A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.
The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.
A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.
The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.
A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The determination of the concentration of a given component in solution (the analyte) by addition of a liquid reagent of known strength (the titrant) until an equivalence point is reached (when the reactants are present in stoichiometric proportions). Often an indicator is added to make the equivalence point visible (e.g., a change in color).
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.
One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Identification and properties of anti-chaperone-like peptides derived from oxidized bovine lens betaL-crystallins. (1/51)

Thermal aggregation of betaL-crystallin was higher in the presence of peptide fragments generated from oxidized and trypsin-digested betaL-crystallin compared with thermal aggregation of the control proteins without oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments. Increased aggregation of betaL-crystallin was also observed despite the presence of alpha-crystallin (which has anti-aggregating properties) in the system. Self-aggregation of the oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments per se was not observed under the experimental conditions. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of the precipitate obtained after heating a mixture of betaL-crystallin and oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments revealed that more than one peptide co-precipitates with betaL-crystallin. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides revealed that the molecular weight(s) of the peptides ranged from 1400-1800. Tandem mass spectrometry and a data base search revealed that two of the peptides originated from betaA4-crystallin (LTIFEQENFLGR, residues 121-132) and betaB3-crystallin (AINGTWVGYEFPGYR, residues 153-167) respectively. Oxidized synthetic peptides representing the same sequence were also found to enhance the aggregation of betaL-crystallin in a manner similar to oxidized lens betaL-crystallin peptides. These data suggest that the polypeptides generated after oxidation and proteolysis of betaL-crystallins interact with denaturing proteins and facilitate their aggregation and light scattering, thus behaving like anti-chaperones.  (+info)

Molecular adaptations of neuromuscular disease-associated proteins in response to eccentric exercise in human skeletal muscle. (2/51)

The molecular events by which eccentric muscle contractions induce muscle damage and remodelling remain largely unknown. We assessed whether eccentric exercise modulates the expression of proteinases (calpains 1, 2 and 3, proteasome, cathepsin B+L), muscle structural proteins (alpha-sarcoglycan and desmin), and the expression of the heat shock proteins Hsp27 and alphaB-crystallin. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from twelve healthy male volunteers were obtained before, immediately after, and 1 and 14 days after a 30 min downhill treadmill running exercise. Eccentric exercise induced muscle damage as evidenced by the analysis of muscle pain and weakness, creatine kinase serum activity, myoglobinaemia and ultrastructural analysis of muscle biopsies. The calpain 3 mRNA level was decreased immediately after exercise whereas calpain 2 mRNA level was increased at day 1. Both mRNA levels returned to control values by day 14. By contrast, cathepsin B+L and proteasome enzyme activities were increased at day 14. The alpha-sarcoglycan protein level was decreased immediately after exercise and at day 1, whereas the desmin level peaked at day 14. alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 protein levels were increased at days 1 and 14. Our results suggest that the differential expression of calpain 2 and 3 mRNA levels may be important in the process of exercise-induced muscle damage, whereas expression of alpha-sarcoglycan, desmin, alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27 may be essentially involved in the subsequent remodelling of myofibrillar structure. This remodelling response may limit the extent of muscle damage upon a subsequent mechanical stress.  (+info)

TGFbeta-Smad signalling in postoperative human lens epithelial cells. (3/51)

AIMS: To localise Smads3/4 proteins in lens epithelial cells (LECs) of fresh and postoperative human specimens. Smads3/4 are involved in signal transduction between transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) cell surface receptors and gene promoters. Nuclear localisation of Smads indicates achievement of endogenous TGFbeta signalling in cells. METHODS: Three circular sections of the anterior capsule, one lens, and 17 capsules undergoing postoperative healing were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Smads3/4 in paraffin sections of the specimens. The effect of exogenous TGFbeta2 on Smad3 subcellular localisation was examined in explant cultures of extracted human anterior lens epithelium. RESULTS: The cytoplasm, but not the nuclei, of LECs of uninjured lenses was immunoreactive for Smads3/4. In contrast, nuclear immunoreactivity for Smads3/4 was detected in LECs during capsular healing. Nuclei positive for Smads3/4 were observed in monolayered LECs adjacent to the regenerated lens fibres of Sommerring's ring. Interestingly, the nuclei of LECs that were somewhat elongated, and appeared to be differentiating into fibre-like cells, were negative for Smads3/4. Fibroblast-like, spindle-shaped lens cells with nuclear immunoreactivity for nuclear Smads3/4 were occasionally observed in the extracellular matrix accumulated in capsular opacification. Exogenous TGFbeta induced nuclear translocation of Smad3 in LECs of anterior capsule specimens in explant culture. CONCLUSIONS: This is consistent with TGFbeta induced Smad signalling being involved in regulating the behaviour of LECs during wound healing after cataract surgery.  (+info)

Subunit exchange demonstrates a differential chaperone activity of calf alpha-crystallin toward beta LOW- and individual gamma-crystallins. (4/51)

The chaperone activity of native alpha-crystallins toward beta(LOW)- and various gamma-crystallins at the onset of their denaturation, 60 and 66 degrees C, respectively, was studied at high and low crystallin concentrations using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and fluorescence energy transfer (FRET). The crystallins were from calf lenses except for one recombinant human gamma S. SAXS data demonstrated an irreversible doubling in molecular weight and a corresponding increase in size of alpha-crystallins at temperatures above 60 degrees C. Further increase is observed at 66 degrees C. More subtle conformational changes accompanied the increase in size as shown by changes in environments around tryptophan and cysteine residues. These alpha-crystallin temperature-induced modifications were found necessary to allow for the association with beta(LOW)- and gamma-crystallins to occur. FRET experiments using IAEDANS (iodoacetylaminoethylaminonaphthalene sulfonic acid)- and IAF (iodoacetamidofluorescein)-labeled subunits showed that the heat-modified alpha-crystallins retained their ability to exchange subunits and that, at 37 degrees C, the rate of exchange was increased depending upon the temperature of incubation, 60 or 66 degrees C. Association with beta(LOW)- (60 degrees C) or various gamma-crystallins (66 degrees C) resulted at 37 degrees C in decreased subunit exchange in proportion to bound ligands. Therefore, beta(LOW)- and gamma-crystallins were compared for their capacity to associate with alpha-crystallins and inhibit subunit exchange. Quite unexpectedly for a highly conserved protein family, differences were observed between the individual gamma-crystallin family members. The strongest effect was observed for gamma S, followed by h gamma Srec, gamma E, gamma A-F, gamma D, gamma B. Moreover, fluorescence properties of alpha-crystallins in the presence of bound beta(LOW)-and gamma-crystallins indicated that the formation of beta(LOW)/alpha- or gamma/alpha-crystallin complexes involved various binding sites. The changes in subunit exchange associated with the chaperone properties of alpha-crystallins toward the other lens crystallins demonstrate the dynamic character of the heat-activated alpha-crystallin structure.  (+info)

