Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.beta-Crystallin B Chain: The basic subunit of beta-crystallins.beta-Crystallin A Chain: The acidic subunit of beta-crystallins.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.gamma-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of VERTEBRATES. Gamma-crystallins are similar in structure to BETA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both form into a Greek key-like structure. They are composed of monomeric subunits.beta-Crystallins: A class of crystallins that provides refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Beta-crystallins are similar in structure to GAMMA-CRYSTALLINS in that they both contain Greek key motifs. Beta-crystallins exist as oligomers formed from acidic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN) and basic (BETA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN) subunits.alpha-Crystallin A Chain: One of the subunits of alpha-crystallins. Unlike ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN the expression of ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN is limited primarily to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE).alpha-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins that provides the majority of refractive power and translucency to the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in VERTEBRATES. Alpha-crystallins also act as molecular chaperones that bind to denatured proteins, keep them in solution and thereby maintain the translucency of the lens. The proteins exist as large oligomers that are formed from ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN A CHAIN and ALPHA-CRYSTALLIN B CHAIN subunits.alpha-Crystallin B Chain: One of the alpha crystallin subunits. In addition to being expressed in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE), alpha-crystallin B chain has been found in a variety of tissues such as HEART; BRAIN; MUSCLE; and KIDNEY. Accumulation of the protein in the brain is associated with NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES such as CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME and ALEXANDER DISEASE.delta-Crystallins: A subclass of crystallins found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) in BIRDS and REPTILES. They are inactive forms of the enzyme argininosuccinate lyase.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Argininosuccinate Lyase: An enzyme of the urea cycle which splits argininosuccinate to fumarate plus arginine. Its absence leads to the metabolic disease ARGININOSUCCINIC ACIDURIA in man. EC 4.3.2.1.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under conditions in which the components, such as PROTEINS, being separated can remain in their naturally folded state.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Heat-Shock Proteins, Small: A family of low molecular weight heat-shock proteins that can serve as MOLECULAR CHAPERONES.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Eye ProteinsBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.DucksSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Lens Nucleus, Crystalline: The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Argininosuccinic Acid: This amino acid is formed during the urea cycle from citrulline, aspartate and ATP. This reaction is catalyzed by argininosuccinic acid synthetase.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Eye Diseases, Hereditary: Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Scyphozoa: The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Mice, Inbred C57BLProtein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.HMGB Proteins: A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Lens Cortex, Crystalline: The portion of the crystalline lens surrounding the nucleus and bound anteriorly by the epithelium and posteriorly by the capsule. It contains lens fibers and amorphous, intercellular substance.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Serine Proteases: Peptide hydrolases that contain at the active site a SERINE residue involved in catalysis.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Uveitis, Anterior: Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.zeta-Crystallins: A group of crystallins that have been found in the lens (LENS, CRYSTALLINE) of certain species of VERTEBRATES including GUINEA PIGS; CAMELS; and LLAMAS. They are inactivated forms of NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE).Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.HSP20 Heat-Shock Proteins: A subfamily of small heat-shock proteins that are closely related to ALPHA B-CRYSTALLIN. Hsp20 heat-shock proteins can undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CYCLIC GMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Retinal Pigment Epithelium: The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.DNA Polymerase beta: A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Sphingolipid Activator Proteins: A family of glycoprotein cofactors that are required for the efficient catabolization of SPHINGOLIPIDS by specific acid hydrolases such as GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE; GALACTOCEREBROSIDASE; BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE; and CEREBROSIDE-SULFATASE.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that oxidizes an aldehyde in the presence of NAD+ and water to an acid and NADH. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.70.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Protein Refolding: Conformational transitions of a protein from unfolded states to a more folded state.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Protein Unfolding: Conformational transitions of the shape of a protein to various unfolded states.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Rhododendron: A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Copper Sulfate: A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.

Characterization of a sodium deoxycholate-activatable proteinase activity associated with betaA3/A1-crystallin of human lenses. (1/42)

A human lens proteinase was purified by a five-step procedure that included two consecutive size-exclusion agarose A 1.5 m chromatographies, a preparative non-denaturing gel-electrophoretic separation, HPLC on a size-exclusion column (TSK G-3000 PW(XL)) followed by preparative isoelectric focusing. A 2300-fold purified enzyme showed a major band of 22 kDa during SDS-PAGE, a pH optimum of 7.8, pI between 4.5 and 5.0, a loss of activity above 45 degrees C and a serine type nature. The partial N-terminal sequence of the enzyme, i.e. P-M-P-G-S-L-G-P-W, matched with the sequence of human lens betaA3/A1-crystallin starting at residue No. 23. Based on the Western blot results of the enzyme with five different site-specific polyclonal antibodies raised against betaA3/A1-crystallin, it was concluded that the 22 kDa crystallin enzyme had a cleaved N-terminus but an intact C-terminus. The betaA3/A1-crystallin, isolated from human lenses, also exhibited proteinase activity following detergent activation and size-exclusion chromatography. The mouse recombinant betaA3/A1-crystallin proteinase was purified by the above five-step procedure, from a homogenate of Sf-9 cells transfected with baculovirus containing the full length coding sequence of betaA3/A1-crystallin. The mouse 22 kDa species also exhibited proteinase activity and immunoreactivity with anti-betaA3/A1-C-terminal antibody. Together, the data suggest that a truncated species of betaA3/A1-crystallin exhibits proteinase activity.  (+info)

