A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.11.21 and EC 1.18.3.1.
An NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase that plays a key role in the catabolism of TRYPTOPHAN by catalyzing the HYDROXYLATION of KYNURENINE to 3-hydroxykynurenine. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.14.1.2 and EC 1.99.1.5.
A carotenoid produced in most carotenogenic organisms. It is one of several sequentially synthesized molecules that are precursors to BETA CAROTENE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to give prephytoene diphosphate. The prephytoene diphosphate molecule is a precursor for CAROTENOIDS and other tetraterpenes.
A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.
A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A benzyl-indazole having analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. It is used to reduce post-surgical and post-traumatic pain and edema and to promote healing. It is also used topically in treatment of RHEUMATIC DISEASES and INFLAMMATION of the mouth and throat.
Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
These enzymes catalyze the elimination of ammonia from amidines with the formation of a double bond. EC 4.3.2.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are associated with plants as pathogens, saprophytes, or as constituents of the epiphytic flora.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A widely used industrial solvent.
... monooxygenase (BCO1; EC 1.14.99.36) from animals, which cleaves beta-carotene symmetrically at the central double bond to yield ... Beta-carotene-9',10'-dioxygenase (BCO2) from animals, which cleaves beta-carotene asymmetrically to apo-10'-beta-carotenal and ... which converts beta-apocarotenals rather than beta-carotene into retinal. This protein has a seven-bladed beta-propeller ... Carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin are produced in plants and certain bacteria, algae ...
... is synthesized from Beta-carotene. The Beta-carotene is firstly cleaved into Beta-carotene 15-15'-monooxygenase ... monooxygenase". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 74 (8): 1397-1408. doi:10.1351/pac200274081397. Vivant Pharmaceuticals, LLC Press ... Woggon, Wolf-D. (1 January 2002). "Oxidative cleavage of carotenoids catalyzed by enzyme models and beta-carotene 15,15´- ... Tretinoin is used to induce remission in people with acute promyelocytic leukemia who have a mutation (the t(15;17) ...
Gong X, Tsai SW, Yan B, Rubin LP (2006). "Cooperation between MEF2 and PPARgamma in human intestinal beta,beta-carotene 15,15'- ... monooxygenase gene expression". BMC Molecular Biology. 7: 7. doi:10.1186/1471-2199-7-7. PMC 1526748. PMID 16504037. MEF2B+ ... 187 (1): 15-23. doi:10.1620/tjem.187.15. PMID 10458488. Youn HD, Sun L, Prywes R, Liu JO (Oct 1999). "Apoptosis of T cells ...
RPE65 isomerohydrolases are homologous with beta-carotene monooxygenases; the homologous ninaB enzyme in Drosophila has both ... For example: beta-carotene + O2 → 2 retinal catalyzed by a beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase or a beta-carotene 15,15'- ... either from α-carotene or β-carotene - both of which are carotenes. They also produce it from β-cryptoxanthin, a type of ... Woggon, Wolf-D. (2002). "Oxidative cleavage of carotenoids catalyzed by enzyme models and beta-carotene 15,15´-monooxygenase". ...
... monooxygenase. Isolation of β-carotene from fruits abundant in carotenoids is commonly done using column chromatography. It can ... Among the carotenes, β-carotene is distinguished by having beta-rings at both ends of the molecule. β-Carotene is ... "Beta-carotene". DSM. Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2011. Web MD. "Beta-Carotene ... Beta-carotene, MedlinePlus WebMD. "Find a Vitamin or Supplement - Beta Carotene". Retrieved 29 May 2012. Stargrove, Mitchell ( ...
... monooxygenase that converts beta-carotene into retinal". Biotechnology Letters. 31 (3): 403-8. doi:10.1007/s10529-008-9873-4. ... Kim YS, Park CS, Oh DK (July 2010). "Retinal production from beta-carotene by beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase from an ... It can also cleave beta-cryptoxanthin, apocarotenal, 4'-apo-β-carotenal, alpha-carotene and γ-carotene in decreasing order, all ... 3.0.co;2-z. Goodman DS, Huang HS, Kanai M, Shiratori T (1967). "The enzymatic conversion of all-trans beta-carotene into ...
... beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392.468 - Linoleoyl-CoA desaturase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.392.625 ... camphor 5-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.500 - alkane 1-monooxygenase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915 - steroid ... 4-beta-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.600 - glucan endo-1,3-beta-d-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.375 - glucan ... 4-beta-cellobiosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.450 - endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.500 - glucan 1 ...
... carotenol to beta-apo-14'-carotenal by an enzyme different from beta-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase". Biochemistry. Biokhimiia. 62 ... internal monooxygenases o internal mixed-function oxidases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is 8'-apo-beta-carotenol: ... Apo-beta-carotenoid-14',13'-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.12.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 8'-apo-beta-carotenol ... apo-beta-carotenol and oxygen, whereas its two products are 14'-apo-beta-carotenal and water. This enzyme belongs to the family ...
... α-carotene) and beta-carotene (β-carotene). Gamma-, delta-, epsilon-, and zeta-carotene (γ, δ, ε, and ζ-carotene) also exist. ... monooxygenase to retinal, a form of vitamin A. β-Carotene can be stored in the liver and body fat and converted to retinal as ... The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994). "The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the ... a b c d e f g h i j What can foods rich in beta-carotene do for you? Archived June 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Whfoods. ...
RPE65 isomerohydrolases are homologous with beta-carotene monooxygenases;[6] the homologous ninaB enzyme in Drosophila has both ... beta-carotene + O2 → 2 retinal. catalyzed by a beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase[7] or a beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase.[8] ... either from one of two carotenes (α-carotene, β-carotene) or from β-cryptoxanthin, a type of xanthophyll. These carotenoids ... retinol; retinoic acid; beta-carotene; dehydroretinal; 3-hydroxyretinal; 4-hydroxyretinal Except where otherwise noted, data ...
... α-carotene) and beta-carotene (β-carotene). Gamma-, delta-, epsilon-, and zeta-carotene (γ, δ, ε, and ζ-carotene) also exist. ... monooxygenase to retinal, a form of vitamin A. β-Carotene can be stored in the liver and body fat and converted to retinal as ... ψ-carotene; δ-carotene (with one ε ring and one uncyclized end) is ε,ψ-carotene; ε-carotene is ε,ε-carotene lycopene is ψ,ψ- ... α-carotene is β,ε-carotene; β-carotene is β,β-carotene; γ-carotene (with one β ring and one uncyclized end that is labelled psi ...
... beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase EC 1.14.13.130: pyrrole-2-carboxylate monooxygenase EC 1.14.13.131: dimethyl-sulfide monooxygenase ... beta-amyrin 24-hydroxylase EC 1.14.99.44: diapolycopene oxygenase EC 1.14.99.45: carotene epsilon-monooxygenase EC 1.14.99.46: ... 9-cis-beta-carotene 9',10'-cleaving dioxygenase EC 1.13.11.69: carlactone synthase EC 1.13.11.70: all-trans-10'-apo-beta- ... linalool 8-monooxygenase EC 1.14.99.29: deoxyhypusine monooxygenase EC 1.14.99.30: carotene 7,8-desaturase EC 1.14.99.31: ...
... monooxygenase.[5] Isolation of β-carotene from fruits abundant in carotenoids is commonly done using column chromatography. It ... "Possible Interactions with Beta-Carotene". Retrieved 29 May 2012.. *^ Meschino Health. "Comprehensive Guide to Beta-Carotene". ... Among the carotenes, β-carotene is distinguished by having beta-rings at both ends of the molecule. β-Carotene is ... Beta-carotene is found in many foods and is sold as a dietary supplement. β-Carotene contributes to the orange color of many ...
Vitamin A is an essential nutrient for mammals which takes form in either retinol or the provitamin beta-Carotene. It helps ... Notably, dopamine β-mono-oxygenase is affected by copper deficiency leading to increased dopamine and decreased norepinephrine ... The foods highest in vitamin A are any pigmented fruits and vegetables and leafy green vegetables also provide beta-Carotene.[ ... The ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate is a fuel source for the brain during times of fasting when blood glucose levels fall. ...
March 1998). "Vitamin A and beta-carotene can improve nonheme iron absorption from rice, wheat and corn by humans". The Journal ... monooxygenase cleaves β-carotene at the central double bond, creating an epoxide. This epoxide is then attacked by water ... Challem J (1995). "Caution Urged With Vitamin A in Pregnancy: But Beta-Carotene is Safe". The Nutrition Reporter Newsletter. ... Retinol is synthesized from the breakdown of β-carotene. First, the β-carotene 15-15'- ...
4-olide isomerase Beta-carotene isomerase Farnesol 2-isomerase Furylfuramide isomerase Linoleate isomerase Maleate isomerase ... Renilla-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC 1.13.12.5 Cypridina-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC 1.13.12.6 Firefly luciferase EC 1.13.12.7 ... Watasenia-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC 1.13.12.8 Oplophorus-luciferin 2-monooxygenase EC 1.13.12.13 Cytochrome P450 oxidase ... Beta-lactamase (EC 3.5.2.6) Category:EC 3.5.3 (In linear amidines) Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) Category:EC 3.5.4 (In cyclic amidines ...
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase participates in the biosynthesis of norepinephrine from dopamine.[97][98] ... Li FJ, Shen L, Ji HF (2012). "Dietary intakes of vitamin E, vitamin C, and β-carotene and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a meta- ... Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase amidates peptide hormones by removing the glyoxylate residue from their c- ... Kaufman S (1974). "Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 11: 303-316. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(74)90112-5. ...
Li FJ, Shen L, Ji HF (2012). "Dietary intakes of vitamin E, vitamin C, and β-carotene and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a meta- ... Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase amidates peptide hormones by removing the glyoxylate residue from their c- ... Kaufman S (1974). "Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 11: 303-316. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(74)90112-5. ... Eipper BA, Milgram SL, Husten EJ, Yun HY, Mains RE (1993). "Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase: a multifunctional ...
Typical of nuts and seeds, almonds are a source of phytosterols such as beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, sitostanol ... P450 monooxygenases are involved in the amygdalin biosynthetic pathway. A point mutation in a bHLH transcription factor ... 15 September 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2018.. *^ "Where are Australian Almonds grown?". Almond Board of Australia. Archived ... The optimal temperature for their growth is between 15 and 30 °C (59 and 86 °F) and the tree buds have a chilling requirement ...
"Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase". J Psychiatr Res. 11: 303-16. doi:10.1016/0022-3956(74)90112-5. PMID 4461800 ... "Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase: a multifunctional protein with catalytic, processing, and routing domains" ... 15-18. ISBN 9780393066616. .. Unknown parameter ,coauthors=. ignored (. ,author=. suggested) (help). *↑ ೪೫.೦ ೪೫.೧ ೪೫.೨ "Safety ... 15 (6): 488-98. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(99)00078-7. PMID 10378206.. Unknown parameter ,month=. ignored (help). ...
Zeta-carotene isomerase. Category:EC 5.3 (intramolecular oxidoreductases)Edit. *Category:EC 5.3.3 *Enoyl CoA isomerase (EC 5.3. ... Category:EC 1.13.12 (With incorporation of one atom of oxygen (internal monooxygenases or internal mixed function oxidases)) * ... EC 6.2.1.28: 3-alpha,7-alpha-dihydroxy-5-beta-cholestanate--CoA ligase ...
... monooxygenase-like , beta,beta-carotene 15,15-dioxygenase , beta-carotene 15, 15-dioxygenase 1 , beta-carotene 15,15 ... monooxygenase 1 , beta,beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase , beta-carotene-15,15-oxygenase , beta-carotene 15, 15-monooxygenase ... dioxygenase , beta-carotene cleavage enzyme , beta-carotene dioxygenase 1 , carotenoid-15,15-oxygenase , beta-carotene 15 15- ... monooxygenase 1 , beta-carotene 15, 15-dioxygenase , beta-carotene 15, 15-dioxygenase , beta-carotene 15, 15- ...
... monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1) gene, was associated with higher beta-carotene (p = 1.6 x 10(-24)) and alpha-carotene (p = 0.0001) ... Molecular and dietary regulation of beta,beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1). Lietz G, Lange J, Rimbach G. Lietz G, et ... Effects were replicated in the Womens Health and Aging Study (n = 615) and in the alpha-Tocopherol, beta-Carotene Cancer ... Strong and weak plasma response to dietary carotenoids identified by cluster analysis and linked to beta-carotene 15,15- ...