Amyloid fibril formation by lens crystallin proteins and its implications for cataract formation. (5/51)

The alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins are the major structural proteins within the eye lens and are responsible for its exceptional stability and transparency. Under mildly denaturing conditions, all three types of bovine crystallin assemble into fibrillar structures in vitro. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy, dye binding assays, and x-ray fiber diffraction shows that these species have all of the characteristics of fibrils associated with the family of amyloid diseases. Moreover, the full-length proteins are incorporated into the fibrils, (i.e. no protein cleavage is required for these species to form), although for the gamma-crystallins some fragmentation occurs under the conditions employed in this study. Our findings indicate that the inherent stability of the beta-sheet supramolecular structure adopted by the crystallins in the eye lens and the chaperone ability of alpha-crystallin must be crucial for preventing fibril formation in vivo. The crystallins are very stable proteins but undergo extensive post-translational modification with age that leads to their destabilization. The ability of the crystallins to convert into fibrils under destabilizing conditions suggests that this process could contribute to the development of cataract with aging.  (+info)

Influence of hormones and growth factors on lens protein composition: the effect of dexamethasone and PDGF-AA. (6/51)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of hormones and ocular growth factors on the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins in rat lens epithelial and fiber cells. METHODS: PDGF-AA, EGF, NGF, M-CSF, BMP-2, BMP-4, dexamethasone, and estrogen were tested for their ability to alter the spectrum of crystallins in explanted newborn rat lens epithelial cells or in vitro differentiating newborn rat lens fiber cells. The accumulation of alphaA-, aB-, betaA3/1-, betaB2-, and gamma-crystallin was measured by western blot and dot blot analysis. The morphology of the rat lens explants after culture was examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining, while crystallins were localized by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Only dexamethasone and PDGF-AA showed an effect on relative crystallin levels. In the presence of dexamethasone the amount of alphaB-crystallin was increased in lens epithelial cells, but dexamethasone did not affect the crystallin spectrum in fiber cells. In rat lens epithelial explants cultured with PDGF-AA an increase in beta- and gamma-crystallin expression was seen. The spectrum of beta- and gamma-crystallins synthesized differed from that present in lens fiber cells. The cells expressing beta- and gamma-crystallin after culture with PDGF-AA were scattered in the epithelial cell layer and retained an epithelial morphology. PDGF-AA did not change the spectrum of crystallins synthesized in lens fiber cells but did enhance the rate of fiber cell differentiation, in agreement with results of others. CONCLUSIONS: Both dexamethasone and PDGF-AA influence crystallin gene expression in cultured rat lens epithelial cells. Dexamethasone enhances the expression of alphaB-crystallin while culturing in the presence of PDGF-AA caused an increase in beta- as well as gamma-crystallin synthesis. Since at least the gamma-crystallin genes are known to be silenced in epithelial cells by DNA methylation, PDGF-AA may be able to induce one of the steps towards fiber cell differentiation in some epithelial cells.  (+info)

Crosslinking of human lens 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin fragment in vitro and in vivo. (7/51)

PURPOSE: [corrected] The aims of this study were to determine in vitro crosslinking of a 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin fragment alone and with alpha-, beta-, or gamma-crystallins, the existence of covalent multimers of the polypeptide in vivo, and posttranslational modifications in the three isoforms of the polypeptide. METHODS: A mixture of crystallin fragments (3-14 kDa), a 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin polypeptide or the polypeptide and individual alpha-, beta-, or gamma-crystallins, were incubated at 37 degrees C for a desired length of time and the crosslinked species were analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), size exclusion Agarose A 1.5 gel chromatography, and western blot analysis. In addition, the existence of covalent multimers of the 9 kDa polypeptide in human lens water soluble (WS) and water insoluble (WI) protein fractions of normal and cataractous human lenses was determined by western blot analyses. The posttranslationally modified amino acids of three isofroms of the polypeptide were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and ES-MS/MS mass spectrometric analyses. RESULTS: Following incubation of a mixture of the crystallin fragments or the 9 kDa polypeptide, covalently crosslinked species held via non-disulfide bonding were seen on SDS-PAGE analysis. The polypeptide also exhibited crosslinking with individual alpha-, beta-, and gamma-crystallins. After western blot analysis with site specific anti-9 kDa antibodies, both WS and WI protein fractions from normal and cataractous lenses showed immunoreactive 27 and 45 kDa multimers. The mass spectrometric analysis of the three isoforms of the polypeptide (with identical molecular weight but different charges) showed oxidized methionine and tryptophan residues, with the latter residue containing two oxygens. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that a 9 kDa gammaD-crystallin fragment demonstrated crosslinking properties, which might be due to oxidation of its methionine and tryptophan residues.  (+info)

Inhibition of lens fiber cell morphogenesis by expression of a mutant SV40 large T antigen that binds CREB-binding protein/p300 but not pRb. (8/51)

