A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.
The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.
A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.
The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.
A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.
One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Identification and properties of anti-chaperone-like peptides derived from oxidized bovine lens betaL-crystallins. (1/51)

Thermal aggregation of betaL-crystallin was higher in the presence of peptide fragments generated from oxidized and trypsin-digested betaL-crystallin compared with thermal aggregation of the control proteins without oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments. Increased aggregation of betaL-crystallin was also observed despite the presence of alpha-crystallin (which has anti-aggregating properties) in the system. Self-aggregation of the oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments per se was not observed under the experimental conditions. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of the precipitate obtained after heating a mixture of betaL-crystallin and oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments revealed that more than one peptide co-precipitates with betaL-crystallin. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides revealed that the molecular weight(s) of the peptides ranged from 1400-1800. Tandem mass spectrometry and a data base search revealed that two of the peptides originated from betaA4-crystallin (LTIFEQENFLGR, residues 121-132) and betaB3-crystallin (AINGTWVGYEFPGYR, residues 153-167) respectively. Oxidized synthetic peptides representing the same sequence were also found to enhance the aggregation of betaL-crystallin in a manner similar to oxidized lens betaL-crystallin peptides. These data suggest that the polypeptides generated after oxidation and proteolysis of betaL-crystallins interact with denaturing proteins and facilitate their aggregation and light scattering, thus behaving like anti-chaperones.  (+info)

Molecular adaptations of neuromuscular disease-associated proteins in response to eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle. (2/51)

The molecular events by which eccentric muscle contractions induce muscle damage and remodelling remain largely unknown. We assessed whether eccentric exercise modulates the expression of proteinases (calpains 1, 2 and 3, proteasome, cathepsin B+L), muscle structural proteins (alpha-sarcoglycan and desmin), and the expression of the heat shock proteins Hsp27 and alphaB-crystallin. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from twelve healthy male volunteers were obtained before, immediately after, and 1 and 14 days after a 30 min downhill treadmill running exercise. Eccentric exercise induced muscle damage as evidenced by the analysis of muscle pain and weakness, creatine kinase serum activity, myoglobinaemia and ultrastructural analysis of muscle biopsies. The calpain 3 mRNA level was decreased immediately after exercise whereas calpain 2 mRNA level was increased at day 1. Both mRNA levels returned to control values by day 14. By contrast, cathepsin B+L and proteasome enzyme activities were increased at day 14. The alpha-sarcoglycan protein level was decreased immediately after exercise and at day 1, whereas the desmin level peaked at day 14. alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 protein levels were increased at days 1 and 14. Our results suggest that the differential expression of calpain 2 and 3 mRNA levels may be important in the process of exercise-induced muscle damage, whereas expression of alpha-sarcoglycan, desmin, alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 may be essentially involved in the subsequent remodelling of myofibrillar structure. This remodelling response may limit the extent of muscle damage upon a subsequent mechanical stress.  (+info)

TGFbeta-Smad signalling in postoperative human lens epithelial cells. (3/51)

AIMS: To localise Smads3/4 proteins in lens epithelial cells (LECs) of fresh and postoperative human specimens. Smads3/4 are involved in signal transduction between transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) cell surface receptors and gene promoters. Nuclear localisation of Smads indicates achievement of endogenous TGFbeta signalling in cells. METHODS: Three circular sections of the anterior capsule, one lens, and 17 capsules undergoing postoperative healing were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Smads3/4 in paraffin sections of the specimens. The effect of exogenous TGFbeta2 on Smad3 subcellular localisation was examined in explant cultures of extracted human anterior lens epithelium. RESULTS: The cytoplasm, but not the nuclei, of LECs of uninjured lenses was immunoreactive for Smads3/4. In contrast, nuclear immunoreactivity for Smads3/4 was detected in LECs during capsular healing. Nuclei positive for Smads3/4 were observed in monolayered LECs adjacent to the regenerated lens fibres of Sommerring's ring. Interestingly, the nuclei of LECs that were somewhat elongated, and appeared to be differentiating into fibre-like cells, were negative for Smads3/4. Fibroblast-like, spindle-shaped lens cells with nuclear immunoreactivity for nuclear Smads3/4 were occasionally observed in the extracellular matrix accumulated in capsular opacification. Exogenous TGFbeta induced nuclear translocation of Smad3 in LECs of anterior capsule specimens in explant culture. CONCLUSIONS: This is consistent with TGFbeta induced Smad signalling being involved in regulating the behaviour of LECs during wound healing after cataract surgery.  (+info)

Subunit exchange demonstrates a differential chaperone activity of calf alpha-crystallin toward beta LOW- and individual gamma-crystallins. (4/51)

The chaperone activity of native alpha-crystallins toward beta(LOW)- and various gamma-crystallins at the onset of their denaturation, 60 and 66 degrees C, respectively, was studied at high and low crystallin concentrations using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and fluorescence energy transfer (FRET). The crystallins were from calf lenses except for one recombinant human gamma S. SAXS data demonstrated an irreversible doubling in molecular weight and a corresponding increase in size of alpha-crystallins at temperatures above 60 degrees C. Further increase is observed at 66 degrees C. More subtle conformational changes accompanied the increase in size as shown by changes in environments around tryptophan and cysteine residues. These alpha-crystallin temperature-induced modifications were found necessary to allow for the association with beta(LOW)- and gamma-crystallins to occur. FRET experiments using IAEDANS (iodoacetylaminoethylaminonaphthalene sulfonic acid)- and IAF (iodoacetamidofluorescein)-labeled subunits showed that the heat-modified alpha-crystallins retained their ability to exchange subunits and that, at 37 degrees C, the rate of exchange was increased depending upon the temperature of incubation, 60 or 66 degrees C. Association with beta(LOW)- (60 degrees C) or various gamma-crystallins (66 degrees C) resulted at 37 degrees C in decreased subunit exchange in proportion to bound ligands. Therefore, beta(LOW)- and gamma-crystallins were compared for their capacity to associate with alpha-crystallins and inhibit subunit exchange. Quite unexpectedly for a highly conserved protein family, differences were observed between the individual gamma-crystallin family members. The strongest effect was observed for gamma S, followed by h gamma Srec, gamma E, gamma A-F, gamma D, gamma B. Moreover, fluorescence properties of alpha-crystallins in the presence of bound beta(LOW)-and gamma-crystallins indicated that the formation of beta(LOW)/alpha- or gamma/alpha-crystallin complexes involved various binding sites. The changes in subunit exchange associated with the chaperone properties of alpha-crystallins toward the other lens crystallins demonstrate the dynamic character of the heat-activated alpha-crystallin structure.  (+info)

Amyloid fibril formation by lens crystallin proteins and its implications for cataract formation. (5/51)

The alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins are the major structural proteins within the eye lens and are responsible for its exceptional stability and transparency. Under mildly denaturing conditions, all three types of bovine crystallin assemble into fibrillar structures in vitro. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy, dye binding assays, and x-ray fiber diffraction shows that these species have all of the characteristics of fibrils associated with the family of amyloid diseases. Moreover, the full-length proteins are incorporated into the fibrils, (i.e. no protein cleavage is required for these species to form), although for the gamma-crystallins some fragmentation occurs under the conditions employed in this study. Our findings indicate that the inherent stability of the beta-sheet supramolecular structure adopted by the crystallins in the eye lens and the chaperone ability of alpha-crystallin must be crucial for preventing fibril formation in vivo. The crystallins are very stable proteins but undergo extensive post-translational modification with age that leads to their destabilization. The ability of the crystallins to convert into fibrils under destabilizing conditions suggests that this process could contribute to the development of cataract with aging.  (+info)

Influence of hormones and growth factors on lens protein composition: the effect of dexamethasone and PDGF-AA. (6/51)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of hormones and ocular growth factors on the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins in rat lens epithelial and fiber cells. METHODS: PDGF-AA, EGF, NGF, M-CSF, BMP-2, BMP-4, dexamethasone, and estrogen were tested for their ability to alter the spectrum of crystallins in explanted newborn rat lens epithelial cells or in vitro differentiating newborn rat lens fiber cells. The accumulation of alphaA-, aB-, betaA3/1-, betaB2-, and gamma-crystallin was measured by western blot and dot blot analysis. The morphology of the rat lens explants after culture was examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining, while crystallins were localized by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Only dexamethasone and PDGF-AA showed an effect on relative crystallin levels. In the presence of dexamethasone the amount of alphaB-crystallin was increased in lens epithelial cells, but dexamethasone did not affect the crystallin spectrum in fiber cells. In rat lens epithelial explants cultured with PDGF-AA an increase in beta- and gamma-crystallin expression was seen. The spectrum of beta- and gamma-crystallins synthesized differed from that present in lens fiber cells. The cells expressing beta- and gamma-crystallin after culture with PDGF-AA were scattered in the epithelial cell layer and retained an epithelial morphology. PDGF-AA did not change the spectrum of crystallins synthesized in lens fiber cells but did enhance the rate of fiber cell differentiation, in agreement with results of others. CONCLUSIONS: Both dexamethasone and PDGF-AA influence crystallin gene expression in cultured rat lens epithelial cells. Dexamethasone enhances the expression of alphaB-crystallin while culturing in the presence of PDGF-AA caused an increase in beta- as well as gamma-crystallin synthesis. Since at least the gamma-crystallin genes are known to be silenced in epithelial cells by DNA methylation, PDGF-AA may be able to induce one of the steps towards fiber cell differentiation in some epithelial cells.  (+info)

