Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.beta-Crystallins: A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.beta-Crystallin B Chain: The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.alpha-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)alpha-Crystallin A Chain: One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.Lens Nucleus, Crystalline: The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Titrimetry: The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.KynurenineDeamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Eye ProteinsPoecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Maillard Reaction: One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lens Cortex, Crystalline: The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Calpain: Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Ranidae: The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.DucksSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Identification and properties of anti-chaperone-like peptides derived from oxidized bovine lens betaL-crystallins. (1/51)

Thermal aggregation of betaL-crystallin was higher in the presence of peptide fragments generated from oxidized and trypsin-digested betaL-crystallin compared with thermal aggregation of the control proteins without oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments. Increased aggregation of betaL-crystallin was also observed despite the presence of alpha-crystallin (which has anti-aggregating properties) in the system. Self-aggregation of the oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments per se was not observed under the experimental conditions. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of the precipitate obtained after heating a mixture of betaL-crystallin and oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments revealed that more than one peptide co-precipitates with betaL-crystallin. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides revealed that the molecular weight(s) of the peptides ranged from 1400-1800. Tandem mass spectrometry and a data base search revealed that two of the peptides originated from betaA4-crystallin (LTIFEQENFLGR, residues 121-132) and betaB3-crystallin (AINGTWVGYEFPGYR, residues 153-167) respectively. Oxidized synthetic peptides representing the same sequence were also found to enhance the aggregation of betaL-crystallin in a manner similar to oxidized lens betaL-crystallin peptides. These data suggest that the polypeptides generated after oxidation and proteolysis of betaL-crystallins interact with denaturing proteins and facilitate their aggregation and light scattering, thus behaving like anti-chaperones.  (+info)

Molecular adaptations of neuromuscular disease-associated proteins in response to eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle. (2/51)

The molecular events by which eccentric muscle contractions induce muscle damage and remodelling remain largely unknown. We assessed whether eccentric exercise modulates the expression of proteinases (calpains 1, 2 and 3, proteasome, cathepsin B+L), muscle structural proteins (alpha-sarcoglycan and desmin), and the expression of the heat shock proteins Hsp27 and alphaB-crystallin. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from twelve healthy male volunteers were obtained before, immediately after, and 1 and 14 days after a 30 min downhill treadmill running exercise. Eccentric exercise induced muscle damage as evidenced by the analysis of muscle pain and weakness, creatine kinase serum activity, myoglobinaemia and ultrastructural analysis of muscle biopsies. The calpain 3 mRNA level was decreased immediately after exercise whereas calpain 2 mRNA level was increased at day 1. Both mRNA levels returned to control values by day 14. By contrast, cathepsin B+L and proteasome enzyme activities were increased at day 14. The alpha-sarcoglycan protein level was decreased immediately after exercise and at day 1, whereas the desmin level peaked at day 14. alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 protein levels were increased at days 1 and 14. Our results suggest that the differential expression of calpain 2 and 3 mRNA levels may be important in the process of exercise-induced muscle damage, whereas expression of alpha-sarcoglycan, desmin, alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 may be essentially involved in the subsequent remodelling of myofibrillar structure. This remodelling response may limit the extent of muscle damage upon a subsequent mechanical stress.  (+info)

TGFbeta-Smad signalling in postoperative human lens epithelial cells. (3/51)

AIMS: To localise Smads3/4 proteins in lens epithelial cells (LECs) of fresh and postoperative human specimens. Smads3/4 are involved in signal transduction between transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) cell surface receptors and gene promoters. Nuclear localisation of Smads indicates achievement of endogenous TGFbeta signalling in cells. METHODS: Three circular sections of the anterior capsule, one lens, and 17 capsules undergoing postoperative healing were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Smads3/4 in paraffin sections of the specimens. The effect of exogenous TGFbeta2 on Smad3 subcellular localisation was examined in explant cultures of extracted human anterior lens epithelium. RESULTS: The cytoplasm, but not the nuclei, of LECs of uninjured lenses was immunoreactive for Smads3/4. In contrast, nuclear immunoreactivity for Smads3/4 was detected in LECs during capsular healing. Nuclei positive for Smads3/4 were observed in monolayered LECs adjacent to the regenerated lens fibres of Sommerring's ring. Interestingly, the nuclei of LECs that were somewhat elongated, and appeared to be differentiating into fibre-like cells, were negative for Smads3/4. Fibroblast-like, spindle-shaped lens cells with nuclear immunoreactivity for nuclear Smads3/4 were occasionally observed in the extracellular matrix accumulated in capsular opacification. Exogenous TGFbeta induced nuclear translocation of Smad3 in LECs of anterior capsule specimens in explant culture. CONCLUSIONS: This is consistent with TGFbeta induced Smad signalling being involved in regulating the behaviour of LECs during wound healing after cataract surgery.  (+info)

Subunit exchange demonstrates a differential chaperone activity of calf alpha-crystallin toward beta LOW- and individual gamma-crystallins. (4/51)

