the other human or mouse defensins. (exalpha.com)
  • Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. (genecards.org)
  • Peptide activities varied markedly despite a high degree of sequence conservation among the θ-defensins tested. (asm.org)
  • The solution structure is reported for bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12 (BNBD-12), a member of the beta-defensin family of antimicrobial peptides. (nih.gov)
  • Your search returned 2 avian beta-defensin 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • We offer beta-Defensin 4/2 Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Immunohistochemistry, Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • MBS2602324 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Beta-Defensins 2 (DEFbeta2) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Recombinant Human beta Defensin-3. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Plasma samples and liver samples of 56 male C57BL/6 N-mice with a thorax trauma and a femur fracture were analysed by ELISA, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry for murine beta defensin 4 (MBD-4) and compared with the expression of control group without trauma. (hepaton.com)
  • The last decade led to the discovery and characterization of several human beta-defensins. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of novel defensins in the male reproductive tract can lead to increased understanding of their dual roles in immunity and sperm maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, characterization of Defensin beta 103a, hepcidin and cathelicidin is reported for the first time in bats. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • We now report the characterization of baboon θ-defensins (BTDs) expressed in bone marrow and peripheral blood leukocytes. (asm.org)
  • Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. (prospecbio.com)
  • The Defensin family are highly similar in their protein sequence and are microbicidal & cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. (prospecbio.com)
  • Human beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4, also known as DEFB2 or hBD-2) is a salt-sensitive antimicrobial protein that is expressed in lung epithelia. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Other invertebrates known to produce defensins from this protein superfamily include molluscs, annelids and cnidaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study attempted to verify this hypothesis and generate derivatives of a beta-defensin with more microbicidal activity by engineering the protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • θ-Defensins are further distinguished by their macrocyclic backbone and as such represent the only known cyclic protein motif expressed in animals ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Ganz T (1999) Immunology-defensins and host defense. (springer.com)
  • Jones DE, Bevins CL (1993) Defensin-6 messenger-Rna in human paneth cells-implications for antimicrobial peptides in host defense of the human bowel. (springer.com)
  • Upregulated HBD-2 expression in renal tubulus epithelium indicates a role of a wider range of human defensins for antimicrobial host defense in the urogenital tract than previously recognized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that healthy monocytes can induce the expression of these defensins via Wnt ligands, especially in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), who normally display reduced levels of human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and HD6, resulting in impaired host defense and, consequently, mucosal inflammation. (pnas.org)
  • As components of the innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides in the form of human defensins play an important role in host defense by serving as the epithelial layer's biochemical barrier against local infections. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, baboons express numerous θ-defensins which appear to differentially contribute to host defense against diverse pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. (prospecbio.com)
  • Background: Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate immune system. (cellsciences.com)
  • beta-defensins are small cationic peptides that exhibit broad spectrum antimicrobial properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beta-defensins are small cationic peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties and contribute to mucosal immune responses at epithelial sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The human defensins are small cationic peptides that can be divided into α- and β-defensins based on the topology of their three intramolecular cysteine disulphide bonds. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • β-defensins are small (3.5-4.5 kDa) highly basic cationic peptides. (vin.com)
  • Defensins are small, cationic peptides that are composed of three structural subclasses, α-, β-, and θ-defensins, differentiated by the spacing and pairing of their six disulfide-bonded cysteines ( 7 , 9 , 18 ). (asm.org)
  • Antimicrobial peptides, such as beta-defensins, are essential components of the innate immune system and are the first line of defence against invaders of the eye. (dryeyezone.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Defensins and Innate Immune System . (genecards.org)
