Oral Submucous Fibrosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Vitamin A Deficiency
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
The food matrix of spinach is a limiting factor in determining the bioavailability of beta-carotene and to a lesser extent of lutein in humans. (1/1433)Carotenoid bioavailability depends, amongst other factors, on the food matrix and on the type and extent of processing. To examine the effect of variously processed spinach products and of dietary fiber on serum carotenoid concentrations, subjects received, over a 3-wk period, a control diet (n = 10) or a control diet supplemented with carotenoids or one of four spinach products (n = 12 per group): whole leaf spinach with an almost intact food matrix, minced spinach with the matrix partially disrupted, enzymatically liquefied spinach in which the matrix was further disrupted and the liquefied spinach to which dietary fiber (10 g/kg wet weight) was added. Consumption of spinach significantly increased serum concentrations of all-trans-beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, (and consequently total beta-carotene), lutein, alpha-carotene and retinol and decreased the serum concentration of lycopene. Serum total beta-carotene responses (changes in serum concentrations from the start to the end of the intervention period) differed significantly between the whole leaf and liquefied spinach groups and between the minced and liquefied spinach groups. The lutein response did not differ among spinach groups. Addition of dietary fiber to the liquefied spinach had no effect on serum carotenoid responses. The relative bioavailability as compared to bioavailability of the carotenoid supplement for whole leaf, minced, liquefied and liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber for beta-carotene was 5.1, 6.4, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively, and for lutein 45, 52, 55 and 54%, respectively. We conclude that the bioavailability of lutein from spinach was higher than that of beta-carotene and that enzymatic disruption of the matrix (cell wall structure) enhanced the bioavailability of beta-carotene from whole leaf and minced spinach, but had no effect on lutein bioavailability. (+info)
Maternal vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation in lactating bangladeshi women benefits mothers and infants but does not prevent subclinical deficiency. (2/1433)The effects of maternal postpartum vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation on maternal and infant serum retinol concentrations, modified relative dose-response (MRDR) ratios and breast milk vitamin A concentrations were assessed during a community-based trial in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 1-3 wk postpartum, women were randomly assigned to receive either (1) a single dose of 200,000 international units [60,000 retinol equivalents (RE)] vitamin A followed by daily placebos (n = 74), (2) daily doses of beta-carotene [7.8 mg (1300 RE)] (n = 73) or (3) daily placebos (n = 73) until 9 mo postpartum. Compared to placebos, vitamin A supplementation resulted in lower maternal MRDR ratios (i.e., increased liver stores) and higher milk vitamin A concentrations at 3 mo, but these improvements were not sustained. The beta-carotene supplementation acted more slowly, resulting in milk vitamin A concentrations higher than the placebo group only at 9 mo. Irrespective of treatment group, over 50% of women produced milk with low vitamin A concentrations (/=0. 06. We conclude that while both interventions were beneficial, neither was sufficient to correct the underlying subclinical vitamin A deficiency in these women nor to bring their infants into adequate vitamin A status. (+info)
A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (3/1433)Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function. (+info)
Accumulation of astaxanthin all-E, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective. (4/1433)Concentrations of all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z- geometrical and (3R,3'R), (3R, 3'S) and (3S,3'S) optical isomers of astaxanthin were determined in rainbow trout liver, gut tissues, kidney, skin and blood plasma to evaluate their body distribution. Two cold-pelleted diets containing predominantly all-E-astaxanthin (36.9 mg/kg astaxanthin, 97% all-E-, 0.4% 9Z-, 1.5% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 1.1% other isomers, respectively) or a mixture of all-E- and Z-astaxanthins (35.4 mg/kg astaxanthin, 64% all-E-, 18.7% 9Z-, 12.3% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 2.0% other isomers, respectively), were fed to duplicate groups of trout for 69 d. Individual E/Z isomers were identified by VIS- and 1H-NMR-spectrometry, and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly higher total carotenoid concentration was observed in plasma of trout fed diets with all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative E/Z-isomer concentrations of plasma, skin and kidney were not significantly different among groups, whereas all-E-astaxanthin was higher in intestinal tissues and 13Z-astaxanthin was lower in liver of trout fed all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative amount of hepatic 13Z-astaxanthin (39-49% of total astaxanthin) was higher than in all other samples (P < 0.05). Synthetic, optically inactive astaxanthin was used in all experiments, and the determined dietary ratio between the 3R,3'R:3R, 3'S (meso):3S,3'S optical isomers was 25.3:49.6:25.1. The distribution of R/S-astaxanthin isomers in feces, blood, liver and fillet was similar to that in the diets. The ratio between (3S,3'S)- and (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin in the skin and posterior kidney was ca. 2:1 and 3:1, respectively, regardless of dietary E/Z-astaxanthin composition. The results show that geometrical and optical isomers of astaxanthin are distributed selectively in different tissues of rainbow trout. (+info)
