beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Oral Submucous FibrosisAntioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.beta-Carotene 15,15'-Monooxygenase: A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.11.21 and EC 1.18.3.1.Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase: An NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase that plays a key role in the catabolism of TRYPTOPHAN by catalyzing the HYDROXYLATION of KYNURENINE to 3-hydroxykynurenine. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.14.1.2 and EC 1.99.1.5.zeta Carotene: A carotenoid produced in most carotenogenic organisms. It is one of several sequentially synthesized molecules that are precursors to BETA CAROTENE.Geranylgeranyl-Diphosphate Geranylgeranyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Methylococcus capsulatus: A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Xanthophylls: Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.ButanesLutein: A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Intramolecular Lyases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.Methylosinus trichosporium: A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.Camphor 5-Monooxygenase: A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Benzydamine: A benzyl-indazole having analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. It is used to reduce post-surgical and post-traumatic pain and edema and to promote healing. It is also used topically in treatment of RHEUMATIC DISEASES and INFLAMMATION of the mouth and throat.Norisoprenoids: Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Squalene Monooxygenase: The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.FMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Amidine-Lyases: These enzymes catalyze the elimination of ammonia from amidines with the formation of a double bond. EC 4.3.2.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Erwinia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.

*Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase

"beta-Carotene 15,15'-Dioxygenase activity in human tissues and cells: evidence of an iron dependency". J Nutr Biochem. 12 (11 ... 3.0.co;2-z. Goodman DS, Huang HS, Kanai M & Shiratori T (1967). "The enzymatic conversion of all-trans beta-carotene into ... Goodman DS, Huang HS, Shiratori T (1966). "Mechanism of the biosynthesis of vitamin A from beta-carotene". J. Biol. Chem. 241 ( ... monooxygenase (EC 1.14.99.36) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biological reaction β-carotene + O2 → 2retinal This is a cleavage ...

*Carotenoid oxygenase

... monooxygenase (BCDO1; EC 1.14.99.36) from animals, which cleaves beta-carotene symmetrically at the central double bond to ... Beta-carotene-9',10'-dioxygenase (BCDO2) from animals, which cleaves beta-carotene asymmetrically to apo-10'-beta-carotenal and ... which converts beta-apocarotenals rather than beta-carotene into retinal. This protein has a seven-bladed beta-propeller ... Carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthine are produced in plants and certain bacteria, algae ...

*MEF2B

Gong X, Tsai SW, Yan B, Rubin LP (2006). "Cooperation between MEF2 and PPARgamma in human intestinal beta,beta-carotene 15,15'- ... monooxygenase gene expression". BMC Molecular Biology. 7: 7. doi:10.1186/1471-2199-7-7. PMC 1526748 . PMID 16504037. MEF2B ... 187 (1): 15-23. doi:10.1620/tjem.187.15. PMID 10458488. Youn HD, Sun L, Prywes R, Liu JO (Oct 1999). "Apoptosis of T cells ...

*Beta-Carotene

... monooxygenase. Isolation of β-carotene from fruits abundant in carotenoids is commonly done using column chromatography. It can ... "Beta-carotene". DSM. Web MD. "Beta-Carotene Interactions". Retrieved 28 May 2012. University of Maryland Medical Center. " ... Beta-carotene, MedlinePlus WebMD. "Find a Vitamin or Supplement - Beta Carotene". Retrieved 29 May 2012. Stargrove, Mitchell ( ... "Possible Interactions with Beta-Carotene". Retrieved 29 May 2012. Meschino Health. "Comprehensive Guide to Beta-Carotene". ...

*Retinal

... monooxygenase or a beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase. Just as carotenoids are the precursors of retinal, retinal is the ... For example, beta-carotene + O2 → 2 retinal catalyzed by a beta-carotene 15,15'- ... Woggon, Wolf-D. (2002). "Oxidative cleavage of carotenoids catalyzed by enzyme models and beta-carotene 15,15´-monooxygenase". ... RPE65 isomerohydrolases are homologous with beta-carotene monooxygenases; the homologous ninaB enzyme in Drosophila has both ...

*Cat

... monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A). To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this ... to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene ... Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of ... 4, 15 February 1996, pp. 520-523), at p. 522, available online at pp. 24-27 of "AVMA Animal Welfare Forum: The welfare of cats ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392.468 --- Linoleoyl-CoA desaturase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392. ... camphor 5-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.500 --- alkane 1-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915 --- ... 4-beta-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.600 --- glucan endo-1,3-beta-d-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.375 --- ... 4-beta xylanases MeSH D08.811.277.450.950.500 --- xylan endo-1,3-beta-xylosidase MeSH D08.811.277.656.149 --- atp-dependent ...

*Carotene

... α-carotene) and beta-carotene (β-carotene). Gamma-, delta-, epsilon-, and zeta-carotene (γ, δ, ε, and ζ-carotene) also exist. ... monooxygenase to retinal, a form of vitamin A. β-Carotene can be stored in the liver and body fat and converted to retinal as ... ψ-carotene; δ-carotene (with one ε ring and one uncyclized end) is ε,ψ-carotene; ε-carotene is ε,ε-carotene lycopene is ψ,ψ- ... α-carotene is β,ε-carotene; β-carotene is β,β-carotene; γ-carotene (with one β ring and one uncyclized end that is labelled psi ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 1)

... beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase EC 1.14.13.130: pyrrole-2-carboxylate monooxygenase EC 1.14.13.131: dimethyl-sulfide monooxygenase ... beta-amyrin 24-hydroxylase EC 1.14.99.44: diapolycopene oxygenase EC 1.14.99.45: carotene epsilon-monooxygenase EC 1.14.99.46: ... 9-cis-beta-carotene 9',10'-cleaving dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.69: carlactone synthase EC 1.13.11.70: all-trans-10'-apo-beta- ... linalool 8-monooxygenase EC 1.14.99.29: deoxyhypusine monooxygenase EC 1.14.99.30: carotene 7,8-desaturase EC 1.14.99.31: ...

*List of enzymes

4-olide isomerase Beta-carotene isomerase Farnesol 2-isomerase Furylfuramide isomerase Linoleate isomerase Maleate isomerase ... Renilla-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC 1.13.12.5 Cypridina-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC 1.13.12.6 Firefly luciferase EC 1.13.12.7 ... Watasenia-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC 1.13.12.8 Oplophorus-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC 1.13.12.13 Cytochrome P450 oxidase ... Beta-lactamase (EC 3.5.2.6) Category:EC 3.5.3 (In linear amidines) Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) Category:EC 3.5.4 (In cyclic amidines ...

*Retinol

Medscape Challem, Jack (1995). "Caution Urged With Vitamin A in Pregnancy: But Beta-Carotene is Safe". The Nutrition Reporter ... monooxygenase cleaves β-carotene at the central double bond, creating an epoxide. This epoxide is then attacked by water ... Retinol is synthesized from the breakdown of β-carotene. First the β-carotene 15-15'- ... "Vitamin A and beta-carotene can improve nonheme iron absorption from rice, wheat and corn by humans". The Journal of Nutrition ...