  • Defensins comprise a group of antimicrobial peptides, widely recognized as important elements of the innate immune system in both animals and plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only alpha and beta defensins are expressed in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha- and beta-defensins are natural immune proteins that have been shown in in vitro studies to activate stem cells in the hair follicle, which typically helps with wound healing of the skin," says Yunyoung Claire Chang, M.D. , a board-certified cosmetic dermatologist. (hellogiggles.com)
  • The majority of beta-defensins identified in humans are predominantly expressed in the male reproductive tract and have roles in non-immunological processes such as sperm maturation and capacitation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • High concentrations of L-arginine and L-lysine are necessary for the expression of beta-defensins. (dryeyezone.com)
  • The expression of beta-defensins was detected by quantitative RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DEFB1 belongs to the defensin family. (bosterbio.com)
  • 25585877 ). Binds to defensin DEFB1 leading to increase in intracellular calcium ions and cAMP levels. (uniprot.org)
  • The α-defensins can be further subdivided into those that were first isolated from neutrophil granules (HNP1-4) and those that are expressed by Paneth cells in the crypts of the small intestine (HD5 and HD6). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • An organism usually produces many different defensins, some of which are stored inside the cells (e.g. in neutrophil granulocytes to kill phagocytosed bacteria), and others are secreted into the extracellular medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characteristic disulphide linkages The name 'defensin' was coined in the mid 1980s, though the proteins have been variously called 'Cationic Antimicrobial Proteins', 'Neutrophil peptides', 'Gamma thionins' amongst others. (wikipedia.org)
  • One superfamily, the trans-defensins, contains the defensins found in humans and other vertebrates as well as some invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans and other vertebrates, the defensins can be divided into the α- and β-defensin subfamilies on the basis of the position and bonding of six conserved cysteine residues. (springer.com)
  • Structural studies of beta-defensins provide the molecular basis for a better understanding of their properties, functions and their potential for practical applications. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-defensins contain a six-cysteine motif that forms three intra-molecular disulfide bonds. (cellsciences.com)
  • Beta Defensin-3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 45 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 5161.2 Dalton. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Establishing differential β-defensin expression following CSE treatment will add to our understanding of the molecular response of the lung alveolar epithelium to cigarette smoke exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beta Defensin-2 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 41 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 4.3 kDa. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Here we examined the molecular mechanism(s) of α-defensin-1-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. (jci.org)
  • The discovery of human β-defensin 2 (hBD2), as a Kv1.3 channel inhibitor with the unique molecular mechanism and novel immune modulatory function, suggests that human β-defensins are a novel class of channel ligands. (usda.gov)
  • Our beta-Defensin 4/2 Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc. offers a broad range of β-defensin 2 antibodies. (scbt.com)
  • Select β-defensin 2 antibodies from monoclonal antibodies listed below. (scbt.com)
  • Select appropriate β-defensin 2 antibodies for your research by isotype, epitope, applications and species reactivity. (scbt.com)
  • Using a PCR approach, we described β-defensin sequences with two exons in three species of Colubridae snakes with high sequence similarity between them. (ovid.com)
  • Defensins and cathelicidins constitute the two major groups of antimicrobial peptides in most mammalian species. (vin.com)
  • More recently, however, β-defensins have also been identified in the heart of different species. (vin.com)
  • Both beta-defensins and their signaling molecules, Toll-Like Receptors, have been identified in the heart of various species. (vin.com)
  • θ-Defensins are macrocyclic antimicrobial peptides that were previously isolated from leukocytes of a single species, the rhesus macaque. (asm.org)
  • Association between human beta defensin-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To understand beta-defensin function in H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, we investigated susceptibility, human beta-defensin mRNA expression, and DNA methylation changes to promoters in the gastric mucosa with or without H. pylori infection. (gastrocourse.ru)
