A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
The fluid containing digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to food in the duodenum.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.
The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
A condition with abnormally elevated level of AMYLASES in the serum. Hyperamylasemia due to PANCREATITIS or other causes may be differentiated by identifying the amylase isoenzymes.
The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into PANCREATIC JUICE.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Crystal structure of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides at 2.2 A resolution. (1/94)

The crystal structure of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides was determined by the multiple isomorphous replacement method. The structure was refined to a final R-factor of 0.186 for 102,807 independent reflections with F/sigma(F) > or = 2.0 at 2.2 A resolution with root-mean-square deviations from ideality in bond lengths, and bond angles of 0.014 A and 3.00 degrees, respectively. The asymmetric unit comprises four molecules exhibiting a dimer-of-dimers structure. The enzyme, however, acts as a monomer in solution. The beta-amylase molecule folds into three domains; the first one is the N-terminal catalytic domain with a (beta/alpha)8 barrel, the second one is the excursion part from the first one, and the third one is the C-terminal domain with two almost anti-parallel beta-sheets. The active site cleft, including two putative catalytic residues (Glu172 and Glu367), is located on the carboxyl side of the central beta-sheet in the (beta/alpha)8 barrel, as in most amylases. The active site structure of the enzyme resembles that of soybean beta-amylase with slight differences. One calcium ion is bound per molecule far from the active site. The C-terminal domain has a fold similar to the raw starch binding domains of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase and glucoamylase.  (+info)

The evolution of starch-binding domain. (2/94)

Amylolytic enzymes belonging to three distinct families of glycosidases (13, 14, 15) contain the starch-binding domain (SBD) positioned almost exclusively at the C-terminus. Detailed analysis of all available SBD sequences from 43 different amylases revealed its independent evolutionary behaviour with regard to the catalytic domains. In the evolutionary tree based on sequence alignment of the SBDs, taxonomy is respected so that fungi and actinomycetes form their own separate parts surrounded by bacteria that are also clustered according to taxonomy. The only known N-terminal SBD from Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase is on the longest branch separated from all C-terminal SBDs. The 3-dimensional (3-D) structures of fungal glucoamylase and bacterial CGTase SBDs are compared and used to discuss the interesting SBD evolution.  (+info)

Prediction of protein cleavage sites by the barley cysteine endoproteases EP-A and EP-B based on the kinetics of synthetic peptide hydrolysis. (3/94)

Hordeins, the natural substrates of barley (Hordeum vulgare) cysteine endoproteases (EPs), were isolated as protein bodies and degraded by purified EP-B from green barley malt. Cleavage specificity was determined by synthesizing internally quenched, fluorogenic tetrapeptide substrates of the general formula 2-aminobenzoyl-P(2)-P(1)-P(1)'-P(2)' 1-tyrosine(NO(2))-aspartate. The barley EPs preferred neutral amino acids with large aliphatic and nonpolar (leucine, valine, isoleucine, and methionine) or aromatic (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) side chains at P(2), and showed less specificity at P(1), although asparagine, aspartate, valine, and isoleucine were particularly unfavorable. Peptides with proline at P(1) or P(1)' were extremely poor substrates. Cleavage sites with EP-A and EP-B preferred substrate sequences are found in hordeins, their natural substrates. The substrate specificity of EP-B with synthetic peptides was used successfully to predict the cleavage sites in the C-terminal extension of barley beta-amylase. When all of the primary cleavage sites in C hordein, which occur mainly in the N- and C-terminal domains, were removed by site-directed mutagenesis, the resulting protein was degraded 112 times more slowly than wild-type C hordein. We suggest that removal of the C hordein terminal domains is necessary for unfolding of the beta-reverse turn helix of the central repeat domain, which then becomes more susceptible to proteolytic attack by EP-B.  (+info)

Water stress enhances beta-amylase activity in cucumber cotyledons. (4/94)