Molecular identification of an enzyme cleaving beta-carotene to retinal J Biol Chem. 2000 Apr 21;275(16):11915-20. doi: 10.1074 ... It has been known for 50 years that the key step in the formation of vitamin A is the oxidative cleavage of beta-carotene; ... A novel approach enabled us to clone and identify a beta-carotene dioxygenase from Drosophila melanogaster, expressing it into ... the background of a beta-carotene (provitamin A)-synthesizing and -accumulating Escherichia coli strain. The carotene-cleaving ...
... double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10-carotenal and beta-ionone. Besides beta-carotene, lycopene is also ... "Cell type-specific expression of beta-carotene 9,10-monooxygenase in human tissues.". Lindqvist A., He Y.-G., Andersson S.. J ... beta,beta-carotene-9,10-cleaving oxygenase activity Source: UniProtKB-EC. *beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase activity Source ... Asymmetrically cleaves beta-carotene at the 9,10 double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10-carotenal and beta- ...
... monooxygenase protein which cleaves beta-carotene symmetrically to yield two molecules of retinal. Polymorphisms in this gene ... PMID 19103647] The BCMO1 gene encodes the beta-carotene 15,15- ...
... monooxygenase (BCO1; EC 1.14.99.36) from animals, which cleaves beta-carotene symmetrically at the central double bond to yield ... Beta-carotene-9,10-dioxygenase (BCO2) from animals, which cleaves beta-carotene asymmetrically to apo-10-beta-carotenal and ... which converts beta-apocarotenals rather than beta-carotene into retinal. This protein has a seven-bladed beta-propeller ... Carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin are produced in plants and certain bacteria, algae ...
... cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase) expression did not correlate with any of the carotenoids. In contrast, ZmCCD1 (carotenoid ... Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with ... The generation of α-carotene from the β,ε branch is dependent on lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCYε) and lycopene beta cyclase (LCY ... and β-carotene (β,β-rings) and showed that CYP97A preferred α-carotene over β-carotene as substrate and that the most efficient ...
Beta-carotene 15, 15-monooxygenase 1; TIMD4: T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing 4; TNFSF10: Tumor necrosis ... Xiao Y, Hughes AL, Ando J, Matsuda Y, Cheng JF, Skinner-Noble D, Zhang G: A genome-wide screen identifies a single beta- ... Zhao C, Nguyen T, Liu L, Sacco RE, Brogden KA, Lehrer RI: Gallinacin-3, an inducible epithelial beta-defensin in the chicken. ... B-L beta chain and C7 were found ileum-selective (see additional file 2). No ileum-selective genes were available in human from ...
Tretinoin is synthesized from Beta-carotene. The Beta-carotene is firstly cleaved into Beta-carotene 15-15-monooxygenase ... monooxygenase". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 74 (8): 1397-1408. doi:10.1351/pac200274081397. Vivant Pharmaceuticals, LLC Press ... Woggon, Wolf-D. (1 January 2002). "Oxidative cleavage of carotenoids catalyzed by enzyme models and beta-carotene 15,15´- ... Tretinoin is used to induce remission in people with acute promyelocytic leukemia who have a mutation (the t(15;17) ...
Boulanger, A., McLemore, P., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Jenkins, N.A., Gentleman, S., and Redmond, T.M.: Beta-carotene 15, ... monooxygenase. BMC Biochemistry 10:31, 2009. PubMed. Lorenz B, Poliakov E, Schambeck M, Friedburg C, Preising MN, Redmond TM. A ... Biochemical evidence for the tyrosine involvement in cationic intermediate stabilization in mouse Beta-carotene 15, 15- ... Poliakov, E., Gentleman, S.,Cunningham, F.X., Miller-Ihli, N.J. and Redmond, T.M. Key Role of histidines in Mouse β-Carotene 15 ...
beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase activity of BCMO1:Fe2+ [cytosol] Physical Entity ...
Our results indicate A549 cells metabolize β-carotene to retinal and retinoic acid (RA). GCs exposure using dexamethasone (DEX ... "β-carotene 15,15-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A ... monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1) and beta,beta-carotene 9,10-dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2) in nutrition and health. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56 ... beta-Carotene and its cleavage enzyme beta-carotene-15,15-oxygenase (CMOI) affect retinoid metabolism in developing tissues. ...
Isx Participates in the Maintenance of Vitamin A Metabolism by Regulation of {beta}-Carotene 15,15′-Monooxygenase (Bcmo1) ... 15). More detail processes could be found in Supplementary Methods and Materials. ...
... beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase gene expression". BMC Molecular Biology. 7: 7. doi:10.1186/1471-2199-7-7. PMC 1526748. PMID ... 187 (1): 15-23. doi:10.1620/tjem.187.15. PMID 10458488.. *. Youn HD, Sun L, Prywes R, Liu JO (Oct 1999). "Apoptosis of T cells ... "Cooperation between MEF2 and PPARgamma in human intestinal beta, ...
Common variation in the beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1 gene affects circulating levels of carotenoids: a genome-wide ...
We cloned the zebrafish gene encoding the vitamin A-forming enzyme, a beta,beta-carotene-15,15-oxygenase. Analysis of its mRNA ... Provitamin A conversion to retinal via the beta,beta-carotene-15,15-oxygenase (bcox) is essential for pattern formation and ... Monooxygenase. PubMed:. 12668631 Full text @ Development Citation Lampert, J.M., Holzschuh, J., Hessel, S., Driever, W., Vogt, ... K., and von Lintig, J. (2003) Provitamin A conversion to retinal via the beta,beta-carotene-15,15-oxygenase (bcox) is ...
On chromosome 11, beta, beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase (BCMO1), functions as a mono-oxygenase activator involved in ... monooxygenase (BCMO1) reached statistical significance along with having a Rsb above ,7,. The Ugandan and the Rwandan ecotypes ... and transforming growth factor beta receptor binding (GO:0005160) (Table 2). ... 15.. Mujahid A, Akiba Y, Toyomizu M. Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress and decreases adaptation in young white leghorn ...
