A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.
The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
A condition with abnormally elevated level of AMYLASES in the serum. Hyperamylasemia due to PANCREATITIS or other causes may be differentiated by identifying the amylase isoenzymes.
The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into PANCREATIC JUICE.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Crystal structure of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides at 2.2 A resolution. (1/94)

The crystal structure of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method. The structure was refined to a final R-factor of 0.186 for 102,807 independent reflections with F/sigma(F) > or = 2.0 at 2.2 A resolution with root-mean-square deviations from ideality in bond lengths, and bond angles of 0.014 A and 3.00 degrees, respectively. The asymmetric unit comprises four molecules exhibiting a dimer-of-dimers structure. The enzyme, however, acts as a monomer in solution. The beta-amylase molecule folds into three domains; the first one is the N-terminal catalytic domain with a (beta/alpha)8 barrel, the second one is the excursion part from the first one, and the third one is the C-terminal domain with two almost anti-parallel beta-sheets. The active site cleft, including two putative catalytic residues (Glu172 and Glu367), is located on the carboxyl side of the central beta-sheet in the (beta/alpha)8 barrel, as in most amylases. The active site structure of the enzyme resembles that of soybean beta-amylase with slight differences. One calcium ion is bound per molecule far from the active site. The C-terminal domain has a fold similar to the raw starch binding domains of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and glucoamylase.  (+info)

The evolution of starch-binding domain. (2/94)

Amylolytic enzymes belonging to three distinct families of glycosidases (13, 14, 15) contain the starch-binding domain (SBD) positioned almost exclusively at the C-terminus. Detailed analysis of all available SBD sequences from 43 different amylases revealed its independent evolutionary behaviour with regard to the catalytic domains. In the evolutionary tree based on sequence alignment of the SBDs, taxonomy is respected so that fungi and actinomycetes form their own separate parts surrounded by bacteria that are also clustered according to taxonomy. The only known N-terminal SBD from Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase is on the longest branch separated from all C-terminal SBDs. The 3-dimensional (3-D) structures of fungal glucoamylase and bacterial CGTase SBDs are compared and used to discuss the interesting SBD evolution.  (+info)

Prediction of protein cleavage sites by the barley cysteine endoproteases EP-A and EP-B based on the kinetics of synthetic peptide hydrolysis. (3/94)

Hordeins, the natural substrates of barley (Hordeum vulgare) cysteine endoproteases (EPs), were isolated as protein bodies and degraded by purified EP-B from green barley malt. Cleavage specificity was determined by synthesizing internally quenched, fluorogenic tetrapeptide substrates of the general formula 2-aminobenzoyl-P(2)-P(1)-P(1)'-P(2)' 1-tyrosine(NO(2))-aspartate. The barley EPs preferred neutral amino acids with large aliphatic and nonpolar (leucine, valine, isoleucine, and methionine) or aromatic (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) side chains at P(2), and showed less specificity at P(1), although asparagine, aspartate, valine, and isoleucine were particularly unfavorable. Peptides with proline at P(1) or P(1)' were extremely poor substrates. Cleavage sites with EP-A and EP-B preferred substrate sequences are found in hordeins, their natural substrates. The substrate specificity of EP-B with synthetic peptides was used successfully to predict the cleavage sites in the C-terminal extension of barley beta-amylase. When all of the primary cleavage sites in C hordein, which occur mainly in the N- and C-terminal domains, were removed by site-directed mutagenesis, the resulting protein was degraded 112 times more slowly than wild-type C hordein. We suggest that removal of the C hordein terminal domains is necessary for unfolding of the beta-reverse turn helix of the central repeat domain, which then becomes more susceptible to proteolytic attack by EP-B.  (+info)

Water stress enhances beta-amylase activity in cucumber cotyledons. (4/94)

Cotyledons detached from 4-d-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were subjected to water stress (air-drying or PEG-treatment) to examine the effects of the stress on carbohydrate metabolism. Amylolytic activity in the cotyledon was increased about 6-fold by water stress within 1 d. The substrate specificity and the action pattern indicated that beta-amylase is responsible for the activity. Activities of azocaseinase, malate dehydrogenase and triose-phosphate isomerase were not affected by water stress, indicating that the effect of the stress on beta-amylase is rather specific. Cycloheximide-treatment strongly reduced the enhancement of beta-amylase activity. The hypocotyl of cucumber seedlings also exhibited an increase in the enzyme activity when subjected to water stress. The major free sugars in cucumber cotyledons were glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose; sucrose being the most abundant. Sucrose content in excised, unstressed cotyledons increased markedly during the incubation. Changes in other free sugars were small compared with that of sucrose. Starch also accumulated in unstressed cotyledons. In stressed cotyledons more sucrose and less starch accumulated than in unstressed ones. Such results were discussed in relation to the enhancement of beta-amylase activity.  (+info)

Polymorphism in rice amylases at an early stage of seed germination. (5/94)

A polymorphism in rice amylases at an early stage of seed germination is analyzed by zymogram. In non-glutinous cultivars of rice, alpha-amylase isozymes are mainly confirmed in germinating seeds. However, in glutinous cultivars, beta-amylase isozymes, which are not confirmed in nonglutinous cultivars, make up the major part of the total amylase activity and the expression of alpha-amylases are repressed.  (+info)

Molecular mimicry of substrate oxygen atoms by water molecules in the beta-amylase active site. (6/94)

Soybean beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) has been crystallized both free and complexed with a variety of ligands. Four water molecules in the free-enzyme catalytic cleft form a multihydrogen-bond network with eight strategic residues involved in enzyme-ligand hydrogen bonds. We show here that the positions of these four water molecules are coincident with the positions of four potential oxygen atoms of the ligands within the complex. Some of these waters are displaced from the active site when the ligands bind to the enzyme. How many are displaced depends on the shape of the ligand. This means that when one of the four positions is not occupied by a ligand oxygen atom, the corresponding water remains. We studied the functional/structural role of these four waters and conclude that their presence means that the conformation of the eight side chains is fixed in all situations (free or complexed enzyme) and preserved from unwanted or forbidden conformational changes that could hamper the catalytic mechanism. The water structure at the active pocket of beta-amylase is therefore essential for providing the ligand recognition process with plasticity. It does not affect the protein active-site geometry and preserves the overall hydrogen-bonding network, irrespective of which ligand is bound to the enzyme. We also investigated whether other enzymes showed a similar role for water. Finally, we discuss the potential use of these results for predicting whether water molecules can mimic ligand atoms in the active center.  (+info)