Cotyledons detached from 4-d-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were subjected to water stress (air-drying or PEG-treatment) to examine the effects of the stress on carbohydrate metabolism. Amylolytic activity in the cotyledon was increased about 6-fold by water stress within 1 d. The substrate specificity and the action pattern indicated that beta-amylase is responsible for the activity. Activities of azocaseinase, malate dehydrogenase and triose-phosphate isomerase were not affected by water stress, indicating that the effect of the stress on beta-amylase is rather specific. Cycloheximide-treatment strongly reduced the enhancement of beta-amylase activity. The hypocotyl of cucumber seedlings also exhibited an increase in the enzyme activity when subjected to water stress. The major free sugars in cucumber cotyledons were glucose, fructose, maltose, and sucrose; sucrose being the most abundant. Sucrose content in excised, unstressed cotyledons increased markedly during the incubation. Changes in other free sugars were small compared with that of sucrose. Starch also accumulated in unstressed cotyledons. In stressed cotyledons more sucrose and less starch accumulated than in unstressed ones. Such results were discussed in relation to the enhancement of beta-amylase activity.  (+info)

Polymorphism in rice amylases at an early stage of seed germination. (5/94)

A polymorphism in rice amylases at an early stage of seed germination is analyzed by zymogram. In non-glutinous cultivars of rice, alpha-amylase isozymes are mainly confirmed in germinating seeds. However, in glutinous cultivars, beta-amylase isozymes, which are not confirmed in nonglutinous cultivars, make up the major part of the total amylase activity and the expression of alpha-amylases are repressed.  (+info)

Molecular mimicry of substrate oxygen atoms by water molecules in the beta-amylase active site. (6/94)

Soybean beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) has been crystallized both free and complexed with a variety of ligands. Four water molecules in the free-enzyme catalytic cleft form a multihydrogen-bond network with eight strategic residues involved in enzyme-ligand hydrogen bonds. We show here that the positions of these four water molecules are coincident with the positions of four potential oxygen atoms of the ligands within the complex. Some of these waters are displaced from the active site when the ligands bind to the enzyme. How many are displaced depends on the shape of the ligand. This means that when one of the four positions is not occupied by a ligand oxygen atom, the corresponding water remains. We studied the functional/structural role of these four waters and conclude that their presence means that the conformation of the eight side chains is fixed in all situations (free or complexed enzyme) and preserved from unwanted or forbidden conformational changes that could hamper the catalytic mechanism. The water structure at the active pocket of beta-amylase is therefore essential for providing the ligand recognition process with plasticity. It does not affect the protein active-site geometry and preserves the overall hydrogen-bonding network, irrespective of which ligand is bound to the enzyme. We also investigated whether other enzymes showed a similar role for water. Finally, we discuss the potential use of these results for predicting whether water molecules can mimic ligand atoms in the active center.  (+info)

Activities of starch hydrolytic enzymes and sucrose-phosphate synthase in the stems of rice subjected to water stress during grain filling. (7/94)

To understand the effect of water stress on the remobilization of prestored carbon reserves, the changes in the activities of starch hydrolytic enzymes and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) in the stems of rice (Oryza sativa L.) during grain filling were investigated. Two rice cultivars, showing high lodging-resistance and slow remobilization, were grown in the field and subjected to well-watered (WW, psi(soil)=0) and water-stressed (WS, psi(soil)=-0.05 MPa) treatments 9 d after anthesis (DAA) till maturity. Leaf water potentials of both cultivars markedly decreased during the day as a result of WS treatment, but completely recovered by early morning. WS treatment accelerated the reduction of starch in the stems, promoted the reallocation of prefixed (14)C from the stems to grains, shortened the grain filling period, and increased the grain filling rate. More soluble sugars including sucrose were accumulated in the stems under WS than under WW treatments. Both alpha- and beta-amylase activities were enhanced by the WS, with the former enhanced more than the latter, and were significantly correlated with the concentrations of soluble sugars in the stems. The other two possible starch-breaking enzymes, alpha-glucosidase and starch phosphorylase, showed no significant differences in the activities between the WW and WS treatments. Water stress also increased the SPS activity that is responsible for sucrose production. Both V(limit) and V(max), the activities of the enzyme at limiting and saturating substrate concentrations, were enhanced and the activation state (V(limit)/V(max)) was also increased as a result of the more significant enhancement of V(limit). The enhanced SPS activity was closely correlated with an increase of sucrose accumulation in the stems. The results suggest that the fast hydrolysis of starch and increased carbon remobilization were attributed to the enhanced alpha-amylase activity and the high activation state of SPS when the rice was subjected to water stress.  (+info)