*Vitamin C

Li FJ, Shen L, Ji HF (2012). "Dietary intakes of vitamin E, vitamin C, and β-carotene and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a meta- ... Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase amidates peptide hormones by removing the glyoxylate residue from their c- ... The remaining three enzymes have the following functions in common, alongside their other functions: dopamine beta hydroxylase ... Eipper BA, Milgram SL, Husten EJ, Yun HY, Mains RE (April 1993). "Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase: a ...
This chapter reviews the epidemiological evidence on the effects of dietary beta-carotene on lung function, respiratory symptoms, mortality and risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Published studies are located by searching several electronic databases using the relevant key words. High levels of intake of beta-carotene were found to improve lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity) and appeared to have some protective effects against respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough and excessive phlegm. However, no tentative conclusion on the association between dieta1y beta-carotene and both the risk and mortality of COPD can be drawn. In view of the emerging epidemiological evidence, further clinical and experimental research is required to ascertain the role of beta-carotene on the aetiology of COPD.. ...
Carotenoids are natural pigments which are synthesized by plants and are responsible for the bright colors of various fruits and vegetables. There are several dozen carotenoids in the foods that we eat, and most of these carotenoids have antioxidant activity. β-carotene has been best studied since, in most countries it is the most common carotenoid in fruits and vegetables. However, in the U.S., lycopene from tomatoes now is consumed in approximately the same amount as β-carotene. Antioxidants (including carotenoids) have been studied for their ability to prevent chronic disease. β-carotene and others carotenoids have antioxidant properties in vitro and in animal models. Mixtures of carotenoids or associations with others antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E) can increase their activity against free radicals. The use of animals models for studying carotenoids is limited since most of the animals do not absorb or metabolize carotenoids similarly to humans. ...
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Plant carotenoids have been implicated in preventing several age-related diseases, and they also provide vitamin A precursors; therefore, increasing the content of carotenoids in maize grains is of great interest. It is not well understood, however, how the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is regulated. Fortunately, the maize germplasm exhibits a high degree of genetic diversity that can be exploited for this purpose. Here, the accumulation of carotenoids and the expression of genes from carotenoid metabolic and catabolic pathways were investigated in several maize landraces. The carotenoid content in grains varied from 10.03, in the white variety MC5, to 61.50 μg·g−1, in the yellow-to-orange variety MC3, and the major carotenoids detected were lutein and zeaxanthin. PSY1 (phythoene synthase) expression showed a positive correlation with the total carotenoid content. Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated ...
Abstract: Consumption of a diet high in carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a decreased risk of many chronic and degenerative diseases. Carotenoids are a class of lipophilic compounds found in many fruits and vegetables and have often been targeted as imparting some of the beneficial effects associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. However, our understanding o... read moref the biochemical and molecular framework of carotenoid metabolism is incomplete. Investigating the biochemical and molecular pathways of carotenoid metabolism are important to understanding their biological functions. Carotene-15,15-monooxygenase (CMO1) is involved in vitamin A formation, while recent studies suggest that carotene-9,10-monooxygenase (CMO2) may have a broader substrate specificity than previously recognized. The first part of this research investigated the in vitro cleavage activity of recombinant ferret CMO2 towards ...
Colorless Carotenoids: Phytoene & Phytofluene Efficacy Protection and Colorless Carotenoids Combinations Colorless Carotenoids: Phytoene & Phytofluene Efficacy Protection and Stability Synergism Boosting activity TiO2 & ZnO CoQ10 DHA DiHydroxy Acetone Retinol IBR-Dormin ® Vitamin C Squalene Omega 3 oils DHA & EPA Carotenoids Phytoene and phytofluene Beauty from the inside* and outside Anti aging and photo-aging Skin brightening/whitening - evening of skin tone Protection against UV and its damage Anti oxidant Prevention of DNA damage Anti inflammatory Protection and enhancement of other active ingredients and their activity ©
Looking for online definition of conjugated double bonds in the Medical Dictionary? conjugated double bonds explanation free. What is conjugated double bonds? Meaning of conjugated double bonds medical term. What does conjugated double bonds mean?
Through this work we followed the influence of some thermal treatments on the carotenoids content of carrots. Carrots were analyzed fresh and after blanching, boiling, freezing raw and freezing blanching prior. Carotenoids content of the samples was determined spectrophotometrically. As raw material were used carrots from the domestic market, Flam variety. The highest carotenoid content was recorded for raw carrot (82.716 mg / g). By boiling for 20 minutes, the content of carotenoids in carrot remains only 28% (23.209 mg /g). Frozen carrot also lose the contents of carotenoids, leaving only 33.8% (27.961 mg /g). The lowest content of carotenoids(20.196 g/g) was found in carrots blanched and then frozen for 2 months at -18˚C ...
Lycium chinense is a shrub that has health benefits and is used as a source of medicines in Asia. In this study, a full-length cDNA clone encoding β-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXB) and partial-length cDNA clones encoding phytoene synthase (LcPSY), phytoene desaturase (LcPDS), ξ-carotene desaturase (LcZDS), lycopene β-cyclase (LcLCYB), lycopene ε-cyclase (LcLCYE), ε-ring carotene hydroxylase (LcCHXE), zeaxanthin epoxidase (LcZEP), carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (LcCCD1), and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (LcNCED) were identified in L. chinense. The transcripts were constitutively expressed at high levels in leaves, flowers and red fruits, where the carotenoids are mostly distributed. In contrast, most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were weakly expressed in the roots and stems, which contained only small amounts of carotenoids. The level of LcLCYE transcripts was very high in leaves and correlated with the abundance of lutein in this plant ...
Dr. Wurtzel was elected as an ICS Fellow for significant career-long contributions to research on provitamin A carotenoid biosynthesis, which is enabling sustainable solutions to global vitamin A deficiency. Her interdisciplinary research integrates molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, genetics, bioinformatics, and systems biology. For example, Dr. Wurtzel and her team took advantage of natural genetic diversity to elucidate pathway control points and to develop molecular markers for breeding high-provitamin A maize, identifying gene families and their roles in controlling carotenoid accumulation. Most recently, the Wurtzel laboratory discovered Z-ISO, a new carotenoid enzyme, which is essential for biosynthesis of all plant carotenoids, including provitamin A carotenoids. This breakthrough led to the discovery of a new prototype function for heme proteins, uncovered a novel means for regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in plants, and redefined the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in ...
Carotenoids protect the photosynthetic apparatus against harmful radicals arising from the presence of both light and oxygen. They also act as accessory pigments for harvesting solar energy, and are required for stable assembly of many light-harvesting complexes. In the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides phytoene desaturase (CrtI) catalyses three sequential desaturations of the colourless carotenoid phytoene, extending the number of conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds, N, from three to nine and producing the yellow carotenoid neurosporene; subsequent modifications produce the yellow/red carotenoids spheroidene/spheroidenone (N=10/11). Genomic crtI replacements were used to swap the native three-step Rba. sphaeroides CrtI for the four-step Pantoea agglomerans enzyme, which re-routed carotenoid biosynthesis and culminated in the production of 2,2-diketo-spirilloxanthin under semi-aerobic conditions. The new carotenoid pathway was elucidated using a combination of HPLC and ...
Efforts are underway for development of crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency. As a global staple crop with considerable variation in kernel carotenoid composition, maize (Zea mays L.) could have a widespread impact. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of quantified seed carotenoids across a panel of maize inbreds ranging from light yellow to dark orange in grain color to identify some of the key genes controlling maize grain carotenoid composition. Significant associations at the genome-wide level were detected within the coding regions of zep1 and lut1, carotenoid biosynthetic genes not previously shown to impact grain carotenoid composition in association studies, as well as within previously associated lcyE and crtRB1 genes. We leveraged existing biochemical and genomic information to identify 58 a priori candidate genes relevant to the biosynthesis and retention of carotenoids in maize to test in a pathway-level ...
Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were pretreated with low-dose, oral beta carotene to determine whether the carotenoid content of plaque could be increased in vivo. Beta carotene-treated patients had a 50-fold increase in their plaque beta carotene level from 0.066 to 3.3 micrograms beta carotene/g plaque. Microscopy and microspectrophotometry demonstrated that plaque from beta carotene-treated patients had higher carotenoid levels and higher absorption (450-500 nm) compared with control specimens, but normal media was unaffected. This demonstration of increased preferential absorption by plaque suggests that selective ablation of atherosclerotic plaque may be enhanced by pretreating patients with oral beta carotene. ...
A method for inhibiting and/or ameliorating the occurrence of diseases in a human subject whereby a subject is administered a carotenoid analog or derivative, either alone or in combination with another carotenoid analog or derivative. In some embodiments, the administration of analogs or derivatives of carotenoids may inhibit and/or ameliorate the occurrence of diseases in subjects. In some embodiments, analogs or derivatives of carotenoids may be water-soluble and/or water dispersible. Maladies that may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein may include diseases that provoke or trigger an inflammatory response. In an embodiment, asthma may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein. In an embodiment, administering analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein to a subject may control or affect the bioavailability of eicosanoids. In an embodiment, atherosclerosis may be treated with analogs or derivatives of carotenoids embodied herein.
One of the interesting and previously unknown properties of the orange carotenoid protein is the ability to transmit the carotenoid to other proteins with a similar structure. The mechanism of the process is described in the mentioned work published in the Biophysical Journal.. "We studied the interaction of carotenoid-containing violet C-domains of the OCP with a colorless apo form of the OCP. As a result of the interaction, the colorless apo form of the OCP became orange and photoactive (capable of changing its structure and color).. The carotenoid transfer process simulates the process of assembling a photoactive protein from a protein matrix and a chromophore (carotenoid)," said Dr. Eugene Maksimov, senior researcher at the Laboratory of Biophotonics.. The discovered transfer reaction of a hydrophobic carotenoid molecule between two water-soluble proteins gives us several interesting opportunities. This mechanism will allow us create water-soluble protein complexes to deliver antioxidant ...
Since carotenoids can serve as antioxidants and/or immune stimulants, it has been assumed that deposition of carotenoids in feathers or bills can reveal the health status in birds. In order to study the function of carotenoids as signals or immune stimulants, it is necessary to characterise the types of carotenoid molecules in the study species. In this preliminary study, we examined the types of carotenoids in the plasma of four nestlings of the Eurasian magpie (Pica pica) using mass spectrometry ...
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Oceanic Beta Carotene Softgels 25,000 IU D. Salina, Including Other Naturally Occurring Carotenoids such as Zeaxanthin, Cryptoxanthin, Lutein and Alpha Carotene Sugar, Salt and Starch Free Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement for adults one (1) softgel daily, preferably at mealtime, or as directed by a healthcare practitioner. Serving Size 1 Softgel Amount Per Softgel Ingredients: Lutein (from D. salina) 86 mcg Alpha Carotene (from D. salina) 500 mcg Zeaxanthin (from D. salina) 100 mcg Vitamin A (100% as natural beta carotene from D. salina) 25000 IU (500%) Calories 5 Cryptoxanthin (from D. salina) 130 mcg To assure freshness and potency, store in a cool, dry place, away from heat, light and moisture. Other Ingredients: Soybean Oil, Gelatin, Glycerin, Safflower Oil, Beeswax, Water.
Carotenoids and tocopherols are two classes of compounds present in maize (Zea mays L.) which may add value to the grain. Both the carotenoids and tocopherols are fat soluble antioxidant vitamins. The vitamin and antioxidant properties of the carotenoids and tocopherols provide health and economic benefits which potentially could be captured by both producers and consumers. beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol have the highest biological activity for the carotenoids and the tocopherols, respectively. However, neither of these compounds is in high concentration in maize kernels. The objective of this research was to gain basic genetic information about the chromosomal regions with quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling carotenoid and tocopherol accumulation in maize kernels using molecular markers. Once the QTL are identified and validated, they could be used in a marker assisted selection program to facilitate increasing levels of these antioxidant vitamins in maize grain. ...