Simian virus (SV) 40 large T antigen can both induce tumors and inhibit cellular differentiation. It is not clear whether these cellular changes are synonymous, sequential, or distinct responses to the protein. T antigen is known to bind to p53, to the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of tumor suppressor proteins, and to other cellular proteins such as p300 family members. To test whether SV40 large T antigen inhibits cellular differentiation in vivo in the absence of cell cycle induction, we generated transgenic mice that express in the lens a mutant version of the early region of SV40. This mutant, which we term E107KDelta, has a deletion that eliminates synthesis of small t antigen and a point mutation (E107K) that results in loss of the ability to bind to Rb family members. At embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5), the transgenic lenses show dramatic defects in lens fiber cell differentiation. The fiber cells become post-mitotic, but do not elongate properly. The cells show a dramatic reduction in expression of their beta- and gamma-crystallins. Because CBP and p300 are co-activators for crystallin gene expression, we assayed for interactions between E107KDelta and CBP/p300. Our studies demonstrate that cellular differentiation can be inhibited by SV40 large T antigen in the absence of pRb inactivation, and that interaction of large T antigen with CBP/p300 may be enhanced by a mutation that eliminates the binding to pRb.  (+info)

There are different types of cataracts, including:

1. Nuclear cataract: This is the most common type of cataract and affects the center of the lens.
2. Cortical cataract: This type of cataract affects the outer layer of the lens and can cause a "halo" effect around lights.
3. Posterior subcapsular cataract: This type of cataract affects the back of the lens and is more common in younger people and those with diabetes.
4. Congenital cataract: This type of cataract is present at birth and can be caused by genetic factors or other conditions.

Symptoms of cataracts can include:

* Blurred vision
* Double vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Glare
* Difficulty seeing at night
* Fading or yellowing of colors

Cataracts can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Treatment for cataracts typically involves surgery to remove the clouded lens and replace it with an artificial one called an intraocular lens (IOL). The type of IOL used will depend on the patient's age, visual needs, and other factors. In some cases, cataracts may be removed using a laser-assisted procedure.

In addition to surgery, there are also non-surgical treatments for cataracts, such as glasses or contact lenses, which can help improve vision. However, these treatments do not cure the underlying condition and are only temporary solutions.

It's important to note that cataracts are a common age-related condition and can affect anyone over the age of 40. Therefore, it's important to have regular eye exams to monitor for any changes in vision and to detect cataracts early on.

In summary, cataracts are a clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurred vision, double vision, sensitivity to light, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the clouded lens and replace it with an artificial one, but non-surgical treatments such as glasses or contact lenses may also be used. Regular eye exams are important for detecting cataracts early on and monitoring vision health.