Activities of starch hydrolytic enzymes and sucrose-phosphate synthase in the stems of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling. (7/94)

To understand the effect of water stress on the remobilization of prestored carbon reserves, the changes in the activities of starch hydrolytic enzymes and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in the stems of rice (Oryza sativa L.) during grain filling were investigated. Two rice cultivars, showing high lodging-resistance and slow remobilization, were grown in the field and subjected to well-watered (WW, psi(soil)=0) and water-stressed (WS, psi(soil)=-0.05 MPa) treatments 9 d after anthesis (DAA) till maturity. Leaf water potentials of both cultivars markedly decreased during the day as a result of WS treatment, but completely recovered by early morning. WS treatment accelerated the reduction of starch in the stems, promoted the reallocation of prefixed (14)C from the stems to grains, shortened the grain filling period, and increased the grain filling rate. More soluble sugars including sucrose were accumulated in the stems under WS than under WW treatments. Both alpha- and beta-amylase activities were enhanced by the WS, with the former enhanced more than the latter, and were significantly correlated with the concentrations of soluble sugars in the stems. The other two possible starch-breaking enzymes, alpha-glucosidase and starch phosphorylase, showed no significant differences in the activities between the WW and WS treatments. Water stress also increased the SPS activity that is responsible for sucrose production. Both V(limit) and V(max), the activities of the enzyme at limiting and saturating substrate concentrations, were enhanced and the activation state (V(limit)/V(max)) was also increased as a result of the more significant enhancement of V(limit). The enhanced SPS activity was closely correlated with an increase of sucrose accumulation in the stems. The results suggest that the fast hydrolysis of starch and increased carbon remobilization were attributed to the enhanced alpha-amylase activity and the high activation state of SPS when the rice was subjected to water stress.  (+info)

Purification, characterization, immunolocalization and structural analysis of the abundant cytoplasmic beta-amylase from Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed) rhizomes. (8/94)

An abundant catalytically active beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) was isolated from resting rhizomes of hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium). Biochemical analysis of the purified protein, molecular modeling, and cloning of the corresponding gene indicated that this enzyme resembles previously characterized plant beta-amylases with regard to its amino-acid sequence, molecular structure and catalytic activities. Immunolocalization demonstrated that the beta-amylase is exclusively located in the cytoplasm. It is suggested that the hedge bindweed rhizome beta-amylase is a cytoplasmic vegetative storage protein.  (+info)