Identification and properties of anti-chaperone-like peptides derived from oxidized bovine lens betaL-crystallins. (2/42)

Thermal aggregation of betaL-crystallin was higher in the presence of peptide fragments generated from oxidized and trypsin-digested betaL-crystallin compared with thermal aggregation of the control proteins without oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments. Increased aggregation of betaL-crystallin was also observed despite the presence of alpha-crystallin (which has anti-aggregating properties) in the system. Self-aggregation of the oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments per se was not observed under the experimental conditions. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of the precipitate obtained after heating a mixture of betaL-crystallin and oxidized betaL-crystallin fragments revealed that more than one peptide co-precipitates with betaL-crystallin. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides revealed that the molecular weight(s) of the peptides ranged from 1400-1800. Tandem mass spectrometry and a data base search revealed that two of the peptides originated from betaA4-crystallin (LTIFEQENFLGR, residues 121-132) and betaB3-crystallin (AINGTWVGYEFPGYR, residues 153-167) respectively. Oxidized synthetic peptides representing the same sequence were also found to enhance the aggregation of betaL-crystallin in a manner similar to oxidized lens betaL-crystallin peptides. These data suggest that the polypeptides generated after oxidation and proteolysis of betaL-crystallins interact with denaturing proteins and facilitate their aggregation and light scattering, thus behaving like anti-chaperones.  (+info)

Cleavage of the A site mRNA codon during ribosome pausing provides a mechanism for translational quality control. (3/42)

Cells employ many mechanisms to ensure quality control during protein biosynthesis. Here, we show that, during the pausing of a bacterial ribosome, the mRNA being translated is cleaved at a site within or immediately adjacent to the A site codon. The extent of this A site mRNA cleavage is correlated with the extent of ribosome pausing as assayed by tmRNA-mediated tagging of the nascent polypeptide. Cleavage does not require tmRNA, the ribosomal alarmone (p)ppGpp, or bacterial toxins such as RelE which have been shown to stimulate a similar activity. Translation is required for cleavage, suggesting that the ribosome participates in the reaction in some fashion. When normal protein synthesis is compromised, A site mRNA cleavage and the tmRNA system provide a mechanism for reducing translational errors and the production of aberrant and potentially harmful polypeptides.  (+info)

Characterization of the G91del CRYBA1/3-crystallin protein: a cause of human inherited cataract. (4/42)

Congenital cataract is a leading cause of visual disability in children. Inherited isolated (non-syndromic) cataract represents a significant proportion of cases and the identification of genes responsible for inherited cataract will lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of cataract formation at the molecular level both in congenital and age-related cataract. Crystallins are abundantly expressed in the developing human lens and represent excellent candidate genes for inherited cataract. A genome-wide search of a five-generation family with autosomal dominant lamellar cataract demonstrated linkage to the 17p12-q11 region. Screening of the CRYBA1/3 gene showed a 3 bp deletion, which resulted in a G91del mutation within the tyrosine corner, that co-segregated with disease and was not found in 96 normal controls. In order to understand the molecular basis of cataract formation, the mutant protein was expressed in vitro and its unfolding and refolding characteristics assessed using far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy. Defective folding and a reduction in solubility were found. As the wild-type protein did not refold into the native conformation following unfolding, a corresponding CRYBB2 mutant was genetically engineered and its refolding characteristics analysed and compared with wild-type CRYBB2. Its biophysical properties support the hypothesis that removal of the glycine residue from the tyrosine corner impairs the folding and solubility of beta-crystallin proteins. This study represents the first comprehensive description of the biophysical consequences of a mutant beta-crystallin protein that is associated with human inherited cataract.  (+info)

CRYBA3/A1 gene mutation associated with suture-sparing autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract: a novel phenotype. (5/42)

PURPOSE: To identify the genetic defect leading to the congenital nuclear cataract affecting a large five-generation Swiss family. METHODS: Family history and clinical data were recorded. The phenotype was documented by both slit lamp and Scheimpflug photography. One cortical lens was evaluated by electron microscopy after cataract extraction. Lenticular phenotyping and genotyping were performed independently with short tandem repeat polymorphism. Linkage analysis was performed, and candidate genes were PCR amplified and screened for mutations on both strands using direct sequencing. RESULTS: Affected individuals had a congenital nuclear lactescent cataract in both eyes. Linkage was observed on chromosome 17 for DNA marker D17S1857 (lod score: 3.44 at theta = 0). Direct sequencing of CRYBA3/A1, which maps to the vicinity, revealed an in-frame 3-bp deletion in exon 4 (279delGAG). This mutation involved a deletion of glycine-91, cosegregated in all affected individuals, and was not observed in unaffected individuals or in 250 normal control subjects from the same ethnic background. Electron microscopy showed that cortical lens fiber morphology was normal. CONCLUSIONS: The DeltaG91 mutation in CRYBA3/A1 is associated with an autosomal dominant congenital nuclear lactescent cataract. A splice mutation (IVS3+1G/A) in this gene has been reported in a zonular cataract with sutural opacities. These results indicate phenotypic heterogeneity related to mutations in this gene.  (+info)

Proteomic and sequence analysis of chicken lens crystallins reveals alternate splicing and translational forms of beta B2 and beta A2 crystallins. (6/42)