... crystallin, beta A3 and crystallin, beta A1) from a single mRNA, the latter protein is 17 aa shorter than crystallin, beta A3 ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... of the human beta-crystallin gene Hu beta A3/A1 reveals ancestral relationships among the beta gamma-crystallin superfamily". J ... Beta-crystallin A3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBA1 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ...
Beta B2-crystallin in the mammalian retina. Exp Eye Res. 1995 Oct;61(4):423-8. PubMed PMID 8549683. Wistow G, Piatigorsky J. ... Evidence for the extralenticular expression of members of the beta-crystallin gene family in the chick and a comparison with ... The subunit structure of chick beta-crystallins. Exp Eye Res. 1974 May;18(5):485-94. PubMed PMID 4834400. Clayton RM, Truman DE ... The antigenic structure of chick beta-crystallin subunits. Exp Eye Res. 1974 May;18(5):495-506. PubMed PMID 4834401. Truman DE ...
Beta- and gamma- crystallin form a separate family. Structurally, beta and gamma crystallins are composed of two similar ... For example, alpha, beta, and delta crystallins are found in avian and reptilian lenses, and the alpha, beta, and gamma ... However, beta crystallin is an oligomer, composed of a complex group of molecules, whereas gamma crystallin is a simpler ... Crystallins from a vertebrate eye lens are classified into three main types: alpha, beta and gamma crystallins. These ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... This gene, a beta basic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B1, and beta-B2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Beta-crystallin B3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB3 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... It is also a member of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B2, and beta-B3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000100122 - Ensembl ... Beta-crystallin B1) at the PDBe-KB. David LL, Lampi KJ, Lund AL, Smith JB (1996). "The sequence of human betaB1-crystallin cDNA ... Beta-crystallin B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB1 gene. Variants in CRYBB1 are associated with autosomal ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... This gene, a beta acidic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-B1, beta-B2, and beta-B3. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89 ... Beta-crystallin A4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBA4 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Gamma-crystallin D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGD gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... "Entrez Gene: CRYGD crystallin, gamma D". Graw J (1998). "The crystallins: genes, proteins and diseases". Biol. Chem. 378 (11): ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Gamma-crystallin B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGB gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ... Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. Alpha crystallins ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein ... Alpha B chain crystallins (αBC) can be induced by heat shock, ischemia, and oxidation, and are members of the small heat shock ...
"Linkage between the beta B2 and beta B3 crystallin genes in man and rat: a remnant of an ancient beta-crystallin gene cluster ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... This gene, a beta basic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B1, and beta-B3. A chain-terminating ... Beta-crystallin B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYBB2 gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... This gene encodes a protein initially considered to be a beta-crystallin but the encoded protein is monomeric and has greater ... Zarina S, Abbasi A, Zaidi ZH (1992). "Primary structure of beta s-crystallin from human lens". Biochem. J. 287 (Pt 2): 375-81. ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Crystallin, gamma C, also known as CRYGC, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CRYGC gene. Crystallins are separated ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are organized in a ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Gamma-crystallin A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYGA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon- ... Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized ...
"Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ... Amyloid beta can be measured semiquantitatively with immunostaining, which also allows one to determine location. Amyloid beta ... By NMR-guided simulations, amyloid beta 1-40 and amyloid beta 1-42 also seem to feature highly different conformational states ... Hiltunen M, van Groen T, Jolkkonen J (2009). "Functional roles of amyloid-beta protein precursor and amyloid-beta peptides: ...
"Myxococcus xanthus spore coat protein S may have a similar structure to vertebrate lens beta gamma-crystallins". Nature. 315 ( ... "Structural similarity of a developmentally regulated bacterial spore coat protein to beta gamma-crystallins of the vertebrate ... The domains share high similarity with other crystallin proteins. Protein S binds two 2 mol of calcium per mol of protein with ...
September 2007). "Affilin-novel binding molecules based on human gamma-B-crystallin, an all beta-sheet protein". J. Mol. Biol. ...
It consists of 76 amino acids in three and a half alpha helix windings and five strands constituting a beta sheet. For example ... The molecular mass of crystallin and ubiquitin based Affilin proteins is only one eighth or one sixteenth of an IgG antibody, ... It consists of two identical domains with mainly beta sheet structure and a total molecular mass of about 20 kDa. The eight ... In both types, the binding region is typically located in a beta sheet structure, whereas the binding regions of antibodies, ...
Each isoenzyme is a homodimer composed of 2 alpha, 2 gamma, or 2 beta subunits, and functions as a glycolytic enzyme. Alpha- ... enolase, in addition, functions as a structural lens protein (tau-crystallin) in the monomeric form. Alternative splicing of ...
... another example of an ancestral beta gamma-crystallin precursor structure". Journal of Molecular Biology. 282 (2): 421-33. doi: ...
Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) also known as heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Hsp27 is a chaperone of the sHsp (small heat shock protein) group among α-crystallin, Hsp20, and others. The common functions ... Hsp27 is rather unique among sHsps in that its α-crystallin domain contains a cysteine residue at its dimer interface, which ... The C-terminal region of sHsps consists of the above mentioned α-crystallin domain, followed by a variable sequence with high ...
... rho crystallin, and many others. All possess a similar structure, with a beta-alpha-beta fold characteristic of nucleotide ... The binding site is located in a large, deep, elliptical pocket in the C-terminal end of the beta sheet, the substrate being ... Gulbis JM, Zhou M, Mann S, MacKinnon R (July 2000). "Structure of the cytoplasmic beta subunit-T1 assembly of voltage-dependent ... Some proteins of this family contain a potassium channel beta chain regulatory domain; these are reported to have ...
The yeast killer toxin structure was thought to be a precursor of the two-domain beta gamma-crystallin proteins, because of its ... with two alpha-helices and four beta-strands with a (beta/alpha/beta)x2 topology. The peptidase inhibitor I9 family contains ... SMPI is composed of two beta-sheets, each consisting of four antiparallel beta-strands. The structure can be considered as two ... domain protein structure that corresponds to the ancestral fold from which the two-domain proteins in the beta gamma-crystallin ...