The chaperone activity of native alpha-crystallins toward beta(LOW)- and various gamma-crystallins at the onset of their denaturation, 60 and 66 degrees C, respectively, was studied at high and low crystallin concentrations using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and fluorescence energy transfer (FRET). The crystallins were from calf lenses except for one recombinant human gamma S. SAXS data demonstrated an irreversible doubling in molecular weight and a corresponding increase in size of alpha-crystallins at temperatures above 60 degrees C. Further increase is observed at 66 degrees C. More subtle conformational changes accompanied the increase in size as shown by changes in environments around tryptophan and cysteine residues. These alpha-crystallin temperature-induced modifications were found necessary to allow for the association with beta(LOW)- and gamma-crystallins to occur. FRET experiments using IAEDANS (iodoacetylaminoethylaminonaphthalene sulfonic acid)- and IAF (iodoacetamidofluorescein)-labeled subunits showed that the heat-modified alpha-crystallins retained their ability to exchange subunits and that, at 37 degrees C, the rate of exchange was increased depending upon the temperature of incubation, 60 or 66 degrees C. Association with beta(LOW)- (60 degrees C) or various gamma-crystallins (66 degrees C) resulted at 37 degrees C in decreased subunit exchange in proportion to bound ligands. Therefore, beta(LOW)- and gamma-crystallins were compared for their capacity to associate with alpha-crystallins and inhibit subunit exchange. Quite unexpectedly for a highly conserved protein family, differences were observed between the individual gamma-crystallin family members. The strongest effect was observed for gamma S, followed by h gamma Srec, gamma E, gamma A-F, gamma D, gamma B. Moreover, fluorescence properties of alpha-crystallins in the presence of bound beta(LOW)-and gamma-crystallins indicated that the formation of beta(LOW)/alpha- or gamma/alpha-crystallin complexes involved various binding sites. The changes in subunit exchange associated with the chaperone properties of alpha-crystallins toward the other lens crystallins demonstrate the dynamic character of the heat-activated alpha-crystallin structure.  (+info)

Amyloid fibril formation by lens crystallin proteins and its implications for cataract formation. (5/51)

The alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins are the major structural proteins within the eye lens and are responsible for its exceptional stability and transparency. Under mildly denaturing conditions, all three types of bovine crystallin assemble into fibrillar structures in vitro. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy, dye binding assays, and x-ray fiber diffraction shows that these species have all of the characteristics of fibrils associated with the family of amyloid diseases. Moreover, the full-length proteins are incorporated into the fibrils, (i.e. no protein cleavage is required for these species to form), although for the gamma-crystallins some fragmentation occurs under the conditions employed in this study. Our findings indicate that the inherent stability of the beta-sheet supramolecular structure adopted by the crystallins in the eye lens and the chaperone ability of alpha-crystallin must be crucial for preventing fibril formation in vivo. The crystallins are very stable proteins but undergo extensive post-translational modification with age that leads to their destabilization. The ability of the crystallins to convert into fibrils under destabilizing conditions suggests that this process could contribute to the development of cataract with aging.  (+info)

Influence of hormones and growth factors on lens protein composition: the effect of dexamethasone and PDGF-AA. (6/51)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of hormones and ocular growth factors on the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins in rat lens epithelial and fiber cells. METHODS: PDGF-AA, EGF, NGF, M-CSF, BMP-2, BMP-4, dexamethasone, and estrogen were tested for their ability to alter the spectrum of crystallins in explanted newborn rat lens epithelial cells or in vitro differentiating newborn rat lens fiber cells. The accumulation of alphaA-, aB-, betaA3/1-, betaB2-, and gamma-crystallin was measured by western blot and dot blot analysis. The morphology of the rat lens explants after culture was examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining, while crystallins were localized by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Only dexamethasone and PDGF-AA showed an effect on relative crystallin levels. In the presence of dexamethasone the amount of alphaB-crystallin was increased in lens epithelial cells, but dexamethasone did not affect the crystallin spectrum in fiber cells. In rat lens epithelial explants cultured with PDGF-AA an increase in beta- and gamma-crystallin expression was seen. The spectrum of beta- and gamma-crystallins synthesized differed from that present in lens fiber cells. The cells expressing beta- and gamma-crystallin after culture with PDGF-AA were scattered in the epithelial cell layer and retained an epithelial morphology. PDGF-AA did not change the spectrum of crystallins synthesized in lens fiber cells but did enhance the rate of fiber cell differentiation, in agreement with results of others. CONCLUSIONS: Both dexamethasone and PDGF-AA influence crystallin gene expression in cultured rat lens epithelial cells. Dexamethasone enhances the expression of alphaB-crystallin while culturing in the presence of PDGF-AA caused an increase in beta- as well as gamma-crystallin synthesis. Since at least the gamma-crystallin genes are known to be silenced in epithelial cells by DNA methylation, PDGF-AA may be able to induce one of the steps towards fiber cell differentiation in some epithelial cells.  (+info)

Crosslinking of human lens 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin fragment in vitro and in vivo. (7/51)

PURPOSE: [corrected] The aims of this study were to determine in vitro crosslinking of a 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin fragment alone and with alpha-, beta-, or gamma-crystallins, the existence of covalent multimers of the polypeptide in vivo, and posttranslational modifications in the three isoforms of the polypeptide. METHODS: A mixture of crystallin fragments (3-14 kDa), a 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin polypeptide or the polypeptide and individual alpha-, beta-, or gamma-crystallins, were incubated at 37 degrees C for a desired length of time and the crosslinked species were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), size exclusion Agarose A 1.5 gel chromatography, and western blot analysis. In addition, the existence of covalent multimers of the 9 kDa polypeptide in human lens water soluble (WS) and water insoluble (WI) protein fractions of normal and cataractous human lenses was determined by western blot analyses. The posttranslationally modified amino acids of three isofroms of the polypeptide were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and ES-MS/MS mass spectrometric analyses. RESULTS: Following incubation of a mixture of the crystallin fragments or the 9 kDa polypeptide, covalently crosslinked species held via non-disulfide bonding were seen on SDS-PAGE analysis. The polypeptide also exhibited crosslinking with individual alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins. After western blot analysis with site specific anti-9 kDa antibodies, both WS and WI protein fractions from normal and cataractous lenses showed immunoreactive 27 and 45 kDa multimers. The mass spectrometric analysis of the three isoforms of the polypeptide (with identical molecular weight but different charges) showed oxidized methionine and tryptophan residues, with the latter residue containing two oxygens. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that a 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin fragment demonstrated crosslinking properties, which might be due to oxidation of its methionine and tryptophan residues.  (+info)