PURPOSE: To characterize the adult chicken lens proteome using mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). METHODS: Lens proteins from 10-week old chickens were separated by gel filtration and reversed-phase chromatography, and whole protein masses were measured with electrospray mass spectrometry. Water-soluble lens proteins were separated by 2-DE and identified by tandem mass spectrometry of in-gel digests. RESULTS: Whole protein masses were consistent with all major chicken lens crystallin sequences, except for beta B2 and beta B3. Subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed errors in published sequences translating into 2- and 7-amino-acid differences, respectively, for beta B2 and beta B3, which were in better agreement with the measured masses. Previously uncharacterized forms of beta A2 and beta B2 were observed. The novel form of beta A2 had four fewer amino acids, was more abundant, and resulted from translation at a second start codon. The novel form of beta B2 contained 14 additional amino acids in the interdomain linker and resulted from alternate splicing within intron 4 of the transcript. All examined crystallins, except beta A3, for which data could not be obtained, were N-terminally acetylated, and all beta-crystallins lacked an initial methionine, except for the smaller beta A2 form. In-gel digests identified 29 proteins on the 2-DE map and indicated that truncation occurs within N-terminal extensions of beta-crystallins during lens maturation. CONCLUSIONS: The complementary techniques 2-DE, mass spectrometry, and DNA sequencing were used to provide the most complete description of the adult chicken lens proteome to date and identified alternate forms of beta A2 and beta B2.  (+info)

Crystallins in water soluble-high molecular weight protein fractions and water insoluble protein fractions in aging and cataractous human lenses. (7/42)

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze crystallin fragments in the water soluble high molecular weight (WS-HMW) and in the water insoluble (WI) protein fractions of human cataractous (with nuclear opacity) and age matched normal lenses to determine the identity of crystallin species that show cataract specific changes such as truncation and post-translational modifications. Because these changes were cataract specific and not aging specific, the results were expected to provide information regarding potential mechanisms of age related cataract development. METHODS: The WS-alpha-crystallin, WS-HMW protein, and WI protein fractions were isolated from normal lenses of different ages and from cataractous lenses. The three fractions were subjected to two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis (IEF in the first dimension and SDS-PAGE in the second dimension). Individual spots from 2D gels were trypsin digested and the tryptic fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The 2D protein profiles of WS-alpha-crystallin fractions of normal human lenses showed an age related increase in the number of crystallin fragments. In young normal lenses, the WS-alpha-crystallin fragments were mostly C-terminally truncated, but in older lenses these were both N- and C-terminally truncated. The WS-HMW protein fraction from normal lenses contained mainly fragments of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin, whereas additional fragments of betaB1- and betaA3-crystallin were present in this fraction from cataractous lenses. Similarly, the WI proteins in normal lenses contained fragments of alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin, but cataractous lenses contained additional fragments of betaA3- and betaB1-crystallin. The modifications identified in the WS-HMW and WI crystallin species of cataractous lenses were truncation, oxidation of Trp residues, and deamidation of Asn to Asp residues. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the components of WS-HMW and WI protein fractions of cataractous lenses differed from normal lenses. Selective insolubilization of fragments of betaA3/A1- and betaB1-crystallin occurred during cataract development compared to normal lenses. Further, the crystallin species of cataractous lenses showed increased truncation, deamidation of Asn to Asp residues, and oxidation of Trp residue.  (+info)

Intrasarcoplasmic amyloidosis impairs proteolytic function of proteasomes in cardiomyocytes by compromising substrate uptake. (8/42)

The presence of increased ubiquitinated proteins and amyloid oligomers in failing human hearts strikingly resembles the characteristic pathology in the brain of many neurodegenerative diseases. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for degradation of most cellular proteins and plays essential roles in virtually all cellular processes. UPS impairment by aberrant protein aggregation was previously shown in cell culture but remains to be demonstrated in intact animals. Mechanisms underlying the impairment are poorly understood. We report here that UPS proteolytic function is severely impaired in the heart of a mouse model of intrasarcoplasmic amyloidosis caused by cardiac-restricted expression of a human desmin-related myopathy-linked missense mutation of alphaB-crystallin (CryAB(R120G)). The UPS impairment was detected before cardiac hypertrophy, and failure became discernible, suggesting that defective protein turnover likely contributes to cardiac remodeling and failure in this model. Further analyses reveal that the impairment is likely attributable to insufficient delivery of substrate proteins into the 20S proteasomes, and depletion of key components of the 19S subcomplex may be responsible. The derangement is likely caused by aberrant protein aggregation rather than loss of function of the CryAB gene because UPS malfunction was not evident in CryAB-null hearts and inhibition of aberrant protein aggregation by Congo red or a heat shock protein significantly attenuated CryAB(R120G)-induced UPS malfunction in cultured cardiomyocytes. Because of the central role of the UPS in cell regulation and the high intrasarcoplasmic amyloidosis prevalence in failing human hearts, our data suggest a novel pathogenic process in cardiac disorders with abnormal protein aggregation.  (+info)