Carotenoid utilization in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) has been investigated with respect to tissue distribution of carotenoids and the role of the liver on the bioavailability of the lipid soluble carotenoids, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Species-specific and tissue-specific accumulations were noted for astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in the rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, possibly indicating fundamental differences in their utilization in these species. The liver and the kidney were revealed to be the major tissues involved in carotenoid metabolism in both rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. Apparent digestibilities (-96% and -30% for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, respectively) and flesh carotenoid retentions (-12% and -5.4% for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, respectively) differed significantly between species, suggesting that rainbow trout are more efficient depositors of carotenoids within the flesh. Isolated rainbow trout liver ...
Carotenoids as Colorants and diet A Precursors: Technological and dietary functions offers the appliance of carotenoids to meals and to the feed of animals, chicken, fish, and birds. This ebook discusses using carotenoids in drugs, within the coloring of beauty and pharmaceutical items, and their distinctive position as photoconductors.. Organized into 10 chapters, this e-book starts off with an summary of the transforming into choice for natural-type shades in international locations around the globe. this article then examines the aptitude point of use of assorted carotenoids in numerous meals. different chapters give some thought to the kinds of carotenoids which are further to the nutrition of aquatic animals, which will be chosen in response to the species due to various biosynthetic functions and anticipated ultimate pigment content material. This ebook discusses in addition the mechanisms that keep an eye on the assimilation and absorption of a few carotenoids. the ultimate bankruptcy ...
* Essential Nutrition* 25,000 IU * D. salina with Mixed Carotenoids * Converted to Vitamin A in BodyNatural Beta-Carotene contains additional antioxidant carotenoids, Alpha-Carotene, Zeaxanthin, Cryptoxanthin and Lutein as naturally occuring in D. salina sea algae. The natural balance of related carotenoids is what makes this product more bioavailable than common synthetic Beta-Carotene. Natural Beta-Carotene is a fat soluble food source of pro-Vitamin A.Nutrition Info Serving Size 1 Softgel Amount Per Serving % Daily Value Beta-Carotene (as pro-Vitamin A 15 mg) 25,000 IU 500% Vitamin E (from Mixed Tocopherols) 5 IU 17% soy Lecithin (61% Phosphatides) 10 mg Suggested Usage: As a dietary supplement, take 1 softgel daily, preferably with meals. Consider taking this product in combination with NOW Tru-E BioComplex, Alpha Lipoic Acid and Vitamin D.Other ...
The potential of X. dendrorhous as a microbiological source of natural astaxanthin was recognized soon after the isolation of this yeast by Hermann Phaff and coworkers (21). So far, strategies to improve astaxanthin production in X. dendrorhous were based on classical mutagenesis and selection (2, 9, 13) and/or the improvement of fermentation conditions (4, 11). Here, we describe the use of recombinant DNA technology for metabolic engineering of the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway in X. dendrorhous. The crtYB gene of X. dendrorhous encoding the chimeric phytoene synthase-lycopene cyclase was used to construct specific carotenoid biosynthetic mutants. The combination of a white phenotype and the resistance towards G418 and the results of a Southern blot analysis (Fig. 4) indicated a successful inactivation of the endogenous crtYB gene, by either a single or a double crossover event. From the difference in transformation efficiency between the vectors pPR16, pPR19F, and pPR2TN, it can be ...
The project is a passive follow-up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study cohort. Originally, this was a large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2x2 factorial primary prevention trial testing the effects of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence and mortality. The study was conducted in Finland as a collaboration between the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Public Health Institute of Finland. NCI has maintained passive surveillance of the cohort through Finnish national registries, including the cancer registry.. The primary purpose of the ATBC cohort follow-up is to use the existing risk factor data and biological specimens (i.e., serum, whole blood, DNA, red blood cells, and toenails) to test hypotheses relevant to cancer etiology, survival, early detection, and prevention. These data and biospecimens continue to provide an invaluable resource ...
This blood test measures levels of Beta Carotene, a fat soluble nutrient, that is a precursor to vitamin A. Having a beta carotene deficiency may lead to a
Citation: Tadmor, Y., Katzir, N., King, S., Levi, A., Davis, A.R., Hirschberg, J. 2004. Fruit coloration in watermelon - lessons from the tomato. Progress in Cucurbit Genetics and Breeding Research. A. Lebeda and H.S. Paris (Eds.). p. 181-185. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The characteristic red pigmentation of watermelon and tomato fruits is determined by accumulation of the carotenoid pigment lycopene and this phenotype is polyphyletic. Since several carotenoids are known to have health promoting activities, and watermelon can be a significant source of lycopene and other carotenoids, it is important to understand the genetic basis of fruit-specific carotenoid biosynthesis. In contrast to tomato, very little is known about the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit development in watermelon. In this research we analyzed carotenoids in watermelon fruits of various flesh colors and compared their carotenoid patterns to known tomato fruit color mutants. we detected ...
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In one of our earliest EduFacts briefings (Macular Pigment Density, Dietary Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration) we reviewed a study which documented a near-twenty percent increase in macular pigment (MP) density in subjects fed a diet vigorously enriched with spinach and corn (1). The high levels of dietary spinach and corn effectively boosted lutein intake approximately 4-fold and zeaxanthin intake 3-fold. In the same article we reviewed 2 other studies relating increased serum (2) and dietary intake (3) of these dietary carotenoids with reduced risk of age related macular degeneration (AMD). While the value of adequate dietary levels of lutein and zeaxanthin is generally recognized, the value of using lutein/zeaxanthin supplements is disputed. However, a recent (1997) experimental study demonstrates that the use of a lutein supplement can directly generate an increase in the density of the protective macular pigment (4). Landrum, Bone, and colleagues serially measured macular ...
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of lutein and lycopene supplementation on carotid artery intima-media thickness (CAIMT) in subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis. A total of 144 subjects aged 45-68 years were recruited from local communities. All the subjects were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg lutein/d (n 48), 20 mg lutein/d+20 mg lycopene/d (n 48) or placebo (n 48) for 12 months. CAIMT was measured using Doppler ultrasonography at baseline and after 12 months, and serum lutein and lycopene concentrations were determined using HPLC. Serum lutein concentrations increased significantly from 0·34 to 1·96 μmol/l in the lutein group (P, 0·001) and from 0·35 to 1·66 μmol/l in the combination group (P, 0·001). Similarly, serum lycopene concentrations increased significantly from 0·18 to 0·71 μmol/l in the combination group at month 12 (P, 0·001), whereas no significant change was observed in the placebo group. The mean values of CAIMT decreased significantly ...
Antioxidant and light filtering protection for healthy visual function Lutein is a carotenoid found in a vast number of fruits and vegetables. Like other carotenoids, lutein has antioxidant activity in various tissues, but is only one of two that is stored within the retina where it promotes the integrity and density of the macular pigment, a key component of ocular health. Multiple clinical studies suggest a direct relationship between lutein supplementation and macula lutein concentration. Lutein uptake reportedly occurs in the receptor layer of the eye through a soluble carotenoid-binding protein called tubulin. Clinical trials have indicated that lutein specifically supports vision health through a combination of pigment associated antioxidant protection and light screening mechanisms. Furthermore, a two-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study reported that lutein may support healthy visual function in older individuals more efficiently than alpha tocopherol. Pure Encapsulations free-form
Beta-carotene is popular because of its antioxidant properties, thus protecting cells from damage. Numerous studies show that people who eat lots of fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin beta-carotene and other minerals lowers risk of developing several types of cancer and heart disease. But so far studies have not found whether in the form of beta-carotene supplements have the same health benefits ...
Buy Lamberts Beta Carotene health supplement online. Beta Carotene is an antioxidant to help protect the skin against damaging free radicals.
This study examined the effects of palm carotene feeding on DNA damage of bone marrow, recovery of peripheral leukocyte counts, and the survival of mice that received whole-body X-ray irradiation. The palm carotene was composed of alpha- and beta-carotene in a ratio of 1:3. Mice were fed either a basal diet or a carotene diet (50 mg carotene/100 g diet) for 2 weeks, then irradiated. The carotene diet was prepared by the dietary protocol that markedly enhanced the accumulation of carotene in tissues (J. Nutr. 125, 3081, 1995). DNA damage in bone marrow was evaluated by micronucleus assay using peripheral blood. When mice received X-ray (1.5 Gy), marked DNA damage in bone marrow and reduction of peripheral leukocyte count were observed. These changes were significantly attenuated in mice fed the carotene diet. In addition, X-ray (6.5 Gy)-induced survival of ...
The xanthophyll cycle involves the enzymatic removal of epoxy groups from xanthophylls (e.g. violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, diadinoxanthin) to create so-called de-epoxidised xanthophylls (e.g. diatoxanthin, zeaxanthin). These enzymatic cycles were found to play a key role in stimulating energy dissipation within light-harvesting antenna proteins by non-photochemical quenching- a mechanism to reduce the amount of energy that reaches the photosynthetic reaction centers. Non-photochemical quenching is one of the main ways of protecting against photoinhibition.[3] In higher plants, there are three carotenoid pigments that are active in the xanthophyll cycle: violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin. During light stress, violaxanthin is converted to zeaxanthin via the intermediate antheraxanthin, which plays a direct photoprotective role acting as a lipid-protective anti-oxidant and by stimulating non-photochemical quenching within light-harvesting proteins. This conversion of violaxanthin to ...
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and its main binding protein, IGFBP-3, modulate cell growth and survival,and thus are thought to be important for tumor development. Carotenoids and retinol have been linked to theprevention of several cancers. We here evaluated associations of serum levels of carotenoids and retinol withIGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 within the context of the JACC Study. The study subjects were 924 controls (578men and 346 women) of a nested case-control study of lung and colorectal cancer risk . Using frozen-stored sera,serum levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin/lutein, and retinol were separatelydetermined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 weremeasured by immuno-radiometric assay. Confounding factors-adjusted least squares mean levels of serum IGFI,IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 for each quartile of serum levels of carotenoids and retinol were estimated. Serum IGFI,IGF-II, and ...
The effect of beta-carotene on race performance was evaluated using eleven well-trained runners (all running 40 miles per week) while monitoring the time to complete a 5 kilometer race by K. LeBanc, Ph.D. and coworkers from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. In addition, beta-carotenes effects on oxidative stress was also measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, a marker of muscle damage.. These subjects were tested using a double blinded, cross-over design. During the supplemental phase, each subject ingested 25000 IU of beta-carotene daily. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant improvement in 5 kilometer race performance. The average race times during the placebo and beta-carotene phases were 19:55 minutes and 19:18 minutes respectively. In addition, 64% of the subjects noted a subjective benefit from the use of ...
More success has been attained in the production of ricinoleic acid, a fatty acid from castor oil in S. pombe [92], and it may be possible to hijack this system to co-produce both CoQ10 and fatty acids, with CoQ10 participating as a lipid-soluble antioxidant to protect polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) against oxidative damage during storage. A similar approach has been explored in Yarrowia lipolytica, an oleaginous yeast, even though Y. lipolitica is a non-native producer of CoQ10, and this approach is currently undergoing approval for production [93]. The approach capitalizes on the same IPP pathway to produce carotenoids, and it has been suggested that this may lead to a reduction in flux and the generation of alterative products that will include CoQ10. Indeed, high CoQ10 selection based on mutant strains of Protomonas extorquens and R. sphaeroides are correlated with low carotenoid production [94].. Native producer: Sporidiobolus johnsonii Sporidiobolus johnsonii was recently discovered as ...
Astaxanthin Antioxidant Carotenoid * 2 mg Softgels Astaxanthin, a member of the carotenoid family, is a powerful antioxidant. In vitro research demonstrates that astaxanthin is ten times stronger in scavenging free radicals than other carotenoids such as lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-carotene, and one-hundred times stronger than alpha-tocopherol. Astaxanthin has also been shown to prevent low density lipoprotein oxidation in human blood and to enhance the immune system in animal studies. Supplement Facts for 2 mg Softgels Serving Size: 1 softgel(s) Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Haematococcus pluvialis Algae Extract [AstaREAL] 20 mg Yielding: Astaxanthin Complex** 2 mg ** This complex consists of a minimum of 1.8 milligrams of astaxanthin, as well as lesser amounts of lutein, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids. Other Ingredients: virgin olive oil and gelatin. Warning: If you are pregnant, may ...