Purification, characterization, immunolocalization and structural analysis of the abundant cytoplasmic beta-amylase from Calystegia sepium (hedge bindweed) rhizomes. (8/94)

An abundant catalytically active beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) was isolated from resting rhizomes of hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium). Biochemical analysis of the purified protein, molecular modeling, and cloning of the corresponding gene indicated that this enzyme resembles previously characterized plant beta-amylases with regard to its amino-acid sequence, molecular structure and catalytic activities. Immunolocalization demonstrated that the beta-amylase is exclusively located in the cytoplasm. It is suggested that the hedge bindweed rhizome beta-amylase is a cytoplasmic vegetative storage protein.  (+info)

The present study was performed on a studfarm under typical field conditions. To minimize effects related to husbandry, feeding, and season, our study took place at one thoroughbred farm, within one foaling period from February to May. According to Lahrssen and Zentek [18] such a study design is important when working with a limited number of animals. Probiotic dosing and treatment period were in accordance with studies by Jeroch et al. [19], Jadamus et al. [20], and Vilà et al. [15].. Unfortunately some foals were treated with antibiotics during a severe period of illness which may have an impact on the subsequent microbial profile in faeces.. Bacterial microflora in faeces was used as an indication of the effects of B. cereus var. toyoi on the intestinal health of foals. Although faeces might have some limitations for describing the gut ecosystem, by comparing microflora and the digestion process in the colon with faeces in fistulated horses Julliand and Goachet [21] showed that the faecal ...
1J18: Crystal Structure of a Catalytic Site Mutant of beta-Amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides Cocrystallized with Maltopentaose
1J18: Crystal Structure of a Catalytic Site Mutant of beta-Amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides Cocrystallized with Maltopentaose
Food Poisoning AgentVWR offers slides for the varied purposes of your lab. Prepared and digital microscope slides for educational purposes are featured in an array of fields. General purpose microscope slides and cover glasses are offered as well as cavity, chamber, adhesion, and microarray slides for more specific research needs. Disposable and reusable options of varying thickness and diameter are available and may be purchased in kits, packs, cases, or individually.
Category: Animal, Bacillus, Probiotics. Paenibacillus polymyxa is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen. The species may also beknown as Bacillus polymyxa. It is found in soil, plant roots, and marine sediments.Bacillus polymyxa is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen.. ...
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Electron micrographs of negatively stained preparations of cell walls of Bacillus polymyxa have been investigated by optical diffraction and optical filtering techniques. Images of single layers of the cell wall, from which the noise has been filtered optically, show hollow, square-shaped morphological units arranged on a square lattice of side 100 Å. Single-layer images showing the same pattern have been filtered from moiré patterns arising from two overlapping single layers. The morphological units are composed of four smaller subunits. The optical diffraction patterns from regions of two overlapping layers show extra reflexions which are attributed to multiple electron scattering. ...
Preferred for the invention is CBMs of Carbohydrate-Binding Module Family 20. CBMs of Carbohydrate-Binding Module Family 20 suitable for the invention may be derived from glucoamylases of Aspergillus awamori (SWISSPROT Q12537), Aspergillus kawachii (SWISSPROT P23176), Aspergillus niger (SWISSPROT P04064), Aspergillus oryzae (SWISSPROT P36914), from alpha-amylases of Aspergillus kawachii (EMBL#AB008370), Aspergillus nidulans (NCBI AAF17100.1), from beta-amylases of Bacillus cereus (SWISSPROT P36924), or from CGTases of Bacillus circulans (SWISSPROT P43379). Preferred is a CBM from the alpha-amyiase of Aspergillus kawachii (EMBL:#AB008370) as well as CBMs having at least 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% or even at least 90% homology to the CBM of the alpha-amyiase of Aspergillus kawachii (EMBL#AB008370), i.e. a CBM having at least 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% or even at least 90% homology to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6. Also preferred for the invention are the CBMs of Carbohydrate-Binding Module Family 20 ...
