A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.
The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.
The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.
A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.
One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).
A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.
One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.
A subclass of crystallins found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in BIRDS and REPTILES. They are inactive forms of the enzyme argininosuccinate lyase.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An enzyme of the urea cycle which splits argininosuccinate to fumarate plus arginine. Its absence leads to the metabolic disease ARGININOSUCCINIC ACIDURIA in man. EC
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under conditions in which the components, such as PROTEINS, being separated can remain in their naturally folded state.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
A family of low molecular weight heat-shock proteins that can serve as MOLECULAR CHAPERONES.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
This amino acid is formed during the urea cycle from citrulline, aspartate and ATP. This reaction is catalyzed by argininosuccinic acid synthetase.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A group of crystallins that have been found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of certain species of VERTEBRATES including GUINEA PIGS; CAMELS; and LLAMAS. They are inactivated forms of NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE).
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A subfamily of small heat-shock proteins that are closely related to ALPHA B-CRYSTALLIN. Hsp20 heat-shock proteins can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIC GMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Conformational transitions of the shape of a protein to various unfolded states.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.
A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.
A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.

Characterization of a sodium deoxycholate-activatable proteinase activity associated with betaA3/A1-crystallin of human lenses. (1/42)

A human lens proteinase was purified by a five-step procedure that included two consecutive size-exclusion agarose A 1.5 m chromatographies, a preparative non-denaturing gel-electrophoretic separation, HPLC on a size-exclusion column (TSK G-3000 PW(XL)) followed by preparative isoelectric focusing. A 2300-fold purified enzyme showed a major band of 22 kDa during SDS-PAGE, a pH optimum of 7.8, pI between 4.5 and 5.0, a loss of activity above 45 degrees C and a serine type nature. The partial N-terminal sequence of the enzyme, i.e. P-M-P-G-S-L-G-P-W, matched with the sequence of human lens betaA3/A1-crystallin starting at residue No. 23. Based on the Western blot results of the enzyme with five different site-specific polyclonal antibodies raised against betaA3/A1-crystallin, it was concluded that the 22 kDa crystallin enzyme had a cleaved N-terminus but an intact C-terminus. The betaA3/A1-crystallin, isolated from human lenses, also exhibited proteinase activity following detergent activation and size-exclusion chromatography. The mouse recombinant betaA3/A1-crystallin proteinase was purified by the above five-step procedure, from a homogenate of Sf-9 cells transfected with baculovirus containing the full length coding sequence of betaA3/A1-crystallin. The mouse 22 kDa species also exhibited proteinase activity and immunoreactivity with anti-betaA3/A1-C-terminal antibody. Together, the data suggest that a truncated species of betaA3/A1-crystallin exhibits proteinase activity.  (+info)

Identification and properties of anti-chaperone-like peptides derived from oxidized bovine lens betaL-crystallins. (2/42)

Thermal aggregation of betaL-crystallin was higher in the presence of peptide fragments generated from oxidized and trypsin-digested betaL-crystallin compared with thermal aggregation of the control proteins without oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments. Increased aggregation of betaL-crystallin was also observed despite the presence of alpha-crystallin (which has anti-aggregating properties) in the system. Self-aggregation of the oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments per se was not observed under the experimental conditions. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of the precipitate obtained after heating a mixture of betaL-crystallin and oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments revealed that more than one peptide co-precipitates with betaL-crystallin. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides revealed that the molecular weight(s) of the peptides ranged from 1400-1800. Tandem mass spectrometry and a data base search revealed that two of the peptides originated from betaA4-crystallin (LTIFEQENFLGR, residues 121-132) and betaB3-crystallin (AINGTWVGYEFPGYR, residues 153-167) respectively. Oxidized synthetic peptides representing the same sequence were also found to enhance the aggregation of betaL-crystallin in a manner similar to oxidized lens betaL-crystallin peptides. These data suggest that the polypeptides generated after oxidation and proteolysis of betaL-crystallins interact with denaturing proteins and facilitate their aggregation and light scattering, thus behaving like anti-chaperones.  (+info)

Cleavage of the A site mRNA codon during ribosome pausing provides a mechanism for translational quality control. (3/42)

Cells employ many mechanisms to ensure quality control during protein biosynthesis. Here, we show that, during the pausing of a bacterial ribosome, the mRNA being translated is cleaved at a site within or immediately adjacent to the A site codon. The extent of this A site mRNA cleavage is correlated with the extent of ribosome pausing as assayed by tmRNA-mediated tagging of the nascent polypeptide. Cleavage does not require tmRNA, the ribosomal alarmone (p)ppGpp, or bacterial toxins such as RelE which have been shown to stimulate a similar activity. Translation is required for cleavage, suggesting that the ribosome participates in the reaction in some fashion. When normal protein synthesis is compromised, A site mRNA cleavage and the tmRNA system provide a mechanism for reducing translational errors and the production of aberrant and potentially harmful polypeptides.  (+info)

Characterization of the G91del CRYBA1/3-crystallin protein: a cause of human inherited cataract. (4/42)

Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual disability in children. Inherited isolated (non-syndromic) cataract represents a significant proportion of cases and the identification of genes responsible for inherited cataract will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of cataract formation at the molecular level both in congenital and age-related cataract. Crystallins are abundantly expressed in the developing human lens and represent excellent candidate genes for inherited cataract. A genome-wide search of a five-generation family with autosomal dominant lamellar cataract demonstrated linkage to the 17p12-q11 region. Screening of the CRYBA1/3 gene showed a 3 bp deletion, which resulted in a G91del mutation within the tyrosine corner, that co-segregated with disease and was not found in 96 normal controls. In order to understand the molecular basis of cataract formation, the mutant protein was expressed in vitro and its unfolding and refolding characteristics assessed using far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy. Defective folding and a reduction in solubility were found. As the wild-type protein did not refold into the native conformation following unfolding, a corresponding CRYBB2 mutant was genetically engineered and its refolding characteristics analysed and compared with wild-type CRYBB2. Its biophysical properties support the hypothesis that removal of the glycine residue from the tyrosine corner impairs the folding and solubility of beta-crystallin proteins. This study represents the first comprehensive description of the biophysical consequences of a mutant beta-crystallin protein that is associated with human inherited cataract.  (+info)

CRYBA3/A1 gene mutation associated with suture-sparing autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract: a novel phenotype. (5/42)

PURPOSE: To identify the genetic defect leading to the congenital nuclear cataract affecting a large five-generation Swiss family. METHODS: Family history and clinical data were recorded. The phenotype was documented by both slit lamp and Scheimpflug photography. One cortical lens was evaluated by electron microscopy after cataract extraction. Lenticular phenotyping and genotyping were performed independently with short tandem repeat polymorphism. Linkage analysis was performed, and candidate genes were PCR amplified and screened for mutations on both strands using direct sequencing. RESULTS: Affected individuals had a congenital nuclear lactescent cataract in both eyes. Linkage was observed on chromosome 17 for DNA marker D17S1857 (lod score: 3.44 at theta = 0). Direct sequencing of CRYBA3/A1, which maps to the vicinity, revealed an in-frame 3-bp deletion in exon 4 (279delGAG). This mutation involved a deletion of glycine-91, cosegregated in all affected individuals, and was not observed in unaffected individuals or in 250 normal control subjects from the same ethnic background. Electron microscopy showed that cortical lens fiber morphology was normal. CONCLUSIONS: The DeltaG91 mutation in CRYBA3/A1 is associated with an autosomal dominant congenital nuclear lactescent cataract. A splice mutation (IVS3+1G/A) in this gene has been reported in a zonular cataract with sutural opacities. These results indicate phenotypic heterogeneity related to mutations in this gene.  (+info)