Carotenoid intakes, assessed by dietary questionnaire, are associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations in an elderly population. (5/1433)High intakes of fruits and vegetables and of carotenoids are associated with a lower risk for a variety of chronic diseases. It is therefore important to test the validity of dietary questionnaires that assess these intakes. We compared intakes of five carotenoids, as calculated from responses to the Willett 126-item food-frequency questionnaire, with corresponding biochemical measures. Subjects included 346 women and 201 men, aged 67-93 y, in the Framingham Heart Study. Unadjusted correlations were higher among women than men as follows: alpha-carotene 0.33 and 0.18, beta-carotene, 0.36 and 0.25; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.44 and 0.32; lycopene, 0.35 and 0.21; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.27 and 0.10, respectively. Adjustment for age, energy intake, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), plasma cholesterol concentrations and smoking reduced the gender differences, respectively, to the following: alpha-carotene 0.30 and 0.28; beta-carotene, 0.34 and 0.31; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.45 and 0.36; lycopene, 0.36 and 0.31; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.24 and 0.14. Plots of adjusted mean plasma carotenoid concentration by quintile of respective carotenoid intake show apparent greater responsiveness among women, compared with men, to dietary intake of alpha- and beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, but similar blood-diet relationships for lycopene and lutein + zeaxanthin. Reported daily intake of fruits and vegetables correlated most strongly with plasma beta-cryptoxanthin and beta-carotene among women and with plasma alpha- and beta-carotene among men. With the exception of lutein + zeaxanthin, this dietary questionnaire does provide reasonable rankings of carotenoid status among elderly subjects, with the strongest correlations for beta-cryptoxanthin. Appropriate adjustment of confounders is necessary to clarify these associations among men. (+info)
Paracoccus carotinifaciens sp. nov., a new aerobic gram-negative astaxanthin-producing bacterium. (6/1433)The strain E-396T, isolated from soil, was Gram-negative, aerobic, orange-pigmented, rod-shaped, motile by peritrichous flagella and astaxanthin-producing. This organism produced carotenoids, mainly astaxanthin, and did not produce bacteriochlorophyll. The ubiquinone system was Q-10. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence of strain E-396T showed it to be a member of the alpha-3 subclass of the Proteobacteria, forming a cluster with the species of the genus Paracoccus. On the basis of the production of orange pigments and motility by peritrichous flagella, together with DNA-DNA reassociation data, it is concluded that the new isolate should be classified into a new species of the genus Paracoccus, Paracoccus carotinifaciens sp. nov. The type strain is E-396T (= IFO 16121T). (+info)
Effect of vitamin A and beta carotene supplementation on women's health.(7/1433)(+info)
Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. (8/1433)OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on mortality related to pregnancy of supplementing women of reproductive age each week with a recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A, either preformed or as beta carotene. DESIGN: Double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled field trial. SETTING: Rural southeast central plains of Nepal (Sarlahi district). SUBJECTS: 44 646 married women, of whom 20 119 became pregnant 22 189 times. INTERVENTION: 270 wards randomised to 3 groups of 90 each for women to receive weekly a single oral supplement of placebo, vitamin A (7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) or beta carotene (42 mg, or 7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) for over 31/2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality in women during pregnancy up to 12 weeks post partum (pregnancy related mortality) and mortality during pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum, excluding deaths apparently related to injury (maternal mortality). RESULTS: Mortality related to pregnancy in the placebo, vitamin A, and beta carotene groups was 704, 426, and 361 deaths per 100 000 pregnancies, yielding relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of 0. 60 (0.37 to 0.97) and 0.51 (0.30 to 0.86). This represented reductions of 40% (P<0.04) and 49% (P<0.01) among those who received vitamin A and beta carotene. Combined, vitamin A or beta carotene lowered mortality by 44% (0.56 (0.37 to 0.84), P<0.005) and reduced the maternal mortality ratio from 645 to 385 deaths per 100 000 live births, or by 40% (P<0.02). Differences in cause of death could not be reliably distinguished between supplemented and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of women with either vitamin A or beta carotene at recommended dietary amounts during childbearing years can lower mortality related to pregnancy in rural, undernourished populations of south Asia. (+info)
Beta-carotene is a pigment found in many fruits and vegetables, including carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, and broccoli. It is a type of carotenoid, which is a group of pigments that give plants their yellow, orange, and red colors. In the medical field, beta-carotene is known for its potential health benefits. It is a powerful antioxidant that can help protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Beta-carotene is also important for maintaining healthy vision, as it is converted by the body into vitamin A, which is essential for maintaining good vision in low light conditions. In addition, some studies have suggested that beta-carotene may have a role in reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, such as lung cancer and breast cancer. However, it is important to note that while beta-carotene has potential health benefits, it is not a cure-all and should not be relied upon as the sole source of these benefits. A balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits and vegetables is the best way to ensure that you are getting all of the nutrients your body needs to stay healthy.