J Histochem Cytochem 52:491-499 Lindqvist A, Andersson S (2004) Cell type-specific expression of beta-carotene 15,15′-mono- ... mono-oxygenase in human tissues. ... particularly beta-carotene, in humans: a review. Am J Clin Nutr ... Zurück zum Zitat Lindqvist A, Andersson S (2004) Cell type-specific expression of beta-carotene 15,15′- ... particularly beta-carotene, in humans: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 77:12-28 ...
The carotenes alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, gamma-carotene; and the xanthophyll beta-cryptoxanthin (all of which contain beta- ... monooxygenase and cannot convert any carotenoids to retinal (resulting in none of the carotenoids being forms of vitamin A for ... such as beta-carotene as found in carrots), give no such symptoms, but excessive dietary intake of beta-carotene can lead to ... 2 μg of β-carotene in oil, 12 μg of "dietary" beta-carotene, or 24 μg of the three other dietary provitamin-A carotenoids.[4] ...
... monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this ... Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of ... to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene ... 15 (1): 153-168. doi:10.1079/nrr200238. PMID 19087402.. *^ a b c d e MacDonald, M. L.; Rogers, Q. R. (1984). "Nutrition of the ...
beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1 Assay Type: SYBR® Green Assay Design: exonic Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID ... monooxygenase 1 Assay Type: Probe Assay Design: exonic Application: Gene Expression Unique Assay ID: qHsaCEP0051886 FAM HEX TEX ... beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1 Assay Type: SYBR® Green Assay Design: Intron-spanning Application: Gene Expression Unique ...
... monooxygenase alter beta-carotene metabolism in female volunteers," FASEB Journal, April 2009; 23(4): 1041-1053; doi: 10.1096/ ... Instead, they are vitamin A precursors or carotenoids like beta-carotene.. In the liver and intestine, enzyme beta-carotene-15 ... monooxygenase (BCMO1) converts beta-carotene and other precursors into vitamin A. ... Overall, 45% of the population carries polymorphisms that reduce their effectiveness of converting beta-carotene into vitamin A ...
... monooxygenase into two molecules of vitamin A, this means beta- carotene alone is enough to make Vitamin A. ... The body must convert three of these compounds-beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin-to vitamin A. But in ... Its presence appears to be associated with high blood levels of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and low ... Carrots are one of the best sources of beta-carotene. One cup of carrot juice has more beta-carotene than a cup of any other ...
Beta-carotene reduces body adiposity of mice via BCMO1. Amengual, J., Gouranton, E., van Helden, Y. G. J., Hessel, S., Ribot, J ... Monooxygenase * Distinct effects of oleic acid and its trans-isomer elaidic acid on the expression of myokines and adipokines ... Knockout of the Bcmo1 gene results in an inflammatory response in female lung, which is suppressed by dietary beta-carotene. ... Downregulation of Fzd6 and Cthrc1 and upregulation of olfactory receptors and protocadherins by dietary beta-carotene in lungs ...
beta-Carotene 15,15-Monooxygenase How to Interpret Literature: Critical Theory for Literary and Cultural Studies. Parker, R. D ... Dietary 9-cis-β,β-carotene fails to rescue vision in mouse models of leber congenital amaurosis. Maeda, T., Perusek, L., ... Aunins, A. W., Epifanio, J. M. & Brown, B. L., Jan 1 2014, In : Marine and Coastal Fisheries. 6, 1, p. 127-141 15 p.. Research ... Deshmukh, A. P. & Allison, J. T., Aug 15 2013, 54th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics and Materials ...
beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1. 0.012. GNAI2. guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity ... transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta). 0.011. ...
arrestin, beta 2. 0.018. DBH. dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase). 0.018. ... beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1. 0.010. CAP2. CAP, adenylate cyclase-associated protein, 2 (yeast). 0.010. ...
Beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase 1. Aliases:. Not Available. RefSeq:. Not Available. ...
... monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 (-/-)) mice accumulate beta-carotene (BC) similarly to humans, whereas wild-type (Bcmo1 (+/+)) ... monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 (-/-)) mice accumulate beta-carotene (BC) similarly to humans, whereas wild-type (Bcmo1 (+/+)) ... monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 (-/-)) mice accumulate beta-carotene (BC) similarly to humans, whereas wild-type (Bcmo1 (+/+)) ... monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 (-/-)) mice accumulate beta-carotene (BC) similarly to humans, whereas wild-type (Bcmo1 (+/+)) ...
The antibody specific for Recombinant Human Beta,beta-carotene 15,15-monooxygenase protein (1-300AA). ... monooxygenase protein (1-300AA). Size. 100ug. Species reactivity. Human. Storage buffer. Preservative: 0.03% Proclin 300,br /, ... The antibody specific for Recombinant Human Beta,beta-carotene 15,15- ...