Proteomic and sequence analysis of chicken lens crystallins reveals alternate splicing and translational forms of beta B2 and beta A2 crystallins. (6/42)

PURPOSE: To characterize the adult chicken lens proteome using mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). METHODS: Lens proteins from 10-week old chickens were separated by gel filtration and reversed-phase chromatography, and whole protein masses were measured with electrospray mass spectrometry. Water-soluble lens proteins were separated by 2-DE and identified by tandem mass spectrometry of in-gel digests. RESULTS: Whole protein masses were consistent with all major chicken lens crystallin sequences, except for beta B2 and beta B3. Subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed errors in published sequences translating into 2- and 7-amino-acid differences, respectively, for beta B2 and beta B3, which were in better agreement with the measured masses. Previously uncharacterized forms of beta A2 and beta B2 were observed. The novel form of beta A2 had four fewer amino acids, was more abundant, and resulted from translation at a second start codon. The novel form of beta B2 contained 14 additional amino acids in the interdomain linker and resulted from alternate splicing within intron 4 of the transcript. All examined crystallins, except beta A3, for which data could not be obtained, were N-terminally acetylated, and all beta-crystallins lacked an initial methionine, except for the smaller beta A2 form. In-gel digests identified 29 proteins on the 2-DE map and indicated that truncation occurs within N-terminal extensions of beta-crystallins during lens maturation. CONCLUSIONS: The complementary techniques 2-DE, mass spectrometry, and DNA sequencing were used to provide the most complete description of the adult chicken lens proteome to date and identified alternate forms of beta A2 and beta B2.  (+info)

Crystallins in water soluble-high molecular weight protein fractions and water insoluble protein fractions in aging and cataractous human lenses. (7/42)

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze crystallin fragments in the water soluble high molecular weight (WS-HMW) and in the water insoluble (WI) protein fractions of human cataractous (with nuclear opacity) and age matched normal lenses to determine the identity of crystallin species that show cataract specific changes such as truncation and post-translational modifications. Because these changes were cataract specific and not aging specific, the results were expected to provide information regarding potential mechanisms of age related cataract development. METHODS: The WS-alpha-crystallin, WS-HMW protein, and WI protein fractions were isolated from normal lenses of different ages and from cataractous lenses. The three fractions were subjected to two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis (IEF in the first dimension and SDS-PAGE in the second dimension). Individual spots from 2D gels were trypsin digested and the tryptic fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The 2D protein profiles of WS-alpha-crystallin fractions of normal human lenses showed an age related increase in the number of crystallin fragments. In young normal lenses, the WS-alpha-crystallin fragments were mostly C-terminally truncated, but in older lenses these were both N- and C-terminally truncated. The WS-HMW protein fraction from normal lenses contained mainly fragments of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin, whereas additional fragments of betaB1- and betaA3-crystallin were present in this fraction from cataractous lenses. Similarly, the WI proteins in normal lenses contained fragments of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin, but cataractous lenses contained additional fragments of betaA3- and betaB1-crystallin. The modifications identified in the WS-HMW and WI crystallin species of cataractous lenses were truncation, oxidation of Trp residues, and deamidation of Asn to Asp residues. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the components of WS-HMW and WI protein fractions of cataractous lenses differed from normal lenses. Selective insolubilization of fragments of betaA3/A1- and betaB1-crystallin occurred during cataract development compared to normal lenses. Further, the crystallin species of cataractous lenses showed increased truncation, deamidation of Asn to Asp residues, and oxidation of Trp residue.  (+info)

Intrasarcoplasmic amyloidosis impairs proteolytic function of proteasomes in cardiomyocytes by compromising substrate uptake. (8/42)

The presence of increased ubiquitinated proteins and amyloid oligomers in failing human hearts strikingly resembles the characteristic pathology in the brain of many neurodegenerative diseases. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for degradation of most cellular proteins and plays essential roles in virtually all cellular processes. UPS impairment by aberrant protein aggregation was previously shown in cell culture but remains to be demonstrated in intact animals. Mechanisms underlying the impairment are poorly understood. We report here that UPS proteolytic function is severely impaired in the heart of a mouse model of intrasarcoplasmic amyloidosis caused by cardiac-restricted expression of a human desmin-related myopathy-linked missense mutation of alphaB-crystallin (CryAB(R120G)). The UPS impairment was detected before cardiac hypertrophy, and failure became discernible, suggesting that defective protein turnover likely contributes to cardiac remodeling and failure in this model. Further analyses reveal that the impairment is likely attributable to insufficient delivery of substrate proteins into the 20S proteasomes, and depletion of key components of the 19S subcomplex may be responsible. The derangement is likely caused by aberrant protein aggregation rather than loss of function of the CryAB gene because UPS malfunction was not evident in CryAB-null hearts and inhibition of aberrant protein aggregation by Congo red or a heat shock protein significantly attenuated CryAB(R120G)-induced UPS malfunction in cultured cardiomyocytes. Because of the central role of the UPS in cell regulation and the high intrasarcoplasmic amyloidosis prevalence in failing human hearts, our data suggest a novel pathogenic process in cardiac disorders with abnormal protein aggregation.  (+info)

There are different types of cataracts, including:

1. Nuclear cataract: This is the most common type of cataract and affects the center of the lens.
2. Cortical cataract: This type of cataract affects the outer layer of the lens and can cause a "halo" effect around lights.
3. Posterior subcapsular cataract: This type of cataract affects the back of the lens and is more common in younger people and those with diabetes.
4. Congenital cataract: This type of cataract is present at birth and can be caused by genetic factors or other conditions.

Symptoms of cataracts can include:

* Blurred vision
* Double vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Glare
* Difficulty seeing at night
* Fading or yellowing of colors

Cataracts can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Treatment for cataracts typically involves surgery to remove the clouded lens and replace it with an artificial one called an intraocular lens (IOL). The type of IOL used will depend on the patient's age, visual needs, and other factors. In some cases, cataracts may be removed using a laser-assisted procedure.

In addition to surgery, there are also non-surgical treatments for cataracts, such as glasses or contact lenses, which can help improve vision. However, these treatments do not cure the underlying condition and are only temporary solutions.

It's important to note that cataracts are a common age-related condition and can affect anyone over the age of 40. Therefore, it's important to have regular eye exams to monitor for any changes in vision and to detect cataracts early on.