Crosslinking of human lens 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin fragment in vitro and in vivo. (7/51)

PURPOSE: [corrected] The aims of this study were to determine in vitro crosslinking of a 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin fragment alone and with alpha-, beta-, or gamma-crystallins, the existence of covalent multimers of the polypeptide in vivo, and posttranslational modifications in the three isoforms of the polypeptide. METHODS: A mixture of crystallin fragments (3-14 kDa), a 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin polypeptide or the polypeptide and individual alpha-, beta-, or gamma-crystallins, were incubated at 37 degrees C for a desired length of time and the crosslinked species were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), size exclusion Agarose A 1.5 gel chromatography, and western blot analysis. In addition, the existence of covalent multimers of the 9 kDa polypeptide in human lens water soluble (WS) and water insoluble (WI) protein fractions of normal and cataractous human lenses was determined by western blot analyses. The posttranslationally modified amino acids of three isofroms of the polypeptide were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and ES-MS/MS mass spectrometric analyses. RESULTS: Following incubation of a mixture of the crystallin fragments or the 9 kDa polypeptide, covalently crosslinked species held via non-disulfide bonding were seen on SDS-PAGE analysis. The polypeptide also exhibited crosslinking with individual alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins. After western blot analysis with site specific anti-9 kDa antibodies, both WS and WI protein fractions from normal and cataractous lenses showed immunoreactive 27 and 45 kDa multimers. The mass spectrometric analysis of the three isoforms of the polypeptide (with identical molecular weight but different charges) showed oxidized methionine and tryptophan residues, with the latter residue containing two oxygens. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that a 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin fragment demonstrated crosslinking properties, which might be due to oxidation of its methionine and tryptophan residues.  (+info)

Inhibition of lens fiber cell morphogenesis by expression of a mutant SV40 large T antigen that binds CREB-binding protein/p300 but not pRb. (8/51)

Simian virus (SV) 40 large T antigen can both induce tumors and inhibit cellular differentiation. It is not clear whether these cellular changes are synonymous, sequential, or distinct responses to the protein. T antigen is known to bind to p53, to the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of tumor suppressor proteins, and to other cellular proteins such as p300 family members. To test whether SV40 large T antigen inhibits cellular differentiation in vivo in the absence of cell cycle induction, we generated transgenic mice that express in the lens a mutant version of the early region of SV40. This mutant, which we term E107KDelta, has a deletion that eliminates synthesis of small t antigen and a point mutation (E107K) that results in loss of the ability to bind to Rb family members. At embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5), the transgenic lenses show dramatic defects in lens fiber cell differentiation. The fiber cells become post-mitotic, but do not elongate properly. The cells show a dramatic reduction in expression of their beta- and gamma-crystallins. Because CBP and p300 are co-activators for crystallin gene expression, we assayed for interactions between E107KDelta and CBP/p300. Our studies demonstrate that cellular differentiation can be inhibited by SV40 large T antigen in the absence of pRb inactivation, and that interaction of large T antigen with CBP/p300 may be enhanced by a mutation that eliminates the binding to pRb.  (+info)