  • Carotenoids such as beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin are produced in plants and certain bacteria, algae and fungi, where they function as accessory photosynthetic pigments and as scavengers of oxygen radicals for photoprotection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the PSY1 and HYD3 (ferredoxin-dependent di-iron monooxygenase) expression levels were positively correlated with β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin, while CYP97C (cytochrome P450-type monooxygenase) expression did not correlate with any of the carotenoids. (mdpi.com)
  • β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A. This enzyme is expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues, suggesting that its activity may regulate local retinoid synthesis. (plos.org)
  • In mammals, preformed vitamin A must be ingested from dietary sources or produced by metabolism of provitamin A carotenoids, principally β-carotene, by the action of the BCO1 [ 18 , 19 ]. (plos.org)
  • Our data provide strong evidence that, for several developmental processes, retinoic acid generation depends on local de novo formation of retinal from provitamin A via the carotene oxygenase, revealing an unexpected, essential role for carotenoids in embryonic development. (zfin.org)
  • and the xanthophyll beta-cryptoxanthin (all of which contain beta-ionone rings), but no other carotenoids , function as vitamin A in herbivores and omnivore animals, which possess the enzyme required to convert these compounds to retinal. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Carnivores in general are poor converters of ionine-containg carotenoids, and pure carnivores such as cats and ferets lack beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase and cannot convert any carotenoids to retinal (resulting in none of the carotenoids being forms of vitamin A for these species). (thefullwiki.org)
  • For many years, a system of equivalencies was used in which an international unit (IU) was equal to 0.3 μg of retinol, 0.6 μg of β-carotene, or 1.2 μg of other provitamin-A carotenoids. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Instead, they are vitamin A precursors or carotenoids like beta-carotene. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • The body must convert three of these compounds-beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin-to vitamin A. But in humans, this conversion is quite inefficient, with about 10 to 20 molecules of carotenoids needed to make one of vitamin A. In addition, 80 percent or more of natural vitamin A from animal sources is absorbed, but only three percent or less of carotenoids from plant foods are absorbed. (philmaffetone.com)
  • Its presence appears to be associated with high blood levels of beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and low levels of lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin-three other carotenoids important for health but don't convert to vitamin A. (philmaffetone.com)
  • BCO2 encodes an enzyme which oxidizes carotenoids such as beta-carotene during the biosynthesis of vitamin A. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Carotenoids, including beta-carotene, are produced by a number of different plants and some microorganisms (bacteria and algae). (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Beta-carotene (and all the carotenoids) are fat-soluble micronutrients. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Isolation of β-carotene from fruits abundant in carotenoids is commonly done using column chromatography. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • The separation of β-carotene from the mixture of other carotenoids is based on the polarity of a compound. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • Vertebrate animals ingest retinal directly from meat, or they produce retinal from carotenoids , either from one of two carotenes ( α-carotene , β-carotene ) or from β-cryptoxanthin , a type of xanthophyll . (wikipedia.org)
  • All other carotenoids, including lycopene , have no beta-ring and thus no vitamin A activity (although they may have antioxidant activity and thus biological activity in other ways). (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal species differ greatly in their ability to convert retinyl (beta- ionone ) containing carotenoids to retinals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since they are hydrocarbons, and therefore contain no oxygen, carotenes are fat-soluble and insoluble in water (in contrast with other carotenoids , the xanthophylls , which contain oxygen and thus are less chemically hydrophobic). (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-Carotene is being used as an oral sun protectant , and evidence indicates that carotenoids may protect human skin from light-induced lesions. (nutrientjournal.com)
  • Use of genetic variation in β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1), a key enzyme in provitamin A carotenoid metabolism, as a surrogate for carotenoid exposure may aid in determining the role of carotenoids unconfounded by other carotenoid-containing food constituents, but important variants must be identified. (cdc.gov)
  • Plant carotenoids are the primary dietary source of provitamin A worldwide, with β-carotene as the best-known provitamin A carotenoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absorption and conversion of carotenoids may depend on the form of β-carotene (e.g., cooked vs. raw vegetables, or in a supplement), the intake of fats and oils at the same time, and the current stores of vitamin A and β-carotene in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme β-carotene 9′,10′-oxygenase (BCO2), which catalyzes asymmetric cleavage of several carotenoids, is the principal regulator of lycopene metabolism, but the range of BCO2 biological functions is incompletely understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A nonsense mutation in the beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) gene is tightly associated with accumulation of carotenoids in adipose tissue in sheep (Ovis aries). (jafs.com.pl)
  • Carotenoids can be divided into two groups according to their chemical structure: the carotenes, which are hydrocarbons, and the xanthophylls, which contain also oxygen and are therefore more polar than the carotenes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite their protective function against singlet oxygen, relative amounts of carotenoids did not accumulate in R. sphaeroides wild-type cultures under photo-oxidative stress, and relative mRNA levels of phytoene dehydrogenase and sphaeroidene monooxygenase did not increase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Many colorful songbirds, e.g ., endogenously modify incoming dietary carotenoids, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, into six colorful red and yellow pigments (they can synthesize additional red pigments using β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin, also considered dietary carotenoids). (bris.ac.uk)
  • EC 1.14.99.36) from animals, which cleaves beta-carotene symmetrically at the central double bond to yield two molecules of retinal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apocarotenoid-15,15'-oxygenase from bacteria and cyanobacteria, which converts beta-apocarotenals rather than beta-carotene into retinal. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID 19103647 ] The BCMO1 gene encodes the beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase protein which cleaves beta-carotene symmetrically to yield two molecules of retinal. (snpedia.com)
  • Our results indicate A549 cells metabolize β-carotene to retinal and retinoic acid (RA). (plos.org)
  • BCO1 catalyzes the symmetrical (central) cleavage of the β-carotene molecule to produce two molecules of retinaldehyde (retinal), which can then be oxidized to a transcriptionally active form, retinoic acid (RA) [ 1 ], or be reduced to retinol (vitamin A) [ 2 ]. (plos.org)
  • This conversion uses the enzyme β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO1 or BCO1 gene), which converts beta-carotene into retinal . (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • There is also a feedback loop in the body where higher levels of retinoic acid will decrease the production of the BCO1 enzyme, thus decreasing the amount of beta-carotene converted to retinal. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a key enzyme in beta-carotene metabolism to vitamin A. It catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of beta,beta-carotene into two retinal molecules. (genecards.org)
  • Symmetrically cleaves beta-carotene into two molecules of retinal using a dioxygenase mechanism. (genecards.org)