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The purine analogue, 8-azaguanine, was added to cultures of the parasporal crystal-forming organism Bacillus cereus var. alesti at different times during growth and synchronous sporulation. The effect of its incorporation has been studied with particular reference to cell growth, nucleic acid composition, cytology, and the synthesis of the spore and crystal protein. Additions of the analogue during any stage of growth prevented further cell proliferation and all spore and crystal formation. Since both nucleic acids continued to be formed, cells of an increased size developed, containing large masses of chromatin in the form of condensed balls or axial cords. Lipid-containing inclusions also appeared following these additions and were usually aggregated at the centre or poles of the cells. The analogue could be isolated as the ribonucleotide from both the acid soluble and RNA fractions of these inhibited cells. Additions of the analogue following commencement of sporulation did not prevent either ...
A study was undertaken at the Directorate of Wheat Research experimental station, Karnal, India, to evaluate the effect of nitrogen (30, 60 and 90 kg/ha) a
Two Track Malting began as an idea on how to create added value to what was literally grown in our backyard. After a year of planning and a little bit of crossing our fingers we started producing malt for craft brewers and distillers. Over the years we have grown and are excited to keep growing to supply customers both near us and far.. Two Track Malting sources its grains primarily from two farms in ND.. Stober Farms in Goodrich, ND is a 6th generation family farm and is where Two Track Malting received its first batch of raw grain to turn into malt. Stober Farms continues to grow barley for Two Track Malting and is in the heart of barley country in ND.. Arrow K Farms, located in Belfield, ND grows our Astro White Wheat and Brewski 2 Row Barley. Located near the Badlands in southwestern ND, Arrow K Farms specializes in producing high quality grains and serves as a seed supplier to other farmers in the region.. In between both farms sits the malting facility located in Bismarck/Lincoln, ND. Two ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Lactic acid starter cultures in malting: an application for improvement of malt quality and management of maltings microflora. AU - Laitila, Arja. AU - Autio, Karin. AU - Stenholm, Katharina. AU - Suortti, Tapani. AU - Haikara, Auli. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. M3 - Conference abstract in proceedings. SN - 951-38-4568-0. T3 - VTT Symposium. SP - 235. EP - 235. BT - Biotechnology in the food chain. PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. CY - Espoo. T2 - Biotechnology in the Food Chain. Y2 - 28 January 1998 through 30 January 1998. ER - ...
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Looking for online definition of Bacillus polymyxa in the Medical Dictionary? Bacillus polymyxa explanation free. What is Bacillus polymyxa? Meaning of Bacillus polymyxa medical term. What does Bacillus polymyxa mean?
Summary: The characteristic nutritional patterns were determined for seven species or varieties of the genus Bacillus. Six strains of Bacillus cereus var. anthracis grew in a complex but defined amino acid medium + thiamine. Three strains of the insect pathogen B. cereus var. thuringiensis had the same nutritional pattern as the parent species B. cereus and grew in a seven amino acid medium. Of twenty strains of B. firmus, ten grew on the seven amino acid medium + biotin while the growth of five other strains was markedly affected by the addition of thiamine. Two of the remaining five strains required thiamine on first isolation, but soon dispensed with it on subculture, while the other three strains continued to require thiamine. Six strains of B. lentus grew in the seven amino acid medium + biotin + thiamine + urea. When the seven amino acid medium was replaced by the complex amino acid medium three of these strains of B. lentus grew without the addition of urea, and the remaining three strains