1HDF: Crystal Structure of the Calcium-Loaded Spherulin 3A Dimer Sheds Light on the Evolution of the Eye Lens Betagamma-Crystallin Domain Fold
We examine the binary codes $C_2(A_i+I)$ from matrices $A_i+I$ where $A_i$ is an adjacency matrix of a uniform subset graph $\Gamma(n,3,i)$ of $3$-subsets of a set of size $n$ with adjacency defined by subsets meeting in $i$ elements of $\Omega$, where $0 \le i \le 2$. Most of the main parameters are obtained; the hulls, the duals, and other subcodes of the $C_2(A_i+I)$ are also examined. We obtain partial PD-sets for some of the codes, for permutation decoding.
Abstract: We compute the limiting distribution, as n approaches infinity, of the number of cycles of length between gamma n and delta n in a permutation of [n] chosen uniformly at random, for constants gamma, delta such that 1/(k+1) ,= gamma , delta ,= 1/k for some integer k. This distribution is supported on {0, 1, ... k} and has 0th, 1st, ..., kth moments equal to those of a Poisson distribution with parameter log (delta/gamma). For more general choices of gamma, delta we show that such a limiting distribution exists, which can be given explicitly in terms of certain integrals over intersections of hypercubes with half-spaces; these integrals are analytically intractable but a recurrence specifying them can be given. The results herein provide a basis of comparison for similar statistics on restricted classes of permutations ...
My attempt so far: $$\begin{align*} (\nabla_X Y)^i &= (\nabla_{X^l \partial_l}(Y^k\partial_k))^i=(X^l \nabla_{\partial_l}(Y^k\partial_k))^i\\ &\overset{2)}{=} (X^l (Y^k\nabla_{\partial_l}(\partial_k) + (\partial_l Y^k)\partial_k))^i = (X^lY^k\Gamma^n_{lk}\partial_n + X^lY^k{}_{,l}\partial_k)^i ...
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Crystallins are water-soluble proteins that compose about ninety% in the protein inside the lens.[13] The three main crystallin sorts present in the human eye are α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. Crystallins have a tendency to variety soluble, high-molecular pounds aggregates that pack tightly in lens fibers, Therefore raising the index of refraction of the lens while protecting its transparency. β and γ crystallins are found mostly during the lens, while subunits of α -crystallin happen to be isolated from other areas of the eye and the human body ...
Authors: Barnwal, Ravi Pratap; Agarwal, Geetika P; Chary, Kandala VR. Citation: Barnwal, Ravi; Agarwal, Geetika; Sharma, Yogendra; Chary, Kandala. Complete backbone assignment of a Ca2+-binding protein of the betagamma-crystallin superfamily from Methanosarcina acetivorans, at two denaturant concentrations Biomol. NMR Assignments 3, 107-110 (2009).. Assembly members: ...
Authors: Barnwal, Ravi Pratap. Citation: Barnwal, Ravi; Agarwal, Geetika; Sharma, Yogendra; Chary, Kandala. Complete backbone assignment of a Ca2+-binding protein of the betagamma-crystallin superfamily from Methanosarcina acetivorans, at two denaturant concentrations Biomol. NMR Assignments 3, 107-110 (2009).. Assembly members: ...
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Purpose: : In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that alpha-crystallins can negatively regulate stress-induced apoptosis through suppression of the ERK-mediated pathway and activation of the AKT signaling pathway. In the present study, we present evidence to show that alpha-crystallins can regulate the ATR-p53 pathway to prevent UVA-induced apoptosis. Methods: : UVA was used to irradiate human lens epithelial cells stably expressing vector, alphaA, and alphaB. Western blot analysis was used for detection of ATR, CHK1/2 and p53 activation. Reporter gene activity assay was used to explore the transactivity of p53. Hoechst staining was used for apoptosis assay. Results: : Human lens epithelial cells expressing either alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin are substantially resistant to UVA-induced apoptosis. UVA-induces activation of ATR and CHK1/2 kinases to activate p53 in vector-transfected cells. However, in alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin-transfected cells, activation of ATR, CHK1/2 kinases and p53 ...
The lens in the dyl mutant mice shows a persistent lens-ectodermal connection as well as degeneration and extrusion of lens materials after the initial differentiation of the fibres. Immunohistochemical investigation of the ontogeny of the lens crystallins in this developing mutant lens has been carried out using the indirect immunofluorescence ... read more staining method with antiserum to adult mouse lens total soluble proteins. The results have been compared with those for coisogenic normal lens used as a control. In both, the first positive reaction was detectable at identical stages of lens development. A rapid increase in the intensity of fluorescence, most marked in the elongating fibre progressing through the equatorial region to the epithelium, was recorded in the mutant as well as in the normal lens. However, the stalk leading to the lens epithelium did not show any reaction. Appearance of vacuoles in the lens nucleus and cortex marked the beginning of degeneration of fibres which ...
A quantitative analysis of cell division and cell elongation was carried out during lens morphogenesis in the rat. At 13 days of development elongating cells in the posterior part of the lens vesicle (presumptive fibre cells) have a lower mitotic activity than cells in the anterior vesicle. By 14 days these elongating cells do not divide. Thus at 14 days of development the lens can be separated into two compartments; a proliferation compartment in the anterior lens and an elongation compartment in the posterior lens.. The three main groups of lens-specific proteins, α-,β- and γ-crystallins, were localized by immunofiuorescence. Alpha-crystallin is the first crystallin to be detected and is localized in some lens pit cells at 12 days of development. By 14 days all lens cells contain α-crystallin. Beta- and β-crystallins are detected later at 12½ days and are localized in some cells situated primarily in the posterior part of the lens vesicle. At later stages of development these crystallins ...
Description: Cataract (cataract) or lens opacity is the best known pathological condition of the lens. Initially, the peripheral parts of the lens are affected, which do not affect the change in vision and sharpness. However, as the cataract progresses toward the center of the lens, vision deteriorates until the individual sees only the difference between light and dark. The transparency of the lens decreases until it finally disappears completely. Such a damaged lens has a grey-white color. Cataracts are a very common hereditary disease and occur in nearly 100 different dog breeds. Various types of inheritance are described in relation to hereditary forms of cataract. Most HC are inherited by autosomal recessive, but they also exist with an autosomal dominant form of inheritance, eventually polygenic inheritance. According to scientific literature, the probability of developing the disease is 17 times higher in a heterozygous Australian Shepherd compared to a clear HSF4 animal. The test cannot ...
1F53: NMR structure of Streptomyces killer toxin-like protein, SKLP: further evidence for the wide distribution of single-domain betagamma-crystallin superfamily proteins.
Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein family and functions as molecular chaperone that primarily binds misfolded proteins to prevent protein aggregation, as well as inhibit apoptosis and contribute to intracellular architecture. Post-translational modifications decrease the ability to chaperone. Defects in this gene/protein have been associated with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and ...
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Dr. Mason Posner has students use molecular biology techniques to understand how eye lens proteins adapt to changes in environmental temperature.. We are currently investigating the evolution and biological role of lens proteins called crystallins. These proteins are responsible for making the lens transparent and refracting light so that focused images fall on the retina. Amazingly, one family of crystallins, the alpha crystallins, also protect other proteins from the harmful effects of aging that can lead to lens cataracts, one of the leading causes of blindness in humans. Alpha crystallins are also involved in the original development of the lens in vertebrate embryos, and they have been linked to many diseases of the nervous system, heart, skeletal muscle, and are now known to be involved in many cancers.. Most research into alpha crystallins is done with mammals. However, by studying how this protein has evolved in a number of fish species that live at different environmental temperatures, ...
Cataract Clear is intended to reduce and remove cataracts in people AND pets but can also be used to prevent the onset of cataracts in the first place, such as for those who might be unfortunate enough to develop hereditary cataracts or cataracts due to diabetes in the future. It also acts as a very effective eye toni
11- Zafaranchi zadeh moghadam S, Khoshaman K, Masoudi R, Hemmateenejad B, Yousefi R (2017) The structural alteration and aggregation propensity of glycated lens crystallins in the presence of calcium; importance of lens calcium homeostasis in development of diabetic cataracts. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molec Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectroscopy 170:174-183 ...
Premetamorphic tadpoles of Xenopus laevis reared in water containing 0·01% propylthiouracil are developmentally retarded and metamorphosis is prevented. When uncrowded, they continue to grow to a giant size. Moderate crowding leads to a slower rate of growth. Thus morphologically premetamorphic tadpoles were produced with lens diameters appropriate to either normal premetamorphic, climactic or post-metamorphic animals. The lens crystallins of such tadpoles have been separated by immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The crystallin pattern was correlated with lens diameter rather than with body stage. Giant retarded larvae possessed crystallin patterns identical to those of normal adults. The thyroid antagonist propylthiouracil is therefore unable to prevent the lens crystallin transition, the beginning of which is normally temporally correlated with metamorphosis.. ...
Thank you for visiting OcluVet.com. Thousands of pet owners have experienced the benefits of using OcluVet Eye Drops for their dogs, cats, birds and other companion animals. OcluVet contains critical ingredients utilized by the ocular lens to aid in the repair and maintenance of lens crystallin proteins.. Cataracts and lenticular sclerosis are two of the most common eye problems seen in dogs over the age of 9. Some estimates show the prevalence at 50% in dogs over 9 and 100% in dogs over the age of 13.. In a multi-veterinary hospital clinical study of cataract and lenticular sclerosis conditions in several animal species, 83% showed a measurable reduction in opacity and/or improved acuity. Administration of one drop per eye TID was given for 8 weeks followed by a one drop per day administration for maintenance.. It is necessary for your pet to be evaluated by a veterinarian to assess the nature of your pets eye problems. Therefore, OcluVet is only available through licensed veterinary ...