  • The enzyme beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase catalyzes the cleavage of beta-carotene and produces two molecules of retinal, a molecule form of vitamin A. (wikidot.com)
  • Adipose tissue constitutes the major β-carotene storage tissue and its functions have been shown to be modulated in response to β-carotene breakdown products, especially retinal produced after cleavage by β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase ( BCMO1 ), and retinoic acid arising from oxidation of retinal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In meta-analyses including all three studies, the G allele at rs6564851, near the beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1) gene, was associated with higher beta-carotene (p = 1.6 x 10(-24)) and alpha-carotene (p = 0.0001) levels and lower lycopene (0.003), zeaxanthin (p = 1.3 x 10(-5)), and lutein (p = 7.3 x 10(-15)) levels, with effect sizes ranging from 0.10-0.28 SDs per allele. (cdc.gov)
  • Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 knockout (Bcmo1 (-/-)) mice accumulate beta-carotene (BC) similarly to humans, whereas wild-type (Bcmo1 (+/+)) mice efficiently cleave BC. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Gene expression response of mouse lung, liver and white adipose tissue to ß-carotene supplementation, knockout of Bcmo1 and sex. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Methods and results: We investigated the gene expression effects induced by beta-carotene (BC) supplementation, knockout of beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (Bcmo1) and differences between male and female mice in lung, liver and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The utilisation of BCMO1 −/− mice should provide insights on β-carotene effect on its own in the future. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) catalyzes the crucial first step in vitamin A biosynthesis in animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our ab initio model of BCMO1 with β-carotene mounted supports a mechanism involving cation-π stabilization by Y235 and Y326. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have established that RPE65 is the key isomerase in the visual cycle and is part of a family of enzymes that are specialized in carotenoid metabolism- including the enzyme that converts β-carotene into vitamin A. RPE65 , thus, plays a central and irreplaceable role in vision. (nih.gov)
  • The enzyme β-carotene 15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) is a member of a large and diverse family of non-heme iron-dependent carotenoid cleavage enzymes. (plos.org)
  • The carotenoid beta- cryptoxanthin possesses an ionone group and has vitamin activity in humans. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The carotenes α-carotene and γ-carotene , due to their single retinyl group (β- ionone ring), also have some vitamin A activity (though less than β-carotene), as does the xanthophyll carotenoid β- cryptoxanthin . (wikipedia.org)
  • We have established that RPE65 is in fact the key isomerohydrolase in the visual cycle and is part of a family of enzymes that are specialized in carotenoid metabolism- including the enzyme that converts ß-carotene into vitamin A. Thus RPE65 plays a central and irreplaceable role in vision. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-carotene is the most well-known provitamin A carotenoid (precursor to vitamin A), which means body turns beta-carotene into the antioxidant vitamin A (via beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase) [2]. (nutrientjournal.com)
  • Securing funds to lead the European Carotenoid focus team within NUGO (The European Nutrigenomics Organisation), we were able to establish for the first time a link between beta-carotene and fat metabolism [Amengual et al . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • β-Carotene is a red-orange pigment and naturally derived carotenoid, which is abundant in many vegetables and fruits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SCOs are related to carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs), which cleave β-carotene or apocarotenoids. (pnas.org)
  • These data suggest the existence of a window of benefit for β-carotene and that an optimal carotenoid status should be achieved via appropriate food intake to avoid disease development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The carotene-cleaving enzyme, identified here for the first time on the molecular level, is the basis of the numerous branches of vitamin A action and links plant and animal carotene metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • In parallel fashion, blood vitamin A concentrations are observed to be lower in preterm than in full-term newborns [ 14 ] as well as in preterm infants who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) than in those who do not [ 15 ]. (plos.org)
  • Such plant-derived compounds, e.g. beta-carotene, serve as the natural precursors (provitamins) of vitamin A, which is indispensable for chordate development. (zfin.org)
  • We cloned the zebrafish gene encoding the vitamin A-forming enzyme, a beta,beta-carotene-15,15'-oxygenase. (zfin.org)
  • Aim of this pilot study was to analyze vitamin A and β-carotene status and to investigate the contribution of nutrition to the vitamin A and β-carotene supply in mother-infant pairs of gemini or births within short birth intervals. (springermedizin.de)
  • Despite the fact that vitamin A and β-carotene rich food is generally available, risk groups for low vitamin A supply exist in the western world. (springermedizin.de)
  • All forms of vitamin A have a beta-ionone ring to which an isoprenoid chain is attached, called a retinyl group . (thefullwiki.org)
  • [ 1 ] The orange pigment of carrots - beta-carotene - can be represented as two connected retinyl groups, which are used in the body to contribute to vitamin A levels. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene also have a single retinyl group which give them some vitamin activity. (thefullwiki.org)
  • None of the other carotenes have vitamin activity. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Overall, 45% of the population carries polymorphisms that reduce their effectiveness of converting beta-carotene into vitamin A. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Labeling laws continue to allow the myth that beta-carotene is the same as vitamin A. Read any label on a plant-based product and it lists the amount of vitamin A. Likewise for dietary supplements-most don't have any vitamin A even when labeled as such (except for those containing synthetic A, the most common source used in both fortification and supplementation). (philmaffetone.com)
  • For example, to obtain 1 mcg (microgram) of vitamin A as retinol it takes 10 mcg of beta-carotene, and 20 mcg of alpha-carotene or beta-cryptoxanthin. (philmaffetone.com)
  • However, for labeling purposes, dietary supplements can claim that, to obtain 1 mcg of vitamin A, 2 mcg of beta-carotene is required-the assumption is that the pill will be taken on an empty stomach with no other food taken with or soon after it, and digestion and absorption will be ideal. (philmaffetone.com)
  • How Well Do You Convert Beta-Carotene to Vitamin A? (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • The conversion of beta-carotene, found in orange fruits and vegetables, results in a form of vitamin A (retinol) that our bodies can use. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Genetics plays a huge role in how well you convert beta-carotene into vitamin A. This article covers the research on the conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A and how genetic variants decrease the conversion process for some people. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Carotenes are the plant forms of a precursor to vitamin A. The most common form, beta-carotene, shows up in abundance in carrots and other orange-colored foods. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Interestingly, most carnivores (entirely meat-eating animals) are poor converters of beta-carotene, and cats cannot create any vitamin A from beta-carotene. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Genetic variants in the BCO1 gene cause varying amounts of the enzyme to be produced and cause a large difference in the amount of vitamin A produced from dietary beta-carotene. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • As a result, the conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A occurs in all of those locations. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • In nature, β-carotene is a precursor (inactive form) to vitamin A via the action of beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • A Cochrane Review tested supplementation of β-carotene, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E, independently and combined on patients to examine differences in risk of cataract, cataract extraction, progression of cataract, and slowing the loss of visual acuity. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • Golden Rice is a variety of rice that was created by inserting several genes that cause the rice grain to accumulate Beta-Carotene, a molecule that can be metabolised to produce Vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency is a serious medical problem that is of particular importance for people who subsist on diets composed primarily of rice. (wikidot.com)