Carotenoids are pigments that are found in plants, fruits, vegetables, and some algae and bacteria. They are responsible for the yellow, orange, and red colors of many fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and tomatoes. In the medical field, carotenoids are known for their potential health benefits. They are antioxidants, which means they can help protect the body against damage from harmful molecules called free radicals. Free radicals can damage cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Some carotenoids, such as beta-carotene and lycopene, have been shown to have specific health benefits. Beta-carotene is a precursor to vitamin A, which is important for vision and immune function. Lycopene, which is found in tomatoes and other red fruits and vegetables, has been linked to a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Overall, carotenoids are an important part of a healthy diet and may offer a range of health benefits. However, it is important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the effects of carotenoids on human health.
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. It is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Vitamin E is found in a variety of foods, including nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, and leafy green vegetables. It is also available as a dietary supplement. In the medical field, vitamin E is used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Cardiovascular disease: Vitamin E has been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels. 2. Eye disease: Vitamin E may help prevent age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in older adults. 3. Skin health: Vitamin E is often used in skincare products to help protect the skin from damage caused by UV radiation and other environmental factors. 4. Immune system function: Vitamin E may help boost the immune system and reduce the risk of infections. 5. Cancer: Some studies have suggested that vitamin E may help prevent certain types of cancer, including prostate cancer and breast cancer. It is important to note that while vitamin E can be beneficial for overall health, excessive intake can be harmful. The recommended daily intake of vitamin E for adults is 15 milligrams per day.
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for maintaining good health. It is important for vision, immune function, and the growth and development of cells. Vitamin A is found in many foods, including liver, fish, dairy products, and fruits and vegetables. In the medical field, vitamin A deficiency can lead to a variety of health problems, including night blindness, dry skin, and an increased risk of infections. Vitamin A supplements are sometimes prescribed to people who are at risk of deficiency, such as pregnant women and children in developing countries.
Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the oral mucosa, the lining of the mouth. It is characterized by the thickening and hardening of the submucous connective tissue, which leads to rigidity and stiffness of the mouth and lips, making it difficult to speak, eat, and swallow. OSF is more common in males and is often associated with the use of areca nut, a common ingredient in chewing tobacco and betel quid. Other risk factors include excessive consumption of alcohol and spicy foods, as well as genetic predisposition. The symptoms of OSF may include difficulty in opening the mouth, burning sensation in the mouth, difficulty in swallowing, and changes in the appearance of the mouth, such as white or gray patches on the tongue or inside the cheeks. OSF can progress to a more advanced stage, known as Scleroderma Prognostic Index (SPI), which is associated with an increased risk of cancer of the oral cavity. Treatment options for OSF include medications, physical therapy, and surgery, but the condition is not curable, and prevention is the best approach.
Antioxidants are molecules that can neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of various diseases. In the medical field, antioxidants are often used to prevent or treat conditions related to oxidative stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants can be found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, or they can be taken as supplements. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.
Ascorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. It is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C. It is also used to treat certain types of anemia, as well as to boost the immune system and improve wound healing. Ascorbic acid is available over-the-counter as a dietary supplement and is also used in some prescription medications. However, it is important to note that high doses of ascorbic acid can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and stomach cramps, and may interact with certain medications. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking ascorbic acid supplements.
Alpha-tocopherol is a type of vitamin E, which is an essential nutrient for human health. It is a fat-soluble antioxidant that helps protect cells from damage caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. In the medical field, alpha-tocopherol is often used as a dietary supplement to help prevent or treat vitamin E deficiency, which can cause a range of health problems including anemia, nerve damage, and skin disorders. It is also used in some medications to treat certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer, and to prevent blood clots. Alpha-tocopherol is available in various forms, including capsules, tablets, and liquid drops, and is typically taken orally. However, it is important to note that high doses of alpha-tocopherol can have negative side effects, such as nausea, diarrhea, and an increased risk of bleeding, so it is important to follow the recommended dosage guidelines and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any vitamin supplements.
Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of beta-carotene, a provitamin A carotenoid found in many fruits and vegetables. In the human body, beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A, which is essential for maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. BCMO is responsible for converting beta-carotene into two different forms of vitamin A: retinal and retinoic acid. BCMO is primarily found in the liver and small intestine, where it is involved in the absorption and metabolism of dietary beta-carotene. It is also expressed in other tissues, including the retina, where it plays a critical role in the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A for vision. Mutations in the BCMO gene can lead to a deficiency in the enzyme, resulting in a condition called beta-carotene deficiency. This condition can cause a range of symptoms, including night blindness, dry skin, and impaired immune function.
Zeta-carotene is a type of carotenoid, which is a pigment found in plants and fruits that gives them their yellow, orange, or red color. In the medical field, zeta-carotene is known for its potential health benefits, particularly for the eyes and immune system. Zeta-carotene is a provitamin A carotenoid, which means that it can be converted by the body into vitamin A. Vitamin A is important for maintaining healthy vision, particularly in low-light conditions, and for supporting the immune system. Research has suggested that zeta-carotene may have a number of potential health benefits, including reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, improving immune function, and protecting against age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of vision loss in older adults. Zeta-carotene is found in a variety of foods, including carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, and kale. It is also available as a dietary supplement. However, it is important to note that while zeta-carotene may have health benefits, it is not a cure for any medical condition, and it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement regimen.
Geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase (GGT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, a group of organic compounds that are important for various cellular functions. GGT catalyzes the transfer of the geranylgeranyl group from geranylgeranyl-diphosphate (GGDP) to proteins, which are then modified with the isoprenoid moiety. This modification is essential for the proper functioning of many proteins, including those involved in signal transduction, membrane trafficking, and protein-protein interactions. In the medical field, GGT is often used as a diagnostic marker for liver disease, as it is released into the bloodstream in response to liver damage or injury. High levels of GGT in the blood can indicate liver inflammation, cirrhosis, or other liver disorders.
A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens in the eye that affects vision. The lens is responsible for focusing light onto the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. When the lens becomes cloudy, it can interfere with the ability of light to pass through and be focused properly, leading to vision problems. Cataracts are a common age-related condition, but they can also be caused by injury, disease, or certain medications. Symptoms of cataracts may include blurry vision, difficulty seeing at night, sensitivity to light, double vision, and the appearance of halos around lights. Treatment for cataracts typically involves surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with an artificial lens. This procedure, called cataract surgery, is generally safe and effective, and can significantly improve vision in people with cataracts.
Xanthophylls are a group of pigments found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. They are responsible for the yellow, orange, and red colors of many fruits and vegetables, as well as the yellow color of some flowers. In the medical field, xanthophylls are known for their potential health benefits. They are antioxidants, which means they can help protect the body against damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals. Some studies have suggested that xanthophylls may help reduce the risk of certain diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. Xanthophylls are also used in dietary supplements, often in combination with other antioxidants. However, it is important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of xanthophylls and to determine the appropriate dosage and safety of these supplements.
Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by various types of immune cells, including macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells, in response to infection, injury, or inflammation. IL-1β is involved in the regulation of immune responses, including the activation of T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. It also promotes the production of other cytokines and chemokines, which help to recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury. In addition to its role in the immune system, IL-1β has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis. It is also involved in the pathogenesis of certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Overall, IL-1β is a key mediator of inflammation and immune responses, and its dysregulation has been linked to a range of diseases and conditions.
Lutein is a yellow pigment found in plants, particularly in fruits and vegetables such as spinach, kale, and broccoli. In the medical field, lutein is often studied for its potential health benefits, particularly for eye health. Lutein is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect the eyes from damage caused by blue light and other environmental factors. It is particularly important for people who spend a lot of time looking at screens, such as computer monitors, smartphones, and televisions. Research has shown that lutein may help reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common eye condition that can lead to vision loss. It may also help reduce the risk of cataracts, a clouding of the eye's lens that can also cause vision loss. In addition to its potential benefits for eye health, lutein may also have other health benefits, such as reducing the risk of certain types of cancer and improving cardiovascular health. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 17 million deaths each year. CVDs include conditions such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVDs. Treatment for CVDs may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
Intramolecular lyases are a type of enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of a chemical bond within a single molecule, without the need for a coenzyme or a water molecule. These enzymes are involved in various metabolic pathways and play a crucial role in the synthesis and breakdown of complex molecules. Intramolecular lyases are classified based on the type of chemical bond they cleave. For example, a carbon-carbon bond lyase catalyzes the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond within a molecule, while a carbon-hydrogen bond lyase catalyzes the cleavage of a carbon-hydrogen bond. In the medical field, intramolecular lyases are important for the metabolism of various compounds, including amino acids, sugars, and lipids. They are also involved in the detoxification of harmful substances, such as drugs and toxins. In some cases, defects in intramolecular lyases can lead to metabolic disorders, such as maple syrup urine disease, which is caused by a deficiency in the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, which contains an intramolecular lyase.
Beta 2-Microglobulin (β2M) is a small protein that is produced by most cells in the body, including immune cells such as T cells and B cells. It is a component of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which are found on the surface of most cells and are responsible for presenting antigens (foreign substances) to the immune system. In the medical field, β2M is often used as a marker of kidney function. High levels of β2M in the blood can indicate kidney damage or failure, as the kidneys are responsible for removing β2M from the bloodstream. In addition, high levels of β2M have been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and prostate cancer. β2M is also used as a diagnostic tool in the laboratory to help identify and monitor certain diseases and conditions, such as multiple myeloma, autoimmune disorders, and viral infections. It is also used as a component of some types of cancer treatments, such as immunotherapy.
Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the lungs. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Lung neoplasms can occur in any part of the lung, including the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Lung neoplasms can be further classified based on their type, including: 1. Primary lung neoplasms: These are tumors that develop in the lungs and do not spread to other parts of the body. 2. Secondary lung neoplasms: These are tumors that develop in the lungs as a result of cancer that has spread from another part of the body. 3. Benign lung neoplasms: These are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body. 4. Malignant lung neoplasms: These are cancerous tumors that can spread to other parts of the body. Some common types of lung neoplasms include lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of lung neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as chest X-rays and CT scans, and a biopsy to examine a sample of tissue from the tumor. Treatment options for lung neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Daucus carota, commonly known as carrot, is a plant species in the Apiaceae family. In the medical field, Daucus carota is known for its medicinal properties and is used in traditional medicine to treat various health conditions. Some of the medicinal properties of Daucus carota include: 1. Antioxidant: Carrots are rich in antioxidants, which help protect the body against damage from free radicals. 2. Anti-inflammatory: Carrots contain compounds that have anti-inflammatory properties, which can help reduce inflammation in the body. 3. Immune system booster: Carrots are a good source of vitamin C, which is essential for a healthy immune system. 4. Eye health: Carrots are rich in beta-carotene, which is converted to vitamin A in the body. Vitamin A is important for maintaining healthy vision. 5. Digestive health: Carrots are high in fiber, which can help promote healthy digestion and prevent constipation. In traditional medicine, Daucus carota is used to treat a variety of conditions, including digestive problems, respiratory infections, and skin conditions. However, it is important to note that the effectiveness of these remedies has not been scientifically proven, and they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment.
Vitamin A deficiency is a condition that occurs when the body does not get enough of the vitamin A it needs to function properly. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy vision, skin, and immune function. It is also important for the growth and development of bones and teeth. Vitamin A deficiency can occur when there is a lack of dietary intake of vitamin A, or when the body is unable to absorb or use vitamin A effectively. This can be due to a variety of factors, including poor nutrition, malabsorption disorders, and certain medical conditions. Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency can include night blindness, dry skin, and a weakened immune system. In severe cases, vitamin A deficiency can lead to blindness, growth retardation, and even death. Treatment for vitamin A deficiency typically involves increasing dietary intake of vitamin A-rich foods, such as liver, sweet potatoes, and carrots, or taking vitamin A supplements. In some cases, medical treatment may also be necessary to address the underlying cause of the deficiency.
Norisoprenoids are a group of organic compounds that are derived from the metabolic pathway of isoprenoids. They are a subclass of terpenoids, which are a large and diverse group of compounds that are found in many plants, animals, and microorganisms. Norisoprenoids are important in the medical field because they have a variety of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral effects. Some norisoprenoids have been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of a range of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and viral infections. One example of a norisoprenoid is the compound farnesol, which is produced by many types of bacteria and has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. Another example is the compound xanthohumol, which is found in hops and has been shown to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. Overall, norisoprenoids are an important class of compounds that have a variety of potential therapeutic applications in the medical field.
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta (β-adrenergic receptors) are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to signaling molecules called catecholamines, including adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine). These receptors are part of the adrenergic signaling system, which plays a critical role in regulating a wide range of physiological processes, including heart rate, blood pressure, metabolism, and immune function. There are three main types of β-adrenergic receptors: β1, β2, and β3. Each type of receptor is found in different tissues and has different functions. For example, β1 receptors are primarily found in the heart and are responsible for increasing heart rate and contractility. β2 receptors are found in the lungs, blood vessels, and muscles, and are involved in relaxing smooth muscle and increasing blood flow. β3 receptors are found in adipose tissue and are involved in regulating metabolism. Activation of β-adrenergic receptors can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the specific receptor subtype and the tissue it is found in. For example, activation of β2 receptors in the lungs can cause bronchodilation, which can help to open up airways and improve breathing in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. Activation of β1 receptors in the heart can increase heart rate and contractility, which can help to improve blood flow and oxygen delivery to the body's tissues. Activation of β3 receptors in adipose tissue can increase metabolism and help to promote weight loss. β-adrenergic receptors are important therapeutic targets for a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, asthma, and diabetes. Drugs that target these receptors, such as beta blockers and beta agonists, are commonly used to treat these conditions.
Integrin beta3, also known as CD18, is a protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system and blood clotting. It is a subunit of integrin receptors, which are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. In the context of the immune system, integrin beta3 is expressed on the surface of various immune cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, and platelets. It helps these cells to adhere to the endothelium (inner lining of blood vessels) and migrate through the blood vessel walls to sites of inflammation or infection. In the context of blood clotting, integrin beta3 is expressed on the surface of platelets. It plays a critical role in platelet aggregation, which is the process by which platelets stick together to form a plug at the site of a blood vessel injury. Integrin beta3 also helps to activate platelets and promote the formation of a fibrin clot, which stabilizes the platelet plug and prevents further bleeding. Mutations in the gene encoding integrin beta3 can lead to various bleeding disorders, such as Glanzmann thrombasthenia, a rare inherited bleeding disorder characterized by impaired platelet aggregation.