In summary, cataracts are a clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurred vision, double vision, sensitivity to light, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the clouded lens and replace it with an artificial one, but non-surgical treatments such as glasses or contact lenses may also be used. Regular eye exams are important for detecting cataracts early on and monitoring vision health.

1. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP): a group of degenerative diseases that affect the retina and cause progressive vision loss.
2. Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA): a rare inherited disorder that causes blindness or severe visual impairment at birth or in early childhood.
3. Stargardt disease: a genetic disorder that affects the retina and can cause progressive vision loss, usually starting in childhood.
4. Juvenile macular degeneration (JMD): a group of inherited conditions that affect the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision.
5. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV): a rare inherited condition where abnormal development of the eye can cause vision loss or blindness.
6. Anophthalmia/microphthalmia: a rare inherited condition where one or both eyes are absent or severely underdeveloped.
7. ocular albinism: a genetic condition that affects the development of pigment in the eye, leading to visual impairment and increased risk of eye conditions such as cataracts and glaucoma.
8. Peter's anomaly: a rare inherited condition where there is an abnormal development of the cornea and lens of the eye, leading to vision loss or blindness.
9. cone-rod dystrophy: a group of inherited conditions that affect the retina and can cause progressive vision loss, usually starting in childhood.
10. Retinal dystrophy: a general term for a group of inherited disorders that affect the retina and can cause progressive vision loss, usually starting in adulthood.

These are just a few examples of hereditary eye diseases. There are many other conditions that can be inherited and affect the eyes. Genetic testing and counseling can help identify the risk of inheriting these conditions and provide information on how to manage and treat them.

Anterior uveitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, autoimmune disorders, and trauma. It is often diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and laboratory tests to rule out other conditions. Treatment options for anterior uveitis depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and surgery to remove any affected tissue.

In summary, anterior uveitis is a type of inflammation that occurs in the front part of the eye, which can cause symptoms such as redness, pain, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. It can be caused by a variety of factors and diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests, and laboratory tests. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and surgery.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

1. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea that can cause it to bulge into a cone-like shape, leading to blurred vision and sensitivity to light.
2. Fuchs' dystrophy: This is a condition in which the cells in the innermost layer of the cornea become damaged, leading to clouding and blurred vision.
3. Bullous keratopathy: This is a condition in which there is a large, fluid-filled bubble on the surface of the cornea, which can cause blurred vision and discomfort.
4. Corneal ulcers: These are open sores on the surface of the cornea that can be caused by infection or other conditions.
5. Dry eye syndrome: This is a condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears, leading to dryness, irritation, and blurred vision.
6. Corneal abrasions: These are scratches on the surface of the cornea that can be caused by injury or other conditions.
7. Trachoma: This is an infectious eye disease that can cause scarring and blindness if left untreated.
8. Ocular herpes: This is a viral infection that can cause blisters on the surface of the cornea and lead to scarring and vision loss if left untreated.
9. Endophthalmitis: This is an inflammation of the inner layer of the eye that can be caused by bacterial or fungal infections, and can lead to severe vision loss if left untreated.
10. Corneal neovascularization: This is the growth of new blood vessels into the cornea, which can be a complication of other conditions such as dry eye syndrome or ocular trauma.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of corneal diseases that can affect the eyes. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms such as pain, redness, or blurred vision in one or both eyes. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and preserve vision.

Heavy chain disease is also known as:

* Heavy chain defect
* Immunoglobulin (IgG) heavy chain disease
* Kappa chain disease
* Lambda chain disease

The main causes of heavy chain disease include:

* Genetic mutations in the IGH genes that code for the heavy chains of immunoglobulins
* Autoantibodies against the heavy chains of immunoglobulins
* Infections such as HIV, which can lead to the overproduction of certain types of immunoglobulins

The symptoms of heavy chain disease can vary depending on the type of heavy chain that is affected and the severity of the disease. Some common symptoms include:

* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Fever
* Night sweats
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Enlarged spleen

Heavy chain disease can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:

* Blood tests to measure the levels of different types of immunoglobulins in the blood
* Genetic testing to identify genetic mutations in the IGH genes
* Immunophenotyping to study the expression of heavy chains on the surface of B cells

There is no cure for heavy chain disease, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Some common treatments include:

* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system
* Immunoglobulin therapy to replace deficient or abnormal immunoglobulins
* Chemotherapy to reduce the production of abnormal immunoglobulins

The prognosis for heavy chain disease varies depending on the type and severity of the disease. In general, the prognosis is good for patients with light chain disease who receive prompt and appropriate treatment. However, the prognosis is poorer for patients with heavy chain disease, particularly those with a high level of immunoglobulin M (IgM) production.

The causes of heavy chain disease are not well understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations in the IGH genes. There is no known prevention for heavy chain disease, and it is usually diagnosed in adults between the ages of 30 and 60.

Overall, heavy chain disease is a rare and complex disorder that can have a significant impact on quality of life. While there is no cure, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

There are several different types of uveitis, including:

1. Anterior uveitis: This type affects the front part of the eye and is the most common form of uveitis. It is often caused by an infection or injury.
2. Posterior uveitis: This type affects the back part of the eye and can be caused by a systemic disease such as sarcoidosis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
3. Intermediate uveitis: This type affects the middle layer of the eye and is often caused by an autoimmune disorder.
4. Panuveitis: This type affects the entire uvea and can be caused by a systemic disease such as vasculitis or Behçet's disease.

Symptoms of uveitis may include:

* Eye pain
* Redness and swelling in the eye
* Blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in your vision)
* Flashes of light

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see an eye doctor as soon as possible. Uveitis can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which may include imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for uveitis depends on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medication to reduce inflammation, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to remove any diseased tissue.

Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness. If you have uveitis, it is important to follow your doctor's recommendations for treatment and monitoring to protect your vision.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

Infertility can be classified into two main categories:

1. Primary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has not been able to conceive a child after one year of regular sexual intercourse, and there is no known cause for the infertility.
2. Secondary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has been able to conceive at least once before but is now experiencing difficulty in conceiving again.

There are several factors that can contribute to infertility, including:

1. Age: Women's fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 35.
2. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances of hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, and thyroid hormones can affect ovulation and fertility.
3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A common condition that affects ovulation and can cause infertility.
4. Endometriosis: A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Male factor infertility: Low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and blockages in the reproductive tract can all contribute to infertility.
6. Lifestyle factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, being overweight or underweight, and stress can all affect fertility.
7. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid disorders can affect fertility.
8. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities in the shape or structure of the uterus or cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
9. Previous surgeries: Surgeries such as hysterectomy, tubal ligation, and cesarean section can affect fertility.
10. Age: Both male and female age can impact fertility, with a decline in fertility beginning in the mid-30s and a significant decline after age 40.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical interventions or lifestyle changes, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider if you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant.