CRYBA2 Antibody 15750-1-AP has been identified with ELISA, WB. 15750-1-AP detected 22 kDa band in mouse eye tissue with 1:1000-1:4000 dilution...
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If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Objective: To analysis, the clinical characteristics, refractive changes, and clinical treatment of interface fluid syndrome after laser lamellar corneal refractive surgery. Methods: During Dec. 2010 to Apr. 2016. In total 6 cases(9 eyes), 3 cases were bilateral, 3 cases were unilateral. Five patients were male and 1 was female. The age of the patients ranged from 20 to 29 years was (24.83±4.02) years. Six cases(9 eyes)of IFS were diagnosed at our hospital. The history and complete ophthalmic examination that include Slit-lamp examination, Slit-lamp photography, refraction, corneal thickness measurement, corneal endothelial cell counting, IOP, anterior segment OCT(AS-OCT), exams were recorded ...
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View mouse Crybb3 Chr5:113075839-113081584 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Pediatric cataracts are observed in 1-15 per 10,000 births with 10-25 % of cases attributed to genetic causes; autosomal dominant inheritance is the most commonly observed pattern. Since the specific cataract phenotype is not sufficient to predict which gene is mutated, whole exome sequencing (WES) was utilized to concurrently screen all known cataract genes and to examine novel candidate factors for a disease-causing mutation in probands from 23 pedigrees affected with familial dominant cataract. Review of WES data for 36 known cataract genes identified causative mutations in nine pedigrees (39 %) in CRYAA, CRYBB1, CRYBB3, CRYGC (2), CRYGD, GJA8 (2), and MIP and an additional likely causative mutation in EYA1; the CRYBB3 mutation represents the first dominant allele in this gene and demonstrates incomplete penetrance. Examination of crystallin genes not yet linked to human disease identified a novel cataract gene, CRYBA2, a member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. The p.(Val50Met) mutation in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - βA3/A1-crystallin is required for proper astrocyte template formation and vascular remodeling in the retina. AU - Sinha, Debasish. AU - Valapala, Mallika. AU - Bhutto, Imran. AU - Patek, Bonnie. AU - Zhang, Cheng. AU - Hose, Stacey. AU - Yang, Fang. AU - Cano, Marisol. AU - Stark, Walter J.. AU - Lutty, Gerard A.. AU - Zigler, J. Samuel. AU - Wawrousek, Eric F.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - Nuc1 is a spontaneous rat mutant resulting from a mutation in the Cryba1 gene, coding for βA3/A1-crystallin. Our earlier studies with Nuc1 provided novel evidence that astrocytes, which express βA3/A1-crystallin, have a pivotal role in retinal remodeling. The role of astrocytes in the retina is only beginning to be explored. One of the limitations in the field is the lack of appropriate animal models to better investigate the function of astrocytes in retinal health and disease. We have now established transgenic mice that overexpress the Nuc1 mutant form of Cryba1, specifically in ...
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Gene target information for Crybb1 - crystallin, beta B1 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Exercise may be a good way to scale back stress and nervous strain. realize the time to exercise a minimum of each 5-6 days; even a brisk walk round the block is best than nothing. Take a while for yourself and relax. Lie call at the sun when work and shut your eyes for 10-15 minutes as usually as doable. Move things off the â to doâ list that may wait and donâ t need immediate attention. Learn to mention â noâ and take a look at to not defy quite youll handle ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Beta crystallin S protein (ab111642). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Nuclear cataract resulting from an overdose of selenite was characterized by a five-fold increase in nuclear urea-soluble protein. The origin of this urea-soluble protein was examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting with monospecific antisera against rat lens crystallins, and tryptic mapping. Cataractous urea-soluble protein was primarily composed of insolubilized beta- and gamma-crystallin polypeptides. Polypeptides from cataractous urea-soluble protein, and normal beta L-crystallin aggregates were compared by tryptic mapping. Approximately 19% of the urea-soluble protein from opaque nuclei was composed of 24.7 and 24.0 K polypeptides derived by limited proteolysis of 26.5 K beta L-crystallin polypeptide. Incubation of 26.5 K beta-crystallin polypeptide with purified rat lens calpain II in vitro caused production of fragments with similar molecular weights to polypeptides found in cataractous lenses. These results support the hypothesis that proteolysis may contribute to ...
July 26, 2010 - Cataracts are changes in clarity of the natural lens inside the eye that gradually degrade visual quality.It is not a tumour, a new growth A global lifestyle platform for digital storytelling, premiering exclusive daily content. We are a curated destination for the culturally curious, a point of reference for leaders in media and style, and a platform committed to all things living.
Cataracts are most often associated with old age, but its more common than you might think to develop cataracts at a young age.
A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Most cataracts are related to aging. They are common in the elderly.
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... de Jong WW, Terwindt EC, Bloemendal H (1976). "The amino acid sequence of the A chain of human alpha-crystallin". FEBS Lett. 58 ...
... alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.200 - beta-crystallin ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - ... beta-2 microglobulin MeSH D12.776.377.715.182.160 - beta- ...