Other reported constituents include alphaB crystallin, heat shock protein 27, protein beta-1), ubiquitin, vimentin, plectin, c- ...
2002). "The NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase P1-zeta-crystallin in Arabidopsis catalyzes the alpha,beta-hydrogenation of 2-alkenals ... Other names in common use include NAD(P)H-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase, and NADPH:2-alkenal alpha,beta-hydrogenase. As ...
... crystallin beta A3/A1), Crybb2 (crystallin beta B2), Gja8 (MP70), and Lim2 (MP19)". Genomics. 29 (2): 445-50. doi:10.1006/geno. ...
... beta-crystallin, collagen IV, fibrinogen, and elastin, by transglutaminase-catalysed cross-links. The whole domain is rich in ...
PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Beta/gamma crystallin domain- ... 1997). "AIM1, a novel non-lens member of the betagamma-crystallin superfamily, is associated with the control of tumorigenicity ... variant betagamma-crystallin domain of the protein absent in melanoma 1 (AIM1)". Biochemistry. 42 (15): 4552-9. doi:10.1021/ ... "Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic investigations on a betagamma-crystallin domain of absent in melanoma 1 ...
... alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.200 - beta-crystallin ... beta-2 microglobulin MeSH D12.776.377.715.182.160 - beta-thromboglobulin MeSH D12.776.377.715.182.200 - complement factor h ... thyroid hormone receptors beta MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.915 - RNA-binding protein FUS MeSH D12.776.624.664.700.957 - stathmin ... Retinoid X receptor beta MeSH D12.776.826.701.500.750 - Retinoid X receptor gamma MeSH D12.776.826.750.074.249 - coup ...
... alpha 1 Crystallin, beta A1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclin A1 Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1 Defensin, ...
Also in the 1970s, physicists Tanaka & Benedek at MIT identified phase-separation behaviour of gamma-crystallin proteins from ... Schaefer KN, Peifer M (February 2019). "Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Regulation and a Role for Biomolecular Condensates". ... including cross-beta polymerisation), and/or protein domains that induce head-to-tail oligomeric or polymeric clustering, might ... solid phase transitions such as DNA condensation during prophase of the cell cycle or protein condensation of crystallins in ...
... beta 2, 26kDa (connexin 26) GJB6: gap junction protein, beta 6 (connexin 30) Glypican 5: encoding protein Glypican-5 HTR2A: 5- ... encoding protein Crystallin, lambda 1 DLEU1: a long non-coding RNA DLEU2: Deleted in lymphocytic leukemia 1 DZIP1: DAZ ... ARGLU1: encoding protein Arginine and glutamate-rich protein 1 ATP7B: ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide (Wilson ...
... and the two central rings are each formed by 7 beta subunits. Three beta subunits (beta1, beta2, and beta5) each contains a ... Boelens WC, Croes Y, de Jong WW (January 2001). "Interaction between alphaB-crystallin and the human 20S proteasomal subunit C8 ... Boelens WC, Croes Y, de Jong WW (January 2001). "Interaction between alphaB-crystallin and the human 20S proteasomal subunit C8 ... This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits (alpha subunits 1-7, constitutive beta subunits 1-7, and inducible subunits ...
This role for perlecan in beta-amyloid plaque generation is supported by an earlier study showing that perlecan and beta- ... To this end, a transgenic mouse line was created expressing porcine TGF-β1 under the lens-specific αA-crystallin promoter and ... The development of beta-amyloid plaques on the brain is associated with onset of Alzheimer's disease. These plaques induce a ... Treatment of human lung fibroblasts in vitro with IL-1-beta did not lead to any significant increase in perlecan production. ...
Chen Q, Dowhan DH, Liang D, Moore DD, Overbeek PA (July 2002). "CREB-binding protein/p300 co-activation of crystallin gene ... "The TRAP/Mediator coactivator complex interacts directly with estrogen receptors alpha and beta through the TRAP220 subunit and ... suppresses p300-dependent TGF-beta signal transduction". Genes Dev. 14 (13): 1605-16. doi:10.1101/gad.14.13.1605. PMC 316742. ...
Berns, A. J. M.; Kraaikamp, M. Van; Bloemendal, H.; Lane, C. D. (1972). "Calf Crystallin Synthesis in Frog Cells: The ... The translation of reticulocyte 9S RNA in frog oocytes gives rise to alpha and beta globin chains. Communication to FEBS ...
... encoding alpha-crystallin A chain CRYZL1: Crystallin zeta-like 1 CXADR: encoding protein coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor ... encoding interferon alpha/beta receptor 1 IFNAR2: encoding interferon alpha/beta receptor 2 IFNGR1: encoding interferon gamma ... encoding enzyme beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase 5 BACE2: encoding enzyme beta-secretase 2 BACH1: encoding transcription factor ... amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein (peptidase nexin-II, Alzheimer disease) ATP5PF: encoding enzyme subunit ATP synthase- ...
2003). "Activation of metallothioneins and alpha-crystallin/sHSPs in human lens epithelial cells by specific metals and the ... Kondo Y, Kuo SM, Lazo JS (1994). "Interleukin-1 beta-mediated metallothionein induction and cytoprotection against cadmium and ...
"Crystallin". Lyon Part-Dieu (in French). Retrieved 6 January 2020. "City and Département archives". Lyon Part-Dieu. Retrieved ... According to a 2018 study of Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC), Lyon is a Beta- city, meaning that it's an ... space Tour Incity Silex 1 Sky56 The 107 Deruelle Aprilium 2 Velum Equinoxe Terralta Le Rephael Carsat Edison Green Crystallin ...
One of the main structural differences with beta-lactoglobulin is that it does not have any free thiol group that can serve as ... Lindner RA, Kapur A, Carver JA (1997). "The interaction of the molecular chaperone, alpha-crystallin, with molten globule ...
The cause is lens hardening by decreasing levels of alpha-crystallin, a process which may be sped up by higher temperatures. ... "Age-Related Loss of Innate Immune Antimicrobial Function of Dermal Fat Is Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor Beta". ...
δ-crystallins are the major structural eye lens water-soluble proteins of most birds, reptiles, and some other vertebrates. ... Domain 2 contains one small beta sheet, nine alpha helices, and the carboxyl terminus. Three of the nine alpha helices on one ... ASL, δ-crystallin, class II fumarase, aspartase, adenylosuccinase lyase, and 3-carboxy-cis and cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme ... There are two isoforms of δ-crystallin, δI and δII. These two isoforms conserve 69% and 71% of the ASL amino acid sequence, ...
"Solid-state NMR and SAXS studies provide a structural basis for the activation of alphaB-crystallin oligomers". Nat. Struct. ... "Structure of the pleckstrin homology domain from beta-spectrin". Nature. 369 (6482): 675-7. Bibcode:1994Natur.369..675M. doi: ...
Beta cell (secretes insulin and amylin) Delta cell (secretes somatostatin) Epsilon cell (secretes ghrelin) PP cell (gamma cell ... Medium spiny neurons Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Ependymal cells Tanycytes Pituicytes Anterior lens epithelial cell Crystallin- ...
beta/gamma crystallin domain-containing protein 1 isoform 3 [Mus musculus] beta/gamma crystallin domain-containing protein 1 ... beta/gamma crystallin domain-containing protein 1 isoform 3 [Mus musculus]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_765981.2 ... Cloning and tissue expression of the mouse ortholog of AIM1, a betagamma-crystallin superfamily member. [Mamm Genome. 1998] ... Cloning and tissue expression of the mouse ortholog of AIM1, a betagamma-crystallin superfamily member.. Teichmann U, Ray ME, ...