Inhibition of lens fiber cell morphogenesis by expression of a mutant SV40 large T antigen that binds CREB-binding protein/p300 but not pRb. (8/51)

Simian virus (SV) 40 large T antigen can both induce tumors and inhibit cellular differentiation. It is not clear whether these cellular changes are synonymous, sequential, or distinct responses to the protein. T antigen is known to bind to p53, to the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of tumor suppressor proteins, and to other cellular proteins such as p300 family members. To test whether SV40 large T antigen inhibits cellular differentiation in vivo in the absence of cell cycle induction, we generated transgenic mice that express in the lens a mutant version of the early region of SV40. This mutant, which we term E107KDelta, has a deletion that eliminates synthesis of small t antigen and a point mutation (E107K) that results in loss of the ability to bind to Rb family members. At embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5), the transgenic lenses show dramatic defects in lens fiber cell differentiation. The fiber cells become post-mitotic, but do not elongate properly. The cells show a dramatic reduction in expression of their beta- and gamma-crystallins. Because CBP and p300 are co-activators for crystallin gene expression, we assayed for interactions between E107KDelta and CBP/p300. Our studies demonstrate that cellular differentiation can be inhibited by SV40 large T antigen in the absence of pRb inactivation, and that interaction of large T antigen with CBP/p300 may be enhanced by a mutation that eliminates the binding to pRb.  (+info)

*Crystallin, beta A1

... crystallin, beta A3 and crystallin, beta A1) from a single mRNA, the latter protein is 17 aa shorter than crystallin, beta A3 ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... of the human beta-crystallin gene Hu beta A3/A1 reveals ancestral relationships among the beta gamma-crystallin superfamily". J ... Beta-crystallin A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBA1 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ...

*CRYBA4

Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... This gene, a beta acidic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-B1, beta-B2, and beta-B3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Beta-crystallin A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBA4 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ...

*CRYBB2

"Linkage between the beta B2 and beta B3 crystallin genes in man and rat: a remnant of an ancient beta-crystallin gene cluster ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... This gene, a beta basic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B1, and beta-B3. A chain-terminating ... Beta-crystallin B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB2 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ...

*CRYGS

Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Beta-crystallin S is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGS gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... This gene encodes a protein initially considered to be a beta-crystallin but the encoded protein is monomeric and has greater ...

*Crystallin

Beta and gamma- crystallin form a separate family. Structurally, beta and gamma crystallins are composed of two similar domains ... For example, alpha, beta, and delta crystallins are found in avian and reptilian lenses, and the alpha, beta, and gamma ... However, beta crystallin is an oligomer, composed of a complex group of molecules, whereas gamma crystallin is a simpler ... Crystallins from a vertebrate eye lens are classified into three main types: alpha, beta and gamma crystallins. These ...

*Protein S (Myxococcus xanthus)

"Myxococcus xanthus spore coat protein S may have a similar structure to vertebrate lens beta gamma-crystallins". Nature. 315 ( ... "Structural similarity of a developmentally regulated bacterial spore coat protein to beta gamma-crystallins of the vertebrate ... The domains share high similarity with other crystallin proteins. Protein S binds two 2 mol of calcium per mol of protein with ...

*CRYGB

Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Gamma-crystallin B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGB gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized ...

*Crystallin, gamma D

Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Gamma-crystallin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGD gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... CRYGD crystallin, gamma D". Graw J (1998). "The crystallins: genes, proteins and diseases". Biol. Chem. 378 (11): 1331-48. doi: ...

*CRYAA

Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ...

*CRYAB

Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein ... Alpha B chain crystallins (αBC) can be induced by heat shock, ischemia, and oxidation, and are members of the small heat shock ...

*Trappin protein transglutaminase binding domain

... beta-crystallin, collagen IV, fibrinogen, and elastin, by transglutaminase-catalysed cross-links. The whole domain is rich in ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.200 - beta-crystallin ... beta-2 microglobulin MeSH D12.776.377.715.182.160 - beta-thromboglobulin MeSH D12.776.377.715.182.200 - complement factor h ... thyroid hormone receptors beta MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.915 - RNA-binding protein FUS MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.957 - stathmin ... Retinoid X receptor beta MeSH D12.776.826.701.500.750 - Retinoid X receptor gamma MeSH D12.776.826.750.074.249 - coup ...

*Streptomyces nigrescens

... another example of an ancestral beta gamma-crystallin precursor structure". Journal of Molecular Biology. 282 (2): 421-33. doi: ...

*Protease inhibitor (biology)

The yeast killer toxin structure was thought to be a precursor of the two-domain beta gamma-crystallin proteins, because of its ... with two alpha-helices and four beta-strands with a (beta/alpha/beta)x2 topology. The peptidase inhibitor I9 family contains ... SMPI is composed of two beta-sheets, each consisting of four antiparallel beta-strands. The structure can be considered as two ... domain protein structure that corresponds to the ancestral fold from which the two-domain proteins in the beta gamma-crystallin ...

*LIM2

... crystallin beta A3/A1), Crybb2 (crystallin beta B2), Gja8 (MP70), and Lim2 (MP19)". Genomics. 29 (2): 445-50. doi:10.1006/geno. ...

*Antibody mimetic

September 2007). "Affilin-novel binding molecules based on human gamma-B-crystallin, an all beta-sheet protein". J. Mol. Biol. ...

*List of A1 genes, proteins or receptors

... alpha 1 Crystallin, beta A1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclin A1 Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1 Defensin, ...