"Autosomal dominant cerulean cataract is associated with a chain termination mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYBB2 ... This gene, a beta basic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B1, and beta-B3. A chain-terminating ... "Linkage between the beta B2 and beta B3 crystallin genes in man and rat: a remnant of an ancient beta-crystallin gene cluster ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha-crystallin B chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAB gene. It is part of the small heat shock protein ... Alpha B chain crystallins (αBC) can be induced by heat shock, ischemia, and oxidation, and are members of the small heat shock ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ...
... rho crystallin, and many others. All possess a similar structure, with a beta-alpha-beta fold characteristic of nucleotide ... Some proteins of this family contain a potassium channel beta chain regulatory domain; these are reported to have ... The binding site is located in a large, deep, elliptical pocket in the C-terminal end of the beta sheet, the substrate being ... Gulbis JM, Zhou M, Mann S, MacKinnon R (July 2000). "Structure of the cytoplasmic beta subunit-T1 assembly of voltage-dependent ...
... alpha 1 Crystallin, beta A1 Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1 Cyclin A1 Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1 Defensin, ... a portion of the cholera toxin chain alleles A1, an allele in the DRD2 TaqI polymorphism that could be involved in alcoholism. ... DQ alpha 1 Myosin light chain A1, an actin-binding protein NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone), alpha 1 Nucleolar protein, member ...
The yeast killer toxin structure was thought to be a precursor of the two-domain beta gamma-crystallin proteins, because of its ... is a double-chain inhibitor consisting of an 11-residue and a 41-residue chain. The Carboxypeptidase inhibitor I68 family ... with two alpha-helices and four beta-strands with a (beta/alpha/beta)x2 topology. The peptidase inhibitor I9 family contains ... SMPI is composed of two beta-sheets, each consisting of four antiparallel beta-strands. The structure can be considered as two ...
Crystallin zeta CYP4B1 (1p33) CYR61 (1p22) DBT: dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 DCLRE1B: DNA cross-link repair ... beta; acid (includes glucosylceramidase) (gene for Gaucher disease) GBAP1: glucosylceramidase beta pseudogene 1 GLC1A: gene for ... beta 3, 31kDa (connexin 31) GLMN (1p22) GNL2: G protein nucleolar 2 GSTM1 (1p13) HDAC1 (1p35) HES2: Hes family bHLH ... heavy chain 14 ECM1 (1q21) EDEM3: ER degradation enhancing alpha-mannosidase like protein 3 EGLN1 (1q42) ENAH (1q42) ESRRG ( ...
CRYZ: Crystallin zeta. *CYP4B1 (1p33). *CYR61 (1p22). *DBT: dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2 ... GBA: glucosidase, beta; acid (includes glucosylceramidase) (gene for Gaucher disease). *GBAP1: glucosylceramidase beta ... ACADM: acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain ... GJB3: gap junction protein, beta 3, 31kDa (connexin 31). *GLMN ...
4-beta-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.600 --- glucan endo-1,3-beta-d-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.375 --- ... cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D08.811.600.250 --- electron transport chain complex proteins MeSH D08.811.600.250. ... delta-crystallins MeSH D08.811.520.232.400 --- ammonia-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.200 --- aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH ... 4-beta xylanases MeSH D08.811.277.450.950.500 --- xylan endo-1,3-beta-xylosidase MeSH D08.811.277.656.149 --- atp-dependent ...
The N-terminal domain I (aa ~1-195) contains attachment sites for HS chains. Although HS chains are not required for correct ... This role for perlecan in beta-amyloid plaque generation is supported by an earlier study showing that perlecan and beta- ... To this end, a transgenic mouse line was created expressing porcine TGF-β1 under the lens-specific αA-crystallin promoter and ... The heparan sulfate chains of perlecan bind growth factors in the ECM, and serve as co-ligands or ligand enhancers when bound ...
"Myxococcus xanthus spore coat protein S may have a similar structure to vertebrate lens beta gamma-crystallins". Nature. 315 ( ... However, these binding sites were based on a cluster analysis of side-chain oxygen atoms and on results from site-directed ... "Structural similarity of a developmentally regulated bacterial spore coat protein to beta gamma-crystallins of the vertebrate ... The domains share high similarity with other crystallin proteins. Protein S binds two 2 mol of calcium per mol of protein with ...
δ-crystallins are the major structural eye lens water-soluble proteins of most birds, reptiles, and some other vertebrates. ... Domain 2 contains one small beta sheet, nine alpha helices, and the carboxyl terminus. Three of the nine alpha helices on one ... ASL is composed of four identical monomers; each monomer consisting of a single polypeptide chain between 49 and 52 kDa, ... ASL, δ-crystallin, class II fumarase, aspartase, adenylosuccinase lyase, and 3-carboxy-cis and cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme ...
Beta cells (secreting insulin and amylin) Delta cells (secreting somatostatin) PP cells (gamma cells) (secreting pancreatic ... Intermediate skeletal muscle cell Nuclear bag cell of muscle spindle Nuclear chain cell of muscle spindle Satellite cell (stem ... Anterior lens epithelial cell Crystallin-containing lens fiber cell Adipocytes: White fat cell Brown fat cell Liver lipocyte ...
Silva, R.A.G.D., *Nguyen, J.Y., and Decatur, S.M. (2002) "Probing the Effects of Side Chains on the Conformation and Stability ... Phi Beta Kappa (elected 1990) Sigma Xi (elected 1990) Op-ed pieces on higher education "The Winner - A Liberal Education," New ... "Formation of Amyloid Fibrils in Vitro by Human γd-crystallin and its Isolated Domains," Molecular Vision 14:81-89. Decatur, S.M ... "Twodimensional IR Spectroscopy and Segmental 13C Labeling reveals the Domain Structure of Human γδ-crystallin amyloid fibrils ...