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- Beta-carotene belongs to a group of colored pigments called carotenoids. (nih.gov)
- Beta-carotene and other red, orange, and yellow pigments called carotenoids are considered antioxidants. (nih.gov)
- Beta-carotene is one of about 500 carotenoids, a group of red, orange, and yellow plant pigments. (canyonranch.com)
- At Canyon Ranch, we recommend an intake of no more than 5,000 IU of carotenoids (including beta-carotene) from supplements. (canyonranch.com)
- Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the mechanism(s) of anticarcinogenic and procarcinogenic effects of beta-carotene is important due to continuing interest in the potential use of carotenoids as chemopreventive agents -- and the conflicting results of observational studies vs. intervention trials. (nih.gov)
- Beta carotene is a member of a class of substances by the name of carotenoids, which are naturally occurring pigments found in plants and are responsible for their vibrant colours. (simply-health.ca)
- Natural Beta-Carotene contains additional antioxidant carotenoids, Alpha-Carotene, Zeaxanthin, Cryptoxanthin and Lutein as naturally occurring in D. salina sea algae. (urbannutritioncenter.com)
- This natural balance of related carotenoids is what makes this product more bioavailable than common synthetic Beta-Carotene. (urbannutritioncenter.com)
- In 2005 carotenoids were divided into two classes: pro-vitamin A (e.g., β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) and non-pro-vitamin A compounds. (athenslab.gr)
- Later, in 2013 naturally occurring carotenoids were classified into three groups: carotenes, xanthophylls, and lycopene. (athenslab.gr)
- β-carotene, α-carotene, and lycopene are composed only of carbon and hydrogen atoms, whereas xanthophylls are carotenoids with at least one oxygen atom. (athenslab.gr)
- The main difference between the two is that unlike vitamin A, carotenoids like beta-carotene only come from vegetables. (visionsource-idrvy.com)
- Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids, a class of plant-derived vitamins that includes beta-carotene. (nih.gov)
- Lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene belong to a family of nutrients known as carotenoids. (nih.gov)
- Taking beta-carotene by mouth, alone or together with vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc, doesn't seem to reduce the risk or progression of cataracts. (nih.gov)
- Taking beta-carotene by mouth, alone or with vitamin E, does not prevent liver cancer in male smokers. (nih.gov)
- Taking beta-carotene by mouth, alone or with vitamin E, does not prevent death due to liver disease in male smokers. (nih.gov)
- Beta-Carotene is also an antioxidant and a source of vitamin A. These attributes, combined with Beta-Carotene's high pigmentation, make it an extremely effective and healthy color for use in food, beverage and dietary supplement applications. (dsm.com)
- Beta-carotene is a plant pigment that is converted into vitamin A in the body. (nih.gov)
- Maternal vitamin A requirements are increased during lactation, but there are no specific guidelines for increased beta-carotene intake or indications for high-dose supplementation in nursing mothers. (nih.gov)
- Beta-carotene is converted by the body to vitamin A as needed, preventing a toxic build-up of this nutrient. (vitanetonline.com)
- Carrots are a rich source of beta-carotene , a carotenoid antioxidant necessary for the production of vitamin A. And there are even more antioxidants in carrots, including alphacarotene and lutein. (allonhealth.com)
- The body changes beta-carotene into a natural source of vitamin A, which is essential for strengthening the immune system and promoting healthy cell growth. (allonhealth.com)
- Natural Factors Beta Carotene is a source of vitamin A and a powerful antioxidant that protects the body from free radical damage. (simply-health.ca)
- As a source of vitamin A, beta carotene helps in the maintenance of overall good health, the maintenance of eyesight, skin, membranes and immune function, and for the development and maintenance of bones, teeth, and night vision. (simply-health.ca)
- Converted to vitamin A in the liver, beta carotene is a fat-soluble pigment that is one of the most active single oxygen free radical deterrents and scavengers. (simply-health.ca)
- Beta-carotene is referred to as Pro-Vitamin A because it is converted into Vitamin A as the body requires it. (worldvita.com)
- Vitamin A and beta-carotene rich foods are also helpful in the absorption of iron in the body. (indiatimes.com)
- Natural Beta-Carotene is a fat soluble food source of pro-Vitamin A. (urbannutritioncenter.com)
- Beta-carotene is a fat-soluble micronutrient that is a precursor of vitamin A . Therefore, lack or reduction of beta-carotene can lead to vitamin A deficiency. (athenslab.gr)
- Beta-carotene is a form of vitamin A from vegetable sources (green or orange vegetables and fruits). (athenslab.gr)
- The body converts beta-carotene to vitamin A if the thyroid is functioning properly and the patient does not have diabetes. (athenslab.gr)
- β-carotenes, which are precursors of vitamin A, have greater pro-vitamin A potential compared to α-carotene or β-cryptoxanthin because of the presence of a β-ionone ring linked to a chain of 11 carbons. (athenslab.gr)
- Swanson #ad - Beta-carotene supplements can help cover vitamin A gaps in your diet as your body readily converts beta carotene into vitamin A. Clinical research, nD with a mission to offer wellness solutions that help people live simply healthier together. (hcakni.com)
- Each swanson beta-carotene sgel delivers 7, vision, 500 mcg and 833% daily value of vitamin A as beta-carotene to support immune system, skin and hair health every day. (hcakni.com)
- Vitamin a deficiency, beta-carotene is an excellent choice. (hcakni.com)