*2-alkenal reductase

2002). "The NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase P1-zeta-crystallin in Arabidopsis catalyzes the alpha,beta-hydrogenation of 2-alkenals ... Other names in common use include NAD(P)H-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase, and NADPH:2-alkenal alpha,beta-hydrogenase. As ...

*Amyloid beta

"Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ... Amyloid beta can be measured semiquantitatively with immunostaining, which also allows one to determine location. Amyloid beta ... By NMR-guided simulations, amyloid beta 1-40 and amyloid beta 1-42 also seem to feature highly different conformational states ... Hiltunen M, van Groen T, Jolkkonen J (2009). "Functional roles of amyloid-beta protein precursor and amyloid-beta peptides: ...

*Chromosome 21 (human)

... cystathionine-beta-synthase CLDN14: claudin 14 CRYZL1: Crystallin zeta-like 1 CTSB CYYR1: Cysteine and tyrosine rich 1 DIP2A: ... ADAMTS1 APP: amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (peptidase nexin-II, Alzheimer disease) C21orf45: encoding protein Protein ...

*Vision restoration therapy

Alpha crystallin, IFN-gamma, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor protein, beta-hemoglobin, 60s-ribosomal protein, GAP-DH, and ADP ...

*Aldo-keto reductase

... rho crystallin, and many others. All possess a similar structure, with a beta-alpha-beta fold characteristic of nucleotide ... The binding site is located in a large, deep, elliptical pocket in the C-terminal end of the beta sheet, the substrate being ... Gulbis JM, Zhou M, Mann S, MacKinnon R (July 2000). "Structure of the cytoplasmic beta subunit-T1 assembly of voltage-dependent ... Some proteins of this family contain a potassium channel beta chain regulatory domain; these are reported to have ...

*Alpha-enolase

Each isoenzyme is a homodimer composed of 2 alpha, 2 gamma, or 2 beta subunits, and functions as a glycolytic enzyme. Alpha- ... enolase, in addition, functions as a structural lens protein (tau-crystallin) in the monomeric form. Alternative splicing of ...

*Affilin

It consists of 76 amino acids in three and a half alpha helix windings and five strands constituting a beta sheet. For example ... The molecular mass of crystallin and ubiquitin based Affilin proteins is only one eighth or one sixteenth of an IgG antibody, ... It consists of two identical domains with mainly beta sheet structure and a total molecular mass of about 20 kDa. The eight ... In both types, the binding region is typically located in a beta sheet structure, whereas the binding regions of antibodies, ...

*Hsp27

Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) also known as heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... This C-terminal tail appears in many mammalian sHsps (e.g. mouse Hsp25, αA-crystallin) and has no homology. It is highly ... The C-terminal part of the sHsps consists of the above mentioned α-crystallin domain, followed by a variable sequence with high ... Hsp27 is a chaperone of the sHsp (small heat shock protein) group among ubiquitin, α-crystallin, Hsp20 and others. The common ...