  • Inducible expression of human β-defensin-2 (HBD-2) has been described in various epithelial organs but not for the urogenital tract. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the AIIMs, human β-defensin 2 is the most potent molecule and is inducible by exposure to inflammatory stimuli such as bacterial components or proinflammatory cytokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All defensins form small and compact folded structures, typically with a high positive charge that are highly stable due to the multiple disulphide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-defensins are structurally defined by the conserved cysteine-rich motif forming three disulphide bonds, which stabilize a β-sheet formation. (vin.com)
  • Analysis of genomic information indicates that the number of beta-defensin-like molecules encoded by the human genome may number in the tens. (nih.gov)
  • 5 Consequently, defensins are an excellent springboard for the development of new molecules able to fight infectious diseases, even though they are inhibited in the presence of high concentrations of salt. (dovepress.com)
  • The defensins are cationic (polar) molecules with spatially separated hydrophobic and charged regions. (springer.com)
  • Our results indicated that subtle structural differences in critical areas of the molecule can drastically alter the antibacterial potential of β-defensin molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared to skin cells, which are known for high beta defensin expression, liver tissue showed less HBD-2 expression, but higher HBD-2 expression compared to PMN. (hepaton.com)
  • Bensch KW, Raida M, Magert HJ, Schulz-Knappe P, Forssmann WG (1995) hBD-1: a novel beta-defensin from human plasma. (springer.com)
  • HBD-1: a novel beta -defensin from human plasma. (nordicmubio.com)
  • RT-competitive multiplex PCR is a simple and accurate method that enables new insights into defensin regulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. (springer.com)
  • In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the human CATs that appear to be integrated in causal regulation cascades of beta-defensins, thereby offering novel concepts for therapeutic perspectives. (dryeyezone.com)
  • RT-PCR analysis was performed to analyze the tissue distribution, developmental expression and androgen regulation of these defensins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, very little is known about the androgenic regulation on the production and secretion of the epididymal beta-defensins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study provides novel insights into the mechanisms of androgen regulation on epididymal beta-defensins, enabling a better understanding of the function of beta-defensins in sperm maturation and fertility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, up to now, very little is known about the regulation of the production and secretion of epididymal beta-defensins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study found that the induction of β-defensin 2 is highest in whole cell lysate (WCL) preparations of NTHi, suggesting that the ligand(s) responsible for this up-regulation may be soluble macromolecule(s). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression and regulation of the human beta-defensins hBD-1 and hBD-2 in intestinal epithelium. (nordicmubio.com)
  • Paneth cell defensins (human α-defensins 5 and 6) are central players in the regulation of the human microbiome in the small intestine, but their regulation remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. (springer.com)
  • ß-defensin-1 (HBD-1) whole molecule and 17AA N-terminal fraction of HBD-1, no cross-reactivity to alpha-defensin and other beta-defensins. (nordicmubio.com)
  • ß-defensin-3 of human and mouse origin, N-terminal fragments of HBD-3 and MBD-3, no cross-reactivity with other known ß-defensins or alpha-defensins. (exalpha.com)
  • ß-defensin-2 (HBD-2) whole molecule and N-terminal fragments of HBD-2, no cross-reactivity to alpha-defensin and other beta-defensins, full cross-reaction with mouse and rat beta-defensin-2. (exalpha.com)
  • Constitutive expression and localization of antimicrobial human β-defensin-1 (HBD-1) in human kidneys as a potential mechanism of antimicrobial defense has been previously reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human beta defensins (HBD)-1, HBD-2, and HBD-3 are key elements of innate immunity that represent the first line of defense against different pathogen microorganisms associated with preterm labor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Epithelial β-defensins constitute a rapidly mobilized local defense against microbial intruders at the epithelial and mucosal surfaces, and different studies have reported induction of epithelial β-defensins at sites of inflammation, injury, infection as well as other disease processes. (vin.com)
  • The antimicrobial peptides human β-defensin-1 (hBD1), hBD2, hBD3, and CAP18 expressed by keratinocytes have been implicated in mediation of the innate defense against bacterial infection. (asm.org)
  • Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. (springer.com)
  • As the β-defensin is involved in the acquisition of sperm motility, the asthenospermia of blue fox may be related to the decrease of β-defensin secretion was suspected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • defensin, beta 2: Has antibacterial activity (Potential). (mybiosource.com)
  • In mammals, the two major classes of AMPs are defensins and cathelicidins. (asm.org)