  • Beta-Carotene (top) can be metabolized to produce retinol (bottom), a form of Vitamin A. This is a major source of Vitamin A for humans who are unable to synthesize the molecule de novo. (wikidot.com)
  • A major source of vitamin A in the human diet comes from the metabolism of Beta-Carotene. (wikidot.com)
  • The primary source of vitamin A for animals is through the consumption and metabolism of beta-carotene. (wikidot.com)
  • Total vitamin A intake consists of many dietary forms including retinyl esters, β-carotene and free retinol. (mdpi.com)
  • 15. The nutraceutical composition of Claim 1, further comprising an antioxidant composition, a vitamin composition, a mineral composition, an amino acid composition, or a stimulant composition. (sumobrain.com)
  • 17. The nutraceutical composition of Claim 15, wherein the antioxidant composition comprises Vitamin E not less 60IU, Vitamin C not less than 90mg, beta-carotene not less than 2000IU, or selenium not less than 55mcg. (sumobrain.com)
  • The conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A. Vitam. (jafs.com.pl)
  • Comparison of β-carotene and vitamin A contents in yak tissues in nutrition rich and deficiency periods (in Chinese). (jafs.com.pl)
  • Variability in conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A in men as measured by using a double-tracer study design. (jafs.com.pl)
  • Prevention RCTs not only help define the clinical role of agents such as tamoxifen, celecoxib, and finasteride, but also generate hypotheses based on important secondary analyses for new trials, as did the Alpha-Tocopherol and Beta-Carotene trial (involving vitamin E) and the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial (involving selenium) in generating the primary hypotheses of the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (in the prostate). (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • BCO1 (Beta-Carotene Oxygenase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • A milestone discovery in my research group was the discovery of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the beta-carotene monoxygenase (BCO1) gene. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Expressions of β-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCO1) gene and protein were also studied using real-time PCR and western blot. (jafs.com.pl)
  • 2016. Mice lacking β-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase (BCO1) exhibit reduced serum testosterone, prostatic androgen receptor signaling, & prostatic cellular proliferation . (osu.edu)
  • In order to establish overall supply retinol and β-carotene levels were determined in maternal plasma, cord blood and colostrum via HPLC analysis. (springermedizin.de)
  • Retinol and β-carotene levels were highly significantly correlated between maternal plasma versus cord blood and colostrum. (springermedizin.de)
  • In addition, significantly lower levels were found in cord blood (31.2 ± 13.0% (retinol), 4.1 ± 1.4% (β-carotene) compared with maternal plasma. (springermedizin.de)
  • An enzyme in the intestine breaks down beta-carotene also forming retinol. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • Once the beta-carotene has been digested, mixed with fats, and absorbed, it has to be converted into retinol. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • while cats can convert a trace of β-carotene to retinol, although the amount is totally insufficient for meeting their daily retinol needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6 μg of dietary β-carotene supplies the equivalent of 1 μg of retinol, or 1 RE (Retinol Equivalent). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary retinol intake (IU/d) was also included in the models for α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to explore relationship between the yellow fat and β-carotene metabolism in yaks, contents of β-carotene and retinol in tissues, serum and digestive tract contents were analysed at periods of rich and deficient nutrition. (jafs.com.pl)
  • Following on from this, I was leading a research project within the European Nutrigenomics Organisation NUGO involving seven different European laboratories, which revealed through the application of genome-wide expression analysis, that β-carotene supplementation down-regulated genes affecting lipid and glucose metabolism related pathways. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • alpha-carotene (α-carotene) and beta-carotene (β-carotene). (wikipedia.org)
  • Symmetric cleavage with the enzyme β,β-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase requires an antioxidant such as α-tocopherol . (wikipedia.org)
  • This brief review discusses the processes involved in β-carotene conversion and the effect of cleavage products on body fat and adipose tissue function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A novel approach enabled us to clone and identify a beta-carotene dioxygenase from Drosophila melanogaster, expressing it into the background of a beta-carotene (provitamin A)-synthesizing and -accumulating Escherichia coli strain. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-carotene-9',10'-dioxygenase (BCO2) from animals, which cleaves beta-carotene asymmetrically to apo-10'-beta-carotenal and beta-ionone, the latter being converted to retinoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalyzed by a beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase [7] or a beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016. Substrate specificity of purified recombinant chicken β-carotene 9',10′-oxygenase (BCO2) . (osu.edu)
  • In the molecular chain between the two cyclohexyl rings, β-carotene cleaves either symmetrically or asymmetrically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supplementation with β-carotene does not appear to decrease the risk cancer overall, nor specific cancers including: pancreatic, colorectal, prostate, breast, melanoma, or skin cancer generally. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • However, these studies found no evidence of any protective effects afforded by β-carotene supplementation on preventing and slowing age-related cataract. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • Effect of a single bout of exercise and β-carotene supplementation on the urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in humans. (nutrientjournal.com)
  • Feedback regulation of β, β-carotene 15, 15'-monooxygenase by retinoic acid in rats and chickens. (jafs.com.pl)
  • Among this general class of carotenes, β-carotene is distinguished by having beta-rings at both ends of the molecule. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • Chemically, carotenes are polyunsaturated hydrocarbons containing 40 carbon atoms per molecule, variable numbers of hydrogen atoms, and no other elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some carotenes are terminated by hydrocarbon rings, on one or both ends of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-Carotene is a orange pigment that is involved in photosynthesis and is the primary molecule responsible for giving carrots their orange color. (wikidot.com)
  • Lycopene β-cyclase ( LCYB ) adds two β-rings to the ends of lycopene molecule to form β-carotene, while the co-action of LCYb and lycopene ε-cyclase ( LCYe ) generates α-carotene with one β-ring and one ε-ring. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides beta-carotene, lycopene is also oxidatively cleaved. (uniprot.org)
  • The plastid of the rice endosperm was found to have endogenous beta lycopene cyclase activity. (wikidot.com)
  • Next, the colourless phytoene is converted into the red lycopene by four desaturation reactions (catalyzed by phytoene desaturase, PDS , and ζ-carotene desaturase, ZDS ) and (or) by two isomerization reactions mediated by carotene isomerase ( CRTISO ) and 15-cis-ζ-carotene isomerase ( ZISO ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This protein has a seven-bladed beta-propeller structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen beta-Site APP-Cleaving Enzyme 2 Kits (39) und beta-Site APP-Cleaving Enzyme 2 Proteine (14) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Carotene is the substance in carrots, pumpkins and sweet potatoes that colors them orange and is the most common form of carotene in plants. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of carrots and the colours of many other fruits and vegetables and even some animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of beta-cartotene are found in a number of foods including carrots, squash, spinach, and butter. (wikidot.com)