In vitro and in vivo studies have associated iron with both the initiation and promotional stages of carcinogenesis. We investigated whether iron was associated with colorectal cancer in a nested case-control study within the α-tocopherol, β-carotene cancer prevention study cohort. Exposure was assessed at baseline, using a 276-item food frequency questionnaire and a fasting serum sample. The study included 130 colorectal cancer cases (73 colon cancers and 57 rectal cancers) and 260 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Supplemental iron intake was only reported for 4 cases and 18 controls; therefore, we were unable to obtain meaningful results for this variable. Comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles, there was an inverse association between serum ferritin and colorectal cancer risk (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9) and a suggestion of an inverse association between dietary iron and colorectal cancer risk (OR = ...
Aside from GLA which comes directly from evening primrose, borage and black currant seed and indirectly from flax seed, there are many other safe and effective natural substances that can mimic the ways in which aspirin works. It must be stressed, however, that if one continues to eat a lot of sugar, refined foods, saturated fat (e.g. red meat, chicken, dairy products, etc.), does not exercise, smokes cigarettes and drinks alcohol to excess, neither aspirin nor any of the following alternatives can be guaranteed to do much good.. Beta carotene - The best source of beta carotene is whole carrots. Equally good is a live whole food concentrate of carrots. Eating carrots or swallowing live whole food carrot concentrate capsules is therefore better than just drinking carrot juice which in turn is better than just taking a beta carotene supplement. Carrot juice contains beta ...
In this research paper we studied the effect of some thermal treatments on chlorophyll, carotenes and xanthophylls content from spinach and savoy cabbage leaves. Were analysed fresh samples and samples blanched (approx. 98 C for 5 min), boiled (20 min) and frozen after blancing prior (at approx. 18 C for 2 months). The concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids were determined spectrophotometrically. Of the two analyzed vegetables, spinach had the highest concentration of chlorophyll (total chlorophyll 515.47 mg/g- for fresh spinach, respectively 289.07 mg/g- for fresh savoy cabbage. The more aggressive thermal treatment, in terms of the reduction of the chlorophyll concentration in both vegetables was boiled, followed by freezing. Blanching resulted in the lowest losses of chlorophylls. After the thermal treatments applied, the most significant losses for both the spinach and savoy cabbage, have been recorded for the chlorophyll "b". From experimental data it was observed that spinach is ...
The relation between asbestos exposure and colorectal cancer remains controversial. The authors of this 1984-2004 US study examined the association among 3,897 occupationally exposed participants in the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) for chemoprevention of lung cancer, followed prospectively for 10-18 years. When a Cox stratified proportional hazards model was used, risks of colorectal cancer were elevated among male heavy smokers exposed to asbestos. Their relative risk was 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.96, 1.93) when compared with that for CARET heavy smokers not exposed to asbestos, after adjusting for age, smoking history, and intervention arm. The presence of asbestos-induced pleural plaques at baseline was associated with a relative risk of 1.54 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 2.40); colorectal cancer risk also increased with worsening pulmonary asbestosis (p = 0.03 for trend). A dose-response trend based on years of asbestos exposure was less ...
The investigations on Theileria parva infection of cattle revealed : (1) That bilirubinaemia did occur, the highest figure for plasma bilirubin being 12 v. d. Bergh units. (2) That the yellow staining of the fat is due to the combined effect of carotinoids and bilirubin. (3) That the intensity of the yellow colour of the plasma is in part due to carotinoids, a normal constituent of the blood of cattle, especially if they be fed on food containing carotinoids. (4) That there is a definite rise in the concentration of coproporphyrin in the faeces and urine. Such a rise, however, does not necessarily mean that there is an increase in the total amount excreted as the rise may be due to the decrease in the amount of faeces passed as a result of the disease ...
1 Introduction Carotenoids are C40 isoprenoids and form one of the most diverse classes of natural compounds. They serve multitude of functions ranging from photosynthetic pigments to nutritional compounds and antioxidants. Carotenoids undergo a reaction involving incorporation of both oxygen atoms from molecular oxygen into their substrates across a double bond resulting in the production of two ketone- or aldehyde-containing cleavage products (Auldridge et al. 2006a, b). 1). They are widespread in plant kingdom and carry out vital physiological and developmental processes in plants. Is an important medicinal plant and has been used widely in tropical and subtropical countries for treating a number of ailments. The use of saffron for medicinal purposes dates back to the Greek and Roman periods. It has been used to treat stomach disorders, flatulence, coughs, colic, insomnia, feminine disorder, and heart disease, as anodyne and tranquilizer, and for its emetic properties (Abdullaev et al. 2003). ...
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The present invention is directed toward a method for producing beta-carotene using a mated culture of Mucorales fungi. The method includes mutating and selecting negative (minus mating type) and positive (plus mating type) Mucorales fungal microorganisms, culturing the selected negative and positive microorganisms in an effective medium to form a mated culture that produces beta-carotene, and recovering beta-carotene therefrom. The present invention provides mated cultures that overproduce beta-carotene and is also directed to certain negative and positive microorganisms used to overproduce beta-carotene. The present invention also provides beta-carotene formulations produced by the claimed method, and the use of such formulations, for example, to enhance ...
Palm oil is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. It is not to be confused with palm kernel oil derived from the kernel of the same fruit[43] or coconut oil derived from the kernel of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). The differences are in color (raw palm kernel oil lacks carotenoids and is not red), and in saturated fat content: palm mesocarp oil is 49% saturated, while palm kernel oil and coconut oil are 81% and 86% saturated fats, respectively. However, crude red palm oil that has been refined, bleached and deodorized, a common commodity called RBD (refined, bleached, and deodorized) palm oil, does not contain carotenoids.[14] Many industrial food applications of palm oil use fractionated components of palm oil (often listed as "modified palm oil") whose saturation levels can reach 90%;[44] these "modified" palm oils can become highly saturated, but are not necessarily hydrogenated. The oil palm produces bunches containing many fruits with ...
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... 63. Accepted name: β-carotene 15,15-dioxygenase. Reaction: β-carotene + O2 = 2 all-trans-retinal. For diagram of reaction click here.. Other name(s): blh (gene name); BCO1 (gene name); BCDO (gene name); carotene dioxygenase; carotene 15,15-dioxygenase; BCMO1 (misleading); β-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase (incorrect). Systematic name: β-carotene:oxygen 15,15-dioxygenase (bond-cleaving). Comments: Requires Fe2+. The enzyme cleaves β-carotene symmetrically, producing two molecules of all-trans-retinal. Both atoms of the oxygen molecule are incorporated into the products [8]. The enzyme can also process β-cryptoxanthin, 8-apo-β-carotenal, 4-apo-β-carotenal, α-carotene and γ-carotene in decreasing order. The presence of at least one unsubstituted β-ionone ring in a substrate greater than C30 is mandatory [5]. A prokaryotic enzyme has been ...
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Observational studies suggest that moderate intakes of retinol and increased circulating retinol levels may increase fracture risk. Easy access to supplements, combined with an aging population, makes this a potentially important association. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma retinol and total carotene concentrations in relation to fracture risk after long-term supplementation with retinol and/or beta-carotene in 998 adults between 1990 and 2007. Methods: Participants were 663 men and 335 women in a cancer prevention program who were initially randomized to a retinol (7.5 mg RE/d) or beta-carotene (30 mg/d) supplement between 1990 and 1996. After 1996, all participants received the retinol supplement only. Plasma retinol and total carotene, medication use and various lifestyle factors were measured at annual clinic visits. Fractures were identified by self-report in 2007. The risk for any ...
Venado, Rafael E.; Owens, Brenda F.; Ortiz, Darwin; Lawson, Tyler; Mateos-Hernandez, Maria; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; and Rocheford, Torbert R. 2017. Genetic analysis of provitamin A carotenoid β-cryptoxanthin concentration and relationship with other carotenoids in maize grain (Zea mays L.). Molecular Breeding (2017) 37:127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11032-017-0723-8 ...
Our results suggest that the Ala variant of SOD2 Ex2+24T,C (V16A) was associated with a moderately increased risk of prostate cancer in Caucasians, particularly among men with lower intake of dietary and supplemental vitamin E. No significant associations with prostate cancer were observed for polymorphic variants in SOD3 or SOD1. Similar to our study, men homozygous for the SOD2 Ala allele had a 70% increase in risk over men homozygous for the Val allele in Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study conducted for 197 cases and 190 controls (17), whereas no overall association was found in the Physicians Health Study conducted for 567 cases and 764 controls (18).. In our study, the elevation of prostate cancer risk associated with the SOD2 Ala allele was observed particularly for smokers with lower vitamin E intake. We previously reported, in the PLCO Trial, that greater vitamin E intake was associated with lower prostate cancer risk, only in smokers (29), as ...
Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that dietary factors such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and b ta-carotene are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. This study was carried out within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study ATBC Study, whose participants were randomly assigned to four...
The high beta-carotene content improves the eyesight, as it is a powerful antioxidant. Researchers have confirmed that 3 or more pineapple servings daily lower the risk of age-related vision issues like macular degeneration, which is the main culprit for blindness in the elderly. ...
We report on a novel arctic strain BM1 of a carotenogenic chlorophyte from a coastal habitat with harsh environmental conditions (wide variations in solar irradiance, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability) identified as Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow. Increased (25‰) salinity exerted no adverse effect on the growth of the green BM1 cells. Under stressful conditions (high light, nitrogen and phosphorus deprivation), green vegetative cells of H. pluvialis BM1 grown in BG11 medium formed non-motile palmelloid cells and, eventually, hematocysts capable of a massive accumulation of the keto-carotenoid astaxanthin with a high nutraceutical and therapeutic potential. Routinely, astaxanthin was accumulated at the level of 4% of the cell dry weight (DW), reaching, under prolonged stress, 5.5% DW. Astaxanthin was predominantly accumulated in the form of mono- and diesters of fatty acids from C16 and C18 families. The palmelloids and hematocysts were characterized by the formation of red-colored
Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%). Lycopene ...
Efforts began in 1992 to engineer rice to have a greater vitamin A content. The endosperm of rice naturally contains geranylgeranyl-diphosphate, a compound that is only a few biosynthetic steps away from beta carotene (Figure 1) (Ye, 2000). To allow the rice grains to accumulate beta carotene, it was necessary to introduce introduce the enzymes for the remaining steps of the pathway in the same compartment as geranylgeranyl-diphosphate.. The first enzyme needed is phytoene synthase (psy). This enzyme catalyzes the reaction of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to make phytoene. The psy gene encoding for this enzyme was taken from daffodil and placed under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter. To get the enzyme into the plastid (the compartment where geranylgeranyl diphosphate is located), a plastid signaling sequence was placed onto the 5 end of the gene (Ye, 2000).. In plants, there are separate enzymes for the next three steps of the ...
Predictors of optical density of lutein and zeaxanthin in retinas of older women in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study, an ancillary study of the Womens Health Initiative. By: Julie A Mares, Tara L LaRowe, D Max Snodderly, Suzen M Moeller, Michael J Gruber, Michael L Klein, Billy R Wooten, Elizabeth J Johnson, and Richard J Chappell for the CAREDS Macular Pigment Study Group and Investigators. Fullscreen Mode ...
Bio Extract use whole dried Dunaliella salina Marine Microalgae as Dunaliella Beta carotene is an excellent The macula sits in the center and allows you to see fine details and gives you central vision.. Benefit Eye Bright (Instant Eye Brightener) - 1.4g/0.05oz. Many people are looking for the best contact eye pain blurry vision floaters glaucoma uk solution for dry eyes. Beta carotene will help the skin fight away future aging. Doctors Best Astaxanthin Special Visit Manufacturers Website 1-5 black eyed free humps mp3 pea. What kind of vitamins should you take having MS? My doctor is B12 fish oil astaxanthin (Bioastin a red microalgae) Weeratunge and Vitamin B12 Foods And Fruits Scientfic Blindness Definition Color Perera acute glaucoma intraocular pressure conjunctivitis complications allergic Chemistry Central Journal Formulation of a fish feed for goldfish with natural astaxanthin extracted from shrimp waste W. All together the annual ...
Epidemiologic evidence suggests that serum carotenoids are potent antioxidants and may play a protective role in the development of chronic diseases including cancers, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory diseases. The role of these antioxidants in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus remains unclear.This study examined data from a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association between serum carotenoids and type 2 diabetes.Study participants were adults aged > or = 25 y (n = 1597) from 6 randomly selected cities and towns in Queensland, Australia. Study examinations conducted between October and December 2000 included fasting plasma glucose, an oral-glucose-tolerance test, and measurement of the serum concentrations of 5 carotenoid compounds.Mean 2-h postload plasma glucose and fasting insulin concentrations decreased significantly with increasing quintiles of the 5 serum carotenoids--alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, ...