*CRYBB3

Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... This gene, a beta basic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B1, and beta-B2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Beta-crystallin B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB3 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ...
1HDF: Crystal Structure of the Calcium-Loaded Spherulin 3A Dimer Sheds Light on the Evolution of the Eye Lens Betagamma-Crystallin Domain Fold
Abstract: We compute the limiting distribution, as n approaches infinity, of the number of cycles of length between gamma n and delta n in a permutation of [n] chosen uniformly at random, for constants gamma, delta such that 1/(k+1) ,= gamma , delta ,= 1/k for some integer k. This distribution is supported on {0, 1, ... k} and has 0th, 1st, ..., kth moments equal to those of a Poisson distribution with parameter log (delta/gamma). For more general choices of gamma, delta we show that such a limiting distribution exists, which can be given explicitly in terms of certain integrals over intersections of hypercubes with half-spaces; these integrals are analytically intractable but a recurrence specifying them can be given. The results herein provide a basis of comparison for similar statistics on restricted classes of permutations ...
Crystallins are water-soluble proteins that compose about ninety% in the protein inside the lens.[13] The three main crystallin sorts present in the human eye are α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. Crystallins have a tendency to variety soluble, high-molecular pounds aggregates that pack tightly in lens fibers, Therefore raising the index of refraction of the lens while protecting its transparency. β and γ crystallins are found mostly during the lens, while subunits of α -crystallin happen to be isolated from other areas of the eye and the human body ...
Authors: Barnwal, Ravi Pratap; Agarwal, Geetika P; Chary, Kandala VR. Citation: Barnwal, Ravi; Agarwal, Geetika; Sharma, Yogendra; Chary, Kandala. "Complete backbone assignment of a Ca2+-binding protein of the betagamma-crystallin superfamily from Methanosarcina acetivorans, at two denaturant concentrations" Biomol. NMR Assignments 3, 107-110 (2009).. Assembly members: ...
Authors: Barnwal, Ravi Pratap. Citation: Barnwal, Ravi; Agarwal, Geetika; Sharma, Yogendra; Chary, Kandala. "Complete backbone assignment of a Ca2+-binding protein of the betagamma-crystallin superfamily from Methanosarcina acetivorans, at two denaturant concentrations" Biomol. NMR Assignments 3, 107-110 (2009).. Assembly members: ...
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Purpose: : In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that alpha-crystallins can negatively regulate stress-induced apoptosis through suppression of the ERK-mediated pathway and activation of the AKT signaling pathway. In the present study, we present evidence to show that alpha-crystallins can regulate the ATR-p53 pathway to prevent UVA-induced apoptosis. Methods: : UVA was used to irradiate human lens epithelial cells stably expressing vector, alphaA, and alphaB. Western blot analysis was used for detection of ATR, CHK1/2 and p53 activation. Reporter gene activity assay was used to explore the transactivity of p53. Hoechst staining was used for apoptosis assay. Results: : Human lens epithelial cells expressing either alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin are substantially resistant to UVA-induced apoptosis. UVA-induces activation of ATR and CHK1/2 kinases to activate p53 in vector-transfected cells. However, in alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin-transfected cells, activation of ATR, CHK1/2 kinases and p53 ...
The lens in the dyl mutant mice shows a persistent lens-ectodermal connection as well as degeneration and extrusion of lens materials after the initial differentiation of the fibres. Immunohistochemical investigation of the ontogeny of the lens crystallins in this developing mutant lens has been carried out using the indirect immunofluorescence ... read more staining method with antiserum to adult mouse lens total soluble proteins. The results have been compared with those for coisogenic normal lens used as a control. In both, the first positive reaction was detectable at identical stages of lens development. A rapid increase in the intensity of fluorescence, most marked in the elongating fibre progressing through the equatorial region to the epithelium, was recorded in the mutant as well as in the normal lens. However, the stalk leading to the lens epithelium did not show any reaction. Appearance of vacuoles in the lens nucleus and cortex marked the beginning of degeneration of fibres which ...
A quantitative analysis of cell division and cell elongation was carried out during lens morphogenesis in the rat. At 13 days of development elongating cells in the posterior part of the lens vesicle (presumptive fibre cells) have a lower mitotic activity than cells in the anterior vesicle. By 14 days these elongating cells do not divide. Thus at 14 days of development the lens can be separated into two compartments; a proliferation compartment in the anterior lens and an elongation compartment in the posterior lens.. The three main groups of lens-specific proteins, α-,β- and γ-crystallins, were localized by immunofiuorescence. Alpha-crystallin is the first crystallin to be detected and is localized in some lens pit cells at 12 days of development. By 14 days all lens cells contain α-crystallin. Beta- and β-crystallins are detected later at 12½ days and are localized in some cells situated primarily in the posterior part of the lens vesicle. At later stages of development these crystallins ...
Description: Cataract (cataract) or lens opacity is the best known pathological condition of the lens. Initially, the peripheral parts of the lens are affected, which do not affect the change in vision and sharpness. However, as the cataract progresses toward the center of the lens, vision deteriorates until the individual sees only the difference between light and dark. The transparency of the lens decreases until it finally disappears completely. Such a damaged lens has a grey-white color. Cataracts are a very common hereditary disease and occur in nearly 100 different dog breeds. Various types of inheritance are described in relation to hereditary forms of cataract. Most HC are inherited by autosomal recessive, but they also exist with an autosomal dominant form of inheritance, eventually polygenic inheritance. According to scientific literature, the probability of developing the disease is 17 times higher in a heterozygous Australian Shepherd compared to a clear HSF4 animal. The test cannot ...
1F53: NMR structure of Streptomyces killer toxin-like protein, SKLP: further evidence for the wide distribution of single-domain betagamma-crystallin superfamily proteins.
Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein family and functions as molecular chaperone that primarily binds misfolded proteins to prevent protein aggregation, as well as inhibit apoptosis and contribute to intracellular architecture. Post-translational modifications decrease the ability to chaperone. Defects in this gene/protein have been associated with cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers disease and Parkinsons disease. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and ...
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11- Zafaranchi zadeh moghadam S, Khoshaman K, Masoudi R, Hemmateenejad B, Yousefi R (2017) "The structural alteration and aggregation propensity of glycated lens crystallins in the presence of calcium; importance of lens calcium homeostasis in development of diabetic cataracts. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molec " Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectroscopy 170:174-183 ...
Premetamorphic tadpoles of Xenopus laevis reared in water containing 0·01% propylthiouracil are developmentally retarded and metamorphosis is prevented. When uncrowded, they continue to grow to a giant size. Moderate crowding leads to a slower rate of growth. Thus morphologically premetamorphic tadpoles were produced with lens diameters appropriate to either normal premetamorphic, climactic or post-metamorphic animals. The lens crystallins of such tadpoles have been separated by immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The crystallin pattern was correlated with lens diameter rather than with body stage. Giant retarded larvae possessed crystallin patterns identical to those of normal adults. The thyroid antagonist propylthiouracil is therefore unable to prevent the lens crystallin transition, the beginning of which is normally temporally correlated with metamorphosis.. ...
Thank you for visiting OcluVet.com. Thousands of pet owners have experienced the benefits of using OcluVet Eye Drops for their dogs, cats, birds and other companion animals. OcluVet contains critical ingredients utilized by the ocular lens to aid in the repair and maintenance of lens crystallin proteins.. Cataracts and lenticular sclerosis are two of the most common eye problems seen in dogs over the age of 9. Some estimates show the prevalence at 50% in dogs over 9 and 100% in dogs over the age of 13.. In a multi-veterinary hospital clinical study of cataract and lenticular sclerosis conditions in several animal species, 83% showed a measurable reduction in opacity and/or improved acuity. Administration of one drop per eye TID was given for 8 weeks followed by a one drop per day administration for maintenance.. It is necessary for your pet to be evaluated by a veterinarian to assess the nature of your pets eye problems. Therefore, OcluVet is only available through licensed veterinary ...
old so puppies are normally tested before reaching their fi rst birthday and annually thereafter The DNA test HC HSF4 is also strongly recommended by the Kennel Club to test for the mutant gene HSF4 which causes hereditary cataracts As the gene is recessive a French Bulldog may have one copy of the gene meaning they are not affected However they will carry the gene which could be passed on to any offspring The test will determine if a dog is affected a carrier or clear Temperament Comic and vivacious but not boisterous Can be strong minded so require an owner with a firm but gentle hand Affectionate and intelligent Lifestyle French Bulldogs thrive on affection and companionship Even if left alone for only a short period they can become distressed They do not require long walks bursts of high intensity play or a stroll with long periods of rest will satisfy their needs Frenchies enjoy playing with children but as with all dogs should be supervised An adaptable breed they can live in a flat or a ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Beta crystallin S protein (ab111642). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Nuclear cataract resulting from an overdose of selenite was characterized by a five-fold increase in nuclear urea-soluble protein. The origin of this urea-soluble protein was examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting with monospecific antisera against rat lens crystallins, and tryptic mapping. Cataractous urea-soluble protein was primarily composed of insolubilized beta- and gamma-crystallin polypeptides. Polypeptides from cataractous urea-soluble protein, and normal beta L-crystallin aggregates were compared by tryptic mapping. Approximately 19% of the urea-soluble protein from opaque nuclei was composed of 24.7 and 24.0 K polypeptides derived by limited proteolysis of 26.5 K beta L-crystallin polypeptide. Incubation of 26.5 K beta-crystallin polypeptide with purified rat lens calpain II in vitro caused production of fragments with similar molecular weights to polypeptides found in cataractous lenses. These results support the hypothesis that proteolysis may contribute to ...
Glycation occurs during normal aging and at accelerated rates in diabetes and is involved in structural and functional alterations of proteins and other cellular components. In terms of diabetic complications, the glycation hypothesis and the poiyol pathway hypothesis are usually discussed independently. An antibody was raised against fructated lysine in proteins by immunizing fructated lysine-conjugated ovalbumin in rabbits. The affinity purified antibody specifically recognized proteins incubated with fructose, but not with glucose. When bovine serum albumin was incubated with various concentrations of fructose, the reactivity of thee antibody increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. When soluble proteins prepared from either normal or streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat eyes were analyzed by ELISA using this antibody, an increase in the reactive components was observed as a function of aging as well as under diabetic conditions. Immunoblot analysis showed that lens crystallin reacted ...
BAB IA.docx cdc_21153_DS1 imun.pdf Immunochemistry Principles 1 tranlest ketik ABO Grouping (Forward) 92878181 Anaplastic Meningioma Versus Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma Antibody Biochemistry Introduction to Western Blotting Introduction to Antibody Mala Ranjan Et.al 2008 Immunochemical Detection of Glycated Lens Crystallins and Their Circulating Autoantibodies in Human Serum During Aging
Qian & Zhang, 1994). Compared with ebony gene of wild type w91910 and ebony mutant of e1, there was no big deletion segment found in coding sequence of ebony of bsr except for several amino acid mutation sites which did not distribute in the key motif of ebony protein. However, a big fragment deletion was found at the 5 end of ebony gene in bsr, which comprised 206 nucleotides of exon 1 and 747 nucleotides of intron 1. Therefore we have been able to accurately localize the mutation locus in bsr ...
Human Lens Epithelial Cells (HLEpiC) from Creative Bioarray are isolated from the human lens. HLEpiC are cryopreserved at primary culture and delivered frozen. Each vial contains >5 x 10^5 cells in 1 ml volume. HLEpiC are characterized by immunofluorescent method with antibodies to cytokeratin-18, cytokeratin-19 and fibronectin. HLEpiC are negative for HIV-1, HBV, HCV, mycoplasma, bacteria, yeast and fungi. HLEpiC are guaranteed to further culture in the conditions provided by Creative Bioarray ...
Influence of Repeats in the Protein Chain on its Aggregation Capacity for ALS-Associated Proteins. By Oxana V. Galzitskaya. Studies of diseases associated with pathological irreversible aggregation of proteins have become of special relevance and attracted the attention of researchers throughout the world because of the appearance of a new conceptual model based on the capacity of some proteins to self-assemble by the prion mechanism. Along with direct prion diseases, such as bovine rabies and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, a great number of neurodegenerative disorders associated with the formation of aggregates through the prion mechanism are revealed. These disorders include Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington disease, and mucoviscidosis, some types of diabetes and hereditary cataracts. The listed diseases are caused by transition of a "healthy" protein or peptide molecule from the native conformation to a very stable "pathological" form. In ...
View mouse Crybb3 Chr5:113075839-113081584 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Launched in 2004, GovTrack helps everyone learn about and track the activities of the United States Congress. This is a project of Civic Impulse, LLC. GovTrack.us is not a government website.. About the Site , Contact Us. You are encouraged to reuse any material on this site. Hackers/journalists/researchers: See these open data sources.. ...