Deo, Namita and Natarajan, KA and Somasundaran, P (2001) Mechanisms of adhesion of Paenibacillus polymyxa onto hematite, corundum and quartz. In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, 62 (1-4). pp. 27-39. Natarajan, KA and Deo, Namita (2001) Role of bacterial interaction and bioreagents in iron ore flotation. In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, 62 (1-4). pp. 143-157. Deo, Namita and Natarajan, KA and Rao, Hanumantha K and Forssberg, KSE (1999) Biodegradation of some organic reagents from mineral process effluents. In: Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Toward the Mining of the 21st Century - Proceedings of the International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium, JUN 20-23, 1999, Madrid, Spain. Deo, Namita and Vasan, SS and Modak, Jayant M and Natarajan, KA (1999) Selective biodissolution of calcium and iron from bauxite in the presence of Bacillus polymyxa. In: Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Toward the Mining of the 21st Century - Proceedings of the International ...
Prices from £10 - Enquire for a fast quote ★ Good ServiceScore™ 6.8 from 18 votes ★ 1 verified patient review. Visit our Dentist - The Maltings, Commercial Road, Grantham, Lincolnshire, NG31 6DE, UK.
This is the final report for a two-year project conducted between September 1, 2002 and October 31, 2004 by Marta S. Izydorczyk, Grain Research Laboratory.
懸濁気泡塔における気-液接触反応の物質移動抵抗--パラジウム-アルミナ触媒によるα-メチルスチレンの水素化反応〔固体触媒による気-液接触反応に関する研究-6-〕 (1977 ...
The experimental investigation of microorganisms capable of producing hydrogen for subsequent fuel cell use is described. The microorganisms Clostridium welchii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Bacillus polymyxa were screened using various substrates. Rate studies with E. coli on maltose and glucose and Pseudomonas sp. (G4A) on formate and glucose were conducted. The manner in which hydrogen is produced demonstrates the desirability of following the course of reaction continually. Full factorial studies, with three factors at two levels, were conducted with several organism-substrate systems. Along with results obtained from previous factional factorial experiments, further definition of the criteria for maximizing hydrogen production has been established. Scale-up studies with E. coli-glucose show that the factors governing laboratory scale studies are applicable to large volume fermenters. (Author)(*FUEL CELLS
Abstract. Ahil is a new winter malting barley cultivar developed by the method of experimental mutagenesis at the Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat, Bulgaria. Biological and agronomic characteristics of the cultivar were also investigated for several years and at the Executive Agency of Varietal Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control trails in the period 2012 - 2013. Averaged for 6 locations in Bulgaria grain yield of the new cultivar was significantly higher than the yield of standard cultivars with about 5%. At the Institute of Agriculture grain yield was 17% higher than the average standard for the period of 5 years. The cultivar has high winter hardness, lodging resistance, resistance to powdery mildew and medium resistance to brown rust. Ahil has good malting quality
Fertilization programs Malting barley, Malting barley is used for the production of barley malt required in the alcoholic fermentation of beer and whisky. For brewing purposes only malting varieties can be cultivated, which are assessed
Maltings. Circa 1896, now empty apart from a small area on 5th floor used as offices for Mistley Quay Handling Company. For Free, Rodwell and Company Ltd. Iron work by J.R.M. Fitch, Lawford Ironworks. Red brick with gault dressings. Double range, grey slate roofs. Kiln to east with tall pyramidal roof. An imposing building presenting 8 storeys to the quayside and 5 storeys to High Street. The Kiln of 5 storeys with roof to full height of the Maltings. The lower storeys act as a buttress to the High Street and are 25 feet wide, the 5 upper storeys 56 feet wide. Kiln of 3 bays, Maltings of.17 bays with pilasters between, 4 dentilled and moulded bands and parapet band; gable ends similar of 2:2 bays with central pilasters extending to gable apices, cornices to apices. Originally with segmental headed louvred 3 light ventilator openings to each bay and storey, 4 C20 windows have been inserted to 5th storey of High Street and Mistley Quay faces, also some loading doors. 3.bays break foward to both ...