The present study was performed on a studfarm under typical field conditions. To minimize effects related to husbandry, feeding, and season, our study took place at one thoroughbred farm, within one foaling period from February to May. According to Lahrssen and Zentek [18] such a study design is important when working with a limited number of animals. Probiotic dosing and treatment period were in accordance with studies by Jeroch et al. [19], Jadamus et al. [20], and Vilà et al. [15].. Unfortunately some foals were treated with antibiotics during a severe period of illness which may have an impact on the subsequent microbial profile in faeces.. Bacterial microflora in faeces was used as an indication of the effects of B. cereus var. toyoi on the intestinal health of foals. Although faeces might have some limitations for describing the gut ecosystem, by comparing microflora and the digestion process in the colon with faeces in fistulated horses Julliand and Goachet [21] showed that the faecal ...
1J18: Crystal Structure of a Catalytic Site Mutant of beta-Amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides Cocrystallized with Maltopentaose
1J18: Crystal Structure of a Catalytic Site Mutant of beta-Amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides Cocrystallized with Maltopentaose
Food Poisoning AgentVWR offers slides for the varied purposes of your lab. Prepared and digital microscope slides for educational purposes are featured in an array of fields. General purpose microscope slides and cover glasses are offered as well as cavity, chamber, adhesion, and microarray slides for more specific research needs. Disposable and reusable options of varying thickness and diameter are available and may be purchased in kits, packs, cases, or individually.
Category: Animal, Bacillus, Probiotics. Paenibacillus polymyxa is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen. The species may also beknown as Bacillus polymyxa. It is found in soil, plant roots, and marine sediments.Bacillus polymyxa is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen.. ...
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Electron micrographs of negatively stained preparations of cell walls of Bacillus polymyxa have been investigated by optical diffraction and optical filtering techniques. Images of single layers of the cell wall, from which the noise has been filtered optically, show hollow, square-shaped morphological units arranged on a square lattice of side 100 Å. Single-layer images showing the same pattern have been filtered from moiré patterns arising from two overlapping single layers. The morphological units are composed of four smaller subunits. The optical diffraction patterns from regions of two overlapping layers show extra reflexions which are attributed to multiple electron scattering. ...
Preferred for the invention is CBMs of Carbohydrate-Binding Module Family 20. CBMs of Carbohydrate-Binding Module Family 20 suitable for the invention may be derived from glucoamylases of Aspergillus awamori (SWISSPROT Q12537), Aspergillus kawachii (SWISSPROT P23176), Aspergillus niger (SWISSPROT P04064), Aspergillus oryzae (SWISSPROT P36914), from alpha-amylases of Aspergillus kawachii (EMBL#AB008370), Aspergillus nidulans (NCBI AAF17100.1), from beta-amylases of Bacillus cereus (SWISSPROT P36924), or from CGTases of Bacillus circulans (SWISSPROT P43379). Preferred is a CBM from the alpha-amyiase of Aspergillus kawachii (EMBL:#AB008370) as well as CBMs having at least 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% or even at least 90% homology to the CBM of the alpha-amyiase of Aspergillus kawachii (EMBL#AB008370), i.e. a CBM having at least 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% or even at least 90% homology to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6. Also preferred for the invention are the CBMs of Carbohydrate-Binding Module Family 20 ...
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The purine analogue, 8-azaguanine, was added to cultures of the parasporal crystal-forming organism Bacillus cereus var. alesti at different times during growth and synchronous sporulation. The effect of its incorporation has been studied with particular reference to cell growth, nucleic acid composition, cytology, and the synthesis of the spore and crystal protein. Additions of the analogue during any stage of growth prevented further cell proliferation and all spore and crystal formation. Since both nucleic acids continued to be formed, cells of an increased size developed, containing large masses of chromatin in the form of condensed balls or axial cords. Lipid-containing inclusions also appeared following these additions and were usually aggregated at the centre or poles of the cells. The analogue could be isolated as the ribonucleotide from both the acid soluble and RNA fractions of these inhibited cells. Additions of the analogue following commencement of sporulation did not prevent either ...
A study was undertaken at the Directorate of Wheat Research experimental station, Karnal, India, to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (30, 60 and 90 kg/ha) a
Two Track Malting began as an idea on how to create added value to what was literally grown in our backyard. After a year of planning and a little bit of crossing our fingers we started producing malt for craft brewers and distillers. Over the years we have grown and are excited to keep growing to supply customers both near us and far.. Two Track Malting sources its grains primarily from two farms in ND.. Stober Farms in Goodrich, ND is a 6th generation family farm and is where Two Track Malting received its first batch of raw grain to turn into malt. Stober Farms continues to grow barley for Two Track Malting and is in the heart of barley country in ND.. Arrow K Farms, located in Belfield, ND grows our Astro White Wheat and Brewski 2 Row Barley. Located near the Badlands in southwestern ND, Arrow K Farms specializes in producing high quality grains and serves as a seed supplier to other farmers in the region.. In between both farms sits the malting facility located in Bismarck/Lincoln, ND. Two ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Lactic acid starter cultures in malting: an application for improvement of malt quality and management of maltings microflora. AU - Laitila, Arja. AU - Autio, Karin. AU - Stenholm, Katharina. AU - Suortti, Tapani. AU - Haikara, Auli. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. M3 - Conference abstract in proceedings. SN - 951-38-4568-0. T3 - VTT Symposium. SP - 235. EP - 235. BT - Biotechnology in the food chain. PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. CY - Espoo. T2 - Biotechnology in the Food Chain. Y2 - 28 January 1998 through 30 January 1998. ER - ...
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Looking for online definition of Bacillus polymyxa in the Medical Dictionary? Bacillus polymyxa explanation free. What is Bacillus polymyxa? Meaning of Bacillus polymyxa medical term. What does Bacillus polymyxa mean?
Summary: The characteristic nutritional patterns were determined for seven species or varieties of the genus Bacillus. Six strains of Bacillus cereus var. anthracis grew in a complex but defined amino acid medium + thiamine. Three strains of the insect pathogen B. cereus var. thuringiensis had the same nutritional pattern as the parent species B. cereus and grew in a seven amino acid medium. Of twenty strains of B. firmus, ten grew on the seven amino acid medium + biotin while the growth of five other strains was markedly affected by the addition of thiamine. Two of the remaining five strains required thiamine on first isolation, but soon dispensed with it on subculture, while the other three strains continued to require thiamine. Six strains of B. lentus grew in the seven amino acid medium + biotin + thiamine + urea. When the seven amino acid medium was replaced by the complex amino acid medium three of these strains of B. lentus grew without the addition of urea, and the remaining three strains