Understanding the molecular genetics of congenital cataract may have wider implications for age related cataract | British...Understanding the molecular genetics of congenital cataract may have wider implications for age related cataract | British...

A unique form of autosomal dominant cataract explained by gene conversion between beta-crystallin B2 and its pseudogene. J Med ... Autosomal dominant cerulean cataract is associated with a chain termination mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYBB2. ... The γ-crystallin gene cluster on chromosome 2q33-35 encompasses genes γA to D but only γC (CRYGC) and γD(CRYGD) are highly ... Heon E, Priston M, Schorderet DF, et al. The gamma-crystallins and human cataracts: a puzzle made clearer. Am J Hum Genet 1999; ...
more infohttp://bjo.bmj.com/content/88/1/2

alphaB-Crystallin regulates expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells during tumor progressionalphaB-Crystallin regulates expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells during tumor progression

Authority records BETA Wanders, A. Search in DiVA By author/editor. Wanders, A. On the subject. Basic Medicine Search outside ... while lymphocytes and mature granulocytes show low alphaB-crystallin expression. alphaB-Crystallin deficiency results in a 3- ... alphaB-Crystallin regulates expansion of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells during tumor progression. Dieterich, L. C. ... Notably, alphaB-crystallin is prominently expressed in CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) immature myeloid cells (IMCs), known as regulators of ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:865888