old so puppies are normally tested before reaching their fi rst birthday and annually thereafter The DNA test HC HSF4 is also strongly recommended by the Kennel Club to test for the mutant gene HSF4 which causes hereditary cataracts As the gene is recessive a French Bulldog may have one copy of the gene meaning they are not affected However they will carry the gene which could be passed on to any offspring The test will determine if a dog is affected a carrier or clear Temperament Comic and vivacious but not boisterous Can be strong minded so require an owner with a firm but gentle hand Affectionate and intelligent Lifestyle French Bulldogs thrive on affection and companionship Even if left alone for only a short period they can become distressed They do not require long walks bursts of high intensity play or a stroll with long periods of rest will satisfy their needs Frenchies enjoy playing with children but as with all dogs should be supervised An adaptable breed they can live in a flat or a ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Beta crystallin S protein (ab111642). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Nuclear cataract resulting from an overdose of selenite was characterized by a five-fold increase in nuclear urea-soluble protein. The origin of this urea-soluble protein was examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting with monospecific antisera against rat lens crystallins, and tryptic mapping. Cataractous urea-soluble protein was primarily composed of insolubilized beta- and gamma-crystallin polypeptides. Polypeptides from cataractous urea-soluble protein, and normal beta L-crystallin aggregates were compared by tryptic mapping. Approximately 19% of the urea-soluble protein from opaque nuclei was composed of 24.7 and 24.0 K polypeptides derived by limited proteolysis of 26.5 K beta L-crystallin polypeptide. Incubation of 26.5 K beta-crystallin polypeptide with purified rat lens calpain II in vitro caused production of fragments with similar molecular weights to polypeptides found in cataractous lenses. These results support the hypothesis that proteolysis may contribute to ...
Abstract: β-Crystallins are the major structural proteins existing in the vertebrate lens, and their conformational stability is critical in maintaining the life-long transparency and refraction index of the lens. Seven subunits of β-crystallins naturally assemble into various heteroge-neous oligomers with different sizes. Here, we systematically investigated the thermal sta-bility of the different secondary structures present in β-crystallins and then the dynamic process for the thermal-induced unfolding of β-crystallins by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-monitored thermal titration and temperature-jump nanosecond time-resolved IR difference absorbance spectra. Our results show that the N-terminal anti-parallel β-sheets in β-crystallin are the most unstable with a transition midpoint temperature at 36.0±2.1 oC, leading to the formation of an intermediate consisting vastly of random coil structures. This intermediate structure is temporally assigned to that of the monomer ...
Cataract is a major form of blindness that occurs when the structure of crystallin proteins that make up the lens in our eyes deteriorates, causing damaged or disorganised proteins to aggregate and form a milky blue or brown layer, which ultimately affects lens transparency ...
Glycation occurs during normal aging and at accelerated rates in diabetes and is involved in structural and functional alterations of proteins and other cellular components. In terms of diabetic complications, the glycation hypothesis and the poiyol pathway hypothesis are usually discussed independently. An antibody was raised against fructated lysine in proteins by immunizing fructated lysine-conjugated ovalbumin in rabbits. The affinity purified antibody specifically recognized proteins incubated with fructose, but not with glucose. When bovine serum albumin was incubated with various concentrations of fructose, the reactivity of thee antibody increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. When soluble proteins prepared from either normal or streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat eyes were analyzed by ELISA using this antibody, an increase in the reactive components was observed as a function of aging as well as under diabetic conditions. Immunoblot analysis showed that lens crystallin reacted ...
Hi Browbie! I think the pictures may not display in some browsers. Not sure how to get them to display in Edge, for example. As for the beer...The Cataract Brewery has gone out of existence. Anyway, it was a superb name for a beer. They must have known back then that beer drinkers get far less cataracts. Probably because the barley used to brew it contains organic germanium which is an AGE crosslink-breaker, and the yeast used to ferment it contains reduction enzymes like thioredoxin and glutaredoxin which partially reverse the modifications to lens crystallins due to AGEs. Salut! ...
BAB IA.docx cdc_21153_DS1 imun.pdf Immunochemistry Principles 1 tranlest ketik ABO Grouping (Forward) 92878181 Anaplastic Meningioma Versus Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma Antibody Biochemistry Introduction to Western Blotting Introduction to Antibody Mala Ranjan Et.al 2008 Immunochemical Detection of Glycated Lens Crystallins and Their Circulating Autoantibodies in Human Serum During Aging
Qian & Zhang, 1994). Compared with ebony gene of wild type w91910 and ebony mutant of e1, there was no big deletion segment found in coding sequence of ebony of bsr except for several amino acid mutation sites which did not distribute in the key motif of ebony protein. However, a big fragment deletion was found at the 5 end of ebony gene in bsr, which comprised 206 nucleotides of exon 1 and 747 nucleotides of intron 1. Therefore we have been able to accurately localize the mutation locus in bsr ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Equarin Is Involved in Cell Adhesion by Means of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan During Lens Development. AU - Song, Xiaohong. AU - Sato, Yuya. AU - Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi. AU - Tanaka, Hideaki. AU - Ohta, Kunimasa. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84874191967&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84874191967&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/dvdy.23921. DO - 10.1002/dvdy.23921. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:84874191967. VL - 242. SP - 301. JO - Developmental Dynamics. JF - Developmental Dynamics. SN - 1058-8388. IS - 3. ER - ...
Human Lens Epithelial Cells (HLEpiC) from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the human lens. HLEpiC are cryopreserved at primary culture and delivered frozen. Each vial contains >5 x 10^5 cells in 1 ml volume. HLEpiC are characterized by immunofluorescent method with antibodies to cytokeratin-18, cytokeratin-19 and fibronectin. HLEpiC are negative for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, mycoplasma, bacteria, yeast and fungi. HLEpiC are guaranteed to further culture in the conditions provided by Creative Bioarray ...
The east mountain versant smoothly links with the central high plateau region, which is crossed by lazy streamed big rivers. This round hills region is especially favorable for harvest, in particular in the heart of valleys, and for breeding, in the grassy heights. The Habitat is scattered but permanent, the traditional Rugo, a round hut with a fence, is bound to disappear. Rectangular clay huts, typical of the African landscape, replace it. The natural vegetal shelter has disappeared. Nevertheless some medicinal plants have been preserved. This region is the traditional Burundi. This is the Kings territory where their big domains, which they almost never left, were spread. In the past, most of the population was living round the present villages of Kayanza, Ngozi, Bukere, Muramvya and Gitega. Those were the places where the wealthy people were the mightiest and where the liege peace was most guaranteed. This was certainly one of the reasons why the population was so high in this region. ...
Influence of Repeats in the Protein Chain on its Aggregation Capacity for ALS-Associated Proteins. By Oxana V. Galzitskaya. Studies of diseases associated with pathological irreversible aggregation of proteins have become of special relevance and attracted the attention of researchers throughout the world because of the appearance of a new conceptual model based on the capacity of some proteins to self-assemble by the prion mechanism. Along with direct prion diseases, such as bovine rabies and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, a great number of neurodegenerative disorders associated with the formation of aggregates through the prion mechanism are revealed. These disorders include Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington disease, and mucoviscidosis, some types of diabetes and hereditary cataracts. The listed diseases are caused by transition of a healthy protein or peptide molecule from the native conformation to a very stable pathological form. In ...
View mouse Crybb3 Chr5:113075839-113081584 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Launched in 2004, GovTrack helps everyone learn about and track the activities of the United States Congress. This is a project of Civic Impulse, LLC. GovTrack.us is not a government website.. About the Site , Contact Us. You are encouraged to reuse any material on this site. Hackers/journalists/researchers: See these open data sources.. ...
Beta B2-crystallin in the mammalian retina. Exp Eye Res. 1995 Oct;61(4):423-8. PubMed PMID 8549683. Wistow G, Piatigorsky J. ... Evidence for the extralenticular expression of members of the beta-crystallin gene family in the chick and a comparison with ... The subunit structure of chick beta-crystallins. Exp Eye Res. 1974 May;18(5):485-94. PubMed PMID 4834400. Clayton RM, Truman DE ... The antigenic structure of chick beta-crystallin subunits. Exp Eye Res. 1974 May;18(5):495-506. PubMed PMID 4834401. Truman DE ...
It consists of 76 amino acids in three and a half alpha helix windings and five strands constituting a beta sheet. For example ... The molecular mass of crystallin and ubiquitin based Affilin proteins is only one eighth or one sixteenth of an IgG antibody, ... It consists of two identical domains with mainly beta sheet structure and a total molecular mass of about 20 kDa. The eight ... In both types, the binding region is typically located in a beta sheet structure, whereas the binding regions of antibodies, ...
Crystallins expressed by human keratocytes are ALDH1A1, ALDH3A1, ALDH2 and TKT. Different sets of crystallins are typical to ... As soon as the basement membrane of corneal epithelium is restored, TGF beta inflow into the stroma drastically decreases and ... Quiescent keratocytes synthesize the so-called crystallins, known primarily for their role in the lens. Corneal crystallins, ... Lassen N, Black WJ, Estey T, Vasiliou V (April 2008). "The role of corneal crystallins in the cellular defense mechanisms ...
... alpha 1 Crystallin, beta A1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclin A1 Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1 Defensin, ...
Heat shock protein beta-3 (HspB3) also known as heat shock 27kDa protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPB3 ... alphaB-crystallin, and HSPB3". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 337 (3): 1006-11. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc. ...
Also in the 1970s, physicists Tanaka & Benedek at MIT identified phase-separation behaviour of gamma-crystallin proteins from ... Schaefer KN, Peifer M (February 2019). "Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Regulation and a Role for Biomolecular Condensates". ... Schaefer KN, Peifer M (February 2019). "Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Regulation and a Role for Biomolecular Condensates". ... including cross-beta polymerisation), and/or protein domains that induce head-to-tail oligomeric or polymeric clustering, might ...
"Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ... Beta-amiloide ou amiloide-beta (Aβ ou Abeta) é o termo con que se designan os péptidos de 36 a 43 aminoácidos que están ... Medición do amiloide beta[editar , editar a fonte]. Micrografía que mostra o amiloide beta (castaño) en placas senís do córtex ... Ritmo circadiano do amiloide beta[editar , editar a fonte]. Un informe de 2009 demostrou que a produción de amiloide beta segue ...