Deo, Namita and Natarajan, KA and Somasundaran, P (2001) Mechanisms of adhesion of Paenibacillus polymyxa onto hematite, corundum and quartz. In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, 62 (1-4). pp. 27-39. Natarajan, KA and Deo, Namita (2001) Role of bacterial interaction and bioreagents in iron ore flotation. In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, 62 (1-4). pp. 143-157. Deo, Namita and Natarajan, KA and Rao, Hanumantha K and Forssberg, KSE (1999) Biodegradation of some organic reagents from mineral process effluents. In: Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Toward the Mining of the 21st Century - Proceedings of the International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium, JUN 20-23, 1999, Madrid, Spain. Deo, Namita and Vasan, SS and Modak, Jayant M and Natarajan, KA (1999) Selective biodissolution of calcium and iron from bauxite in the presence of Bacillus polymyxa. In: Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Toward the Mining of the 21st Century - Proceedings of the International ...
Malting-quality barley must meet strict standards to produce high quality malt. Several organizations work with producers, maltsters, and brewers to ensure these standards are understood and met, as well as researching methods for producing the highest quality product and approving varieties for malting purposes.. American Malting Barley Association, Inc. is a nonprofit trade association of major U.S. malting and brewing companies with the objectives of enhancing the national public sector barley research infrastructure; developing malting barley varieties with improved agronomic and quality characters; helping implement programs to benefit producers and increase production; and representing the malting and brewing industry regarding public and regulatory issues that impact barley. This website provides information on malting barley varieties, barley variety surveys, a variety dictionary, harvesting,drying, and storage, and malting quality.. Master Brewers Association of the Americas. This ...
Prices from £10 - Enquire for a fast quote ★ Good ServiceScore™ 6.8 from 18 votes ★ 1 verified patient review. Visit our Dentist - The Maltings, Commercial Road, Grantham, Lincolnshire, NG31 6DE, UK.
This is the final report for a two-year project conducted between September 1, 2002 and October 31, 2004 by Marta S. Izydorczyk, Grain Research Laboratory.
懸濁気泡塔における気-液接触反応の物質移動抵抗--パラジウム-アルミナ触媒によるα-メチルスチレンの水素化反応〔固体触媒による気-液接触反応に関する研究-6-〕 (1977 ...
The experimental investigation of microorganisms capable of producing hydrogen for subsequent fuel cell use is described. The microorganisms Clostridium welchii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Bacillus polymyxa were screened using various substrates. Rate studies with E. coli on maltose and glucose and Pseudomonas sp. (G4A) on formate and glucose were conducted. The manner in which hydrogen is produced demonstrates the desirability of following the course of reaction continually. Full factorial studies, with three factors at two levels, were conducted with several organism-substrate systems. Along with results obtained from previous factional factorial experiments, further definition of the criteria for maximizing hydrogen production has been established. Scale-up studies with E. coli-glucose show that the factors governing laboratory scale studies are applicable to large volume fermenters. (Author)(*FUEL CELLS
Abstract. Ahil is a new winter malting barley cultivar developed by the method of experimental mutagenesis at the Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat, Bulgaria. Biological and agronomic characteristics of the cultivar were also investigated for several years and at the Executive Agency of Varietal Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control trails in the period 2012 - 2013. Averaged for 6 locations in Bulgaria grain yield of the new cultivar was significantly higher than the yield of standard cultivars with about 5%. At the Institute of Agriculture grain yield was 17% higher than the average standard for the period of 5 years. The cultivar has high winter hardness, lodging resistance, resistance to powdery mildew and medium resistance to brown rust. Ahil has good malting quality
Fertilization programs Malting barley, Malting barley is used for the production of barley malt required in the alcoholic fermentation of beer and whisky. For brewing purposes only malting varieties can be cultivated, which are assessed
Maltings. Circa 1896, now empty apart from a small area on 5th floor used as offices for Mistley Quay Handling Company. For Free, Rodwell and Company Ltd. Iron work by J.R.M. Fitch, Lawford Ironworks. Red brick with gault dressings. Double range, grey slate roofs. Kiln to east with tall pyramidal roof. An imposing building presenting 8 storeys to the quayside and 5 storeys to High Street. The Kiln of 5 storeys with roof to full height of the Maltings. The lower storeys act as a buttress to the High Street and are 25 feet wide, the 5 upper storeys 56 feet wide. Kiln of 3 bays, Maltings of.17 bays with pilasters between, 4 dentilled and moulded bands and parapet band; gable ends similar of 2:2 bays with central pilasters extending to gable apices, cornices to apices. Originally with segmental headed louvred 3 light ventilator openings to each bay and storey, 4 C20 windows have been inserted to 5th storey of High Street and Mistley Quay faces, also some loading doors. 3.bays break foward to both ...
It would seem obvious that feed related factors would be most important when you set out to increase feed efficiency. Nutritionists and consultants draw our attention to forage digestibility, feed particle size, protein levels, fat levels, starch levels and certain feed additives that can affect feed efficiency. This is what they know. This is what we can control.. However, there are factors beyond feed that we can look at such as environmental factors and our own management inputs. Some environmental factors can be more difficult to control than others. It is difficult to be 100% in charge of the effects of heat stress, average days in milk, lactation number, acidosis and heat stress. Each one of these will affect feed conversion. But there are other environmental and management factors that we can target in our effort to improve feed conversion.. ...
Castle Malting - Високоякісний солод для високоякісного пива. Cолодівня знаходиться у м. Бельой, що у Бельгії.
Kang-ho) son gets a tutoring job at a lavish home, the Kim family attempt to take over the Park familys affluent lifestyle.. Korean with English subtitles.. Running time: 132 minutes. Age rating: 15. You can pre-order a delicious homemade curry for just £9 in the Riverside Café ahead of the Wednesday evening film screening.. Pre-show dining served from 90 mins to 30 mins prior to show start.. ...
M. Mohammadi, Blake, T. K., Budde, A. D., Chao, S., Hayes, P. M., Horsley, R. D., Obert, D. E., Ullrich, S. E., and Smith, K. P., A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs, Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 128, no. 4, pp. 705 - 721, 2015. ...
Canada Malting - Salary - Get a free salary comparison based on job title, skills, experience and education. Accurate, reliable salary and compensation comparisons for Canada
A well balanced pale ale malt. Bright aroma of multigrain crackers and hay. Mildly sweet flavor of toast with honey.   Gallagher's Best...
East Kent Goldings is gentle, fragrant, and pleasant. Recognized as having the most typical English aroma with the best flavor historically coming from ...
28 November 1997 SPRING CEREALSA POTENTIALLY more reliable malting barley for the north and two strong oat challengers make up the trio of names joining
Free and open company data on United Kingdom company A&G CONSULTING LIMITED (company number 05123711), THE MALTINGS 12 OATHILL RISE, BURTON LATMER, KETTERING, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE, NN15 5YP