BACKGROUND: Published associations between dietary carotenoids and vitamin C and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between plasma carotenoids and vitamin C and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN: A total of 856 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 856 cohort members by sex, age at baseline, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Plasma carotenoids (α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin) were measured by using reverse-phase HPLC, and plasma vitamin C was measured by using a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, duration, and intensity. RESULTS: UCC risk decreased with higher concentrations of ...
Carrots are root vegetables that have a high carotene content and widely consumed in juice form. The weakness of processed juice is the damage and loss of carotene due to enzymatic reactions and oxidation that can occur during processing. Blanching treatment on carrot juice before manufacture can inactivate the enzyme so that it can minimize the loss of carotene. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the treatment on the size of the carrot and the temperature during the process of blanching with response total carotene content. The highest value of total carotene exist in the treatment of carrot size 5x5x20 mm and temperature 60⁰C. This value is used as a central point in the optimization process using RSM. The results of the R software version 3.1.2 obtained a second ordo models corresponding to the value of R-square = 0.8404, p-value = 1,034% and the lack of fit = 0.6398. The optimum point response total ...
Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the childrens school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and ...
A start-up biotech company from South Africa, Cape Carotene, has received funding from Cape Biotech to develop technologies to produce astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant and dietary supplement used in aquaculture, from algae. According to a report in the Cape Business News:. The algae will be grown in small, shallow ponds for a short period. The algal strain has been derived from fresh water culture collections which has been adapted for commercial use. Once grown, the algae will be stressed by changing the growth conditions which induces it to synthesize astaxanthin. Astaxanthin is produced by the cells as a secondary metabolite, which is only found in a specific cell state. The algal cells are then harvested and processed.. Although Cape Carotenes immediate target is to export the naturally produced astaxanthin to European fish and feed industries, the company also plan to develop it as a nutraceutical for human consumption. Because of its antioxidative properties, much ...
Egg quality is a phenotype of, and can profoundly influence fitness in, both mother and offspring. However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. Carotenoids are hypothesized to enhance antioxidant act
Vitamin A is also helpful to bone growth and your immune system. As with other vitamins, there are different forms of vitamin A. One of the forms that is most usable to the body is called retinol, which is found in liver, eggs, and milk. One of the most common provitamin A carotenoids that the body converts easily to retinol is beta carotene. Beta carotene is found in yellow and orange fruits and vegetables including carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, and cantaloupe. Vitamin A is also one of the vitamins often used to fortify breakfast cereals. ...
ICD-10 conversion is H40. Is it safe to use Ducray Anacaps while breastfeeding infantsalsoweregiven1dropperday of a liquid suspension vitamin D Deficiency Symptoms and Eye diseases can cause of pinkeye.. If you really want to go for it, you can. Clinical Practice.Referral criteria to medical consultation. During the course of a 24-hour cycle, the average body temperature is at its.The symptoms of ocular rosacea include redness on the eye surface and in some. 27 AKER KARTAL SZEL MANTIK I 2017 Yeni Video Download Video 5) Szel Mantk/ 2016 KPSS Sorusu - 1 Aker Kartal SZEL MANTIK/3 Deikenli (Vitamin Sorusu) - ALES - DGS - KPSS km soru zmleri. of sinus infection; Watery and itchy eyes, sneezing and nasal congestion that can help lighten the dark circles and get rid of the puffiness around the eyes. http://resolver.library.cornell.edu/. HNFE Seminar: Fight against liver fibrosis: a potential role of astaxanthin in the prevention and therapy for liver fibrosis event in 24060 can be found using Local. ...
Chemopreventive agents. Chemoprevention is the use of drugs, vitamins, or other agents to try to reduce the risk of cancer. The following chemopreventive agents have been studied to find whether they lower the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer:. Beta carotene. Studies of beta carotene (taken as a supplement in pills) have not shown that it prevents nonmelanoma skin cancer from forming or coming back.. Isotretinoin. High doses of isotretinoin have been shown to prevent new skin cancers in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. However, isotretinoin has not been shown to prevent nonmelanoma skin cancers from coming back in patients previously treated for nonmelanoma skin cancers. Treatment with isotretinoin can cause serious side effects.. Selenium. Studies have shown that selenium (taken in brewers yeast tablets) does not lower the risk of basal cell carcinoma, and may increase the risk of squamous cell carcinoma.. Celecoxib. A study of celecoxib ...
A few months back, I sent out a tip about olive oil. This month, I wanted to tell you about another great fat - VIRGIN RED PALM OIL. Virgin Red Palm Oil, used mostly in Africa and other parts of the world, is beginning to make a trend here as well. Here are a few facts:. VIRGIN RED PALM OIL ...
A composition of matter comprising a capsule or tablet, sized and designed for oral ingestion by a human, containing the 3R-3′R stercoisorner of zeaxanthin. The 3R-3′R stereoisomer of zeaxanthin constitutes at least about 90 percent of all zeaxanthin, while S-S and S-R stereoisomers constitute less than about 10 percent of all zeaxanthin in the capsule or tablet. The capsule or tablet contains a sufficient quantity of the 3R-3′R stereoisomer of zeaxanthin to cause a detectable increase in zeaxanthin concentration in retinal tissue, or at least about 0.5 milligrams. It can be concentrated into an oily fluid or prepared in a microencapsulated granular formulation. The zeaxanthin can also be added to various types of foods, such as margarine, dairy products, syrup, cookie dough, and meat preparations. When consumed, the zeaxanthin can help treat and prevent eye diseases including macular degeneration, a leading cause of vision loss.
Chocolate Chip - Enriched Wheat Flour (Bleached Flour, Niacin, Reduced Iron, Thiamine Mononitrate, Riboflavin, Folic Acid), Semi-Sweet Chocolate Chips (Sugar, Unsweetened Chocolate, Cocoa Butter, Soy Lecithin, Vanilla), Trans Fat Free Margarine (Palm and Palm Kernel Oil, Soybean Oil, Water, Salt. Contains 2% or less of the following: Non-fat Dry Milk Solids, Soy Lecithin, Vegetable Mono & Diglycerides, Sodium Benzoate [Preservative], Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavor, Beta Carotene [Color]. Vitamin A Palmitate added. ), Granulated Sugar, Light Brown Sugar, Eggs, Leavening (Baking Soda).. Oatmeal Raisin - Rolled Oats, Light Brown Sugar, Trans Fat Free Margarine (Palm and Palm Kernel Oil, Soybean Oil, Water, Salt. Contains 2% of less of the following: Non-fat Dry Milk Solids, Soy Lecithin, Vegetable Mono & Diglycerides, Sodium Benzoate [Preservative], Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavor, Beta Carotene [Color], Imitation Vanilla ...
Chocolate Chip - Enriched Wheat Flour (Bleached Flour, Niacin, Reduced Iron, Thiamine Mononitrate, Riboflavin, Folic Acid), Semi-Sweet Chocolate Chips (Sugar, Unsweetened Chocolate, Cocoa Butter, Soy Lecithin, Vanilla), Trans Fat Free Margarine (Palm and Palm Kernel Oil, Soybean Oil, Water, Salt. Contains 2% or less of the following: Non-fat Dry Milk Solids, Soy Lecithin, Vegetable Mono & Diglycerides, Sodium Benzoate [Preservative], Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavor, Beta Carotene [Color]. Vitamin A Palmitate added. ), Granulated Sugar, Light Brown Sugar, Eggs, Leavening (Baking Soda).. Oatmeal Raisin - Rolled Oats, Light Brown Sugar, Trans Fat Free Margarine (Palm and Palm Kernel Oil, Soybean Oil, Water, Salt. Contains 2% of less of the following: Non-fat Dry Milk Solids, Soy Lecithin, Vegetable Mono & Diglycerides, Sodium Benzoate [Preservative], Citric Acid, Natural & Artificial Flavor, Beta Carotene [Color], Imitation Vanilla ...
Precautions: Folic acid especially in doses above 1.0 mg daily may obscure pernicious anemia (hematologic remission may occur while neurological manifestations remain progressive). Caution should be exercised to ensure that the prescribed dose of DHA does not exceed 1 gram (1,000 mg) per day. Since daily ingestion of more than 3 grams (3,000 mg) per day of omega-3 fatty acids (including alphalinolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) from fish oils may have potential antithrombotic activities and may increase bleeding times, administration of DHA should be avoided in patients with inherited or acquired bleeding diatheses, including those taking anticoagulants ...
Hypervitaminosis A refers to the toxic effects of ingesting too much preformed vitamin A. Symptoms arise as a result of altered bone metabolism and altered metabolism of other fat-soluble vitamins. Hypervitaminosis A is believed to have occurred in early humans, and the problem has persisted throughout human history. Toxicity results from ingesting too much preformed vitamin A from foods (such as fish or animal liver), supplements, or prescription medications and can be prevented by ingesting no more than the recommended daily amount. Diagnosis can be difficult, as serum retinol is not sensitive to toxic levels of vitamin A, but there are effective tests available. Hypervitaminosis A is usually treated by stopping intake of the offending food(s), supplement(s), or medication. Most people make a full recovery. High intake of provitamin carotenoids (such as beta carotene) from vegetables and fruits does not cause hypervitaminosis A, as conversion from carotenoids to the active ...
Seaweed makes the skin healthier and more vibrant-looking, because of the natural vitamins and minerals it contains.åÊåÊ Seaweed also containsåÊthe phytonutrient beta carotene, which is an antioxidant essential for the body to maintain healthy tissues.åÊ Beta carotene helps stimulate the flow of blood near the surface of the skin, resulting in a softer, smoother and healthier appearance.åÊ Seaweed is rich in vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6,åÊåÊ B12, C, E, K, folic acid, niacin and pantothenic acid. The charcoal has a strong purifying properties that absorb the skin cell impurities and also provides magnesium and other critical minerals to replenish the skin.. ...
Evidence of a protective effect of several antioxidants and other nutrients on pancreatic cancer risk is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association for prediagnostic plasma levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, retinol and tocopherols with risk of pancreatic cancer in a case-control study nested within the ... read more European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). 446 incident exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were matched to 446 controls by age at blood collection, study center, sex, date and time of blood collection, fasting status and hormone use. Plasma carotenoids (- and -carotene, lycopene, -cryptoxanthin, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein), - and -tocopherol and retinol were measured by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and plasma vitamin C by a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for pancreatic cancer risk were estimated using a conditional logistic regression ...
A method for optimizing the health of humans according to their age and sex is disclosed wherein the method comprises administering to said humans a daily dose of a multiple antioxidant micronutrient composition comprising vitamin A (palmitate), beta-carotene (from natural d. salina), vitamin C (calcium ascorbate), vitamin D-3 (cholecalciferol), natural source vitamin E including both d-alpha tocopherol and d-alpha tocopheryl acid succinate, thiamine mononitrate, riboflavin, niacinamide ascorbate, d-calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine hydrochloride, cyanocobalamin, folic acid (folacin), d-biotin, selenium (l-seleno methionine), chromium picolinate, zinc glycinate, calcium citrate, and magnesium citrate.
Pictures Of Psoriatic Arthritis Skin Dyshidrotic Eczema Itching these tablets help you Pain just north of my umbilicus My yellow face The liver is vital to your post. Prevalent in many cases, low blood pressure on the black eye at a time to see well enough to last you up to four months! Astaxanthin in Wild Salmon vs. Estudos recentes mostram que esse tipo de dieta contribui muito para tratar e prevenir Para isso, ns temos alguns alimenti che gruppo B, compreso lacido folico, gli antiossidanti come il beta-carotene supplements derived from the Ginkgo biloba and shorter daylight hours signal both the SAM-e. Filter: reviewer skin type (known as relapsing remitting MS), symptoms disappear except numbness in left side of the human body may be classified into two categories namely water and fat-soluble. Topical NSAIDs along with erectile dysfunction properly when its blood the tiny blood vessels to the creases of the above wasnt enough to consider before undergoing any type of ...
In an earlier issue the relationship between macular pigment density, dietary carotenoids, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was explored. The studies summarized in that issue demonstrated the following relationships: 1) increased pigment density with increased dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin; 2) reduced risk of AMD with higher serum levels of the retinal carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin; and 3) reduced risk of AMD with increased dietary intake of these carotenoids. There is evidence that increasing macular pigment MP density may help prevent AMD. There is wide inter-patient variation in macular pigment density. However, not much research has been carried out describing the variation among different groups. In a study by Hammond and colleagues (1), results indicated a higher macular pigment density among males compared with females (38% higher density) despite similar plasma levels and dietary intake of carotenoids. This is consistent with epidemiological findings that women ...
Purpose: : Since lutein and zeaxanthin were identified as human macular pigments (Bone et al., Vision Res., 25, 1531-1536, 1985), interest in these carotenoids has grown. Since the chromophore of the fly visual pigment is 3-hydroxyretinal (Vogt & Kirschfeld, Naturwissen. 71, S211, 1984), it seemed useful to revisit dietary supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin. These studies are addressed to the six known opsins as well as the increase in opsin gene transcription induced by dietary retinoids. Methods: : Vitamin A deprived Drosophila were given "replacement therapy" with zeaxanthin, lutein and beta-carotene; also flies were reared from egg to adult on these carotenoids. Zeaxanthin (OPTISHARP(TM)) and lutein were gifts from DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Kaiseraugst, Switzerland. Transgenic Drosophila and optical techniques assisted in the visualization of the six rhodopsins (Rh1 to Rh6) and in assaying opsin promoter activation via green fluorescent reporter (GFP) (Stark ...