  • Defensins are a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides that participate in innate host defence. (nih.gov)
  • Defensins are a family of cationic proteins (3-4 kD) typically containing 6 cystein residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 44 amino acids mature peptides showed the conservation of cysteine pattern characterizing the β-defensins, as well as known amino acids residues critical to exert their antimicrobial activity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. (mybiosource.com)
  • Defensins are small cysteine-rich cationic proteins across cellular life, including vertebrate and invertebrate animals, plants, and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of beta-defensin family members are exclusively expressed in the epididymis, and some members have been shown to play essential roles in sperm maturation and fertility in rats, mice and humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because of their important functions in sperm maturation and fertility, beta-defensins are receiving more attention and are hypothesized to be potential targets for diagnosing and treating infertility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Highly glycosylated atypical beta-defensin involved in several aspects of sperm function. (nih.gov)
  • Stuck Sperm Cells lining the epididymis secrete a glycoprotein (beta-defensin) that coats sperm and facilitates. (bartleby.com)
  • The object of this study is to confirm if the β-defensin 108, especially in testis and epididymis, is related to the sperm motility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 5. Shi J, Zhang G, Wu H, Ross C, Blecha F, Ganz T. Porcine epithelial beta-defensin 1 is expressed in the dorsal tongue at antimicrobial concentrations. (nordicmubio.com)
  • β-defensin-1 mRNA expression has been identified in the heart of mice (murine beta-defensin-1, mBD1), pig (porcine beta-defensin-1, pBD1), and horse (equine beta-defensin-1, eBD1). (vin.com)
  • Paneth cells reside in the small intestine and produce antimicrobial peptides essential for the host barrier, principally human α-defensin 5 (HD5) and HD6. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we present a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism of Paneth cell defensins. (pnas.org)
  • Using cultures of human ileal tissue, we showed that the secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy controls restored the attenuated Paneth cell α-defensin expression characteristic of patients with ileal CD. (pnas.org)
  • Beta-defensin genomic copy number is not a modifier locus for cystic fibrosis. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • We determined the copy number of this locus in 355 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), and tested for correlation between beta-defensin cluster genomic copy number and lung disease associated with CF. No significant association was found. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • β-defensins are among the most abundant antimicrobial peptides in mammals, and thought to be solely found in vertebrates until a recent report describing the cloning and sequencing of defensin like peptides in the spiny lobster Panulirus japonicus. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • α-Defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and play an important role in innate immunity. (jci.org)
  • The tertiary structure obtained by homology modeling indicated that likely conformations of lobster peptides are highly similar to β-defensins from vertebrates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The phylogenetic study carried out by probabilistic methods confirmed the relation with ancestral β-defensin from vertebrates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Taking into account all similarities between these peptides with β-defensins from vertebrates, it is conceivable to further support the finding of a new family of β-defensins in invertebrate. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Although the most well-studied defensins are from vertebrates, a family of trans-defensins called 'big defensins' are found in molluscs, arthropods and lancelets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vertebrates, some α- and β-defensins are involved in signalling between the innate immune and adaptive immune systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skin of patients having atopic dermatitis patients and mycosis fungoides (non-lesional and lesional) show lower human Beta Defensin-1 mRNA expression and higher human Beta Defensin-2 and human Beta Defensin-3 mRNA expression. (prospecbio.com)
  • The best characterized members of the β-defensin family are hBD1-3. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Amino acid sequences of alpha-defensins 1-4 (HNP1-4) and beta-Defensins 1-4 (HBD1-4) are known. (nordicmubio.com)
  • Here, the function and mechanism of the human β-defensin 1 (hBD1) binding to potassium channels was investigated. (usda.gov)
  • Beta-Defensins are 3-5 kDa peptides ranging in size from 33-47 amino acid residues. (cellsciences.com)
  • Conserved isoleucine and glycine residues form a beta-bulge structure which initiates a beta-hairpin secondary structure motif composed of the second and C-terminal beta-strands. (nih.gov)
  • The beta-hairpin contains numerous charged residues and forms the cationic face of BNBD-12. (nih.gov)