Pan Beta Crystallins Research Products: Novus BiologicalsPan Beta Crystallins Research Products: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Pan Beta Crystallins product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Pan Beta Crystallins products available through Novus Biologicals. ...
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Recombinant Human beta Crystallin protein (ab117029)Recombinant Human beta Crystallin protein (ab117029)

Buy our Recombinant Human beta Crystallin protein. Ab117029 is a full length protein produced in Wheat germ and has been ... Belongs to the beta/gamma-crystallin family.. Contains 4 beta/gamma crystallin Greek key domains. ... Has a two-domain beta-structure, folded into four very similar Greek key motifs. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-beta-crystallin-protein-ab117029.html

Recombinant Human Beta crystallin S protein (ab111642) ReferencesRecombinant Human Beta crystallin S protein (ab111642) References

References for Abcams Recombinant Human Beta crystallin S protein (ab111642). Please let us know if you have used this product ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/recombinant-human-beta-crystallin-s-protein-ab111642-references.html

Beta-crystallin A4 antibody | acris-antibodies.comBeta-crystallin A4 antibody | acris-antibodies.com

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major ... Rabbit Polyclonal antibody to Beta crystallin A4 (crystallin, beta A4). Rabbit. Aff - Purified. Hu, Ms. ICC/IF, WB. 0.1 ml / € ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... This gene, a beta acidic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-B1, beta-B2, and beta-B3. ...
more infohttps://www.acris-antibodies.com/target/beta-crystallin-a4-antibody.htm

CRYBA4 Protein Human | Crystallin Beta A4 | ProSpecCRYBA4 Protein Human | Crystallin Beta A4 | ProSpec

Beta-crystallin A4 (CRYBA4) is a member of the beta/gamma-crystallin family which are the dominant structural components of the ... The CRYBA4 gene being a beta acidic group member is part of a gene cluster with beta-B1, beta-B2, and beta-B3. ... Beta-crystallins construct aggregates of various sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers ... Beta-crystallin A4, Beta-A4 crystallin, CRYBA4, MCOPCT4.. Introduction. ...
more infohttps://www.prospecbio.com/cryba4_human

WikiGenes - CRYBA2 - crystallin, beta A2WikiGenes - CRYBA2 - crystallin, beta A2

Identification of the human beta A2 crystallin gene (CRYBA2): localization of the gene on human chromosome 2 and of the ... By using primers synthesized on the basis of the bovine beta A2 crystallin gene sequence, we amplified exons 5 and 6 of the ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/1412.html

beta/gamma crystallins Protein Superfamily Detailbeta/gamma crystallins Protein Superfamily Detail

Term: beta/gamma crystallins. ID: PIRSF002281 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/vocab/pirsf/PIRSF002281

Crybb3 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:102717 - crystallin, beta B3Crybb3 MGI Mouse Gene Detail - MGI:102717 - crystallin, beta B3

View mouse Crybb3 Chr5:113075839-113081584 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:102717

Crystallin, beta A1 - WikipediaCrystallin, beta A1 - Wikipedia

... crystallin, beta A3 and crystallin, beta A1) from a single mRNA, the latter protein is 17 aa shorter than crystallin, beta A3 ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... of the human beta-crystallin gene Hu beta A3/A1 reveals ancestral relationships among the beta gamma-crystallin superfamily". J ... Beta-crystallin A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBA1 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystallin,_beta_A1

RCSB PDB 









- 1HDF: Evolution of the eye lens beta-gamma-crystallin domain fold Methods Report PageRCSB PDB - 1HDF: Evolution of the eye lens beta-gamma-crystallin domain fold Methods Report Page

Crystal Structure of the Calcium-Loaded Spherulin 3A Dimer Sheds Light on the Evolution of the Eye Lens Betagamma-Crystallin ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/materialsAndMethods.do?structureId=1HDF

beta-Crystallin B Chain | The Chopra Librarybeta-Crystallin B Chain | The Chopra Library

Truncated human betaB1-crystallin shows altered structural properties and interaction with human betaA3-crystallin. ... The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of truncation of various regions of betaB1-crystallin on its structural ... properties and stability of heterooligomers formed by wild-type (WT) betaB1 or its deletion mutants with WT betaA3-crystallin. ...
more infohttp://isharonline.org/tags/beta-crystallin-b-chain

Origin of urea-soluble protein in the selenite cataract. Role of beta-crystallin proteolysis and calpain II. | IOVS | ARVO...Origin of urea-soluble protein in the selenite cataract. Role of beta-crystallin proteolysis and calpain II. | IOVS | ARVO...

... and gamma-crystallin polypeptides. Polypeptides from cataractous urea-soluble protein, and normal beta L-crystallin aggregates ... Role of beta-crystallin proteolysis and calpain II. You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or ... Role of beta-crystallin proteolysis and calpain II.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1987;28(7):1148-1156. ... Incubation of 26.5 K beta-crystallin polypeptide with purified rat lens calpain II in vitro caused production of fragments with ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2159866

Bovine Beta- crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KITBovine Beta- crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT

... crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ... Bovine Beta- crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT. Product Name:Bovine Beta- crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT. Packing:96T ... Target Protein Name:Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 Alternative Name:CRYBB2,Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2. Sample type: ... crystallin B2, CRYBB2 ELISA KIT has been pre-coated with an Bovine Beta-crystallin B2, CRYBB2 antibody specific to Bovine Beta- ...
more infohttps://www.lifescience-market.com/bovine-elisa-kit-c-65_73/bovine-beta-crystallin-b2-crybb2-elisa-kit-p-33654.html

MafB is Expressed in Developing Lens and Cooperates With Pax6 and Prox1 to Regulate Chicken Beta B1 Crystallin Gene Expression ...MafB is Expressed in Developing Lens and Cooperates With Pax6 and Prox1 to Regulate Chicken Beta B1 Crystallin Gene Expression ...