Crop plants are adversely affected by a variety of environmental factors, with air temperature being one of the most influential. Plants have developed a number of methods in the adaptation to air temperature variations. However, there is limited research to determine what impact air temperature has on the production of secondary plant compounds, such as carotenoid pigments. Kale (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) have high concentrations of lutein and ß-carotene carotenoids. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different growing air temperatures on plant biomass production and the accumulation of elemental nutrients, lutein, ß-carotene, and chlorophyll pigments in the leaves of kale and spinach. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions in growth chambers at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C for `Winterbor kale and 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C for `Melody spinach. Maximum tissue lutein and ß-carotene ...
Purpose : The effects of zeaxanthin on uveal melanoma in experimental animal models remain unknown. We found that zeaxanthin inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of human uveal melanoma cells in vitro. We hypothesize that zeaxanthin may also have effects on uveal melanoma in vivo. The present study investigated the in vivo effects of zeaxanthin on human uveal melanoma in a nude mouse model. Methods : Cultured human uveal melanoma cells from an immortal cell line were inoculated into the choroid of nude mice. Mice were randomly divided into control group (without treatment of zeaxanthin), zeaxanthin low group and zeaxanthin high group (treated with intra-choroidal injection of zeaxanthin at 0.171 mg and 0.684 mg, respectively). After 21 days, mice were sacrificed and the eyes enucleated. Gross appearances and tumor mass was determined. Histopathological analysis was performed in hematoxylin and eosin stained frozen sections. Melanoma developed rapidly in the control group. Results : ...
Purpose: To determine whether supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin improves macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD).. Design: Randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Participants:. Participants with probable AMD who were 50 to 79 years of age were screened for study eligibility from the local communities. One hundred eight subjects with early AMD were recruited. Intervention: Early AMD patients were assigned randomly to receive 10 mg/day lutein (n = 27), 20 mg/day lutein (n = 27), 10 mg/day lutein plus 10 mg/day zeaxanthin (n = 27); or placebo (n = 27) for 48 weeks. Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and visual function variables were assessed at baseline, 24 weeks, and 48 weeks.. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was MPOD. Secondary outcomes were visual function variables including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), photorecovery time, and Amsler grid testing results.. Results: ...
Lycopene, a carotenoid mainly found in tomato-based food products, has strong antioxidant properties relative to other carotenoids and has been postulated to play a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease through a variety of mechanisms. Lycopene cooked and consumed in oil mediums is optimal for not only its efficient absorption, but also its potential clinical effectiveness. Studies have also linked serum lycopene with the early stages of atherosclerosis, as measured by carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), a noninvasive ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries and potential surrogate endpoint for subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality used in previous clinical trials of vitamin supplements. Short-term intervention studies of lycopene supplements are limited, having explored mechanisms through which lycopene or its readily absorbable food sources may increase plasma lycopene or induce changes in other relevant biochemical markers impacting the subsequent risk of ...
VITAMINS. Vitamins are organic compounds which are needed in small quantities to sustain life. We need to take vitamins from food because the human body either does not produce enough of them or none at all.. There are two types of vitamins:. Fat-soluble vitamins: Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the fatty tissues of the body and the liver. Fat-soluble vitamins are easier to store than water-soluble ones and can stay in the body as reserves for days, some of them for months. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of fats (lipids). Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat-soluble.. Water-soluble vitamins: Water-soluble vitamins do not get stored in the body for long - they soon get excreted in urine. Because of this, water-soluble vitamins need to be replaced more often than fat-soluble ones. Vitamins C and all the B vitamins are water-soluble.. Vitamin A. Chemical names - retinol, retinal, and four carotenoids (including beta carotene). Good ...
I also have fluid in.top advisor there. Cataract extraction in the developing world is an extremely cost-effective collected from adults over the age of 50 who were visually impaired due to cataract and The results also illustrated that on average individuals who regained vision. Astaxanthin And Nausea Are Common Rabbits Cataracts glare in ight investigation is carried out for -.. Astaxanthin also helps maintain appropriate eye pressure levels that. Bilberries grow from a perennial shrub that grows to only about 16 inches high and produces dark purple berries in. FSH and luteinizing hormone High levels of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone indicate. It is also a natural steroid and hence helps alleviate the pain associated with pink eye. Avocado An acetone extract of avocado containing these carotenoids (lutein zeaxanthin alpha-carotene and beta-carotene) and. Most people who are referred to as colorblind only have a different perception of color or theres only 1 ...
Japanese researchers discovered that β-Cryptoxanthin and hesperidin possess inhibitory effects on carcinogenesis in several rodent and mouse tissues. For their experiment they chemically induced cancer in the rat colon, rat tongue, and mouse lung. They then prepared a formula of pulp and citrus juices from the satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar.). Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Mar.) juice and pulp contains high amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and hesperidin. Their formula inhibited tumorigenesis in all three cancers. 1. Beta-cryptoxanthin belongs to the class of carotenoids, more specifically the xanthophylls. In the human body, beta-cryptoxanthin is converted to vitamin A (retinol) and is therefore considered as a pro-vitamin A.. Hesperidin is a flavan-on glycoside found in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin. Hesperidin inhibits chemically induced carcinogenesis in several organs. 2. The study from the Japanese researchers demonstrate that oral ...
To back-up my claims:. The conventional methods of reducing inflammation such as NSAIDS, is not good enough. Since, 1999, the New England Journal of Medicine, has reported that NSAIDS are as fatal as AIDS. NSAID like Vioxx, is reported to have caused 60,000 people to death.. Kiran Recommends Pink Carotenoid:. Carotenoid are responsible for different food hues. From violet-red of beets, to bright green of pepper to rich red of tomato. Although, there are 700 carotenoids, only 10 are easily present in our bloodstream. These carotenoids are not just food colors.. One such, super potent carotenoid is astaxanthin, which is present in "haematococcus pluvialis. Astaxanithin has UV protecting radiations for algae, when nutrients, and water are scarce. Best sources for astaxanthin are salmon, shellfish, and krill; or you can eat microalgae as the direct source of astaxanthin. Pink salmon is pink as it feeds on astaxanthin. So, its immensely rich in astaxanithin.. Antioxidant Potency Value:. Astaxanthin ...
After wheat and rice, potato is the third most important staple food worldwide. A collection of ten tetraploid (Solanum tuberosum) and diploid (S. phureja and S. chacoense) genotypes with contrasting carotenoid content was subjected to molecular characterization with respect to candidate carotenoid loci and metabolic profiling using LC-HRMS. Irrespective of ploidy and taxonomy, tubers of these genotypes fell into three groups: yellow-fleshed, characterized by high levels of epoxy-xanthophylls and xanthophyll esters and by the presence of at least one copy of a dominant allele of the β-Carotene Hydroxylase 2 (CHY2) gene; white-fleshed, characterized by low carotenoid levels and by the presence of recessive chy2 alleles; and orange-fleshed, characterized by high levels of zeaxanthin but low levels of xanthophyll esters, and homozygosity for a Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (ZEP) recessive allele ...
The egg yolk of vertebrates contains carotenoids, which account for its characteristic yellow color in some species. Such plant-derived compounds, e.g. beta-carotene, serve as the natural precursors (provitamins) of vitamin A, which is indispensable for chordate development. As egg yolk also contains stored vitamin A, carotenoids have so far been solely discussed as pigments for the coloration of the offspring. Based on our recent molecular identification of the enzyme catalyzing provitamin A conversion to vitamin A, we address a possible role of provitamin A during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. We cloned the zebrafish gene encoding the vitamin A-forming enzyme, a beta,beta-carotene-15,15-oxygenase. Analysis of its mRNA expression revealed that it is under complex spatial and temporal control during development. Targeted gene knockdown using the morpholino antisense oligonucleotide technique indicated a vital role of ...
This study investigated the antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of oxidized lutein using human cervical carcinoma cell lines (HeLa). Liposome contained phosphatidylcholine (20 micromol) in Tris-HCl buffer and lutein (200 micromol) was exposed to sunlight for 100 min. Photo-oxidized lutein products were characterized by LC-MS (APCI(+)) and studied for their antioxidant property and apoptosis in terms of cell viability, glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Photo-oxidized lutein fragmented ions were identified as 523 (M+ + H+-3CH3), 476 (M+ + H+-6CH3), 551 (M+ + H+-H2O) and its isomers as 13-Z lutein, 13-Z lutein, 13-Z zeaxanthin, all-E zeaxanthin, 9-Z lutein, 9-Z lutein. Free radical scavenging activity of oxidized lutein was higher by 45.9% (IC(50), 3.71 microg) than lutein (IC(50), 5.28 microg). Oxidized lutein lowered the lipid peroxidation by 20.7% than lutein. The viability of HeLa cells, glutathione and MDA levels were decreased by 64%, 40% and 18% than lutein. To conclude, oxidized lutein
Use of social media plus daily work demands can overstress not only your body generally, but your eyes specifically. According to Social Media Today, teens spend nine hours each day on social media channels with 60% of their time devoted to mobile devices. Clearly, people nowadays who have access to smartphones and the Internet have eyes which are glued to lighted screens, with many not being aware of this habits negative impacts on their eyesight. Because social media consumption is here to stay, learn more about healthy lifestyle tips that can help you take care of your eyes and the signs that say its time to visit an eye clinic.. Lifestyle Tips for Healthy Vision. Right Nutrition. Eat the right food for your eyes. Foods rich in Vitamins A and C as well as beta carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin are good for your eyes. To get these nutrients, eat a cup or more of dark leafy greens, such as kale and spinach each day, as well as carrots, tomatoes, and eggs. Eat salmon and tuna ...
Research performed at Schepens Eye Research Institute and the Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, has established that dietary zeaxanthin plays an essential role in protecting the retina of the eye from the damaging effects of light and may help prevent age-related macular degeneration (AMD). From the many carotenoids in the diet, the human retina selectively accumulates only two: zeaxanthin and lutein, and they are known as the macular pigment because their concentration in the macula is so high. Because these carotenoids absorb blue light and because they are powerful antioxidants, scientists have hypothesized that they protect the retina.. To test this hypothesized protection, the team selected Japanese quail because the retina resembles the human macula in having more cone photoreceptors than rods and in highly selective accumulation of zeaxanthin and lutein from their diet. The studies examined the effect of manipulating dietary carotenoids on light damage to retinas. C. ...
New therapies for leukaemia are urgently needed. Carrots have been suggested as a potential treatment for leukaemia in traditional medicine and have previously been studied in other contexts as potential sources of anticancer agents. Indicating that carrots may contain bioactive compounds, which may show potential in leukaemia therapies. This study investigated the effects of five fractions from carrot juice extract (CJE) on human lymphoid leukaemia cell lines, together with five purified bioactive compounds found in Daucus carota L, including: three polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate) and two carotenoids (beta-carotene and lutein). Their effects on induction of apoptosis using Annexin V/PI and Caspase 3 activity assays analysed via flow cytometry and inhibition of cellular proliferation using Cell Titer Glo assay and cell cycle analysis were investigated. Treatment of all three lymphoid leukaemia cell lines with the fraction from carrot ...
Carotenoids are pigments that are responsible for the hue of egg yolk and are essential to embryonic and early post-hatching development in birds (Surai 2002). Two studies using high performance liquid chromatography to measure carotenoid content in zebra finch yolks found mainly lutein, zeaxanthin and anhydrolutein, with small amounts of β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene (McGraw et al. 2002; Royle et al. 2003). Carotenoid content decreases over the laying sequence (e.g. Royle et al. 2003; Williamson et al. 2006), but the relative percentages of component carotenoids remained unchanged in a comparison of first and last eggs in zebra finch clutches (Royle et al. 2003). The hue of zebra finch egg yolks varies dramatically among eggs and changes substantially from orange to yellow over the laying sequence within a clutch, while the saturation invariably was very close to 100 per cent (this study). This suggests that more orange yolks contain a higher total concentration of carotenoids. Studies ...

Beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase - WikipediaBeta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase - Wikipedia

"beta-Carotene 15,15-Dioxygenase activity in human tissues and cells: evidence of an iron dependency". J Nutr Biochem. 12 (11 ... 3.0.co;2-z. Goodman DS, Huang HS, Kanai M & Shiratori T (1967). "The enzymatic conversion of all-trans beta-carotene into ... Goodman DS, Huang HS, Shiratori T (1966). "Mechanism of the biosynthesis of vitamin A from beta-carotene". J. Biol. Chem. 241 ( ... monooxygenase (EC 1.14.99.36) is an enzyme that catalyzes the biological reaction β-carotene + O2 → 2retinal This is a cleavage ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-carotene_15,15'-monooxygenase

BCMO1 - SNPediaBCMO1 - SNPedia

... monooxygenase protein which cleaves beta-carotene symmetrically to yield two molecules of retinal. Polymorphisms in this gene ... PMID 19103647] The BCMO1 gene encodes the beta-carotene 15,15- ...
more infohttps://www.snpedia.com/index.php/BCMO1

Characterization of a newly developed chicken 44K Agilent microarray | BMC Genomics | Full TextCharacterization of a newly developed chicken 44K Agilent microarray | BMC Genomics | Full Text

Beta-carotene 15, 15-monooxygenase 1; TIMD4: T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing 4; TNFSF10: Tumor necrosis ... Xiao Y, Hughes AL, Ando J, Matsuda Y, Cheng JF, Skinner-Noble D, Zhang G: A genome-wide screen identifies a single beta- ... Zhao C, Nguyen T, Liu L, Sacco RE, Brogden KA, Lehrer RI: Gallinacin-3, an inducible epithelial beta-defensin in the chicken. ... B-L beta chain and C7 were found ileum-selective (see additional file 2). No ileum-selective genes were available in human from ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-9-60

Reactome | BCMO1:Fe2+ cleaves betaC to atRALReactome | BCMO1:Fe2+ cleaves betaC to atRAL

beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase activity of BCMO1:Fe2+ [cytosol] Physical Entity ...
more infohttp://www.reactome.org/content/detail/R-GGA-975635

Reactome | BCMO1:Fe2+ cleaves betaC to atRALReactome | BCMO1:Fe2+ cleaves betaC to atRAL

beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase activity of BCMO1:Fe2+ [cytosol] Physical Entity ...
more infohttp://www.reactome.org/content/detail/R-CEL-975635

Molecular Mechanisms Section | National Eye InstituteMolecular Mechanisms Section | National Eye Institute

Boulanger, A., McLemore, P., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Jenkins, N.A., Gentleman, S., and Redmond, T.M.: Beta-carotene 15, ... monooxygenase. BMC Biochemistry 10:31, 2009. PubMed. Lorenz B, Poliakov E, Schambeck M, Friedburg C, Preising MN, Redmond TM. A ... Biochemical evidence for the tyrosine involvement in cationic intermediate stabilization in mouse Beta-carotene 15, 15- ... Poliakov, E., Gentleman, S.,Cunningham, F.X., Miller-Ihli, N.J. and Redmond, T.M. Key Role of histidines in Mouse β-Carotene 15 ...
more infohttps://www.nei.nih.gov/research/research-labs-and-branches/laboratory-retinal-cell-and-molecular-biology/molecular-mechanisms-section

ZFIN  Publication: Lampert et al., 2003ZFIN Publication: Lampert et al., 2003

We cloned the zebrafish gene encoding the vitamin A-forming enzyme, a beta,beta-carotene-15,15-oxygenase. Analysis of its mRNA ... Provitamin A conversion to retinal via the beta,beta-carotene-15,15-oxygenase (bcox) is essential for pattern formation and ... Monooxygenase. PubMed:. 12668631 Full text @ Development Citation Lampert, J.M., Holzschuh, J., Hessel, S., Driever, W., Vogt, ... K., and von Lintig, J. (2003) Provitamin A conversion to retinal via the beta,beta-carotene-15,15-oxygenase (bcox) is ...
more infohttps://zfin.org/ZDB-PUB-030408-11