2002). "The NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase P1-zeta-crystallin in Arabidopsis catalyzes the alpha,beta-hydrogenation of 2-alkenals ... Other names in common use include NAD(P)H-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase, and NADPH:2-alkenal alpha,beta-hydrogenase. ...
However, recently it could be demonstrated that the crystallin CRYM binds 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine in vivo.[37] ... "Genome-wide binding patterns of thyroid hormone receptor Beta". PLOS One. 9 (2): e81186. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...981186A. doi ... "μ-Crystallin as an Intracellular 3,5,3′-Triiodothyronine Holder in Vivo". Molecular Endocrinology. 21 (4): 885-894. doi ...
Berns, A. J. M.; Kraaikamp, M. Van; Bloemendal, H.; Lane, C. D. (1972). "Calf Crystallin Synthesis in Frog Cells: The ... The translation of reticulocyte 9S RNA in frog oocytes gives rise to alpha and beta globin chains. Communication to FEBS ...
Digoxin, calcium channel blocking drugs and beta-adrenergic blocking agents provide little benefit, except in the subgroup of ... "The novel αB-crystallin (CRYAB) mutation p.D109G causes restrictive cardiomyopathy". Human Mutation. 38 (8): 947-952. doi: ... alpha B Crystallin, HSPB5) FLNC (filamin C) Infiltrative Amyloidosis Sarcoidosis Primary hyperoxaluria Storage diseases Fabry ... crystallin ( CRYAB ) mutation p.D109G causes restrictive cardiomyopathy". Human Mutation. 38 (8): 947-952. doi:10.1002/humu. ...
GBA: glucosidase, beta; acid (includes glucosylceramidase) (gene for Gaucher disease). *GBAP1: glucosylceramidase beta ... CRYZ: Crystallin zeta. *CYP4B1 (1p33). *CYR61 (1p22). *DBT: dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 ...
Crystallin. *Alpha (A. *B). *Beta (A1. *A2. *A4. *B1. *B2. *B3). *Gamma (A ...
... has been shown to interact with desmoplakin[14] and αB-crystallin.[15] ... Bennardini F, Wrzosek A, Chiesi M (August 1992). "Alpha B-crystallin in cardiac tissue. Association with actin and desmin ...
... beta-TRCP) and phosphorylation dependent ubiquitinationof I kappa B alpha catalyzed by Ubc3 and Ubc4". Oncogene. 19 (31): 3529- ...
Wang P, Gao H, Ni Y, Wang B, Wu Y, Ji L, Qin L, Ma L, Pei G (February 2003). "Beta-arrestin 2 functions as a G-protein-coupled ... Wang P, Wu Y, Ge X, Ma L, Pei G (March 2003). "Subcellular localization of beta-arrestins is determined by their intact N ... In addition, MDM2 has p53-independent transcription factor-like effects in nuclear factor-kappa beta (NFκB) activation. ...
α-crystallin, a process which may be sped up by higher temperatures.[19][20] ... "Age-Related Loss of Innate Immune Antimicrobial Function Of Dermal Fat Is Mediated By Transforming Growth Factor Beta" ...
Crystal Structure of the Calcium-Loaded Spherulin 3A Dimer Sheds Light on the Evolution of the Eye Lens Betagamma-Crystallin ...
Term: beta/gamma crystallins. ID: PIRSF002281 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to ...
Buy our Recombinant Human beta Crystallin protein. Ab117029 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been ... Belongs to the beta/gamma-crystallin family.. Contains 4 beta/gamma crystallin Greek key domains. ... Has a two-domain beta-structure, folded into four very similar Greek key motifs. ...
Browse our Pan Beta Crystallins product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Pan Beta Crystallins products available through Novus Biologicals. ...
View mouse Crybb3 Chr5:113075839-113081584 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Beta crystallin S protein (ab111642). Please let us know if you have used this product ...
Identification of the human beta A2 crystallin gene (CRYBA2): localization of the gene on human chromosome 2 and of the ... By using primers synthesized on the basis of the bovine beta A2 crystallin gene sequence, we amplified exons 5 and 6 of the ...
Beta-crystallin A4 (CRYBA4) is a member of the beta/gamma-crystallin family which are the dominant structural components of the ... The CRYBA4 gene being a beta acidic group member is part of a gene cluster with beta-B1, beta-B2, and beta-B3. ... Beta-crystallins construct aggregates of various sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers ... Beta-crystallin A4, Beta-A4 crystallin, CRYBA4, MCOPCT4.. Introduction. ...
EC 1.17.4.1, RR2M, Beta-B1 crystallin, CATCN3.. Introduction. Crystallins are the main structural proteins of the vertebrate ... Crystallins are divided into 3 fprotein families, α, β, & γ families. Because lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during ... CRYBB1 is a beta basic group member and undergoes extensive cleavage at its N-terminal extension during lens maturation. ... development, these crystallins are prepared and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. ...
Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major ... Rabbit Polyclonal antibody to Beta crystallin A4 (crystallin, beta A4). Rabbit. Aff - Purified. Hu, Ms. ICC/IF, WB. 0.1 ml / € ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... This gene, a beta acidic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-B1, beta-B2, and beta-B3. ...
Authority records BETA Wanders, A. Search in DiVA By author/editor. Wanders, A. On the subject. Basic Medicine Search outside ... while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3- ... alphaB-Crystallin regulates expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells during tumor progression. Dieterich, L. C. ... Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of ...
XTALbg; Beta/gamma crystallins. pfam00030. Location:90 → 171. Crystall; Beta/Gamma crystallin. ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... The alphaB-crystallin oligomers formed long-lived stable complexes with their gammaD-crystallin substrates. Title: Partially ...
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Beta B2-crystallin in the mammalian retina. Exp Eye Res. 1995 Oct;61(4):423-8. PubMed PMID 8549683. Wistow G, Piatigorsky J. ... Evidence for the extralenticular expression of members of the beta-crystallin gene family in the chick and a comparison with ... The subunit structure of chick beta-crystallins. Exp Eye Res. 1974 May;18(5):485-94. PubMed PMID 4834400. Clayton RM, Truman DE ... The antigenic structure of chick beta-crystallin subunits. Exp Eye Res. 1974 May;18(5):495-506. PubMed PMID 4834401. Truman DE ...
MafB is Expressed in Developing Lens and Cooperates With Pax6 and Prox1 to Regulate Chicken Beta B1 Crystallin Gene Expression ... MafB is Expressed in Developing Lens and Cooperates With Pax6 and Prox1 to Regulate Chicken Beta B1 Crystallin Gene Expression ... MafB is Expressed in Developing Lens and Cooperates With Pax6 and Prox1 to Regulate Chicken Beta B1 Crystallin Gene Expression ... Thus, betaB1 crystallin gene expression is initiated and maintained at high levels in order to form functional fiber cells. ...
Heat shock protein beta-4. MACMU. 210. +9. A0A140G945-2. SHSP domain-containing protein. PANTR ... IPR002068, A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436, Alpha-crystallin/sHSP_animal. IPR012274, Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090, Alpha ... IPR002068, A-crystallin/Hsp20_dom. IPR001436, Alpha-crystallin/sHSP_animal. IPR012274, Alpha-crystallin_A. IPR003090, Alpha ... Alpha-crystallin A2 chainAdd BLAST. 173. ChainiPRO_0000444508. 1 - 172. Alpha-crystallin A2(1-172)By similarity. ,p>Manually ...
It consists of 76 amino acids in three and a half alpha helix windings and five strands constituting a beta sheet. For example ... The molecular mass of crystallin and ubiquitin based Affilin proteins is only one eighth or one sixteenth of an IgG antibody, ... It consists of two identical domains with mainly beta sheet structure and a total molecular mass of about 20 kDa. The eight ... In both types, the binding region is typically located in a beta sheet structure, whereas the binding regions of antibodies, ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (1H3.B8). Validated: WB, ELISA, IB, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. ... Does not cross-react with aB-crystallin, Beta L-crystallin, BH- crystallin, gamma-crystallin, HSP25, HSP27 or HSP47 proteins. ... Home » AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA » AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibodies » AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (1H3.B8) ... Blogs on AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA. There are no specific blogs for AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA, but you can read our latest blog ...
... and gamma-crystallin polypeptides. Polypeptides from cataractous urea-soluble protein, and normal beta L-crystallin aggregates ... Role of beta-crystallin proteolysis and calpain II. You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... Role of beta-crystallin proteolysis and calpain II.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1987;28(7):1148-1156. ... Incubation of 26.5 K beta-crystallin polypeptide with purified rat lens calpain II in vitro caused production of fragments with ...
Plasmid pET His6 Gamma crystallin TEV LIC cloning vector (2X-T) from Dr. Scott Gradias lab. This plasmid is available through ... AAV Data Hub Beta Open collection of AAV data generously shared by scientists ... 2X-T has a TEV-cleavable N-terminal His6-gamma crystallin fusion tag. Gamma crystallin can improve the expression and ... pET His6 Gamma crystallin TEV LIC cloning vector (2X-T) (Plasmid #29714) Print ...
Truncated human betaB1-crystallin shows altered structural properties and interaction with human betaA3-crystallin. ... The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of truncation of various regions of betaB1-crystallin on its structural ... properties and stability of heterooligomers formed by wild-type (WT) betaB1 or its deletion mutants with WT betaA3-crystallin. ...
... crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ... Bovine Beta- crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT. Product Name:Bovine Beta- crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT. Packing:96T ... Target Protein Name:Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 Alternative Name:CRYBB2,Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2. Sample type: ... crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT has been pre-coated with an Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 antibody specific to Bovine Beta- ...
Mutation screening of the candidate genes detected a heterozygous c.465G→C change in the exon6 of the βB2-crystallin gene ( ... Wild type (wt) and W151C mutant βB2-crystallin were expressed in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs), and the fluorescence ... Previous studies have shown that approximately 8.3%∼25% of congenital cataracts are inherited, and mutations in crystallins are ... of cells transfected with the W151C mutant βB2-crystallin formed intracellular aggregates. Taken together, these data suggest ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... It is also a member of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B2, and beta-B3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ... crystallin beta B1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ...
Antibodies to myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocytes peptides, alpha-beta-crystallin, lymphocyte activation and cytokine ... Crystal structures of alpha-crystallin domain dimers of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp20. J. Mol. Biol. 392: 1242-1252. ... Natural beta-sheet proteins use negative design to avoid edge-to-edge aggregation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 2754-2759. ... Alpha B-crystallin is not a dominant peripheral T-cell autoantigen in multiple sclerosis amongst Sardinians. Eur. J. Neurol. 10 ...
The evolution of lenticular proteins: the beta- and gamma-crystallin super gene family. Prog Biophys Mol Biol1988;51:47-76. ... CRYGS encodes γS-crystallin, a member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. There are two groups of γ-crystallins. The best studied ... 13 and this is not found in the other γ-crystallins. γS-Crystallin resembles other γ-crystallins in gene structure and sequence ... The evolution of lenticular proteins: the beta- and gamma-crystallin super gene family. Prog Biophys Mol Biol1988;51:47-76. ...