Autosomal dominant cerulean cataract is associated with a chain termination mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYBB2 M ... A second gene for cerulean cataracts maps to the beta crystallin region on chromosome 22. Kramer P, Yount J, Mitchell T, ... Autosomal dominant cerulean cataract is associated with a chain termination mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYBB2 M ... Recently, we mapped an ADCC gene in this family to a region of chromosome 22 containing three beta-crystallin genes. Here we ...
We incubate β-crystallin solution on top of SLM to observe the interaction by AFM. Topographical images and force curves were ... After incubating β-crystallin with the SLM, almost circular membrane defects of ~2 nm depth were observed in random places, ... In this work, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the interaction of β-crystallin with the model membrane. A ... The image roughness of the defect-free membrane area after adding β-crystallin solution was not significantly different from ...
Regions of the protein sequence that have been matched to structural domains from CATH or SCOP then modelled as a predicted 3D structure. Click on one or more overlapping regions to view or download the 3D structure(s ...
Using proteomics, we discovered that the supernatants of cultured retinas contain isoforms of crystallins with crystallin beta ... Elongation of axons during regeneration involves retinal crystallin beta b2 (crybb2). Elongation of axons during regeneration ... which in turn could be blocked with antibodies against beta-crystallin. Conditioned medium from crybb2-transfected cell ... Colección: Bases de datos internacionales Base de datos: MEDLINE Asunto principal: Axones / Cadena B de beta-Cristalina Límite: ...
Mass spectrometry of lens crystallins: bovine beta-crystallins.. Kilby GW; Truscott RJ; Stuchbury GM; Sheil MM. Rapid Commun ... 6. Cleavage of beta crystallins during maturation of bovine lens.. Shih M; Lampi KJ; Shearer TR; David LL. Mol Vis; 1998 Feb; 4 ... Characterization of gammaS-crystallin isoforms from a catfish: evolutionary comparison of various gamma-, gammaS-, and beta- ... Effect of oxidized betaB3-crystallin peptide (152-166) on thermal aggregation of bovine lens gamma-crystallins: identification ...
The concentration of beta crystallin proteins was reduced by in-vivo exposures. In in-vitro studies, the beta crystallin was ... A very high molecular weight fraction contained alpha crystallin material. Rabbit lenses were exposed in-vitro and in-vivo to ... The loss of alpha crystallin from the isoelectric focusing pattern was due to aggregation to higher molecular weight particles ... of the lenses incubated for 30 minutes at 45 degrees showed a definite loss in the lowest points of the alpha crystallin ...
Class b: All beta proteins [48724] (144 folds). *. Fold b.11: gamma-Crystallin-like [49694] (1 superfamily). sandwich; 8 ... Superfamily b.11.1: gamma-Crystallin-like [49695] (6 families) *. Family b.11.1.1: Crystallins/Ca-binding development proteins ... Timeline for Species Cow (Bos taurus), isoform II (B) [TaxId:9913] from b.11.1.1 gamma-Crystallin: *Species Cow (Bos taurus), ... Protein gamma-Crystallin [49697] (7 species). duplication consists of two domains of this fold. ...
BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.. Entry Term(s). Crystallins, beta beta-Crystallin ... Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits. ... 2003; for BETA-CRYSTALLIN see CRYSTALLINS 1982-2002. History Note. 2003; for BETA-CRYSTALLIN use CRYSTALLINS 1982-2002. Date ... Crystallins [D12.776.306.366] * alpha-Crystallins [D12.776.306.366.100] * beta-Crystallins [D12.776.306.366.300] * beta- ...
From NCBI Gene: Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families. Alpha crystallins are composed of ... Alpha crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (HSP20) family. They act as ... Elevated expression of alpha-B crystallin occurs in many neurological diseases; a missense mutation cosegregated in a family ... Two additional functions of alpha crystallins are an autokinase activity and participation in the intracellular architecture. ...
The inclusions react strongly with antibodies to alpha B but not significantly with antibodies to beta- or gamma-crystallins. ... alpha A-crystallin (alpha A) and alpha B-crystallin (alpha B) are among the predominant proteins of the vertebrate eye lens. In ... Targeted disruption of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene induces cataract and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies containing the small ... Here we begin to examine the in vivo functions of alpha-crystallin by generating mice with a targeted disruption of the alpha A ...
... with the greatest numbers of peptide spectrum matches observed for beta-crystallin, alpha-crystallin, phakinin, and gamma- ... crystallin proteins. We observed no EBOV-specific peptide sequences. By 1 month after cataract surgery, visual acuity in the ...
crystallin beta B2 [Source:HGNC Symbol.... CSNK1D. 1453. CSNK1D. casein kinase 1 delta [Source:HGNC Sym.... ... Conclusion: T1D and T2D likely share a final common pathway for beta cell dysfunction that includes secretion of interleukin-1 ... and prostaglandins by immune effector cells, exacerbating existing beta cell dysfunction, and causing further hyperglycemia. ...
BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.. Entry Term(s). Crystallins, beta beta-Crystallin ... Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits. ... 2003; for BETA-CRYSTALLIN see CRYSTALLINS 1982-2002. History Note. 2003; for BETA-CRYSTALLIN use CRYSTALLINS 1982-2002. Date ... Crystallins [D12.776.306.366] * alpha-Crystallins [D12.776.306.366.100] * beta-Crystallins [D12.776.306.366.300] * beta- ...
Gene table of CRYBB2 : crystallin beta B2 Gene-disease associations table Disease ID. Disease name. Source of annotation with ...
Cataract causing mutations in the betaB2 crystallin led to schizophrenia phenotypes in mice 18. December 2018 The beta ... gene encodes a beta-propeller scaffold protein with a putative role in autophagy, and several pathogenic variants are the ... crystallin gene (CRYBB2) is an ocular structural gene and mutation in this gene can cause cataract. Interestingly, beyond its ... the Helmholtz Center Munich generated and extensively characterized a new mouse model for the rare neurological disorder Beta- ...
Aggregates consisting of amyloid beta (Ab, derived from the APP protein) or hyperphosphorylated Tau are considered the major ... crystallins (cataracts), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cystic fibrosis) and many others. Pathology- ...
Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits. ... Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits. ... beta-Crystallins Entry term(s). Crystallins, beta beta Crystallin beta Crystallins beta-Crystallin ... beta-Crystallins - Preferred Concept UI. M0005390. Scope note. A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and ...
Alpha B Crystallin Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Alpha-Fetoprotein ALS Amyloid beta Amyloid Precursor Protein Androstenedione ... TNF-beta TNF-R (60 kDa) TNF-R (80 kDa) t-PA TRACP 5 TRAIL Transferrin receptor TRAP 5 Triiodothyronine TSH Receptor ... Interleukin-1 beta Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Interleukin-10 Interleukin-12 Interleukin-12/Interleukin-23 p40 ...
crystallin, beta A2 CSMD1 CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 CXCL12 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 ... transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta) TFAP2C transcription factor AP-2 gamma (activating ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also defined as a ... Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group but ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... Beta-crystallins form aggregates of different sizes and are able to form homodimers through self-association or heterodimers ...