Abstract: A factorial design experiment was conducted on field to investigate the effects of inoculation with AM fungi (Glomus mosseae), phosphate solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus polymyxa) and soil yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on growth, phosphorus content and yield of onion plants in calcareous soil under different levels of phosphorus fertilization (P1: 50, P2: 100 and P3: 200 kg ha-1). Results showed that inoculation with G. mosseae or B. polymyxa significantly (p = 0.05) increased plant height, shoot fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights, average bulb diameter and total yield. The highest total yield and average bulb diameter were obtained from the inoculation treatment of AM fungus G. mosseae, recording 14.4 and 40.8% increases, respectively over the uninoculated control. Also, inoculation with AM fungus (G. mosseae) had a significant increase in all mineral content in onion plant compared with uninoculated control or other biofertilizers inoculation treatments ...
The variation of growth and cold tolerance of two natural Arabidopsis accessions, Cvi (cold sensitive) and Rschew (cold tolerant), was analysed on a proteomic, phosphoproteomic and metabolomic level to derive characteristic information about genotypically distinct strategies of metabolic reprogramming and growth maintenance during cold acclimation. Growth regulation before and after a cold acclimation period was monitored by recording fresh weight of leaf rosettes. Significant differences in the shoot fresh weight of Cvi and Rschew were detected both before and after acclimation to low temperature. During cold acclimation, starch levels were found to accumulate to a significantly higher level in Cvi compared to Rschew. Concomitantly, statistical analysis revealed a cold-induced decrease of beta-amylase 3 (BAM3; AT4G17090) in Cvi but not in Rschew. Further, only in Rschew we observed an increase of the protein level of the debranching enzyme isoamylase 3 (ISA3; AT4G09020). Additionally, the cold response
alpha-Cyclodextrin (α-dextrin, α-cyclodextrin, α-CD, alphadextrin, alpha cyclodextrin (dietary fiber)) is a polysaccharide of six glucose units that are covalently attached end to end via α-1, 4 linkages. This fiber is sold under the brand names, Alpha-Fibe and Calorease. Alpha-Fibe is the original product that contains this unique fiber, introduced to the worldwide nutritional supplement market by Bio-Form Essentials in 2007. Soho Flordis International became the patent Assignee as of March 30, 2012 and launched the brand Calorease in 2013. FBCx is not an ingredient, only an abbreviation, and is not part of the scientific name. The abbreviation FBCx, stands for Fat Binding Complexer and can be associated with the brand names, Alpha-Fibe and Calorease. There are two other naturally occurring cyclodextrins, β (beta) - and γ (gamma) -, which contain seven and eight glucose units respectively. In water, these fibers take on a toroid or truncated cone configuration. In aqueous ...
Just one week after the company revealed H1 losses of A$10m after tax and exceptional charges, Joe White Maltings Limited has expressed its concern to become a single track operation, concentrating on its malt activities and divesting its struggling food business. The company did make A$355,000 in pre-tax net profits, but the managing director, Ian Fraser, explained that the earnings produced by the core malting business had been negatively offset by the troubled food division, which necessitated a A$9.04m write off. This meant that the food business would be split into three as the first step of a divestment plan.In a public statement, it was announced that the peanut operation at Kingarot, Joe Whites most saleable business, is to be sold to the Peanut Company of Australia (PCA) pending approval from the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Renshaw Foods, another part of Joe White Maltings Limited Food Product Division, has also been sold to Select Harvests Limited. A signed agreement
The capabilities of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds (caryopses) to degrade starchy reserves present in the endosperm tissue were compared under anaerobic conditions. The results showed that rice, a species highly tolerant to anoxia, can readily break down starch under a …
Stay British! The Maltings self catering holiday cottage in Freshwater, Isle of Wight, sleeping 6 people, from £318 per week. Part of the Britain Express travel guide to Isle of Wight.
Date: Fri, 28 Nov 1997 12:27:41 -0500 From: David R. Burley ,Dave_Burley at compuserve.com, Subject: Home malting, cidery beer Brewsters: Keith Manefy says: ,Is the drying phase of malting barley absolutely necessary? Would it be= ,possible to germinate the barley to the required stage and then go ,straight to the brewery for mashing. = It is possible Keith, but then you would be using green malt and get a different result than with cured malt. The old time Dutch and Flemish Brewers used to ( and some may still for historical reasons) dry their malt at room temperature in lofts and call it wind malt. If it is dried quickly, I suspect it will have a very high enzyme content, especially beta amylase and the glucanases and proteases. Check out the HBD archives. Malting and Brewing Science says: Perhaps in the future there will be a market for pale malts that are only hand dry, i.e. contain perhaps 5-8% moisture. = Such materials would be much easier to use than green malt while retaining ...
Saflager S-189 is used by a large number of commercial breweries. Selected for its fairly neutral flavor development, this yeast is recommended for a wi...
ABSTRACT: Nowadays, very large malt batches are processed, which frequently leads to heterogeneities within the grain beds. As a result beta-glucanase activities, among others, vary within the batches, thus high beta-glucan concentrations remain unhydrolyzed in parts of the batches and can lead to lautering and filtration problems during the brewing process. The kernels enzyme activities mainly depend on their physiological status. Accordingly, the metabolic status of the seeds corresponds to a reliable marker for detecting heterogeneities in the grain beds and for predicting potential processing problems. Up to now, the Calcofluor method according to Carlsberg has been the only standardized method to determine the kernels homogeneity; however, its results are not very precise. In this study, malting trials under differing conditions were carried out to assess if gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) can be used as a reliable marker for determining the physiological status of the kernels. Malting ...
A chain superstructure is formed (bundles of needles) is formed during rapid co-precipitation of alpha-cyclodextrin (cyclic starch w/ glucose) and KAuBr4 in ...
Modules of approx. 100 residues. The granular starch-binding function has been demonstrated in one case. Sometimes designated as starch-binding domains (SBD ...
The granular starch-binding function has been demonstrated in several cases. Interact strongly with cyclodextrins. Often designated as starch-binding domains (SBD ...
The Sundance Kid (Robert Redford) is the frontiers fastest gun. His sidekick, Butch Cassidy (Paul Newman), is always dreaming up new ways to get rich fast. If only they could blow open a baggage car without also blowing up the money-filled safe inside... Or remember that Sundance cant swim before they escape a posse by leaping off a cliff into rushing rapids ...