Konrad RJ, Kudlow JE (Nov 2002). "The role of O-linked protein glycosylation in beta-cell dysfunction". International Journal ... and a peptide chain with a reactive serine or threonine hydroxyl group. The proposed reaction is an ordered sequential bi-bi ... "Vertebrate lens alpha-crystallins are modified by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (1): ... Hart GW, Housley MP, Slawson C (Apr 2007). "Cycling of O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine on nucleocytoplasmic proteins". Nature ...
Oligomerization is a chemical process that converts individual molecules into a chain consisting of a finite number of ... "Monitoring the prevention of amyloid fibril formation by alpha-crystallin. Temperature dependence and the nature of the ... Amyloid beta can be measured semiquantitatively with immunostaining, which also allows one to determine location. Amyloid beta ... By NMR-guided simulations, amyloid beta 1-40 and amyloid beta 1-42 also seem to feature highly different conformational states ...
Iodine (I0) is very reactive and iodinates the thyroglobulin at tyrosyl residues in its protein chain (in total containing ... However, recently it could be demonstrated that the crystallin CRYM binds 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine in vivo.[37] ... "Genome-wide binding patterns of thyroid hormone receptor Beta". PLOS One. 9 (2): e81186. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...981186A. doi ... "μ-Crystallin as an Intracellular 3,5,3′-Triiodothyronine Holder in Vivo". Molecular Endocrinology. 21 (4): 885-894. doi ...
Wang P, Gao H, Ni Y, Wang B, Wu Y, Ji L, Qin L, Ma L, Pei G (February 2003). "Beta-arrestin 2 functions as a G-protein-coupled ... Wang P, Wu Y, Ge X, Ma L, Pei G (March 2003). "Subcellular localization of beta-arrestins is determined by their intact N ... In addition, MDM2 has p53-independent transcription factor-like effects in nuclear factor-kappa beta (NFκB) activation. ... Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase. 6.3: Carbon-Nitrogen. *Glutamine synthetase. *Ubiquitin ligase *Cullin ...
α-crystallin, a process which may be sped up by higher temperatures.[19][20] ... The authors propose that mtDNA mutations lead to respiratory-chain-deficient cells and thence to apoptosis and cell loss. They ... "Age-Related Loss of Innate Immune Antimicrobial Function Of Dermal Fat Is Mediated By Transforming Growth Factor Beta" ... the activity levels of the electron transport chain in mitochondria[57] and (in plants) in chloroplasts. ...
Truncated human betaB1-crystallin shows altered structural properties and interaction with human betaA3-crystallin. ... The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of truncation of various regions of betaB1-crystallin on its structural ... properties and stability of heterooligomers formed by wild-type (WT) betaB1 or its deletion mutants with WT betaA3-crystallin. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (1H3.B8). Validated: WB, ELISA, IB, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. ... Heat shock protein beta-4. *HSPB4. *HSPB4alpha-crystallin A chain. *human alphaA-crystallin (CRYA1), 10HspB4 ... Does not cross-react with aB-crystallin, Beta L-crystallin, BH- crystallin, gamma-crystallin, HSP25, HSP27 or HSP47 proteins. ... Home » AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA » AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibodies » AlphaA Crystallin/CRYAA Antibody (1H3.B8) ...
Crystallin Beta A1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Beta Crystallin A3 Chain Transcript LAM 3 * Beta Crystallin A3 Chain Transcript CN 3 ... crystallin, beta A3 and crystallin, beta A1) from a single mRNA, the latter protein is 17 aa shorter than crystallin, beta A3 ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ...
Suppression of thermal aggregation of beta-L-crystallin by alpha-crystallin. Biochemistry 2005, 44, 15480-15487. [Google ... These light chains are nearly identical except for first 41 additional amino acid residues of the A1 light chain, containing ... Interaction of the N-terminal part of the A1 essential light chain with the myosin heavy chain. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... also called alkali light chain [4]. In fast skeletal muscle myosin there are two kinds of alkali light chains, A1 and A2. ...
Autosomal dominant cerulean cataract is associated with a chain termination mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYBB2. ... Three main families of mammalian crystallins are α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. α-Crystallins (αA and αB) are homologous to small ... Crystallins of the beta/gamma-superfamily mimic the effects of lens injury and promote axon regeneration. Mol Cell Neurosci. ... The evolution of lenticular proteins: the beta- and gamma-crystallin super gene family. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 1988;51:47-76. [ ...
Chain. 2 - 174. Gamma-crystallin D. Domain. 88 - 128. Beta/gamma crystallin Greek key 3. ... Structural and evolutionary relationships among five members of the human gamma-crystallin gene family. Meakin S.O.; Breitman M ... Novel mutations in the gamma-crystallin genes cause autosomal dominant congenital cataracts. Santhiya S.T.; Shyam Manohar M.; ...
Rat A crystallin A Monoclonal Antibody (Clone c9F2)-NP_000385 (MBS200007) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies ... Heat shock protein beta-4; HspB4; Alpha-crystallin A chain; Heat shock protein beta 4; Acry-1; Alpha crystallin A chain; CRYA 1 ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families. Alpha crystallins are composed of two gene ... This antibody is not shown cross-activity about Crystallin alpha B. A : Crystallin-alpha A recombinant protein B : Crystallin- ...
Alpha crystallin B chain; Alpha crystallin B chain; Alpha(B) crystallin; Alpha(B)-crystallin; Alpha-crystallin B chain; CRYA2; ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... β5/α ״???? B/αB-crystallin ??. ??. alpha B Crystallin (phospho S53); alpha B Crystallin (phospho Ser53); p-alpha B Crystallin ( ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ...