Crystallin Beta A1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... crystallin, beta A3 and crystallin, beta A1) from a single mRNA, the latter protein is 17 aa shorter than crystallin, beta A3 ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Characterization of the human beta-crystallin gene Hu beta A3/A1 reveals ancestral relationships among the beta gamma- ...
Beta-crystallins were abundant at all developmental stages with the exception of βB3-crystallin, which was expressed at low ... Zebrafish αA-crystallin expression occurs before that of both αB-crystallins, similar to rats in which αB-crystallin is not ... We also identified an earlier onset of γN2-crystallin compared to γN1-crystallin, early expression of βB1- and βA2-crystallins ... with β-crystallins the most prevalent crystallin in the larval lens, and α- and γ-crystallin levels increasing with age [39]. ...
The crystallin proteins are expressed in three major isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma crystallins and are known to have long ... Alpha-crystallin have chaperone activity and can remodel and protect the cytoskeleton. The beta and gamma crystallin on the ... The beta-crystallin B2 protein, encoded by the CRYBB2 gene, is a very important structural component of the human eye lens. ... We highlight one of the beta crystallin proteins CRYBB2 expressed in the lens. Within the Human Protein Atlas 53 genes are ...
HSPB6; heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin-related, B6; Hsp20; FLJ32389; heat shock protein beta-6; heat shock 20 kDa-like ...
  • Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The complexity of crystallin protein composition and expression were explored by early adoption of a wide range of innovative immunological, biochemical, molecular and cellular techniques then being developed in Edinburgh and elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intrinsic programme of crystallin gene expression during this process was found to be non-coordinate within and between crystallin protein classes, tightly controlled and resembled the developmental programme seen in the animal itself, but it could be modified by age, genotype, cellular growth rate, and soluble factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origin of this urea-soluble protein was examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting with monospecific antisera against rat lens crystallins, and tryptic mapping. (arvojournals.org)
  • Cataractous urea-soluble protein was primarily composed of insolubilized beta- and gamma-crystallin polypeptides. (arvojournals.org)
  • Polypeptides from cataractous urea-soluble protein, and normal beta L-crystallin aggregates were compared by tryptic mapping. (arvojournals.org)
  • Approximately 19% of the urea-soluble protein from opaque nuclei was composed of 24.7 and 24.0 K polypeptides derived by limited proteolysis of 26.5 K beta L-crystallin polypeptide. (arvojournals.org)
  • Gamma crystallin can improve the expression and solubility of your target protein. (addgene.org)
  • It has been reported that about half of mutations in crystallins and a quarter in connexins (gap junction proteins), with the remainder divided among the genes for heat shock transcription factor-4 (HSF4), aquaporin-0 (AQP0, MIP), and beaded filament structural protein-2 (BFSP2) [2] , [3] . (plos.org)
  • The α-crystallins are large protein complexes in the lens composed of αA- and αB-crystallins. (plos.org)
  • In addition to their structural roles, α-crystallins are members of the small heat shock protein family and exhibit important molecular chaperone activity within the lens [4] . (plos.org)
  • For 15 y, α B-crystallin (heat shock protein [Hsp] B5) has been labeled an autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS) based on humoral and cellular responses found in humans and animal models. (jimmunol.org)
  • The association of α B-crystallin (heat shock protein [Hsp] B5) with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a puzzling story ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Van Noort and colleagues ( 2 , 3 ) first proposed the protein to be an autoantigen in 1995 based on the reactivity of PBMCs from MS patients and healthy control subjects to proliferate in response to a fraction of myelin from MS brains containing α B-crystallin. (jimmunol.org)
  • This gene, a beta acidic group member, encodes two proteins (crystallin, beta A3 and crystallin, beta A1) from a single mRNA, the latter protein is 17 aa shorter than crystallin, beta A3 and is generated by use of an alternate translation initiation site. (genecards.org)
  • CRYBA1 (Crystallin Beta A1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Alpha-crystallins comprised less than 1% of total lens protein in 4.5-day lenses and increased to less than 7% in adult lenses. (molvis.org)
  • Crystallins are a highly conserved protein family consisting of three classes, alpha, beta and gamma. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This entry represents the alpha crystallin domain (ACD) found in heat shock protein beta-3 (HspB3) from vertebrates, also known as heat-shock protein 27-like protein (HSPL27, 17 kDa) [ PMID: 8972725 , PMID: 9858786 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 Antikörper (120) und Heat Shock Protein, alpha-Crystallin-Related, B6 Proteine (14) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • peptides in heat-shock protein Hsp20 (G71HFSVLLDVKHFSPEEIAVK91) and Hsp27 (D93RWRVSLDVNHFAPDELTVK113) with sequence homology to alpha-crystallin also have robust chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • CRYGA (Crystallin Gamma A) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The alpha-crystallins are major water-soluble lens structural proteins of the vertebrate eye that are related to the small heat shock protein family. (biovendor.com)
  • When cellular stress occurs, alpha-crystallin enters its' phosphorylated state and may serve a structural control function and play a role in protein maintenance (2). (biovendor.com)
  • In addition to their interaction with proteins, alpha-crystallins also interact with native molecules such as membrane proteins, Golgi matrix protein, structural proteins, nuclear proteins and DNA (3-7). (biovendor.com)
  • Regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: isolation of a cDNA encoding a protein that binds to a cis sequence motif shared with the major histocompatibility complex class I gene and other genes. (asm.org)
  • Gel retardation experiments with synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides revealed a mouse lens nuclear protein which bound specifically to the palindromic sequence 5'-GGGAAATCCC-3' at positions -66 to -57 in the alpha A-crystallin promoter. (asm.org)
  • alpha-crystallins, a major protein of the ocular lens, are thought to play a role in maintaining lens transparency, which are composed of two gene products alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. (mybiosource.com)
  • alpha-crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (sHSP). (mybiosource.com)
  • This antibody is not shown cross-activity about Crystallin alpha B. A : Crystallin-alpha A recombinant protein B : Crystallin-alpha B recombinant protein C : Mouse eye lysates The Cell lysates (5ug) were resolved by SDS-PAGE, transferred to PVDF membrane and probed with anti-human Crystallin alpha A antibody (1:3000). (mybiosource.com)
  • Alpha crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (HSP20) family. (mybiosource.com)
  • In response to cellular stress, alpha crystallin is phosphorlyated and may serve a structural control function and play a role in protein maintenance. (qedbio.com)
  • Another four-module protein, emphasizing similarities in the beta-regions from several species. (whozoo.org)
  • 2. beta L-Crystallin was exposed to defined radical species that were generated radiolytically, and transglutaminase activity, using the modified protein as substrate, was subsequently measured by monitoring the incorporation of [14C]putrescine. (biochemj.org)
  • 3. Exposure of beta L-crystallin to hydroxyl radicals, thymine peroxyl radicals and acetone peroxyl radicals at concentrations of up to 135 microM increased the capacity of the protein to incorporate putrescine. (biochemj.org)
  • Chemically, these fibers are composed of glial fibrillary acidic protein and alpha-beta crystallin. (medscape.com)
  • Only certain proteins are linked to proteopathy, possibly due to instability or other structural features of the monomeric protein that increase the probability of misconformation, [6] [8] which in nearly all instances involves an increase in beta-sheet secondary structure. (bionity.com)
  • Crystallin protein expression is highly upregulated during differentiation, resulting in the crystallins comprising 90% of protein in the mature lens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Because the lens is formed in utero and mature fiber cells lack protein synthesis and degradation machinery necessary for removing and replacing damaged proteins, a major requirement of the crystallins is superior solubility and long-term stability of their native conformations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The β- and γ-crystallins comprise duplicated domains that share double Greek key β-sheet protein folds. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A method for expressing proteins as a fusion chimera with a domain of p26 or alpha crystallin type proteins to improve the protein stability and solubility when over expressed in bacteria such as E. coli is provided. (google.com)
  • Genes of interest are cloned into the multiple cloning site of the Vector System just downstream of the p26 or alpha crystallin type protein and a thrombin cleavage site. (google.com)
  • 2. The device of claim 1 , wherein the alpha-A-crystallin protein is a bovine alpha-A-crystallin protein. (google.com)
  • 3. The device of claim 1 , wherein the alpha-A-crystallin protein has an ability to inhibit protease. (google.com)
  • 8. The device of claim 1 , wherein the resin material coupled to the alpha-A-crystallin protein is cyanogen bromide activated sepharose. (google.com)
  • 12. A method of preparing device according to claim 1 , comprising the steps of a) mixing an alpha-A-crystallin protein with a buffer to form a coupling buffer mixture, and b) contacting an agarose resin with the coupling buffer mixture to form a prepared filter resin. (google.com)
  • 16. The method of claim 12 , wherein the alpha-A-crystalline protein is a bovine alpha-A-crystallin protein. (google.com)
  • Alpha crystallin is also a type of small heat shock (sHsp) protein and comes in at least two flavours (isoforms). (openwetware.org)
  • 2012) Functional Validation of Hydrophobic Adaptation to Physiological Temperature in the Small Heat Shock Protein αA-crystallin. (openwetware.org)
  • Figure 1: A three-dimensional reconstruction of alpha beta-crystallin, a protein molecule protecting vision. (reasons.org)
  • These αB-crys Z104 mice express a transgene containing human alpha B crystallin under the direction of the mouse prion protein promoter and may be useful in studies of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease), protein aggregation and neuronal proteostasis. (jax.org)
  • The small heat-shock protein family member alpha B crystallin binds misfolded proteins and holds them in large soluble aggregates. (jax.org)
  • These transgenic mice express the human alpha B crystallin under the direction of the mouse prion protein promoter, producing approximately 6-fold overexpression of alpha beta crystallin (mouse and human) in the spinal cord, approximately 30-fold overexpression in the forebrain, and high levels of expression also detected in the cerebellum by Western blot analysis. (jax.org)
  • A transgenic construct containing cDNA of human alpha B crystallin under the control of the mouse Prnp , prion protein, gene promoter, was injected into fertilized C3/B6 F2 mouse eggs. (jax.org)