Malting is the process of converting barley or other cereal grains into malt for use in brewing, distilling, or in foods and takes place in a maltings, sometimes called a malthouse, or a malting floor. The cereal is spread out on the malting floor in a layer of 8 to 12 cm (3 to 4.5 in) depth.[12] The malting process starts with drying the grains to a moisture content below 14% and then storing for around six weeks to overcome seed dormancy. When ready, the grain is immersed or steeped in water two or three times for two or three days to allow the grain to absorb moisture and to start to sprout. When the grain has a moisture content of around 46%, it is transferred to the malting or germination floor, where it is constantly turned over for about four to six days while it is air-dried[13]. The grain at this point is called green malt. The green malt is then dried and pre-toasted in an oven (or kiln) to the desired color and specification.[14] Malts range in color from very pale through crystal ...
malt sugars in their product. As more Ohio-based craft brewers seek to procure hops grown locally, ... started growing both hops and malting barley. Workshop topics will include: Planning to make your hop farm ... selection, preparation, and fertility Drying, cleaning, and packaging barley for the malting market Malting .... ...
As we known, the sweet potato is highly rich in nutrition. Experts claimed that it is not good to eat baked sweet potato together with the skins, because the
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Mon Oct 26 17:06:03 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Processing bam: Results_RSN_01926694/kayrotypic.bam [Mon Oct 26 17:06:10 2015 bam2cfg.pl] $recordcounter , $expected_max: 30001 , 30000 [Mon Oct 26 17:06:10 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Closing BAM file [Mon Oct 26 17:06:10 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Send TERM signal for 28546 [Mon Oct 26 17:06:12 2015 bam2cfg.pl] samtools pid process 28546 is still there... [Mon Oct 26 17:06:12 2015 bam2cfg.pl] invoking kill -9 on 28546 ... [Mon Oct 26 17:06:12 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Closing samtools process : 28546 [Mon Oct 26 17:06:13 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Processing bam: Results_RSN_01926692/kayrotypic.bam [Mon Oct 26 17:06:21 2015 bam2cfg.pl] $recordcounter , $expected_max: 30001 , 30000 [Mon Oct 26 17:06:21 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Closing BAM file [Mon Oct 26 17:06:21 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Send TERM signal for 28563 [Mon Oct 26 17:06:23 2015 bam2cfg.pl] samtools pid process 28563 is still there... [Mon Oct 26 17:06:23 2015 bam2cfg.pl] invoking kill -9 on 28563 ... [Mon Oct 26 17:06:23 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Closing ...
Yesterday I returned to Farnham Maltings for their monthly market. You might recall from a previous post that I went to the June one. Given the slight confusion that buying earrings in guy mode caused a seller last time, I…. Read More→. ...
Dinner got an upgrade with Zemas Panfried Sweet Potato Pancakes, delicious and nutritious, a perfect addition to an family night....
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... they are connected via an alpha 1-4 linkage instead of beta. Starches, particularly amylase, are important in many industries, ... There are also conformations that consist of a mix of alpha helices and beta sheets as well as a beta helixes with an alpha ... Beta is a protein that binds to single stranded DNA and assists homologous recombination by promoting annealing between the ... Cellulose is a polysaccharide made up of beta 1-4 linkages between repeat glucose monomers. It is the most abundant source of ...
Glucose Amylase/lipase Urine culture Urinalysis Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) Cervical cultures are recommended ...
... beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, beta-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, gamma-cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, ... They are bacterial enzymes belonging to the same family of the α-amylase specifically known as glycosyl-hydrolase family 13. ... Co-substrate specificity in coupling reactions of Macerans amylase". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76 (9): 2387-2390. doi:10.1021/ ... DePinto JA, Campbell LL (1968). "Purification and properties of the amylase of Bacillus macerans". Biochemistry. 7 (1): 114-20 ...
Malt made from barley is used as a source of β-amylase to break down starch into the disaccharide maltose, which can be used by ... Cellulose is first hydrolyzed to cellobiose by cellulase and then cellobiose is further hydrolyzed to glucose by beta- ... Other amylase enzymes may convert starch to glucose or to oligosaccharides. ...
Salivary amylase: Carbohydrate digestion also initiates in the mouth. Amylase, produced by the salivary glands, breaks complex ... Humans lack the cellulases to digest the carbohydrate cellulose which is a beta-linked glucose polymer. Some of the preceding ... Amylases split carbohydrates such as starch and sugars into simple sugars such as glucose. Nucleases split nucleic acids into ... Sterol esterase Phospholipase Several nucleases that degrade nucleic acids, like DNAase and RNAase Pancreatic amylase that ...
Detergents, e.g. proteases, amylases and lipases for removal of protein, carbohydrate and fat stains. Waste water treatment, e. ... Delivery of proteins as therapeutic agents or nutritional/digestive supplements e.g. beta-galactosidase for digestive ... Crosslinked penicillin acylase aggregates for synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics in organic medium; Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol ...
August 2015). "Structural forms of the human amylase locus and their relationships to SNPs, haplotypes and obesity". Nature ... December 2010). "Measurement methods and accuracy in copy number variation: failure to replicate associations of beta-defensin ...
Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin are all generally recognized as safe by the U.S. FDA. They have been applied for delivery ... First starch is liquified either by heat treatment or using α-amylase, then CGTase is added for the enzymatic conversion. ... GRN 000074, beta-cyclodextrin;GRAS Notice No. GRN 000046, gamma-cyclodextrin Uekama, Kaneto; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Irie, Tetsumi ... Wacker Chemie AG uses dedicated enzymes, that can produce alpha-, beta- or gamma-cyclodextrin specifically. This is very ...
... beta alethine - beta carotene - beta hemolytic streptococcus group B - beta-endorphin - beta-glucan - beta-human chorionic ... amylase - amyloidosis - anagrelide - anakinra - anaphylactic shock - anaplastic - anaplastic large cell lymphoma - anaplastic ... epoetin beta - epothilone - epothilone B - epothilone D - epratuzumab - Epstein-Barr virus - EPT - ER - ER+ - ER- - ERA-923 - ... Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta - methyl-5-aminolevulinate - methylphenidate - methylprednisolone - metoclopramide - ...
Penicillin and related beta lactams work by inhibiting DD-transpeptidase enzyme that is required by bacteria to cross link ... Examples of enzymes identified to date include amylases, pullulanases, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferases, cellulases, xylanases ...
Reasons for false positive elevated serum amylase include salivary gland disease (elevated salivary amylase), bowel obstruction ... from pancreatic insulin-producing beta cell damage), malabsorption due to exocrine failure Metabolic Hypocalcemia, ... Serum amylase may be normal (in 10% of cases) for cases of acute or chronic pancreatitis (depleted acinar cell mass) and ... Lin XZ, Wang SS, Tsai YT, Lee SD, Shiesh SC, Pan HB, Su CH, Lin CY (February 1989). "Serum amylase, isoamylase, and lipase in ...
Some novel proteins that have been discovered from marine environments include enzymes such as proteases, amylases, lipases, ... such as the identification of novel antibiotics by screening for beta-lactamase activity or selecting for growth in the ...
It has been engineered with three genes that biosynthesise beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, in the edible parts of rice ... Food products from genetically modified bacteria include alpha-amylase, which converts starch to simple sugars, chymosin, which ... Costantini F, Lacy E (November 1981). "Introduction of a rabbit beta-globin gene into the mouse germ line". Nature. 294 (5836 ... Jefferson RA, Kavanagh TA, Bevan MW (December 1987). "GUS fusions: beta-glucuronidase as a sensitive and versatile gene fusion ...