There are several types of amyloidosis, each with different causes and symptoms. The most common types include:

1. Primary amyloidosis: This type is caused by the production of abnormal proteins in the bone marrow. It mainly affects older adults and can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and numbness or tingling in the hands and feet.
2. Secondary amyloidosis: This type is caused by other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, or inflammatory bowel disease. It can also be caused by long-term use of certain medications, such as antibiotics or chemotherapy.
3. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy: This type is inherited and affects the nerves in the body, leading to symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, and pain.
4. Localized amyloidosis: This type affects a specific area of the body, such as the tongue or the skin.

The symptoms of amyloidosis can vary depending on the organs affected and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:

1. Fatigue
2. Weakness
3. Pain
4. Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
5. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
6. Difficulty with speech or swallowing
7. Seizures
8. Heart problems
9. Kidney failure
10. Liver failure

The diagnosis of amyloidosis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to measure the levels of certain proteins in the body, as well as biopsies to examine tissue samples under a microscope. Imaging studies, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, may be used to evaluate the organs affected by the condition.

There is no cure for amyloidosis, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Treatment options may include:

1. Medications to control symptoms such as pain, swelling, and heart problems
2. Chemotherapy to reduce the production of abnormal proteins
3. Autologous stem cell transplantation to replace damaged cells with healthy ones
4. Dialysis to remove excess fluids and waste products from the body
5. Nutritional support to ensure adequate nutrition and hydration
6. Physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and mobility
7. Supportive care to manage pain, improve quality of life, and reduce stress on the family.

In conclusion, amyloidosis is a complex and rare group of diseases that can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to managing the symptoms and slowing the progression of the disease. It is important for patients with suspected amyloidosis to seek medical attention from a specialist, such as a hematologist or nephrologist, for proper evaluation and treatment.

There are two main types of thalassemia: alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia. Alpha-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the alpha-globin chain, which is one of the two chains that make up hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the beta-globin chain.

Thalassemia can cause a range of symptoms, including anemia, fatigue, pale skin, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, liver failure, and bone deformities. Thalassemia is usually diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of hemoglobin and other proteins in the blood.

There is no cure for thalassemia, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, and medications to reduce the severity of anemia. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.

Preventive measures for thalassemia include genetic counseling and testing for individuals who are at risk of inheriting the disorder. Prenatal testing is also available for pregnant women who are carriers of the disorder. In addition, individuals with thalassemia should avoid marriage within their own family or community to reduce the risk of passing on the disorder to their children.

Overall, thalassemia is a serious and inherited blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. However, with proper treatment and management, individuals with thalassemia can lead fulfilling lives and minimize the risk of complications.

There are several types of gliomas, including:

1. Astrocytoma: This is the most common type of glioma, accounting for about 50% of all cases. It arises from the star-shaped cells called astrocytes that provide support and nutrients to the brain's nerve cells.
2. Oligodendroglioma: This type of glioma originates from the oligodendrocytes, which are responsible for producing the fatty substance called myelin that insulates the nerve fibers.
3. Glioblastoma (GBM): This is the most aggressive and malignant type of glioma, accounting for about 70% of all cases. It is fast-growing and often spreads to other parts of the brain.
4. Brain stem glioma: This type of glioma arises in the brain stem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.

The symptoms of glioma depend on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in personality, memory, or speech.

Gliomas are diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and tissue biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for glioma depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

The prognosis for glioma patients varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing, low-grade tumors, while those with fast-growing, high-grade tumors have a poorer prognosis. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for glioma patients is around 30-40%.

Plasmacytoma is a type of plasma cell dyscrasia, which is a group of diseases that affect the production and function of plasma cells. Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to fight infections. In plasmacytoma, the abnormal plasma cells grow and multiply out of control, leading to a tumor.

There are several subtypes of plasmacytoma, including:

* solitary plasmacytoma: A single tumor that occurs in one location.
* multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the bones and is characterized by an overgrowth of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow.
* extramedullary plasmacytoma: A tumor that occurs outside of the bone marrow, such as in soft tissue or organs.

Plasmacytoma is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and biopsy. Treatment typically involves chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to destroy the abnormal cells. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the tumor.

Plasmacytoma is a relatively rare cancer, but it can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if left untreated. It is important for patients with symptoms of plasmacytoma to seek medical attention as soon as possible to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can vary from person to person and may progress slowly over time. Early symptoms may include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with problem-solving. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience language difficulties, visual hallucinations, and changes in mood and behavior.

There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but there are several medications and therapies that can help manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include cholinesterase inhibitors, memantine, and non-pharmacological interventions such as cognitive training and behavioral therapy.

Alzheimer's disease is a significant public health concern, affecting an estimated 5.8 million Americans in 2020. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is expected to continue to increase as the population ages.

There is ongoing research into the causes and potential treatments for Alzheimer's disease, including studies into the role of inflammation, oxidative stress, and the immune system. Other areas of research include the development of biomarkers for early detection and the use of advanced imaging techniques to monitor progression of the disease.

Overall, Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial disorder that poses significant challenges for individuals, families, and healthcare systems. However, with ongoing research and advances in medical technology, there is hope for improving diagnosis and treatment options in the future.

Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... de Jong WW, Terwindt EC, Bloemendal H (1976). "The amino acid sequence of the A chain of human alpha-crystallin". FEBS Lett. 58 ...
... alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.200 - beta-crystallin ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - ... beta-2 microglobulin MeSH D12.776.377.715.182.160 - beta- ...
"Autosomal dominant cerulean cataract is associated with a chain termination mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYBB2 ... This gene, a beta basic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B1, and beta-B3. A chain-terminating ... "Linkage between the beta B2 and beta B3 crystallin genes in man and rat: a remnant of an ancient beta-crystallin gene cluster ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein ... Alpha B chain crystallins (αBC) can be induced by heat shock, ischemia, and oxidation, and are members of the small heat shock ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ...
... encoding alpha-1 chain of collagen XVIII CRYAA: encoding alpha-crystallin A chain CRYZL1: Crystallin zeta-like 1 CXADR: ... encoding interferon alpha/beta receptor 1 IFNAR2: encoding interferon alpha/beta receptor 2 IFNGR1: encoding interferon gamma ... encoding enzyme beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase 5 BACE2: encoding enzyme beta-secretase 2 BACH1: encoding transcription factor ... encoding alpha-1 chain of collagen VI COL6A2: encoding alpha-2 chain of collagen VI COL18A1: ...
... rho crystallin, and many others. All possess a similar structure, with a beta-alpha-beta fold characteristic of nucleotide ... Some proteins of this family contain a potassium channel beta chain regulatory domain; these are reported to have ... The binding site is located in a large, deep, elliptical pocket in the C-terminal end of the beta sheet, the substrate being ... Gulbis JM, Zhou M, Mann S, MacKinnon R (July 2000). "Structure of the cytoplasmic beta subunit-T1 assembly of voltage-dependent ...
... alpha 1 Crystallin, beta A1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclin A1 Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1 Defensin, ... a portion of the cholera toxin chain alleles A1, an allele in the DRD2 TaqI polymorphism that could be involved in alcoholism ( ... DQ alpha 1 Myosin light chain A1, an actin-binding protein NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), alpha 1 Nucleolar protein, member ...
The yeast killer toxin structure was thought to be a precursor of the two-domain beta gamma-crystallin proteins, because of its ... is a double-chain inhibitor consisting of an 11-residue and a 41-residue chain. The Carboxypeptidase inhibitor I68 family ... with two alpha-helices and four beta-strands with a (beta/alpha/beta)x2 topology. The peptidase inhibitor I9 family contains ... SMPI is composed of two beta-sheets, each consisting of four antiparallel beta-strands. The structure can be considered as two ...
Crystallin zeta CYP4B1 (1p33) CYR61 (1p22) DBT: dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 DCLRE1B: DNA cross-link repair ... beta; acid (includes glucosylceramidase) (gene for Gaucher disease) GBAP1: glucosylceramidase beta pseudogene 1 GLC1A: gene for ... beta 3, 31kDa (connexin 31) GLMN (1p22) GNL2: G protein nucleolar 2 GSTM1 (1p13) HDAC1 (1p35) HES2: Hes family bHLH ... heavy chain 14 DUSP10 (1q41) DUSP27: encoding protein Dual specificity phosphatase 27 (putative) ECM1 (1q21) EDEM3: ER ...
4-beta-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.600 - glucan endo-1,3-beta-d-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.375 - glucan ... cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.811.600.250 - electron transport chain complex proteins MeSH D08.811.600.250. ... delta-crystallins MeSH D08.811.520.232.400 - ammonia-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.200 - aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811 ... 4-beta-cellobiosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.450 - endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.500 - glucan 1 ...
"Myxococcus xanthus spore coat protein S may have a similar structure to vertebrate lens beta gamma-crystallins". Nature. 315 ( ... However, these binding sites were based on a cluster analysis of side-chain oxygen atoms and on results from site-directed ... "Structural similarity of a developmentally regulated bacterial spore coat protein to beta gamma-crystallins of the vertebrate ... The domains share high similarity with other crystallin proteins. Protein S binds two 2 mol of calcium per mol of protein with ...
The translation of reticulocyte 9S RNA in frog oocytes gives rise to alpha and beta globin chains. Communication to FEBS ... Berns, A. J. M.; Kraaikamp, M. Van; Bloemendal, H.; Lane, C. D. (1972). "Calf Crystallin Synthesis in Frog Cells: The ...
δ-crystallins are the major structural eye lens water-soluble proteins of most birds, reptiles, and some other vertebrates. ... Domain 2 contains one small beta sheet, nine alpha helices, and the carboxyl terminus. Three of the nine alpha helices on one ... ASL is composed of four identical monomers; each monomer consisting of a single polypeptide chain between 49 and 52 kDa, ... ASL, δ-crystallin, class II fumarase, aspartase, adenylosuccinase lyase, and 3-carboxy-cis and cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme ...
"Induction of tau pathology by intracerebral infusion of amyloid-beta -containing brain extract and by amyloid-beta deposition ... Ecroyd H, Carver JA (January 2009). "Crystallin proteins and amyloid fibrils". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 66 (1): 62 ... Badar T, D'Souza A, Hari P (2018). "Recent advances in understanding and treating immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis". ... Wisniewski HM, Sadowski M, Jakubowska-Sadowska K, Tarnawski M, Wegiel J (July 1998). "Diffuse, lake-like amyloid-beta deposits ...
Beta cell (secretes insulin and amylin) Delta cell (secretes somatostatin) Epsilon cell (secretes ghrelin) PP cell (gamma cell ... Intermediate skeletal muscle cell Nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle Nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle Myosatellite cell ( ... Medium spiny neurons Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Ependymal cells Tanycytes Pituicytes Anterior lens epithelial cell Crystallin- ...
The N-terminal domain I (aa ~1-195) contains attachment sites for HS chains. Although HS chains are not required for correct ... This role for perlecan in beta-amyloid plaque generation is supported by an earlier study showing that perlecan and beta- ... To this end, a transgenic mouse line was created expressing porcine TGF-β1 under the lens-specific αA-crystallin promoter and ... Domain V also has attachment sites for HS/CS chains. Thus, perlecan core protein and HS chains could modulate matrix assembly, ...
Silva, R.A.G.D., *Nguyen, J.Y., and Decatur, S.M. (2002) "Probing the Effects of Side Chains on the Conformation and Stability ... Phi Beta Kappa (elected 1990) Sigma Xi (elected 1990) Op-ed pieces on higher education "The Winner - A Liberal Education," New ... "Formation of Amyloid Fibrils in Vitro by Human γd-crystallin and its Isolated Domains," Molecular Vision 14:81-89. Decatur, S.M ... "Twodimensional IR Spectroscopy and Segmental 13C Labeling reveals the Domain Structure of Human γδ-crystallin amyloid fibrils ...
Also in the 1970s, physicists Tanaka & Benedek at MIT identified phase-separation behaviour of gamma-crystallin proteins from ... Schaefer KN, Peifer M (February 2019). "Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Regulation and a Role for Biomolecular Condensates". ... biopolymers via short patches of interacting residues patterned along their unstructured chain, which collectively promote LLPS ... including cross-beta polymerisation), and/or protein domains that induce head-to-tail oligomeric or polymeric clustering, might ...