Carotenoid oxygenase - WikipediaCarotenoid oxygenase - Wikipedia

... monooxygenase (BCDO1; EC 1.14.99.36) from animals, which cleaves beta-carotene symmetrically at the central double bond to ... Beta-carotene-9,10-dioxygenase (BCDO2) from animals, which cleaves beta-carotene asymmetrically to apo-10-beta-carotenal and ... which converts beta-apocarotenals rather than beta-carotene into retinal. This protein has a seven-bladed beta-propeller ... Carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthine are produced in plants and certain bacteria, algae ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carotenoid_oxygenase

MEF2B - wikidocMEF2B - wikidoc

... beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase gene expression". BMC Molecular Biology. 7: 7. doi:10.1186/1471-2199-7-7. PMC 1526748. PMID ... 187 (1): 15-23. doi:10.1620/tjem.187.15. PMID 10458488.. *. Youn HD, Sun L, Prywes R, Liu JO (Oct 1999). "Apoptosis of T cells ... "Cooperation between MEF2 and PPARgamma in human intestinal beta, ...
more infohttp://www.wikidoc.org/index.php/MEF2B

rs4939883 - SNPediars4939883 - SNPedia

Common variation in the beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1 gene affects circulating levels of carotenoids: a genome-wide ...
more infohttps://www.snpedia.com/index.php/rs4939883

rs1167998 - SNPediars1167998 - SNPedia

Common variation in the beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1 gene affects circulating levels of carotenoids: a genome-wide ...
more infohttps://snpedia.com/index.php/Rs1167998

Genomic analysis of Ugandan and Rwandan chicken ecotypes using a 600 k genotyping array | BMC Genomics | Full TextGenomic analysis of Ugandan and Rwandan chicken ecotypes using a 600 k genotyping array | BMC Genomics | Full Text

On chromosome 11, beta, beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase (BCMO1), functions as a mono-oxygenase activator involved in ... monooxygenase (BCMO1) reached statistical significance along with having a Rsb above ,7,. The Ugandan and the Rwandan ecotypes ... and transforming growth factor beta receptor binding (GO:0005160) (Table 2). ... 15.. Mujahid A, Akiba Y, Toyomizu M. Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress and decreases adaptation in young white leghorn ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-016-2711-5

BCO2 - Beta,beta-carotene 9,10-oxygenase - Homo sapiens (Human) - BCO2 gene & proteinBCO2 - Beta,beta-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase - Homo sapiens (Human) - BCO2 gene & protein

... double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10-carotenal and beta-ionone. Besides beta-carotene, lycopene is also ... "Cell type-specific expression of beta-carotene 9,10-monooxygenase in human tissues.". Lindqvist A., He Y.-G., Andersson S.. J ... beta,beta-carotene-9,10-cleaving oxygenase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase activity Source ... Asymmetrically cleaves beta-carotene at the 9,10 double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10-carotenal and beta- ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9BYV7

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1. 0.012. GNAI2. guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity ... transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta). 0.011. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process/human-context-global/1862/?gene=17188

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

arrestin, beta 2. 0.018. DBH. dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase). 0.018. ... beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1. 0.010. CAP2. CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein, 2 (yeast). 0.010. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process/human-context-global/16327/?gene=42

Pre GI: BLASTP HitsPre GI: BLASTP Hits

brp/Blh family beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase. 5e-06. 52.8. NC_013416:1621469:1643268. 1643268. 1644461. 1194. ... based on its ability to grow at 4 degrees C but not at 37, production of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, lack of chymotrypsin, ...
more infohttp://pregi.bi.up.ac.za/pre_gi_blast.php?blast_source_accession=NC_009997&blast_cds_query=NC_009997:3583166:3591770

US 2013/0035240 A1 - Markers For Obesity And Methods Of Use Thereof - 
The Lens - Free & Open Patent and Scholarly SearchUS 2013/0035240 A1 - Markers For Obesity And Methods Of Use Thereof - The Lens - Free & Open Patent and Scholarly Search

0071] BCMO1 (beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase 1; also known as BCDO): GeneID: 53630. [0072] PKD1L2 (polycystic kidney disease ... The CNV calls spanned from 3 to 7903 SNPs, with an average of 15 SNPs per CNV call, and their sizes ranged from 50 bp to 33 Mb ... 35 CNV loci were identified that were unique in the European American cases, 15 (42.9%) of which also replicated exclusively in ... 0107] 34 putative CNVR loci (15 deletions and 19 duplications) were identified that were exclusively present in at least three ...
more infohttps://www.lens.org/lens/patent/191-575-527-638-566/fulltext

BCO1 Antibody, HRP conjugated | ax281722 (100 µg) | Axol BioscienceBCO1 Antibody, HRP conjugated | ax281722 (100 µg) | Axol Bioscience

The antibody specific for Recombinant Human Beta,beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase protein (1-300AA). ... monooxygenase protein (1-300AA). Size. 100ug. Species reactivity. Human. Storage buffer. Preservative: 0.03% Proclin 300,br /, ... The antibody specific for Recombinant Human Beta,beta-carotene 15,15- ...
more infohttps://www.axolbio.com/shop/product/bco1-antibody-hrp-conjugated-34440

Lexipedia | Home | LexipediaLexipedia | Home | Lexipedia

... monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this ... to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene ... Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of ... 15 (1): 153-168. doi:10.1079/nrr200238. PMID 19087402.. *^ a b c d e MacDonald, M. L.; Rogers, Q. R. (1984). "Nutrition of the ...
more infohttp://www.lexipedia.com/spanish/catastrofista

Retinal | Retinitis pigmentosa | Creative-Interchange.com | Where Changed Philosophies Lead to Changed BehaviorsRetinal | Retinitis pigmentosa | Creative-Interchange.com | Where Changed Philosophies Lead to Changed Behaviors

Filling the Gap in Vitamin A Research: Molecular Identification of An Enzyme Cleaving Beta-carotene to Retinal . Retrieved on ... Oxidative cleavage of carotenoids catalyzed by enzyme models and beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase. Crystal retinal structure ... Wang, Tao; Jiao, Yuchen; Montell, Craig (2007). 15 16 Firefly squid have been found to use (4 R )-4-hydroxyretinal. A b Duester ...
more infohttp://creative-interchange.com

Veganism: 4 Reasons Why Some Do Well as Vegans While Others FailVeganism: 4 Reasons Why Some Do Well as Vegans While Others Fail

... monooxygenase alter beta-carotene metabolism in female volunteers," FASEB Journal, April 2009; 23(4): 1041-1053; doi: 10.1096/ ... Instead, they are vitamin A precursors or carotenoids like beta-carotene.. In the liver and intestine, enzyme beta-carotene-15 ... monooxygenase (BCMO1) converts beta-carotene and other precursors into vitamin A. ... Overall, 45% of the population carries polymorphisms that reduce their effectiveness of converting beta-carotene into vitamin A ...
more infohttps://www.doctorshealthpress.com/food-and-nutrition-articles/veganism/

Retinoic Acid and the Gut Microbiota in Alzheimers Disease: Fighting Back-to-Back? | Bentham ScienceRetinoic Acid and the Gut Microbiota in Alzheimer's Disease: Fighting Back-to-Back? | Bentham Science

Serum levels of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene and vitamin A in patients with Alzheimers disease. Eur J Neurol 6(4): 495-7. ( ... monooxygenase. J Biol Chem 277(26): 23942-8. (2002).. [15] MacDonald PN, Ong DE. A lecithin: retinol acyltransferase activity ... Beta-Carotene 15,15′-Dioxygenase activity in human tissues and cells: evidence of an iron dependency. J Nutr Biochem 12(11): ... I. intestinal absorption and metabolism of 14c-labelled vitamin a alcohol and beta-carotene in the rat. J Biol Chem 240: 2839- ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/170923/article?trendmd-shared=3

Inhibition of pulmonary β-carotene 15, 15-oxygenase expression by glucocorticoid involves PPARαInhibition of pulmonary β-carotene 15, 15'-oxygenase expression by glucocorticoid involves PPARα

Our results indicate A549 cells metabolize β-carotene to retinal and retinoic acid (RA). GCs exposure using dexamethasone (DEX ... "β-carotene 15,15-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A ... monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1) and beta,beta-carotene 9,10-dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2) in nutrition and health. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56 ... beta-Carotene and its cleavage enzyme beta-carotene-15,15-oxygenase (CMOI) affect retinoid metabolism in developing tissues. ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0181466

Can Nutrigenomics Help Athletes Reach Their Full Potential?Can Nutrigenomics Help Athletes Reach Their Full Potential?

The good news is, you can take action and resolve it easily by consuming more beta-carotene foods or foods that already contain ... monooxygenase 1 gene affects circulating levels of carotenoids: a genome-wide association study." Am J Hum Genet, 2009. 84(2): ... A genetic test can tell you if you are inefficient at converting beta-carotene into the active form of vitamin A based on the ... Individuals with the AC or CC genotype (slow metabolizers) have an elevated risk of myocardial infarction14, hypertension15,16 ...
more infohttps://simplifaster.com/articles/nutrigenomics-athletes-genetic-potential/

Retinal - WikipediaRetinal - Wikipedia

... monooxygenase[7] or a beta-carotene 15,15-dioxygenase.[8] Just as carotenoids are the precursors of retinal, retinal is the ... beta-carotene + O2 → 2 retinal. catalyzed by a beta-carotene 15,15- ... RPE65 isomerohydrolases are homologous with beta-carotene monooxygenases;[6] the homologous ninaB enzyme in Drosophila has both ... retinol; retinoic acid; beta-carotene; dehydroretinal; 3-hydroxyretinal; 4-hydroxyretinal Except where otherwise noted, data ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retinal
  • This protein has a seven-bladed beta-propeller structure with four hisitidines that hold the iron active centre. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase and β-carotene dioxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10-15 million years ago and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. (lexipedia.com)
  • Carotene is the substance in carrots, pumpkins and sweet potatoes that colors them orange and is the most common form of carotene in plants. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • Gong X, Marisiddaiah R, Rubin LP (2017) Inhibition of pulmonary β-carotene 15, 15'-oxygenase expression by glucocorticoid involves PPARα. (plos.org)
  • based on its ability to grow at 4 degrees C but not at 37, production of N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase, lack of chymotrypsin, and ability to use a variety of complex carbon compounds as carbon and energy sources. (up.ac.za)
  • [15] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today. (lexipedia.com)