... wherein a rearrangement of the amino terminal of the beta-chain of hemoglobin by reaction with glucose, forms the adduct known ... This reaction was also found to occur with a variety of other body proteins, such as lens crystallins, collagen and nerve ... The preferred are peroxidase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-D-glucosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, urease, glucose oxidase plus ... The indicator composition of claim 14 wherein said label is selected from peroxidase, beta-glucuronidase, beta-D-glucosidase, ...
Rabbit polyclonal alpha A Crystallin/CRYAA antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, BL, sELISA and tested in Mouse, Rat, Cow. Cited in ... The mammalian lens contains 3 major classes of crystallins: alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha-crystallin is the largest of the ... O-glycosylated; contains N-acetylglucosamine side chains.. Deamidation of Asn-101 in lens occurs mostly during the first 30 ... There are at least 5 different proteins comprising the beta-crystallins. The gamma-crystallins are monomeric, but there are at ...
Autosomal dominant cerulean cataract is associated with a chain termination mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYBB2. ... A unique form of autosomal dominant cataract explained by gene conversion between beta-crystallin B2 and its pseudogene. J Med ... The γ-crystallin gene cluster on chromosome 2q33-35 encompasses genes γA to D but only γC (CRYGC) and γD(CRYGD) are highly ... Heon E, Priston M, Schorderet DF, et al. The gamma-crystallins and human cataracts: a puzzle made clearer. Am J Hum Genet 1999; ...
Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ... Alpha-crystallin A chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CRYAA gene. Crystallins are separated into two classes: ... Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four ... de Jong WW, Terwindt EC, Bloemendal H (1976). "The amino acid sequence of the A chain of human alpha-crystallin". FEBS Lett. 58 ...
Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin (phospho S19) antibody validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. ... Alpha crystallin B chain antibody. *Alpha(B)-crystallin antibody. *Alpha-crystallin B chain antibody ... Heat shock protein beta 5 antibody. *Heat shock protein beta-5 antibody ... Lane 1 : phospho-alpha-B crystallin (Ser19). Lane 2 : unphosphorylated alpha-B crystallin. Observed band size : 20 kDa (why is ...
Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Mouse, Human, Pig. Immunogen corresponding to ... Alpha crystallin B chain antibody. *Alpha(B)-crystallin antibody. *Alpha-crystallin B chain antibody ... Heat shock protein beta 5 antibody. *Heat shock protein beta-5 antibody ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody (ab231268) at 2 µg/ml + Recombinant human Alpha B Crystallin protein.. Predicted band size: 20 ...
Mouse monoclonal Alpha B Crystallin antibody [1B6.1-3G4]. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC, Flow Cyt and tested in Mouse, Rat, ... Lane 2 : alpha Crystallin Lane 3 : alpha A Crystallin Lane 4 : alpha B Crystallin Lane 5 : beta Crystallin. Predicted band size ... Alpha crystallin B chain antibody. *Alpha(B)-crystallin antibody. *Alpha-crystallin B chain antibody ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin antibody [1B6.1-3G4]. See all Alpha B Crystallin primary antibodies. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin antibody. Validated in WB, IP, IHC, ICC and tested in Mouse, Rat, Chicken, Cow, Human, Pig ... Secondary: Mouse monoclonal [SB62a] Secondary Antibody to Rabbit IgG light chain (HRP) (ab99697). ... Heat shock protein beta 5 antibody. *Heat shock protein beta-5 antibody ... Alpha B Crystallin was immunoprecipitated using 0.5mg Mouse Spinal Cord tissue, 5µg of Rabbit polyclonal to Alpha B Crystallin ...
Rabbit polyclonal Alpha B Crystallin (phospho S45) antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Rat, Cow, Human ... Alpha crystallin B chain antibody. *Alpha(B)-crystallin antibody. *Alpha-crystallin B chain antibody ... Heat shock protein beta 5 antibody. *Heat shock protein beta-5 antibody ... Anti-Alpha B Crystallin (phospho S45) antibody. See all Alpha B Crystallin primary antibodies. ...
T-cell receptor beta-chain (38), 2-crystallin (39), 1 tubulin The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent ... T-cell receptor beta-chain enhancer: the role of enhancer elements in controlling V(D)J recombination accessibility. Proc Natl ... differentiation stage-specific expression of the rat beta B2-crystallin The functional and physical unit of heredity passed ... differentiation stage-specific expression of the rat beta B2-crystallin The functional and physical unit of heredity passed ...
Alpha-crystallin A chain; Heat shock protein beta 4; Acry-1; Alpha crystallin A chain; CRYA 1; Crystallin Alpha 1; Crystallin ... alpha/beta SNAP; mouse anti alpha/beta soluble NSF attachment protein; alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein; N-ethylmaleimide- ...
beta-Crystallin A Chain/biosynthesis. *beta-Crystallin A Chain/genetics*. PubMed:. 23508780 Full text @ Hum. Genet. ... Examination of crystallin genes not yet linked to human disease identified a novel cataract gene, CRYBA2, a member of the βγ- ... crystallin superfamily. The p.(Val50Met) mutation in CRYBA2 cosegregated with disease phenotype in a four-generation pedigree ...
Purified anti-Alpha Crystallin B - read details of BioLegend antibodies in the SelectScience.net Antibody products and ... Alpha-crystallin B chain, alpha B crystallin, heat shock protein beta-5, rosenthal fiber component, heat-shock 20 kD like- ... Purified anti-Alpha Crystallin B. Be the first to review this product ... Purified anti-Alpha Crystallin B; Clone: Poly9079; Reactivity: Human, Mouse; Apps: IHC, WB; Size: 200 μl ...
... non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 216 amino acids (1-196 a.a.). ... Beta-crystallin A4 (CRYBA4) is a member of the beta/gamma-crystallin family which are the dominant structural components of the ... The CRYBA4 gene being a beta acidic group member is part of a gene cluster with beta-B1, beta-B2, and beta-B3. ... Beta-crystallins construct aggregates of various sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers ...