- Today we want to share with you two vitamins in particular that both benefit eye health and prevent vision loss- vitamin A and beta-carotene . (visionsource-idrvy.com)
- What Are Vitamin A And Beta-Carotene? (visionsource-idrvy.com)
- Beta-carotene converts into Vitamin A in the body, and has similar benefits. (visionsource-idrvy.com)
- If you're looking for other solutions, cantaloupe, eggs, and liver are also great solutions to help keep your vitamin A and beta-carotene supplies up to par. (visionsource-idrvy.com)
- As long as you're getting the majority of your vitamin A and beta-carotene from vegetables, you don't have to worry about ingesting too much of either. (visionsource-idrvy.com)
- However you get your Vitamin A and beta-carotene, be sure you're getting enough! (visionsource-idrvy.com)
- If you have any questions about Vitamin A and beta-carotene and how they affect your vision health, please give us a call! (visionsource-idrvy.com)
- In the body, beta-carotene is used to make vitamin A, which is required by the retina to detect light and convert it into electrical signals. (nih.gov)
Taking beta-carotene supplements5
- In people who smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol, taking beta-carotene supplements might actually increase the risk for these growths. (nih.gov)
- Taking beta-carotene supplements by mouth seems to increase the risk of lung cancer in some people. (nih.gov)
- Taking beta-carotene supplements by mouth does not prevent prostate cancer in most people. (nih.gov)
- In fact, taking beta-carotene supplements might actually increase the risk of prostate cancer in some people. (nih.gov)
- Consider taking beta carotene supplements. (cdc.gov)
- Many global health authorities recommend getting beta-carotene and other antioxidants from food instead of supplements. (nih.gov)
- A man who has been taking carotene supplements for at least 15 years is much less likely to suffer from cognitive decline than a man who never took the supplements, according to an article in Archives of Internal Medicine (JAMA/Archives) , November 12th issue. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- High-dose beta-carotene supplements lead to a slow increase in breastmilk beta-carotene concentrations, with an accumulation half-life of about 9 days. (nih.gov)
- However, the investigators did find some benefits in the lutein/zeaxanthin mixture for those not given beta-carotene and those who had very little lutein and zeaxanthin in their diets. (nih.gov)
- The lutein/zeaxanthin mixture was also safer than beta-carotene for smokers. (nih.gov)
- In the AREDS2 trial, adding omega-3s or lutein + zeaxanthin to the AREDS formulation (containing beta-carotene) had no additional overall effect on the risk of advanced AMD. (nih.gov)
- However, trial participants who took AREDS containing lutein + zeaxanthin and no beta-carotene had a reduction in risk of advanced AMD, compared with those who took AREDS with beta-carotene. (nih.gov)
- Please see below for more details on the effects of lutein + zeaxanthin vs. beta-carotene . (nih.gov)
- What are lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-carotene? (nih.gov)
- Beta carotene is a red-orange pigment found in many fruits and vegetables, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, and spinach. (cleansimpleeats.com)
- Foods with beta carotene are those that have high levels of this pigment naturally. (easymealz.ca)
- Beta-carotene is a natural carotenoid pigment. (easymealz.ca)
- The authors concluded "Thus, the public health value of beta carotene supplementation merits careful evaluation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Furthermore, there is new concern that high-dose antioxidant supplementation, including beta carotene, may have adverse health consequences including mortality. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In the last grant period, our studies indicate that a biologic basis for the harmful effect of beta-carotene supplementation in smokers is related to the high dosage used and the enhanced formation of reactive beta-carotene metabolites in the free-radical-rich, but antioxidant-poor environment of the lungs of cigarette smokers. (nih.gov)
- and B) whether additional supplementation of vitamins C and E in the smoke-exposed ferret with or without beta-carotene supplementation will regulate the expression of beta-carotene 9?10? (nih.gov)
- 3] Beta-carotene supplementation during pregnancy and for 6 months postpartum in nursing mothers with poor diets in a resource-poor setting reduced the number of days of illness in the mothers, but does not reduce infant morbidity or mortality according to another study. (nih.gov)
- Francine Grodstein, Sc.D., Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) and Harvard Medical School, Boston, and team looked at beta carotene (an antioxidant) data and what effect it might have on the cognitive abilities of two groups of males. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Beta-carotene is a normal component of human colostrum and mature milk, where it contributes to antioxidant defenses in the neonate. (nih.gov)
- Beta-carotene is also a major component of the body's natural antioxidant defenses against free radicals. (vitanetonline.com)
- Naturally plant-sourced, Natural Factors Beta Carotene is available in a high dose of 10,000 and 30,000 IU per capsule or tablet, taken once daily, for superior antioxidant protection and the maintenance of good health. (simply-health.ca)
- A mechanism to explain the instability of the beta-carotene molecule is that exposure of lung cells to smoke results in increased lung cell oxidative stress, thereby causing decreased tissue levels of other important antioxidants, such as ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol, which have a stabilizing effect on unoxidized beta-carotene. (nih.gov)