... and above non-lens members of the beta-gamma crystallin family from different species. The same trait has evolved in parallel ... including in the S-crystallins of cephalopods. A high refractive index increment can lower the crystallin concentration ... Gamma crystallins are the major protein component in the nucleus of the eye lens. They exhibit extremely high solubility and ... In the present work, we show that all lens gamma crystallins have evolved a significantly elevated molecular refractive index ...
Gene Name : crystallin beta B2. GTEx V8 NCBI GeneID : 1415. NCBI : NM_000496.3. NCBI : NP_000487.1. ...
... der als alpha-Crystallin-Domäne (ACD) bezeichnet wird, gekennzeichnet. Diese besteht größtenteils aus beta-Strängen, während ...
crystallin beta-gamma domain containing 1. Synonyms. Aim1. MMRRC Submission. 040977-MU ...
crystallin, beta A1. IMP. RGD. PMID:21266465. RGD:126925759. NCBI chr10:62,608,373...62,614,726 Ensembl chr10:62,608,383... ... crystallin, beta A1;Nuc1 mutant, Dbsa. IMP. RGD. PMID:21266465. RGD:126925759. ... OntoMate (Literature Search) JBrowse (Genome Browser) Synteny Browser (VCMap) (beta) Variant Visualizer Multi-Ontology ...
Aging causes beta-gamma-crystallins to lose their structure. Alpha-crystallins release distorted beta-gamma crystallins to the ... Distorted crystallins build up over time and form a complex. When they overcome the alpha-crystallins, they form into an ... Beta- and gamma-crystallins assist in lens development.. ... "Crystallins in the eye: Function and pathology." National ... Structural proteins called crystallins make up the eye lens. There are two main kinds:9 ...
Congenital polymorphic cataract associated with a G to A splice site mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYβA3/A1. Yu ... A unique form of autosomal dominant cataract explained by gene conversion between beta-crystallin B2 and its pseudogene. Vanita ... A unique form of autosomal dominant cataract explained by gene conversion between beta-crystallin B2 and its pseudogene. Vanita ... Congenital polymorphic cataract associated with a G to A splice site mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYOE?A3/A1. ...
Subunit structure of beta crystallins of rabbit lens cortex. AB - A method has been developed to isolate and characterize beta- ... Human alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs have the same methylated nucleotides at their 5 ends as the alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs of ... Equine FSH-beta is analogous to human FSH-beta except six amino acid substitutions at positions 12, 16, 21, 62, 108, and 114. ... SDS-gradient gel electrophoresis of these beta-crystallins gave rise to characteristic polypeptides; beta1, two polypeptides of ...
N0000169031 beta-Crystallin A Chain N0000169030 beta-Crystallin B Chain N0000169029 beta-Crystallins N0000168523 beta- ... beta-Hexosaminidase beta Chain N0000175112 beta-Keratins N0000167683 beta-Lactamases N0000011162 beta-Lactams N0000170341 beta- ... beta 2-Glycoprotein I N0000169400 beta 2-Microglobulin N0000007226 beta Carotene N0000169947 beta Catenin N0000169677 beta ... N0000006720 beta-Galactosidase N0000178562 beta-Globins N0000169396 Beta-Globulins N0000168529 beta-Glucans N0000179145 beta- ...
  • Eye lens fiber cells comprise crystallin proteins (α-, β-, and γ-) that ensure the lens's transparency and structure. (boisestate.edu)
  • 20. Sequence analysis of frog alpha B-crystallin cDNA: sequence homology and evolutionary comparison of alpha A, alpha B and heat shock proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The concentration of beta crystallin proteins was reduced by in-vivo exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. (nih.gov)
  • In the present work, we show that all lens gamma crystallins have evolved a significantly elevated molecular refractive index increment, which is far above those of most proteins, and above non-lens members of the beta-gamma crystallin family from different species. (nih.gov)
  • On microscopy, staining for proteins exclusive to crystallin shows that adding TGF-β induced lens fiber cell (green). (nih.gov)
  • Lens fiber cells become bloated with proteins called crystallins, which causes them to scatter light as it passes through the lens. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, perhaps due to lack of light in the deep sea, the Yap genome includes fewer copies of crystallin genes, which encode proteins that sense light and assist in focused vision, in comparison to other teleosts. (webot.org)
  • Further, their genome includes increased amounts of genes encoding enzymes for beta oxidation and transport proteins, thereby increasing membrane fluidity. (webot.org)
  • Elongation of axons during regeneration involves retinal crystallin beta b2 (crybb2). (bvsalud.org)
  • Using proteomics , we discovered that the supernatants of cultured retinas contain isoforms of crystallins with crystallin beta b2 (crybb2) being clearly up-regulated in the regenerating retina . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cloning and overexpression of crybb2 in RGCs and hippocampal neurons increased axonogenesis, which in turn could be blocked with antibodies against beta-crystallin . (bvsalud.org)
  • 6. Towards a molecular understanding of phase separation in the lens: a comparison of the X-ray structures of two high Tc gamma-crystallins, gammaE and gammaF, with two low Tc gamma-crystallins, gammaB and gammaD. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Characterization of gamma-crystallin from a catfish: structural characterization of one major isoform with high methionine by cDNA sequencing. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Characterization of gamma S-crystallin isoforms from lip shark (Chiloscyllium colax): evolutionary comparison between gamma S and beta/gamma crystallins. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Amino acid sequence of bovine gamma E (IVa) lens crystallin. (nih.gov)
  • In in-vitro studies, the beta crystallin was more resistant to degradation than were mixtures of alpha and gamma crystallins. (cdc.gov)
  • Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. (nih.gov)
  • From NCBI Gene: Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families. (nih.gov)
  • The inclusions react strongly with antibodies to alpha B but not significantly with antibodies to beta- or gamma-crystallins. (wikigenes.org)
  • Las beta-cristalinas poseen una estructura similar a las GAMMA CRISTALINAS al presentar ambas motivos de clave griega. (bvsalud.org)
  • beta and gamma crystallins are also defined as a superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • Gamma crystallins are the major protein component in the nucleus of the eye lens. (nih.gov)
  • To achieve a sufficiently high refractive index increment, a global shift in the amino acid composition is required, which can naturally explain the highly unusual amino acid composition of gamma crystallins and their functional homologues. (nih.gov)
  • crystallin beta-gamma domain containin. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. (nih.gov)
  • A high refractive index increment can lower the crystallin concentration required to achieve a suitable refractive power of the lens, and thereby reduce the propensity of crystallins to aggregate and form cataract. (nih.gov)
  • indiana some person, the steady collection of chromophore and complex, insoluble crystallin aggregate indium the lens nucleus moderate to the formation of deoxyadenosine monophosphate brown nuclear cataract. (chickgolden.com)
  • A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens ( LENS, CRYSTALLINE ) in VERTEBRATES . (nih.gov)