Linkage of the locus encoding the A chain of alpha-crystallin (Acry-1) to the major histocompatibility complex in the rat. Skow ... Hematology of a murine beta-thalassemia: a longitudinal study. Popp RA, Popp DM, Johnson FM, Skow LC, Lewis SE. Ann N Y Acad ... Polymorphism and linkage of the alpha A-crystallin gene in t-haplotypes of the mouse. Skow LC, Nadeau JN, Ahn JC, Shin HS, ... The locus encoding alpha A-crystallin is closely linked to H-2K on mouse chromosome 17. Skow LC, Donner ME. Genetics. 1985 110( ...
... alpha-crystallin b chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.100 - beta-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.300.200 - beta-crystallin ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.210.500.600.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ... myosin heavy chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.200 - myosin light chains MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.300 - myosin subfragments MeSH ... alpha-crystallin a chain MeSH D12.776.306.366.100.300 - ... beta-2 microglobulin MeSH D12.776.377.715.182.160 - beta- ...
"Autosomal dominant cerulean cataract is associated with a chain termination mutation in the human beta-crystallin gene CRYBB2 ... This gene, a beta basic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B1, and beta-B3. A chain-terminating ... "Linkage between the beta B2 and beta B3 crystallin genes in man and rat: a remnant of an ancient beta-crystallin gene cluster ... Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as ...
  • Defects in CRYAB are the cause of myofibrillar alpha-B crystallin-related (MFM-CRYAB) [MIM: (abcam.com)
  • We report here that UPS proteolytic function is severely impaired in the heart of a mouse model of intrasarcoplasmic amyloidosis caused by cardiac-restricted expression of a human desmin-related myopathy-linked missense mutation of αB-crystallin (CryAB R120G ). (ahajournals.org)
  • 10,11 Mice carrying 3 copies of a Tg consisting of the mouse α-myosin heavy chain promoter and the CryAB R120G cDNA show no apparent cardiac abnormality at 1 month but develop concentric cardiac hypertrophy with diastolic malfunction at 3 months and die of CHF between 5 and 7 months. (ahajournals.org)
  • To examine if decreased αB-crystallin levels were important for the manifestation of the behavioral phenotypes in the AD model mice we crossed Tg2576 mice (B6/SJL background) with wild-type (CRYAB+/+HSPB2+/+) or αB-crystallin/HspB2 knockout (CRYAB-/-HSPB2-/-) mice (129Sv background). (nih.gov)
  • β- and γ-crystallins share similar sequences, structure, and domain topology and have therefore been grouped together to form a superfamily of βγ-crystallins. (arvojournals.org)
  • ASL, δ-crystallin, class II fumarase, aspartase, adenylosuccinase lyase, and 3-carboxy-cis and cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme are all members of the same homotetrameric superfamily of enzymes, in which most catalyze the same type of elimination reactions where a C-O or C-N bond is broken and fumarate is released as a product. (wikipedia.org)
  • B) Immunoblots showing αB-crystallin and Hsp27 expression in two sets of mice at 7 months of age. (nih.gov)
  • The chaperone expression in each genotype was confirmed by western-blotting two sets of brain lysates from 7-month old mice for αB-crystallin, and Hsp27 (Figure 2B). (nih.gov)
  • This study clearly demonstrated that both the length and electrostatic charge of the COOH-terminal segment play crucial roles in governing the structural stability and chaperone activity of alphaB-crystallin . (antibodies-online.com)
  • We propose that these two interacting loops play an important role in the folding and structural stability of β/γ-crystallin domains by protecting the hydrophobic core from solvent access. (bvsalud.org)
  • These light chains are nearly identical except for first 41 additional amino acid residues of the A1 light chain, containing repeated Ala-Pro sequence and two pairs of lysine residues located near the N -terminus [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The proteolyzed fragments are identified with numbers, and only the fragments from γD-crystallin were used for partial NH2-terminal sequence analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The proteinase also exhibited proteolysis of gammaC- and gammaD- crystallins, and the cleavage of gammaD-crystallin at M(1)-G(2), Q(54)-Y(55), M(70)-G(71), and Q(103)-M(104) bonds. (nih.gov)
  • 8 9 A number of studies reported the upregulation of crystallin genes in various tissues in response to stress or pathologic conditions. (arvojournals.org)
  • The preferential addition of heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate chains to domains I and V could have an effect on the differentiation of mesenchymal tissues into cartilage, bone or any number of tissues, but the regulatory mechanism of changing from heparan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate addition are not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following our interest in the study of the human degradome, we have cloned a human liver cDNA encoding polyserase-3, a new protease with tandem serine protease domains in the same polypeptide chain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have previously described the identification and characterization of polyserase-1 and polyserase-2, two human serine proteases containing three different catalytic domains within the same polypeptide chain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, analysis of post-translational mechanisms operating in polyserase-3 maturation showed that its two protease domains remain as integral parts of the same polypeptide chain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • each monomer consisting of a single polypeptide chain between 49 and 52 kDa, between 196 and 208 kDa for the entire tetrameric enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known as Interferon alpha/beta receptor 1a (Membrane-associated type I interferon receptor) (mIFNAR1) (Type I interferon receptor 1a). (mybiosource.com)
  • Interestingly, αB-crystallin/HspB2 deficient transgenic mice were severely impaired in locomotion compared to each genetic model separately. (nih.gov)