- Specifically as a carotenoid, beta-carotene reduces the oxidative stress put on our eyes from blue light emitted by the sun and our various devices' screens. (visionsource-idrvy.com)
- There's no official recommended daily allowance (RDA) for beta-carotene, and the amount suggested for optimal nutrition ranges from 4,000 IU (2.5 mg) to 25,000 IU (15 mg). (canyonranch.com)
- Taking beta-carotene by mouth doesn't reduce the risk for an aneurysm in the stomach in male smokers. (nih.gov)
- Taking beta-carotene by mouth does not reduce the risk of stroke in male smokers. (nih.gov)
- Beta carotene does come with some undesirable side effects - smokers who take it have a further elevated risk of developing lung cancer , the researchers note. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- However, beta-carotene use has been linked to lung cancer in smokers. (nih.gov)
- Finally, former smokers who took AREDS with beta-carotene had a higher incidence of lung cancer. (nih.gov)
- In the present grant, we propose to conduct an intervention to investigate possible protective effects of a rational combination of linked antioxidants (beta-carotene, vitamins C and E) against cigarette smoke-induced lung lesions in the ferret model. (nih.gov)
- and 3) To determine if vitamins C and E will inhibit the formation of oxidative metabolites from beta-carotene via in vitro incubation studies using the post-nuclear fraction of ferret lungs. (nih.gov)
- They contain important nutrients such as alpha- and beta-carotene, vitamins B and C, plus calcium, iron, and potassium. (allonhealth.com)
- The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), which was led by NIH's National Eye Institute (NEI) and concluded in 2001, found that daily high doses of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and the minerals zinc and copper can help slow the progression to advanced AMD. (nih.gov)
- Participants were assigned to take 1 of 4 formulations daily for 5 years: the original AREDS, AREDS with no beta-carotene, AREDS with low zinc, or AREDS with no beta-carotene and low zinc. (nih.gov)
- Taking beta-carotene by mouth does not improve lung function in people with cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
- The findings of more lung cancer in subjects who smoked and who were given 20 mg beta-carotene/d than in those given a placebo could be influenced by the cancer being well advanced before beta-carotene administration. (nih.gov)
- Beta carotene is an organic compound that may help protect against lung cancer. (cdc.gov)
- In addition to a lot of sun (always very well accompanied by sunscreen), you can also take care of yourself with the help of some specific ingredients in your diet, such as foods with beta-carotene. (easymealz.ca)
- You can find the beta-carotene content of other foods by using the USDA FoodData Central database . (canyonranch.com)
- What are beta-carotene foods? (easymealz.ca)
- We have listed some examples of foods that are on the list of those with high levels of beta-carotene, as well as ideas on how to consume them in your daily life, whether as a side dish, main course, or some refreshment to accompany your meals. (easymealz.ca)
- thus, the public health impact of long-term beta carotene use could be large. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- With its natural form of beta-carotene, AIM Just Carrots Carrot juice can be a strong foundation for your good health. (allonhealth.com)
- Beta carotene vs. Great for eye health - if you're looking to boost vision support, but it also promotes eye lubrication. (hcakni.com)
- Supports healthy skin - one of the most significant benefits of beta-carotene is skin health support. (hcakni.com)
- Our organic certified Alfalfa Powder has a natural content of Beta-Carotene. (pfannenschmidt.de)
- Blood beta-carotene measurement is used to assess the general nutritional status of the body, to confirm laboratory carotenoderma, and to assess malabsorption of fats and steatorrhea. (athenslab.gr)
- 2] Some evidence suggests that there is a correlation between beta-carotene and infant motor development in exclusively breastfed infants, but not in overall psychomotor performance. (nih.gov)
- Taking beta-carotene by mouth before, during, and after pregnancy might decrease the risk of diarrhea and fever after childbirth. (nih.gov)
- Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of beta-Carotene in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
- 4,5] The bioavailability of beta-carotene is dependent on the fat content of the meal and the form in which it is administered, with synthetic pharmaceutical forms having the best bioavailability. (nih.gov)
- A long term group included 4,052 men - these men had been randomly assigned to receive either 50 milligrams of beta carotene every other day or a placebo in 1982. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The long-term group received their beta carotene or placebo for 18 years (average) while the short-term group did so for one year (average). (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The men in the beta carotene and placebo short-term groups revealed no difference in cognition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Those in the long-term group who had been taking their beta carotene scored significantly higher than the long-term placebo group in numerous cognitive tests. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In people with breast cancer, eating more beta-carotene in the diet is linked to an increased chance of survival. (nih.gov)
- Beta-carotene itself is not found in the eye. (nih.gov)
- Our CaroCare® solution offers a range of natural-source beta-carotene formulations that offer ease-of-use, superior color stability and guaranteed minimum color intensity. (dsm.com)