... a proline occurs at position 67 in the chain of amino acids that make up the A2 beta-casein, while in A1 beta-casein a ... Milk Casein and Lens Crystallin Proteins", Protein Nanotechnology, Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, vol. 996, pp. 103-117, doi:10.1007 ... beta-casomorphin-7, (BCM-7) can be released by digestion of A1-beta-casein. The A1 beta-casein type is the most common type ... A1 and A2 beta-casein are genetic variants of the beta-casein milk protein that differ by one amino acid; ...
Oligomerization is a chemical process that converts individual molecules into a chain consisting of a finite number of ... "Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ... Amyloid beta can be measured semiquantitatively with immunostaining, which also allows one to determine location. Amyloid beta ... By NMR-guided simulations, amyloid beta 1-40 and amyloid beta 1-42 also seem to feature highly different conformational states ...
free light chains (FLC). Several authors have reported that they are comparable or even better than oligoclonal bands. Multiple ... Bsibsi M, Holtman IR, Gerritsen WH, Eggen BJ, Boddeke E, van der Valk P, van Noort JM, Amor S (2013). "Alpha-B-Crystallin ... in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with interferon beta". Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 108 (2): 124-8. ...
The cause is lens hardening by decreasing levels of alpha-crystallin, a process which may be sped up by higher temperatures. ... The authors propose that mtDNA mutations lead to respiratory-chain-deficient cells and thence to apoptosis and cell loss. They ... "Age-Related Loss of Innate Immune Antimicrobial Function of Dermal Fat Is Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor Beta". ... the Growth hormone/Insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling pathway the activity levels of the electron transport chain in ...
alpha-crystallin B chain. *crystallin, alpha B. *heat shock protein beta-5 ... From NCBI Gene: Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families. Alpha crystallins are composed of ... Alpha crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (HSP20) family. They act as ... Elevated expression of alpha-B crystallin occurs in many neurological diseases; a missense mutation cosegregated in a family ...
The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.. Entry Term(s). Crystallins, beta B Chain beta B-Crystallin beta-Crystallin Basic ... Crystallins [D12.776.306.366] * beta-Crystallins [D12.776.306.366.300] * beta-Crystallin A Chain [D12.776.306.366.300.100] ... The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.. Terms. beta-Crystallin B Chain Preferred Term Term UI T483523. Date02/26/2002. ... 2003; for BETA-CRYSTALLIN BASIC PRINCIPAL POLYPEPTIDE see CRYSTALLINS 1990-2002. History Note. 2003; for BETA-CRYSTALLIN BASIC ...
One such model is the Nuc1 rat model that arose from a spontaneous mutation in the Cryba1 (crystallin, beta 1) gene and ... microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MKI67: antigen identified by monoclonal antibody Ki 67; MTORC1: mechanistic ... crystallin, beta A1; DAPI: 46-diamino-2-phenylindole; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3- ... ABBREVIATIONS: ACTB: actin, beta; CCND3: cyclin 3; CDK6: cyclin-dependent kinase 6; CHQ: chloroquine; COL4A1: collagen, type IV ...
The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.. Entry Term(s). Crystallins, beta A Chain beta A-Crystallin beta-Crystallin, A Subunit ... Crystallins [D12.776.306.366] * beta-Crystallins [D12.776.306.366.300] * beta-Crystallin A Chain [D12.776.306.366.300.100] ... The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.. Terms. beta-Crystallin A Chain Preferred Term Term UI T483489. Date02/26/2002. ... Crystallins, beta A Chain Term UI T483673. Date02/27/2002. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2003). ...
... beta-Crystallin B-Crystallin, beta Crystallins, beta B Chain beta B Crystallin beta B-Crystallin beta Crystallin B Chain beta- ... B Chain, beta-Crystallin. B-Crystallin, beta. Crystallins, beta B Chain. beta B Crystallin. beta B-Crystallin. beta Crystallin ... 2003; for BETA-CRYSTALLIN BASIC PRINCIPAL POLYPEPTIDE see CRYSTALLINS 1990-2002. History Note:. 2003; for BETA-CRYSTALLIN BASIC ... beta-Crystallin B Chain Entry term(s). B Chain, ... beta-Crystallin B Chain Descriptor Spanish: Cadena B de beta- ...
A Antibodies N0000171153 Hepatitis A Antigens N0000169031 beta-Crystallin A Chain N0000169036 alpha-Crystallin A Chain ... beta-1b N0000183454 HLA-DR beta-Chains N0000183520 HLA-DQ beta-Chains N0000183522 HLA-DP beta-Chains N0000167855 Dopamine beta- ... beta-Hexosaminidase beta Chain N0000168744 Integrin beta Chains N0000175249 Lymphotoxin beta Receptor N0000168268 Q beta ... Crystallins N0000169028 omega-Crystallins N0000169029 beta-Crystallins N0000169032 tau-Crystallins N0000169033 zeta-Crystallins ...
A Chain, beta-Crystallin use beta-Crystallin A Chain A Chain, Ricin use Ricin ... A Subunit beta-Crystallin use beta-Crystallin A Chain A T Protein use Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins ...
Alpha-crystallin B chain. STATSLs*PF. S45. +. Q9WU82. Ctnnb1. Catenin beta-1. DKPQDYKKRLs*VE. S675. +. ... Alpha-crystallin B chain. APs*WIDTGLSEMR. S59. +. P23928. Cryab. ... AP-2 complex subunit beta. APs*PTPAVVSSGLNDLF. S680. +. P62944 ... Dynein heavy chain 1, axonemal. QGHVkcTEFQLPRFTGALALSRntRAkRGsQE. +. Q7TQ20. Dnajc2. DnaJ homolog subfamily C member 2. ... Coatomer subunit beta. AtAQQEPDGKPAssPVIMAsQttHKEEK. +. +. Q63135. Cr1l. Complement component receptor 1-like protein. ...
Alpha B Crystallin Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Alpha-Fetoprotein ALS Amyloid beta Amyloid Precursor Protein Androstenedione ... Immunoglobulin Free Light Chains Kappa and Lambda Insulin Interleukin-1 alpha Interleukin-1 beta Interleukin-1 Receptor ... TNF-beta TNF-R (60 kDa) TNF-R (80 kDa) t-PA TRACP 5 TRAIL Transferrin receptor TRAP 5 Triiodothyronine TSH Receptor ...
","Ribonuclease [Ensembl]. Beta-Casp domain, Metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily, Zn-dependent metallo-hydrolase RNA specificity ... ","NADH dehydrogenase I chain E [Ensembl]. Thioredoxin-like [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin [Interproscan].","protein_coding" "AAL21366"," ... ","heat shock chaperone [Ensembl]. Hsp20/alpha crystallin family [Interproscan].","protein_coding" "AAC76858","dsbA"," ... ","metallo-beta-lactamase family protein [Ensembl]. Metallo-beta-lactamase [Interproscan].","protein_coding" "AKI50222","L2625_ ...
crystallin beta-gamma domain containin.... ALOX5AP. 241. ALOX5AP. arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activating.... ... clathrin heavy chain [Source:HGNC Symb.... CNGA1. 1259. CNGA1. cyclic nucleotide gated channel subuni.... ... Conclusion: T1D and T2D likely share a final common pathway for beta cell dysfunction that includes secretion of interleukin-1 ... and prostaglandins by immune effector cells, exacerbating existing beta cell dysfunction, and causing further hyperglycemia. ...
The mouse beta B1-crystallin promoter: strict regulation of lens fiber cell specificity.. Chen WV; Fielding Hejtmancik J; ... 3. Identification of two novel human dynein light chain genes, DNLC2A and DNLC2B, and their expression changes in ... 9. Characterization of gammaS-crystallin isoforms from a catfish: evolutionary comparison of various gamma-, gammaS-, and beta- ... evolutionary comparison between gamma S and beta/gamma crystallins.. Pan FM; Chuang MH; Chiou SH. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; ...
... and beta-chains have reacted with cyanate, (ii) alpha(c) (2)beta(2), in which the alpha-amino groups of the alpha-chains have ... polypeptide chain. PMID- 5165919 TI - C-terminal amino acid sequence of bovine -crystallin. PMID- 5165920 TI - [Lasers in ... 2. The values of n (the Hill constant) for alpha(c) (2)beta(c) (2), alpha(2)beta(c) (2) and alpha(c) (2)beta(2) were ( ... reacted with cyanate, and (iii) alpha(2)beta(c) (2), in which the two alpha-amino groups of the beta-chain have reacted with ...