  • Previous attempts to crystallize mammalian γS-crystallin were unsuccessful. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Two roles for mu-crystallin: a lens structural protein in diurnal marsupials and a possible enzyme in mammalian retinas. (nih.gov)
  • Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. (nih.gov)
  • Inclusion of these data during structure refinement decreases the backbone coordinate root-mean-square difference between the derived model and the high-resolution crystal structure of a 54% homologous B crystallin from 1.96 ( 0.07 Å to 1.31 ( 0.04 Å. (nih.gov)
  • Crystallins are the dominant structural components of the vertebrate eye lens. (nih.gov)
  • Las beta cristalinas existen como oligómeros que se forman a partir de unidades ácidas (CADENA A DE BETA-CRISTALINA) y básicas (CADENA B DE BETA-CRISTALINA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic ( BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN ) and basic ( BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN ) subunits. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion: T1D and T2D likely share a final common pathway for beta cell dysfunction that includes secretion of interleukin-1? (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • and prostaglandins by immune effector cells, exacerbating existing beta cell dysfunction, and causing further hyperglycemia. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • The dysfunction and insolubilization of crystallins reduce transparency in the lens. (biobender.com)
  • 9. Molecular cloning and sequencing of zeta-crystallin/quinone reductase cDNA from human liver. (nih.gov)
  • The loss of alpha crystallin from the isoelectric focusing pattern was due to aggregation to higher molecular weight particles which could not enter the gel. (cdc.gov)
  • A very high molecular weight fraction contained alpha crystallin material. (cdc.gov)
  • Vanita, Sarhadi V, Reis A, Jung M, Singh D, Sperling K, Singh JR, B?orger J. A unique form of autosomal dominant cataract explained by gene conversion between beta-crystallin B2 and its pseudogene . (arizona.edu)
  • Yu Y, Li J, Xu J, Wang Q, Yu Y, Yao K. Congenital polymorphic cataract associated with a G to A splice site mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYOE?A3/A1 . (arizona.edu)
  • This region contains four crystallin genes as well as the CRYBP1 pseudogene. (arizona.edu)
  • 14. Zeta-crystallin: a lens-specific promoter and the gene recruitment of an enzyme as a crystallin. (nih.gov)
  • Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. (nih.gov)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Integrin Beta 2 (ITGb2) in samples from Tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
  • Beta-propeller protein associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is associated with mutations in the WD repeat domain 45 (WDR45) gene on chromosome Xp11 resulting in reduced autophagic flux. (nih.gov)
  • In this recent study, scientists from the Helmholtz Center Munich generated and extensively characterized a new mouse model for the rare neurological disorder Beta-Propeller Protein Associated Neurodegeneration (BPAN). (mouseclinic.de)
  • 5. Inability of chaperones to fold mutant zeta crystallin, an aggregation-prone eye lens protein. (nih.gov)
  • The image roughness of the defect-free membrane area after adding β-crystallin solution was not significantly different from the control membrane. (boisestate.edu)
  • 1. Guinea pig and bovine zeta-crystallins have distinct functional characteristics highlighting replacements in otherwise similar structures. (nih.gov)
  • The method is illustrated for a two-domain 177-amino-acid protein, S crystallin, using an experimental SAXS data set fitted at resolutions from 200 Å to 30 Å. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to shedding light on how secondary cataracts form, these findings present some exciting insights into the growth factor TGF-beta that have implications far beyond the eye," he said. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Characterization, cloning, and expression of porcine alpha B crystallin. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Binding of dexamethasone by alpha-crystallin. (nih.gov)
  • Calf lens homogenates were incubated at temperatures ranging from 37 to 45 degrees-C. Isoelectric focused gel analysis of the lenses incubated for 30 minutes at 45 degrees showed a definite loss in the lowest points of the alpha crystallin components. (cdc.gov)
  • Alpha crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (HSP20) family. (nih.gov)
  • Two additional functions of alpha crystallins are an autokinase activity and participation in the intracellular architecture. (nih.gov)
  • Here we begin to examine the in vivo functions of alpha-crystallin by generating mice with a targeted disruption of the alpha A gene. (wikigenes.org)
  • 13. Structural and sequence comparisons of quinone oxidoreductase, zeta-crystallin, and glucose and alcohol dehydrogenases. (nih.gov)
  • Association of high myopia with crystallin beta A4 (CRYBA4) gene polymorphisms in the linkage-identified MYP6 locus. (cdc.gov)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Integrin Beta 2 from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (myelisakit.com)
  • Interaction of Beta-Crystallin with Membrane: A Study Using Atomic For" by Dieter Haemmerle, Laxman Mainali et al. (boisestate.edu)
  • Several experiments have been performed regarding the interaction of lens membrane with α-crystallin, however limited experiments with non-concurring results are present regarding the interaction of β-crystallin with membrane. (boisestate.edu)
  • In this work, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the interaction of β-crystallin with the model membrane. (boisestate.edu)
  • After incubating β-crystallin with the SLM, almost circular membrane defects of ~2 nm depth were observed in random places, indicating the interaction of β-crystallin to the SLM. (boisestate.edu)
  • Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group but absent in the acidic group). (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest that neuronal crystallins constitute a novel class of neurite -promoting factors that likely operate through an autocrine mechanism and that they could be used in neurodegenerative diseases . (bvsalud.org)
  • Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. (neobiolab.com)
  • CD8 T cells cannot develop in the absence of MHC class I.Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinaemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants. (neobiolab.com)
  • The activated m-calpain results in proteolysis of - and -crystallins, followed by insolubilization and coprecipitation of -crystallin [5]. (biobender.com)
  • 2. Expression of recombinant zeta-crystallin in Escherichia coli with the help of GroEL/ES and its purification. (nih.gov)
  • expression from the -, -, and -crystallins. (biobender.com)
  • Human Beta 2 microglobulin levels can rise either because its rate of synthesis has increased (e.g. in AIDS, malignant monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia, solid tumors and autoimmune disease) or because of impaired renal filtration (e.g. due to renal insufficiency, graft rejection or nephrotoxicity induced by post-transplantation immunosuppressive therapy). (neobiolab.com)
  • 18. Comparative analysis of the zeta-crystallin/quinone reductase gene in guinea pig and mouse. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Characterization of the multiple forms of duck lens delta-crystallin with endogenous argininosuccinate lyase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Little Nrf-2 activity could lead to the loss of cytoprotection, diminished antioxidant capacity, and reduced beta-oxidation [10]. (biobender.com)