... they are connected via an alpha 1-4 linkage instead of beta. Starches, particularly amylase, are important in many industries, ... There are also conformations that consist of a mix of alpha helices and beta sheets as well as a beta helixes with an alpha ... Beta is a protein that binds to single stranded DNA and assists homologous recombination by promoting annealing between the ... Cellulose is a polysaccharide made up of beta 1-4 linkages between repeat glucose monomers. It is the most abundant source of ...
Glucose Amylase/lipase Urine culture Urinalysis Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) Cervical cultures are recommended ...
In the presence of beta- amylase, alpha-amylase converts soluble starch to the sugar maltose.,/p, ,p,Instruments required.,/p ... Alpha Amylase disc 4/29, 2x DB424 13.5mm Cells.,/p, ... In the presence of beta- amylase, alpha-amylase converts ... Alpha Amylase Malt Add to quotation cart The American Society of Brewing Chemists ( ASBC) procedure for determining alpha- ...
Amylase 7500 DU *. Beta-glucanase 22 BGU *. Cellulase 1200 CU *. Glucoamylase 20 AGU * ...
beta-amylase activity. IEP. Neighborhood. BP. GO:0016255. attachment of GPI anchor to protein. IEP. Neighborhood. ... 1-,3)-beta-D-glucan metabolic process. None. Extended. BP. GO:0006075. (1-,3)-beta-D-glucan biosynthetic process. IEA. ...
Alpha-Amylase works best from 149º to 158º, while Beta-Amylase works best in the 124º to 144º range. And Beta-Amylase prefers a ... Both Alpha-Amylase and Beta-Amylase are required to convert the long starch molecules into fermentable sugars. Alpha-Amylase ... Beta-Amylase completes the process, turning the shorter chains into maltose. Unfortunately, each enzyme works best at different ... These enzymes are called Alpha and Beta Amylase. The reserve of these enzymes within a grain is called its "diastatic power", ...
Enzymes: papain, cellulase, amylase, protease, xylanase, beta gluconase, lipase, phytase 50 mg ...
HCA also inhibits intestinal alphaglucosidase activity and pancreatic beta amylase, which slow down carbohydrate metabolism. ...
Alpha amylase and beta amylase each produce somewhat different results and each has its ideal temperature range in which it ... The most important enzymes are the starch conversion enzymes, and chief among them are alpha amylase and beta amylase. These ...
Main ingredients: hydrolyzed whey isolates, micronized amino acids BCAA, a mixture of food enzymes (Aminogen, amylase, ... maltodextrin, protease, beta-D-galactosidase, cellulase, lipase).. Proteins included in Platinum Hydrowhey, 100% gidrolizuacy, ... Amylase, Protease, Cellulase, Lactase, Lipase). Contains milk and soy.. ...
Starch hydrolyzation to facilitate digestion (instead of cooking - causes high viscosity)with alpha and beta-amylase enzymes, ... with alpha-amylase. Amylase enzymes are used for hydrolyzation of starches to maltodextrins used in infant formulas, ...
However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF- ...
The researchers recommended that this could be as a result of the inhibition of pancreatic alpha-amylase by these tannin ... which raises insulin secretion as well as activity by beta cells in the pancreatic. ... substances (alpha-amylase is required for carbohydrate digestion). Banaba likewise includes corosolic acid, ...
PhytoENZ Proprietary Blend (Amylase, Protease SP, Diastase, Lactase, Glucoamylase, Alpha-Galactosidase, Beta-Glucanase, Acide ...
Beta Glucanase. 90 BGU. Amylase Thera-blend. 3,000 DU. Maltase. 100 DP. ... Vitamin A as 100% Beta Carotene from Daucus sativus, carrot concentrate. 5,000 IU. 100%. ...
The scientists suggested that this may be because of the restraint of pancreatic alpha-amylase by these tannin substances ( ... which enhances insulin secretion and also activity by beta cells in the pancreatic. ... alpha-amylase is required for carbohydrate food digestion). Banaba likewise contains corosolic acid, ...
... beta-amylase activity and thermostability vs. Bmy1 allelic variation in North American barley", Crop Science, 2010. ...
Beta-Glucanase 60 BGU. Protease AM 10 LAPU. Lipase 500 FIP. Protease 6.0 3,000 HUT. Alpha galactosidase 100 GalU. Xylanase 200 ... Amylase 300 DU. Invertase 250 SU. Hemicellulase 100 HU. Other Ingredients: Vegetable Cellulose, Purified Water, Rice Extract ...
f. by in vitro and in vivo Studies.(Report) by Pakistan Journal of Zoology; Zoology and wildlife conservation Amylases ... Alpha-amylase inhibitor forms [alpha]-amylase enzyme-inhibitor complex by binding with [alpha]-amylase. So it inhibits the ... Pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in Japanese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and newly diagnosed ... amylase in starch loaded rats.. The results ensured mechanism of the plant as [alpha]-amylase inhibitor which results in ...
Enzymes for Digestion with Lactase Lipase Amylase Bromelain and 15 more! One of the Best Digestive... Check on Amazon ... and Beta-Glucanase in VEGETARIAN CAPSULES] ... Enzymes for Digestion with Lactase Lipase Amylase Bromelain and ... Digestive Enzymes - Enzyme Supplements for Digestion with Lipase Amylase Bromelain Protease and... Check on Amazon ... Contains Amylase, Glucoamylase, Lipase, Lactase, Protease, Cellulase, Pectinase, Maltase, Invertase, Bromelain, Papain (from ...
... beta-Glucanase, Papain, Cellulase, Xylanase, Diastase, Invertase 50 mg + Eastern European RAW Fruit & Veggie Blend Red Bell ... Colon Transit Support Enzyme Blend Amylase, Proteases, Lactase, Glucoamylase, alpha-Galactosidase, Lipase, Pectinase, Peptidase ...
Beta-Glucanase * Xylanase * Protease * Amylase * Pectinase * Lipase * Chitinase (*produced in an interaction between the active ...
amylase 24,000 DU. protease 60,000 HUT. protease 6.0 20,000 HUT. glucoamylase 30 AGU. lactase 1,600 ALU. lipase 3,000 FIP. beta ...
Figure 4: qualitative beta amylase activity for different mash temperatures [TU Vienna] ... In mashing α- and β-amylase work in concert: α-amylase creates substrate (i.e. non-reducing ends) for β-amylase. The process of ... In mashing α- and β-amylase work in concert: α-amylase creates substrate (i.e. non-reducing ends) for β-amylase. The process of ... In mashing α- and β-amylase work in concert: α-amylase creates substrate (i.e. non-reducing ends) for β-amylase. The process of ...
Weve also added the digestive enzymes amylase and lipase, as well as super-popular plant extracts to help you feel invigorated ... Beta Carotene 20%, Niacin, Inositol DC 95%, Lipase, Bromelian Extract (Ananas comosus L.), Papain Powder, Sodium Slelenite, ... Vitamin D2, Grapeseed Extract (Vitis vinifera), Co Enzyme Q10, Amylase, Copper Sulphate, Lutein (Tagetes erecta L.), Chromium ...
Amylase (Derived from Aspergillus oryzae) 76 mg *. Protease (Aspergillus niger) 20 mg *. *Daily Value (DV) not established. ... Vitamin A (50% as beta carotene and as retinyl acetate) 7000 IU 140%**. Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid) 750 mg 1250%**. Vitamin D ... Other Ingredients: Sorbitol, dicalcium phosphate, beet root (Beta vulgaris), glyceryl monostearate, natural mint flavor, ...
Amylase assists with carbohydrate digestion. Lipase assists with fat digestion (3). *Vitafibre is a premium ... beta-carotene, and lutein. It may assist with the bodys elimination of toxins, primarily through binding with heavy metals (2 ... The mix consists of Protease, Amylase, Lipase, Cellulase, and Lactase. Each enzyme is designed to digest specific molecules. ...
Sucrase (beta-fructofuranosidase) (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). 4 mg (40 FCC INVU). Hemicellulase (Trichoderma reesei). 20 mg ( ... Amylase breaks down amylose, a form of starch in carbohydrates and sugars, and is a replacement for pancreatic enzymes. ... Lactase (beta-galactosidase) (Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae). 11 mg (580 FCC ALU). ...