  • Substantially elevating the levels of alphaB-crystallin in spinal motor neurons of mutant SOD1 mice does not significantly delay paralysis or attenuate mutant protein aggregation. (jax.org)
  • The transgenic construct contains cDNA of human alpha B crystallin under the control of the mouse Prnp, prion protein, gene promoter. (jax.org)
  • In Holland, there is research for the role of Alfa Beta Crystallin, a protein. (thisisms.com)
  • The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin has emerged as a target for cancer therapy due to its expression in human tumors and its role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • alphaB-crystallin also reduces neuroinflammation, but its role in other inflammatory conditions has not been investigated. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we examined whether alphaB-crystallin regulates inflammation associated with tumors and ischemia. (diva-portal.org)
  • We found that CD45(+) leukocyte infiltration is 3-fold increased in tumors and ischemic myocardium in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of angiogenesis and immune responses, while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. (diva-portal.org)
  • alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3-fold higher accumulation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in tumors and a significant rise in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in spleen and bone marrow. (diva-portal.org)
  • Similarly, we noted a 2-fold increase in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in chronically inflamed livers in alphaB-crystallin-deficient mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • The effect of alphaB-crystallin on IMC accumulation is limited to pathological conditions, as CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs are not elevated in naive mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Through ex vivo differentiation of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells, we provide evidence that alphaB-crystallin regulates systemic expansion of IMCs through a cell-intrinsic mechanism. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our study suggests a key role of alphaB-crystallin in limiting expansion of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) IMCs in diverse pathological conditions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Interactions of HSP22 (HSPB8) with HSP20, alphaB-crystallin, and HSPB3. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Hsp27 (HspB1) and alphaB-crystallin (HspB5) as therapeutic targets. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Pan Beta Crystallins Antibody (3.H. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunofluorescence analysis of paraformaldehyde-fixed HeLa, using Beta-crystallin A4(TA308870) antibody at 1:200 dilution. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The molecular mass of crystallin and ubiquitin based Affilin proteins is only one eighth or one sixteenth of an IgG antibody, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (1H3.B8) [NBP2-12875] - Tissue: Neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE. (novusbio.com)
  • 0.5 ug/ml was sufficient for detection of 100 ng purified alphaA crystalline by colorimetric immunoblot analysis using Goat Anti-Mouse IgG:HRP as the secondary.Alpha A Crystallin Antibody.Use in Immunoblotting reported in scientific literature (PMID 28546921). (novusbio.com)
  • Only those wells that contain Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2, biotin-conjugated antibody and enzyme-conjugated Avidin will exhibit a change in color. (lifescience-market.com)
  • This antibody recognizes human and bovine alpha B crystallin. (qedbio.com)
  • Product Description:Bovine Beta- crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 concentrations in serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (lifescience-market.com)
  • The enzyme-substrate reaction is terminated by the addition of a sulphuric acid solution and the color change is measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 450 nm.The concentration of Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 in the samples is then determined by comparing the O.D. of the samples to the standard curve. (lifescience-market.com)
  • Mutation screening of the candidate genes detected a heterozygous c.465G→C change in the exon6 of the βB2-crystallin gene (CRYBB2) in all family members affected with cataracts, resulting in the substitution of a highly conserved Tryptophan to Cystine (p.W151C). (plos.org)
  • The beta crystallin gene (CRYBB2) is an ocular structural gene and mutation in this gene can cause cataract. (mouseclinic.de)
  • The hamster alpha-B crystallin (CRYAB) gene, which is highly homologous to that of humans, was cloned at first by Quax-Jeuken and it was demonstrated that the coding region of CRYAB consists of three exons (Quax-Jeuken et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This provided the assumption that CRYAB is composed of a highly conserved "alpha crystallin core" domain consisting of about 80 to 100 residues with a beta-sandwich structure (Ghosh et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • CRYAB as well as alpha-A crystallin contribute to ~35% of all vertebrate lens proteins. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • CRYAB exhibits a high homology of 56% to alpha-A-crystallin. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • AMD-associated proteins Cryab, amyloid beta, and C3d were detected within the RPE/sub-RPE tissues by immunofluorescence (IF). (frontiersin.org)
  • Analysis of the composition of drusen deposits and surrounding retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) layer cells in humans with AMD identified amyloid beta (Aβ) ( 2 ), alpha b crystallin (CRYAB), and alpha a crystalline (CRYAA) ( 3 , 4 ) as the most significant components of this pathology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. (nih.gov)
  • Whether due to aging or mutations in specific genes, gamma-crystallins have been involved in cataract formation. (nih.gov)
  • Polymorphisms of the gamma crystallin A and B genes among Indian patients with pediatric cataract. (nih.gov)
  • The alpha crystallins are divided into two groups according to their acidic as well as basic character, namely A and B. The genes encoding the alpha crystallins A and B are located at chromosome 11 and 21, respectively. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Because of their high levels of expression, crystallins represent compelling candidate genes for inherited cataracts. (molvis.org)
  • Different mutations in crystallin genes could lead to distinctive cataract phenotypes. (molvis.org)
  • 264:14591-14593, 1989), which bind to regulatory elements of the MHC class I, beta interferon, and human immunodeficiency virus genes, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggest that the lens-specific alpha A-crystallin, MHC class I, beta interferon and other genes have a similar cis-acting DNA regulatory motif that shares alpha A-CRYBPI, MBP-1, PRDII-BF1, HIV-EP1, or other closely related proteins as trans-acting factors. (asm.org)
  • Novel mutations in the gamma-crystallin genes cause autosomal dominant congenital cataracts. (expasy.org)
  • When LEPH and HEPH samples were compared, beta-estradiol was activated in HEPH in 3 of the 4 comparisons, which correlated to the number of beta-estradiol target genes up-regulated in HEPH. (researchsquare.com)
  • CRYBB1 is a beta basic group member and undergoes extensive cleavage at its N-terminal extension during lens maturation. (prospecbio.com)
  • Mass spectrometry analysis and a database search identified carbamylated proteins originating from alphaA-crystallin, betaB2- and gammaS-(betaS)-crystallins. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Beta-crystallin A4 (CRYBA4) is a member of the beta/gamma-crystallin family which are the dominant structural components of the vertebrate eye lens. (prospecbio.com)
  • The CRYBA4 gene being a beta acidic group member is part of a gene cluster with beta-B1, beta-B2, and beta-B3. (prospecbio.com)
  • The congenital cataract-linked A2V mutation impairs tetramer formation and promotes aggregation of betaB2-crystallin. (antibodies-online.com)
  • 5. It has previously been suggested that changes in the crystallins that occur during aging and with cataract may be due to oxidative reactions and to transglutaminase activity. (biochemj.org)
  • An important gene associated with Cataract 9, Multiple Types is CRYAA (Crystallin Alpha A). Affiliated tissues include eye , and related phenotype is Increased cell number in S . (malacards.org)
  • 12 A cataract that has material basis in heterozygous or homozygous mutation in the CRYAA gene, which encodes alpha-A-crystallin, on chromosome 21q22. (malacards.org)
  • We previously showed that, in transfection assays, MafB and Prox1 could synergistically activate the chicken betaB1 crystallin promoter (-432/+30), however, both MafB and Prox1 mediated transactivation could be blocked when Pax6 was co-transfected. (arvojournals.org)
  • This study investigates how these transcription factors cooperate to regulate betaB1-crystallin gene expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recombinant Prox1 can also bind to PL2 (-87/-76), an element essential for chicken betaB1 crystallin promoter activity. (arvojournals.org)
  • Thus, betaB1 crystallin gene expression is initiated and maintained at high levels in order to form functional fiber cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of truncation of various regions of betaB1-crystallin on its structural properties and stability of heterooligomers formed by wild-type (WT) betaB1 or its deletion mutants with WT betaA3-crystallin. (isharonline.org)
  • Study demonstrates that, in solution, human betaB2-crystallin is not domain swapped and exhibits a face-en-face dimer structure similar to the crystal structure of truncated betaB1-crystallin. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Identification of the human beta A2 crystallin gene (CRYBA2): localization of the gene on human chromosome 2 and of the homologous gene on mouse chromosome 1. (wikigenes.org)
  • The highest logarithm of odds score (1.5) region 2q34-36.1, spanning the crystallin beta A2 ( CRYBA2 ) gene, showed no sequence changes. (molvis.org)
  • CRYBA2, also named as Beta A2 crystallin, is a member of crystallin superfamily. (ptglab.com)
  • The eye in general and in particular the abundant proteins of the eye lens, which are termed crystallins provided Clayton and her colleague DES Truman with an ideal system in which to investigate the link between gene expression and cell differentiation during embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recruits the transcriptional coactivators CREBBP and/or EP300 to crystallin promoters leading to up-regulation of crystallin gene during lens fiber cell differentiation. (uniprot.org)
  • Beta-crystallins construct aggregates of various sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers with other beta-crystallins. (prospecbio.com)
  • Wild type (wt) and W151C mutant βB2-crystallin were expressed in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs), and the fluorescence results showed that Wt-βB2-crystallin was evenly distributed throughout the cells, whereas approximately 34.7% of cells transfected with the W151C mutant βB2-crystallin formed intracellular aggregates. (plos.org)
  • The distinct behaviors of the mutants suggested that the residue at position 188 might play a regulatory role in betaB2-crystallin aggregation/fibrillization but not reside in the core of the aggregates/fibrils. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Prediction of possible sites for posttranslational modifications in human gamma crystallins: effect of glycation on the structure of human gamma-B-crystallin as analyzed by molecular modeling. (nih.gov)