... beta-Crystallin A Chain beta-Crystallin B Chain beta-Crystallins beta-Cyclodextrins beta-Defensins beta-Endorphin beta- ... Beryllium beta 2-Glycoprotein I beta 2-Microglobulin beta Carotene beta Catenin beta Karyopherins Beta Rays Beta Rhythm Beta ... beta-Lactam Resistance beta-Lactamases beta-Lactams beta-Lipotropin beta-Mannosidase beta-Mannosidosis beta-MSH beta-N-Acetyl- ... beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase beta-Naphthoflavone beta-Synuclein beta-Thalassemia beta-Thromboglobulin beta-Tocopherol beta- ...
Beta-Cryptoxanthin beta-Crystallin A Chain beta-Crystallin B Chain beta-Crystallins beta-Cyclodextrins beta-Defensins beta- ... beta-Globins Beta-Globulins beta-Glucans beta-Glucosidase beta-Hexosaminidase alpha Chain beta-Hexosaminidase beta Chain beta- ... beta-Lactamases beta-Lactams beta-Lipotropin beta-Mannosidase beta-Mannosidosis beta-MSH beta-N-Acetyl-Galactosaminidase beta-N ... beta 2-Glycoprotein I beta 2-Microglobulin beta Carotene beta Catenin beta Karyopherins Beta Particles Beta Rhythm Beta ...
Nuclear receptor ror-beta. 13 Select filter option. Ion channel. 11 Select filter option. H (Eag) subfamily. 10 Select filter ... Nuclear receptor ROR-beta (Q92753). 13 Select filter option. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (P10635). 10 Select filter option. Potassium ... Oxysterols receptor lxr-beta. 4 Select filter option. G-protein coupled receptor 183. 3 Select filter option. Nuclear receptor ... Oxysterols receptor LXR-beta (P55055). 4 Select filter option. G-protein coupled receptor 183 (P32249). 3 Select filter option ...
Acyl chain remodeling of CL. 1 Select filter option. Beta oxidation of butanoyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. 1 Select filter option. Beta ... Lambda-crystallin homolog. 1 Select filter option. Methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase, mitochondrial. 1 Select filter option. ... Beta oxidation of octanoyl-CoA to hexanoyl-CoA. 2 Select filter option. Branched-chain amino acid catabolism. 2 Select filter ... Beta oxidation of decanoyl-CoA to octanoyl-CoA-CoA. 2 Select filter option. Beta oxidation of hexanoyl-CoA to butanoyl-CoA. 2 ...
B2 Microglobulin Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain having a molecular mass of 11.76 ... Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic ... Human Beta 2 microglobulin levels can rise either because its rate of synthesis has increased (e.g. in AIDS, malignant ... 2 microglobulin associates with class I-like molecules such as CD1 and Qa as well as with the alpha chain of MHC class I ...
The lens crystallins, alpha, beta and gamma, brand up complete ninety per cent of these protein. other protein include ... Mitochondrial superoxide, formed aside the incomplete reduction of oxygen in the electron transmit chain, be quickly convert to ... the β-crystallins ) and, indium the case of the γ-crystallins, ampere monomer. The high concentration of these protein in life ... association and interaction between the crystallin and non-crystallin protein, such deoxyadenosine monophosphate actin and the ...
Human ζ-crystallin is a Zn(2+)-lacking medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) included in the quinone oxidoreductase (QOR) ... If the carbons alpha and beta to it are not saturated (for instance, if the carbonyl is on an aromatic ring), the C=O stretch ... Medium- to long-chain saturated aldehydes are preferred substrates, while the short-chain aldehyde propanal is a weak substrate ... Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed). ...
... with the greatest numbers of peptide spectrum matches observed for beta-crystallin, alpha-crystallin, phakinin, and gamma- ... reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and cataract surgery outcomes of Ebola survivors in Sierra Leone. EBioMedicine ... crystallin proteins. We observed no EBOV-specific peptide sequences. By 1 month after cataract surgery, visual acuity in the ...
A number of components of the mycobacterial cell wall such as glycopeptidolipids, short chain mycolic acids, monomeromycolyl ... These findings strongly support that short chain mycolic acids are a component of ECM [27]. The role of lipids in biofilm ... Aloni Y, Delmer DP, Benziman M (1982). Achievement of high rates of in vitro synthesis of 1,4-beta-D-glucan: activation by ... an alpha-crystallin orthologue that promotes biofilm formation. Mol Microbiol 78(5): 1216-1231. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010. ...
Vasiliou V, Thompson DC, Smith C, Fujita M and Chen Y. Aldehyde dehydrogenases: from eye crystallins to metabolic disease and ... Oshimori N, Oristian D and Fuchs E. TGF-beta promotes heterogeneity and drug resistance in squamous cell carcinoma. Cell. 2015 ... Zhu X, Bidlingmaier S, Hashizume R, James CD, Berger MS and Liu B. Identification of internalizing human single-chain ... discovered an internalizing human single chain antibody with activity in binding and anti-proliferation effect to brain ...
TGF-beta inhibits proliferation and differentiation in the virgin mammary gland by a Smad3-independent pathway ... Transcriptional Activation of the Nonmuscle Myosin II Heavy Chain-A Gene by E-box Binding Proteins TFEC and TFE3 ... The transcriptional regulation of two putative corneal crystallins in the rabbit: ALDH1 and TKT ... Hypertrophy and Abnormal Cytokinesis in Cardiac Myocytes of Nonmuscle Myosin Heavy Chain II-B (NMHC-IIB)-ablated Mice ...
","Oryzain alpha chain OS=Oryza sativa subsp. japonica (sp,p25776,orya_orysj : 335.0) & Enzyme classification.EC_3 hydrolases. ... ","alpha-crystallin domain 32.1","protein_coding" "AT1G06645","No alias","Arabidopsis thaliana","2-oxoglutarate (2OG) and Fe(II ... ","alpha/beta-Hydrolases superfamily protein","protein_coding" "AT5G23240","No alias","Arabidopsis thaliana","DNAJ heat shock N ... ","Short-chain dehydrogenase TIC 32, chloroplastic OS=Arabidopsis thaliana (sp,a2rvm0,tic32_arath : 110.0)","protein_coding" " ...
Crystallin. *Cystatin. *Cytokeratin. *DNA-Damage Protein. *Dynein Light Chain. *Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein ... Beta-Nerve Growth Factor *Ciliary-Neurotrophic Factor *Glia Maturation Factor *Pigment Epithelium-Derived ...
For example, the effects of one class of products that is referred to as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric ... Aggregates consisting of amyloid beta (Aβ, derived from the APP protein) or hyperphosphorylated Tau are considered the major ... crystallins (cataracts), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (cystic fibrosis) and many others. Pathology- ...
  • The basic subunit of beta-crystallins. (nih.gov)
  • 2. Sequence analysis of frog alpha-crystallin cDNA and its deduced primary structure: comparison of alpha A subunit chains among different vertebrate species. (nih.gov)
  • From NCBI Gene: Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Sequence characterization of gamma-crystallins from lip shark (Chiloscyllium colax): existence of two cDNAs encoding gamma-crystallins of mammalian and teleostean classes. (nih.gov)
  • As the main structural protein in the mammalian lens, ßB1-crystallin has an important role in the maintenance of lens transparency. (bvsalud.org)
  • Alpha crystallins can be induced by heat shock and are members of the small heat shock protein (HSP20) family. (nih.gov)
  • The method is illustrated for a two-domain 177-amino-acid protein, S crystallin, using an experimental SAXS data set fitted at resolutions from 200 Å to 30 Å. (nih.gov)
  • Our results reveal low solubility and structural stability of ßB1-L116P at physiological temperature, which markedly impaired the protein structure and the oligomerization of ßB1-crystallin. (bvsalud.org)
  • The ß-crystallin protein family is the richest and most soluble structural protein in the lens. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, it is the only protein of the ßγ-crystallin family that has been found in an extended conformation. (bvsalud.org)