Beta-carotene has approximately a 25% oral limit; the more one takes orally, the less is absorbed. Only 25% of oral Vitamin C ... 2. Deficiencies of stomach acid (hydrochloric acid and pepsin) and pancreatic enzymes (amylases, lipases, proteases) may ...
Beta-Glucanase converts specific cell walls in wheat and barley to simple sugars ... Alpha Amylase converts starch to simple sugars. *Cellulase converts cell wall fibers to simple sugars ...
  • We've also added the digestive enzymes amylase and lipase, as well as super-popular plant extracts to help you feel invigorated and full of energy 7 - important whatever your fitness ambitions. (com.bd)
  • Digestive Enzymes Ultra from Pure Encapsulations contains 391 mg of the proprietary enzyme blend, comprising 13 digestive enzymes like protease, lipase, and amylase. (theislandnow.com)
  • Microbial enzymes Protease, Amylase, and Lipase may support normal nutrient absorption. (naturesalternatives.com)
  • In short: There are digestive enzymes available as supplements (amylase, cellulase, alpha-glycosidase) that can help digest starch and certain types of fiber in wheat. (stackexchange.com)
  • Fungal lactase enzyme powder concentrate.Also known as beta-galactosidase enzyme. (aumgene.com)
  • The most important enzymes are the starch conversion enzymes, and chief among them are alpha amylase and beta amylase . (thebrewedpalate.com)
  • Amylase breaks down amylose, a form of starch in carbohydrates and sugars, and is a replacement for pancreatic enzymes. (fiddleheadshealth.ca)
  • 2. Deficiencies of stomach acid (hydrochloric acid and pepsin) and pancreatic enzymes (amylases, lipases, proteases) may inhibit the absorption of a variety of nutrients. (drlentine.com)
  • The pancreas spontaneously produces these digestive enzymes amylases for carbohydrates, lipases for fats, and proteins. (theislandnow.com)
  • In the presence of beta- amylase, alpha-amylase converts soluble starch to the sugar maltose. (lovibond.com)
  • The process includes starch hydrolyzation to facilitate digestion (instead of cooking - causes high viscosity) with alpha-amylase. (elsenutrition.com)
  • Chloroform fraction may inhibit hydrolyzing of starch via pancreatic [alpha]-amylase. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • α-amylase is an enzyme that can cleave any α(1-4) bond in starch and dextrines except for the ones close to the branch points. (braukaiser.com)
  • While α-amylase is very good at breaking down starch into smaller dextrines, which quickly reduces the iodine reaction from a black-blue to a more reddisch brown color, it is not very good at producing fermentable sugars. (braukaiser.com)
  • Bacterial alpha-amylase that allows optimal starch hydrolysis. (libsa.net)
  • Fungal alpha-amylase for the hydrolysis of previously gelatinized starch giving rise to dextrins. (libsa.net)
  • Enzymatic preparation of fungal beta-glucanase for the hydrolysis of non-starch polysaccharides. (libsa.net)
  • Enzymatic preparation of fungal xylanase for the hydrolysis of xylan and arabinoxylans and other non-starch polysaccharides such as cellulose and beta-glucans. (libsa.net)
  • The researchers recommended that this could be as a result of the inhibition of pancreatic alpha-amylase by these tannin substances (alpha-amylase is required for carbohydrate digestion). (cosmosatellite.com)
  • Banaba likewise includes corosolic acid, which raises insulin secretion as well as activity by beta cells in the pancreatic. (cosmosatellite.com)
  • The scientists suggested that this may be because of the restraint of pancreatic alpha-amylase by these tannin substances (alpha-amylase is required for carbohydrate food digestion). (4nutritionalsupplements.com)
  • Banaba likewise contains corosolic acid, which enhances insulin secretion and also activity by beta cells in the pancreatic. (4nutritionalsupplements.com)
  • 2012). It is caused by the inhibition of insulin secretion by the pancreatic [beta]-cells and/or due to the defects in the action of insulin. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • As it enters the small intestine, the pancreas releases pancreatic juice, which contains an enzyme called pancreatic amylase. (raginichaudhari.com)
  • However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. (genx-digital.com)
  • Ecologically salient stressors and supports and the coordination of cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase in mothers and infants. (salimetrics.com)
  • ABSTRACT: This study examines the integration of the two main branches of the stress response system: the autonomic nervous system (via salivary alpha-amylase, sAA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (via cortisol). (salimetrics.com)
  • Salivary $\alpha$-Amylase of Stem Borer Hosts Determines Host Recognition and Acceptance for Oviposition by Cotesia spp. (ac.ke)
  • In addition to beta-glucanase activity, it shows activity against cellulose and arabinoxylans. (libsa.net)
  • Chlorella is a single-celled, nutrient-dense, freshwater algae that are a potent source of antioxidants such as chlorophyll, beta-carotene, and lutein. (ergogenic.health)
  • If most of the protein contains intermolecular hydrogen bonds it is said to be fibrillar, and the majority of its secondary structure will be beta sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results from the low affinity that α-amylase has towards smaller glucose chains. (braukaiser.com)
  • Fungal cellulose for the hydrolysis of celluloses and other non-starchy polysaccharides such as beta-glucans and xylan. (libsa.net)
  • There are also conformations that consist of a mix of alpha helices and beta sheets as well as a beta helixes with an alpha sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha Amylase disc 4/29, 2x DB424 13.5mm Cells. (lovibond.com)
  • Alpha amylase and beta amylase each produce somewhat different results and each has its ideal temperature range in which it works best. (thebrewedpalate.com)
  • No study has been conducted so for to determine [alpha]-amylase inhibition for the evaluation of hypoglycemic potential of the plant. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Hypoglycemic potential was investigated by [alpha]-amylase inhibitory assay. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Different concentrations of fractions (20-100 ug/ml) were subjected to in vitro [alpha]-amylase inhibitory assay. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Assessment of anti-hyperglycemic potential of the most active chloroform fraction exhibiting in vitro [alpha]-amylase inhibition was carried out in Wistar albino rat models. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In vitro results showed that chloroform fraction at concentration of 100 ug/ml showed maximum [alpha]-amylase inhibition (53.11 +- 0.97% with IC50 value of 93.61 +- 4.44 ug/ml) followed by ethyl acetate, n-hexane and n-butanol fractions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The reference standard acarbose (100 ug/ml) showed [alpha]-amylase inhibition (68.91 +- 3.09% with IC50 value of 52.99 +- 4.88 ug/ml). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Alkaline alpha-amylase enzyme powder concentrate for Detergents. (aumgene.com)
  • The alpha side chain undergoes beta oxidation and the beta side chain undergoes omega oxidation followed by reduction of the ketone to give prostaglandin F analogs. (nih.gov)
  • Digestive Enzymes Ultra from Pure Encapsulations contains 391 mg of the proprietary enzyme blend, comprising 13 digestive enzymes like protease, lipase, and amylase. (theislandnow.com)
  • Microbial enzymes Protease, Amylase, and Lipase may support normal nutrient absorption. (naturesalternatives.com)
  • Enzymatic preparation of fungal xylanase for the hydrolysis of xylan and arabinoxylans and other non-starch polysaccharides such as cellulose and beta-glucans. (libsa.net)