  • It consists of two identical domains with mainly beta sheet structure and a total molecular mass of about 20 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incubation of 26.5 K beta-crystallin polypeptide with purified rat lens calpain II in vitro caused production of fragments with similar molecular weights to polypeptides found in cataractous lenses. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the lens, alpha-crystallin primarily functions to maintain proper refractive index, however it can also function as a molecular chaperone that binds to the denatured proteins, keeping them in solution and thereby maintaining the translucency of the lens. (biovendor.com)
  • The loss of alpha crystallin from the isoelectric focusing pattern was due to aggregation to higher molecular weight particles which could not enter the gel. (cdc.gov)
  • A very high molecular weight fraction contained alpha crystallin material. (cdc.gov)
  • Novel crystallin gamma B mutations in a Kuwaiti family with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts reveal genetic and clinical heterogeneity. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have shown that approximately 8.3%∼25% of congenital cataracts are inherited, and mutations in crystallins are the most common. (plos.org)
  • The solubility and stability of crystallin proteins play critical roles in maintaining the optical transparency of the lens during the life span. (plos.org)
  • The transparency of the eye lens depends on maintaining the native tertiary structures and solubility of the lens crystallin proteins over a lifetime. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • That's why so many of us eventually develop cataracts, a clouding of the lens that arises when the lens crystallins lose their solubility in water and become acidified. (plos.org)
  • The γC-, γD-, and γS-crystallins are monomeric, whereas the homologous βA- and βB-crystallin family members form oligomers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • It consists of 76 amino acids in three and a half alpha helix windings and five strands constituting a beta sheet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three main groups of lens-specific proteins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallins, were localized by immunofluorescence. (nih.gov)
  • alpha-crystallin is the first crystallin to be detected and is localized in some lens pit cells at 12 days of development. (nih.gov)
  • By 14 days all lens cells contain alpha-crystallin. (nih.gov)
  • This entry represents the alpha crystallin domain (ACD) found in mammalian Hsp27 (also denoted HspB1 in human). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • They are characterised by the presence of an alpha crystallin domain (ACD) [ PMID: 11875128 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Alpha-crystallin-type heat shock proteins: socializing minichaperones in the context of a multichaperone network. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The alpha-crystallins possess structural and functional similarities with Hsp25 and Hsp27 (1). (biovendor.com)
  • We have shown by site-directed mutagenesis that the sequence between positions -69 and -40 of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene is crucial for tissue-specific gene expression in a transfected mouse lens epithelial cell line transformed with the early region of simian virus 40. (asm.org)
  • Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses. (harvard.edu)
  • Anti-human Crystallin alpha A mAb, clone c9F2, is derived from hybridization of mouse SP2/O myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant Crystallin alpha A. (mybiosource.com)
  • Two additional function of alpha-crystallins are an autokinase activity and the participation in the intracellular architecture. (mybiosource.com)
  • Mouse eye extracts and recombinant proteins (Crystallin-alpha A and B) were resolved by electrophoresis, transferred to PVDF membrane and probed with anti-Crystallin alpha A (1:1000). (mybiosource.com)
  • Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. (mybiosource.com)
  • Both alpha A and alpha B crystallin prevent apoptosis by inhibiting caspases. (qedbio.com)
  • Alpha B crystallin is found in many cells and organs outside the lens and is over- expressed in cells subjected to stress conditions and in several neurological disorders. (qedbio.com)
  • Positive control: Purified alpha B crystallin. (qedbio.com)
  • The proteins represented on this CD were selected as examples of four broad structural categories: predominantly alpha-helix, predominantly beta-strands, mixed alpha/beta, and repetitive fibrillar proteins. (whozoo.org)
  • Ubiquitous lens alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins accumulate in anuran cornea as corneal crystall. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Calf lens homogenates were incubated at temperatures ranging from 37 to 45 degrees-C. Isoelectric focused gel analysis of the lenses incubated for 30 minutes at 45 degrees showed a definite loss in the lowest points of the alpha crystallin components. (cdc.gov)
  • In in-vitro studies, the beta crystallin was more resistant to degradation than were mixtures of alpha and gamma crystallins. (cdc.gov)
  • Alpha-crystallin A groups birds with either crocodilians or lizards, depending on the method. (grisda.org)
  • alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ). (openwetware.org)
  • Binds to the T-MARE (Maf response element) sites of lens-specific alpha- and beta-crystallin gene promoters. (uniprot.org)
  • Other names in common use include NAD(P)H-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase , and NADPH:2-alkenal alpha,beta-hydrogenase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Human alpha B crystallin is expressed in the forebrain, cerebellum, spinal cord and kidney. (jax.org)
  • Affilin proteins are structurally derived from human ubiquitin (historically also from gamma-B crystallin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two proteins, gamma-B crystallin and ubiquitin, have been described as scaffolds for Affilin proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that the PROSITE domain "Crystalline beta gamma" was abundant in cancerlectins whereas domains like "SUEL-type lectin domain" were found mainly in non-cancerlectins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cataracts and Amyloid Beta: Early Marker and New Drug Target? (plos.org)
  • The amyloid beta buildup of cataracts could be an early marker that might eventually allow drug treatment to replace surgery. (plos.org)
  • beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The β- and γ-crystallins are recognized as members of a related β/γ-crystallin superfamily. (plos.org)
  • Artemis is a group of proteins that belongs to the beta-CASP family, a member of the metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily. (iscb.org)
  • Results show that both betaB2- and betaA3-crystallin bind calcium with moderate affinity. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The Asp residue at position 4 of betaB2-crystallin in the lenses of the aged human eye lenses undergoes a significant degree of inversion and isomerization to the biologically D-beta-Asp. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In both types, the binding region is typically located in a beta sheet structure, whereas the binding regions of antibodies, called complementarity-determining regions, are flexible loops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystallins are the main structural proteins of the vertebrate eye lens, where they maintain the transparency and refractive index of the lens. (prospecbio.com)
  • We reasoned that crystallins, the major lens structural proteins, could be defective or misregulated. (nih.gov)
  • The low levels of zebrafish lens α-crystallin relative to mammals may be due to the high concentrations of γ-crystallins in this aquatic lens. (molvis.org)
  • A key to understanding lens function and disease is defining the roles of the diverse lens crystallins, a group of proteins expressed at high concentrations to produce the transparency and refractive properties needed to focus light on the retina. (molvis.org)
  • High concentrations of closely packed crystallins are required for lens transparency and the ability to focus light on the retina. (molvis.org)
  • With higher concentrations of these radicals this capacity of beta L-crystallin to act as a transglutaminase substrate declined to control levels or lower. (biochemj.org)
  • Short-range ordered packing of the crystallins at concentrations of 250-400 mg/mL contributes to the transparency of the concentrated solution and a polydisperse mixture of crystallins avoids crystallization [ 4 , 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HspB5 also precipitated Ig heavy and L chains from sera from patients with MS. These results establish that small Hsps bind Igs with high affinity and refute much of the serological data used to assign α B-crystallin as an autoantigen. (jimmunol.org)
  • Similarities in the adult crystallin composition of mammalian and zebrafish lenses have made the latter a valuable model for examining lens function. (molvis.org)
  • Similarities with mammalian crystallin expression continue to support the use of the zebrafish as a model for lens crystallin function. (molvis.org)
  • β-crystallins are the most abundant water-soluble proteins in the lens and most expressed in lens cortical fiber cells. (plos.org)
  • I first heard of crystallins as the heat shock proteins of Drosophila , involved in the stress response. (plos.org)
  • Clayton's work showed that although transdifferentiation potential diminishes with age, it involves the expression of authentic lens crystallins according to a precise programme that differs in sequence from that seen during lens differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altogether, these data suggest that crystallin sequence evolution and expression defects may contribute to the loss of eyes in CF. (nih.gov)
  • Crystallin gene expression was further explored in a detailed series of studies using long-term cell culture models in which progenitor chick lens cells continuously differentiated into lens fibre cells in controlled laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pax6, Prox1 and Mafs are transcription factors important for crystallin gene expression and eye development. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, the roles of Pax6 and Sox2 in the control of crystallin gene expression during LFC differentiation have not been studied in vivo. (biologists.org)
  • Much less attention has been paid to the non-refractive roles of the other major families of vertebrate lens proteins, the β- and γ-crystallins [ 9 - 11 ], and little is known about the possible roles of these crystallins in lens development. (molvis.org)
  • In this study, we describe the changing zebrafish lens proteome during development to identify ontogenetic shifts in crystallin expression that may provide insights into age-specific functions. (molvis.org)
  • The developmental period between 6 weeks and 4 months contained the most dramatic shifts in lens crystallin expression. (molvis.org)
  • During this time major intracellular changes occur, including very high expression of soluble crystallin proteins followed by organelle degradation [ 1 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Crystallins have distinct expression patterns, making them the definitive markers of lens differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • Crystallins constitute the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintain the transparency and refractive index of the lens. (nih.gov)
  • 2008), and mass-spectrometry proteomics approaches, we are identifying individual crystallins, their residue changes and their post-translational modifications that we believe have increased the stability of the crystallins and thus maintaining lens transparency. (openwetware.org)
  • The roles that crystallin proteins play during lens development are not well understood. (molvis.org)