MafB is Expressed in Developing Lens and Cooperates With Pax6 and Prox1 to Regulate Chicken Beta B1 Crystallin Gene Expression ... MafB is Expressed in Developing Lens and Cooperates With Pax6 and Prox1 to Regulate Chicken Beta B1 Crystallin Gene Expression ... MafB is Expressed in Developing Lens and Cooperates With Pax6 and Prox1 to Regulate Chicken Beta B1 Crystallin Gene Expression ... Thus, betaB1 crystallin gene expression is initiated and maintained at high levels in order to form functional fiber cells. ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2419585

Association of high myopia with crystallin beta A4 (CRYBA4) gene polymorphisms in the linkage-identified MYP6 locus.  - PubMed ...Association of high myopia with crystallin beta A4 (CRYBA4) gene polymorphisms in the linkage-identified MYP6 locus. - PubMed ...

Association of high myopia with crystallin beta A4 (CRYBA4) gene polymorphisms in the linkage-identified MYP6 locus.. Ho DW1, ... Based on initial and replication studies, rs2009066 located in the crystallin beta A4 (CRYBA4) gene was identified to be the ... Association of High Myopia with Crystallin Beta A4 (CRYBA4) Gene Polymorphisms in the Linkage-Identified MYP6 Locus ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=74566

CRYBB1 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIHCRYBB1 gene - Genetics Home Reference - NIH

Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... It is also a member of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B2, and beta-B3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ... crystallin beta B1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Open All Close All ...
more infohttps://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/CRYBB1

CRYBA1 Gene - GeneCards | CRBA1 Protein | CRBA1 AntibodyCRYBA1 Gene - GeneCards | CRBA1 Protein | CRBA1 Antibody

Crystallin Beta A1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... crystallin, beta A3 and crystallin, beta A1) from a single mRNA, the latter protein is 17 aa shorter than crystallin, beta A3 ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Characterization of the human beta-crystallin gene Hu beta A3/A1 reveals ancestral relationships among the beta gamma- ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=CRYBA1&keywords=GH17J029246&prefilter=genomic_location

CRYBB3 (human)CRYBB3 (human)

Beta-crystallin B3 Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). ...
more infohttps://www.phosphosite.org/proteinAction.action?id=3708&showAllSites=true

CRYBB2 (rat)CRYBB2 (rat)

Beta-crystallin B2 Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). ...
more infohttps://www.phosphosite.org/proteinAction.action?id=5631&showAllSites=true

Cryba4 - PCR Primer Pair - SYBR | PrimePCR | Bio-RadCryba4 - PCR Primer Pair - SYBR | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad

Beta-crystallin A4 Aliases:. Not Available. RefSeq:. Not Available. Ensembl:. ENSRNOG00000049770 Entrez:. 64348 ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/assay/qrnocid0012385-primepcr-sybr-green-assay-cryba4-rat

Browse our CRYbB2 ELISA KitsBrowse our CRYbB2 ELISA Kits

crystallin, beta B2 , beta-crystallin B2 , beta B2-crystallin , beta-B2 crystallin , beta-crystallin Bp , eye lens structural ... crystallin, beta B2) , Beta-B2 crystallin , Beta-crystallin Bp , beta-B2-crystallin ... Cow (Bovine) Crystallin, beta B2 (CRYbB2) interaction partners * Results show that both betaB2- and betaA3-crystallin bind ... Crystallin, beta B2 (CRYbB2) ELISA Kits. Crystallins are the dominant structural components of the vertebrate eye lens.. ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/abstract/Crystallin%2C+beta+B2+

Browse our CRYbA4 ELISA KitsBrowse our CRYbA4 ELISA Kits

crystallin, beta A4 , beta-crystallin A4 , beta crystallin A4 , beta-A4-crystallin , betaA4-crystallin , beta-A4 crystallin , ... crystallin, beta polypeptide A4 , eye lens structural protein , beta A4-crystallin , beta A4 crystallin , lens structural ... Crystallin, beta A4 (CRYbA4) ELISA Kits. Crystallins are the dominant structural components of the vertebrate eye lens.. ... Human Crystallin, beta A4 (CRYbA4) interaction partners * CRYBA4 duplication and CRYBB1 (show CRYBB1 ELISA Kits) partial ...
more infohttps://www.antibodies-online.com/abstract/Crystallin%2C+beta+A4+

Protein Misfolding and Aggregation in Cataract Disease and Prospects for PreventionProtein Misfolding and Aggregation in Cataract Disease and Prospects for Prevention

The Benefits of Being beta-Crystallin Heteromers: betaB1-Crystallin Protects betaA3-Crystallin against Aggregation during Co- ... The Thr5Pro substitution in human γC-crystallin affects stability and crystallin-crystallin interactions [67-69]. Human γS- ... Effect of oxidized betaB3-crystallin peptide on lens betaL-crystallin: interaction with betaB2-crystallin. Invest Ophthalmol ... Deamidation alters interactions of beta-crystallins in hetero-oligomers. Mol Vis. 2009;15:241-249. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3621977/?lang=en-ca
  • Short-range ordered packing of the crystallins at concentrations of 250-400 mg/mL contributes to the transparency of the concentrated solution and a polydisperse mixture of crystallins avoids crystallization [ 4 , 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This gene, a beta basic group member, undergoes extensive cleavage at its N-terminal extension during lens maturation. (nih.gov)