  • 6. Characterization of gamma-crystallin from the eye lens of bullfrog: complexity of gamma-crystallin multigene family as revealed by sequence comparison among different amphibian species. (nih.gov)
  • 12. Homology modeling of rho-crystallin from bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) lens. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Purification and characterization of rho-crystallin from Japanese common bullfrog lens. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Taxon-specific zeta -crystallin in Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica) lens. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Structural similarity of bovine lung prostaglandin F synthase to lens epsilon-crystallin of the European common frog. (nih.gov)
  • indiana some person, the steady collection of chromophore and complex, insoluble crystallin aggregate indium the lens nucleus moderate to the formation of deoxyadenosine monophosphate brown nuclear cataract. (chickgolden.com)
  • Congenital cataract, a common disease with lens opacification, causes blindness in the newborn worldwide and is mainly caused by abnormal aggregation of crystallin. (bvsalud.org)
  • Human ßB2-crystallin (HßB2C) is found in high proportion in the eye lens, and its mutations are related to some cataracts. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3. Sequence analysis of frog alpha B-crystallin cDNA: sequence homology and evolutionary comparison of alpha A, alpha B and heat shock proteins. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, a wide variety of native proteins exhibited induced CR circular dichroism indicating that CR bound to representative proteins from different classes of secondary structure such as alpha (citrate synthase), alpha + beta (lysozyme), beta (concavalin A), and parallel beta-helical proteins (pectate lyase). (nih.gov)
  • The cataract disease is correlated with conformational changes in key proteins called crystallins. (bvsalud.org)
  • Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene products: alpha-A and alpha-B, for acidic and basic, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Sequence analysis of four acidic beta-crystallin subunits of amphibian lenses: phylogenetic comparison between beta- and gamma-crystallins. (nih.gov)
  • B2 Microglobulin Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain having a molecular mass of 11.76 kDa.The B2M is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (neobiolab.com)
  • 8. Characterization of gamma-crystallin from a catfish: structural characterization of one major isoform with high methionine by cDNA sequencing. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Sequence analysis of one major basic beta-crystallin (beta Bp) of amphibian lenses: evolutionary comparison and phylogenetic relatedness between beta- and gamma-crystallins. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Characterization of gammaS-crystallin isoforms from a catfish: evolutionary comparison of various gamma-, gammaS-, and beta-crystallins. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Characterization of gamma S-crystallin isoforms from lip shark (Chiloscyllium colax): evolutionary comparison between gamma S and beta/gamma crystallins. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Characterization of gamma-crystallins from a hybrid teleostean fish: multiplicity of isoforms as revealed by cDNA sequence analysis. (nih.gov)
  • crystallin beta-gamma domain containin. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • More importantly, the L116P mutation increased susceptibility of ßB1-crystallin against UV radiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, the W151R mutation enhanced the exposure of the hydrophobic side chains in the fourth Greek Key motif, which were readily degraded by trypsin. (bvsalud.org)
  • 9. Facile cloning and sequence analysis of goose delta-crystallin gene based on polymerase chain reaction. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Sequence analysis of pigeon delta-crystallin gene and its deduced primary structure. (nih.gov)
  • Two additional functions of alpha crystallins are an autokinase activity and participation in the intracellular architecture. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Characterization, cloning, and expression of porcine alpha B crystallin. (nih.gov)
  • Hsp20/alpha crystallin family [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • 2 microglobulin associates with class I-like molecules such as CD1 and Qa as well as with the alpha chain of MHC class I molecules. (neobiolab.com)
  • 1. Sequence analysis of frog rho-crystallin by cDNA cloning and sequencing: a member of the aldo-keto reductase family. (nih.gov)
  • A selected Conduction of aortic disease in fibers will participate to congestive and more beta experiences in the Summary of been failure sequence. (worldclassbows.com)
  • Therefore, we hypothesize that the extended conformation is not energetically favourable and that HßB2C may adopt a closed (completely folded) conformation, similar to the other members of the ßγ-crystallin family. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inclusion of these data during structure refinement decreases the backbone coordinate root-mean-square difference between the derived model and the high-resolution crystal structure of a 54% homologous B crystallin from 1.96 ( 0.07 Å to 1.31 ( 0.04 Å. (nih.gov)
  • CD8 T cells cannot develop in the absence of MHC class I.Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinaemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants. (neobiolab.com)
  • Human Beta 2 microglobulin levels can rise either because its rate of synthesis has increased (e.g. in AIDS, malignant monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia, solid tumors and autoimmune disease) or because of impaired renal filtration (e.g. due to renal insufficiency, graft rejection or nephrotoxicity induced by post-transplantation immunosuppressive therapy). (neobiolab.com)
  • Amyloid fibrils from insulin and the variable domain of Ig light chain demonstrate induced CD spectra upon binding to Congo red. (nih.gov)
  • A number of components of the mycobacterial cell wall such as glycopeptidolipids, short chain mycolic acids, monomeromycolyl diacylglycerol, etc. have been shown to play an important role in formation of pellicle biofilms. (microbialcell.com)
  • Conclusion: T1D and T2D likely share a final common pathway for beta cell dysfunction that includes secretion of interleukin-1? (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Comparison of avian delta-crystallins with and without endogenous argininosuccinate lyase activity. (nih.gov)
  • Surprisingly, the native conformations of insulin and Ig light chain also induced Congo red circular dichroism, but with different spectral shapes than those from fibrils. (nih.gov)
  • Abcam ab74008 Mouse monoclonal [G88] to Kappa light chain 125ug 3996 Kappa light chain 抗体 一抗 Dog,Ferret,Fox,Mink (Mustela). (thesixteendigital.com)
  • and prostaglandins by immune effector cells, exacerbating existing beta cell dysfunction, and causing further hyperglycemia. (gsea-msigdb.org)
  • Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. (neobiolab.com)
  • Inclusion of these data during structure refinement decreases the backbone coordinate root-mean-square difference between the derived model and the high-resolution crystal structure of a 54% homologous B crystallin from 1.96 ( 0.07 Å to 1.31 ( 0.04 Å. (nih.gov)
  • Two additional functions of alpha crystallins are an autokinase activity and participation in the intracellular architecture. (nih.gov)
  • 9. mTORC1 and mTORC2 Complexes Regulate the Untargeted Metabolomics and Amino Acid Metabolites Profile through Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Functions in Pancreatic Beta Cells. (nih.gov)
  • Increased line width resulting from slower majority of the resonances necessary for defining the requisite rotational diffusion leads to a decrease in signal-to-noise ratio, side-chain-mediated interdomain NOE contacts. (nih.gov)

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