  • To allow the rice grains to accumulate beta carotene, it was necessary to introduce introduce the enzymes for the remaining steps of the pathway in the same compartment as geranylgeranyl-diphosphate. (wikidot.com)
  • Management Name: Course: Tutor: College: Date: Contents Abstract 3 Management 4 Introduction 4 Organizational Behaviors and Skills Required in a Successful 21st-Century 5 Working in an Uncertain Environment 7 SWOT Analysis of Team Beta 9 Abstract The purpose of this essay is to provide a reflective approach to team performance evaluation, as a way of tracking organizational performance during its phases of scenario planning. (studentshare.net)
  • High dietary intakes and high blood levels of β-carotene are associated with a decreased incidence of various cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B4GALNT2 catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the human Sd(a) antigen through the addition of an N-acetylgalactosamine residue via a beta-1,4 linkage to a subterminal galactose residue substituted with an alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid. (antibodies-online.com)
  • It was shown that contents of β-carotene in serum, liver, pancreas, duodenum, jejunum and contents of rumen and ileum were higher in the period of rich nutrition than in the period of deficient nutrition ( P (jafs.com.pl)
  • Mutations in RPE65 may account for up to 15% of cases of LCA in North America. (nih.gov)
  • Two or 3 SNPs were selected as predictors of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lutein/zeaxanthin. (cdc.gov)
  • It is a member of the carotenes, which are tetraterpenes, synthesized biochemically from eight isoprene units and thus having 40 carbons. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • Structurally carotenes are tetraterpenes , meaning that they are synthesized biochemically from four 10-carbon terpene units, which in turn are formed from eight 5-carbon isoprene units. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-Carotene is a strongly colored red-orange hydrocarbon and specifically as a terpenoid (isoprenoid), reflecting its derivation from isoprene units. (worldlibrary.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of β-carotene-induced apoptosis of gastric cancer AGS cells by determining cell viability, DNA fragmentation, apoptotic indices (increases in cytochrome c and Bax, decrease in Bcl-2), ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activity, Ku70/80 levels, and Ku-DNA-binding activity of the cells treated with or without antioxidant N -acetyl cysteine and caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVED-fmk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Loss of Ku proteins might be the underlying mechanism for β-carotene-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • β-Carotene-induced alterations (increase in caspase-3 activity, decrease in Ku proteins) and apoptosis were inhibited by N -acetyl cysteine and z-DEVED-fmk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Enzymatic activity was measured in vitro using His-tag purified proteins and in vivo in a β-carotene-accumulating E. coli system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, in certain bacteria there exists an enymze called bacterial carotene desaturase the performs the function of three enzymes. (wikidot.com)
  • [13] [14] This is likely because Beta-Carotene is unstable in cigarette smoke exposed lungs where it forms oxidized beta-carotene metabolites that can induce carcinogen-bioactivating enzymes. (worldlibrary.org)
  • β-carotene (beta-carotine) is a strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • Evidence does not support a role for β-carotene in treating cancer.High levels of β-carotene may increase the risk of lung cancer in current and former smokers. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • However, according to WebMd.com: "studies show beta-carotene supplements don't lessen cancer or heart disease risks in healthy adults and may raise the risk of lung cancer in smokers and people exposed to asbestos. (nutrientjournal.com)
  • [13] High levels of β-carotene may increase the risk of lung cancer in current and former smokers. (worldlibrary.org)
  • After strong epidemiologic evidence that beta-carotene could reduce lung cancer risk, RCTs indicated that beta-carotene actually increased lung cancer risk and mortality in heavy smokers. (oralcancerfoundation.org)
  • We also discussed the confounding 18 percent increase in lung cancer in smokers given beta carotene supplements in the Finnish Smokers' Trial. (jeffreybland.com)
  • Lindqvist A, Andersson S. Biochemical properties of purified recombinant human beta-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase. (eurekaselect.com)
  • [12] [15] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today. (lexipedia.com)
  • Asymmetrically cleaves beta-carotene at the 9',10' double bond resulting in the formation of beta-apo-10'-carotenal and beta-ionone. (uniprot.org)
  • The typical yellow-coloured fat of humans and chickens is a result of fat storage of carotenes from their diets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effectiveness of beta-carotene for treating different forms of cancer is still debated and has currently not been proven to prevent cancer in humans [9]. (nutrientjournal.com)
  • In humans, intervention studies have highlighted the huge interindividual variation of β-carotene conversion efficiency, possibly due to genetic polymorphisms, which might impact on response to β-carotene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fenretinide improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in rodents ( 2 , 15 , 16 ), and also improves insulin resistance in overweight humans ( 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Absorption of β-carotene is enhanced if eaten with fats, as carotenes are fat soluble. (hugestoneingredient.com)
  • Absorption from these foods is enhanced if eaten with fats, as carotenes are fat soluble, and if the food is cooked for a few minutes until the plant cell wall splits and the colour is released into any liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processing - or how the food is prepared - also impacts the absorption of beta-carotene. (geneticlifehacks.com)
  • The gene for the bacterial carotene desaturase was placed under the control of a constitutive cauliflower mosiac virus promoter and tagged with a 5' plastid signaling peptide to direct it into the plastid (Ye, 2000). (wikidot.com)
  • Effects were replicated in the Women's Health and Aging Study (n = 615) and in the alpha-Tocopherol, beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) study (n = 2136). (cdc.gov)
  • [3] Carotenes are photosynthetic pigments important for photosynthesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotenes contribute to photosynthesis by transmitting the light energy they absorb to chlorophyll . (wikipedia.org)
  • The term carotene (also carotin , from the Latin carota , "carrot" [1] [2] ) is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C 40 H x , which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi). (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of all downstream carotenogenic genes was lower in MT than in WT, suggesting that down-regulation is critical for the β-carotene increase in the MT pericarp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interpretation of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed new insight into the molecular regulation of β-carotene accumulation in the MT pericarp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Carotenes are responsible for the orange colour of the carrot , for which this class of chemicals is named, and for the colours of many other fruits, vegetables and fungi (for example, sweet potatoes , chanterelle and orange cantaloupe melon). (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-Carotene is an organic compound that gives color to plants and fruits. (nutrientjournal.com)
  • High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the pericarp from MT fruits had a 10.5-fold increase of β-carotene content over that of the Wild Type (WT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, little is known about distribution and accumulation of beta-carotene in tissues. (nutrientjournal.com)