It would seem obvious that feed related factors would be most important when you set out to increase feed efficiency. Nutritionists and consultants draw our attention to forage digestibility, feed particle size, protein levels, fat levels, starch levels and certain feed additives that can affect feed efficiency. This is what they know. This is what we can control.. However, there are factors beyond feed that we can look at such as environmental factors and our own management inputs. Some environmental factors can be more difficult to control than others. It is difficult to be 100% in charge of the effects of heat stress, average days in milk, lactation number, acidosis and heat stress. Each one of these will affect feed conversion. But there are other environmental and management factors that we can target in our effort to improve feed conversion.. ...
Castle Malting - Високоякісний солод для високоякісного пива. Cолодівня знаходиться у м. Бельой, що у Бельгії.
Kang-ho) son gets a tutoring job at a lavish home, the Kim family attempt to take over the Park familys affluent lifestyle.. Korean with English subtitles.. Running time: 132 minutes. Age rating: 15. You can pre-order a delicious homemade curry for just £9 in the Riverside Café ahead of the Wednesday evening film screening.. Pre-show dining served from 90 mins to 30 mins prior to show start.. ...
Canada Malting - Salary - Get a free salary comparison based on job title, skills, experience and education. Accurate, reliable salary and compensation comparisons for Canada
A well balanced pale ale malt. Bright aroma of multigrain crackers and hay. Mildly sweet flavor of toast with honey.   Gallagher's Best...
East Kent Goldings is gentle, fragrant, and pleasant. Recognized as having the most typical English aroma with the best flavor historically coming from ...
28 November 1997 SPRING CEREALSA POTENTIALLY more reliable malting barley for the north and two strong oat challengers make up the trio of names joining
Abstract: A factorial design experiment was conducted on field to investigate the effects of inoculation with AM fungi (Glomus mosseae), phosphate solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus polymyxa) and soil yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on growth, phosphorus content and yield of onion plants in calcareous soil under different levels of phosphorus fertilization (P1: 50, P2: 100 and P3: 200 kg ha-1). Results showed that inoculation with G. mosseae or B. polymyxa significantly (p = 0.05) increased plant height, shoot fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights, average bulb diameter and total yield. The highest total yield and average bulb diameter were obtained from the inoculation treatment of AM fungus G. mosseae, recording 14.4 and 40.8% increases, respectively over the uninoculated control. Also, inoculation with AM fungus (G. mosseae) had a significant increase in all mineral content in onion plant compared with uninoculated control or other biofertilizers inoculation treatments ...
The variation of growth and cold tolerance of two natural Arabidopsis accessions, Cvi (cold sensitive) and Rschew (cold tolerant), was analysed on a proteomic, phosphoproteomic and metabolomic level to derive characteristic information about genotypically distinct strategies of metabolic reprogramming and growth maintenance during cold acclimation. Growth regulation before and after a cold acclimation period was monitored by recording fresh weight of leaf rosettes. Significant differences in the shoot fresh weight of Cvi and Rschew were detected both before and after acclimation to low temperature. During cold acclimation, starch levels were found to accumulate to a significantly higher level in Cvi compared to Rschew. Concomitantly, statistical analysis revealed a cold-induced decrease of beta-amylase 3 (BAM3; AT4G17090) in Cvi but not in Rschew. Further, only in Rschew we observed an increase of the protein level of the debranching enzyme isoamylase 3 (ISA3; AT4G09020). Additionally, the cold response
alpha-Cyclodextrin (α-dextrin, α-cyclodextrin, α-CD, alphadextrin, alpha cyclodextrin (dietary fiber)) is a polysaccharide of six glucose units that are covalently attached end to end via α-1, 4 linkages. This fiber is sold under the brand names, Alpha-Fibe and Calorease. Alpha-Fibe is the original product that contains this unique fiber, introduced to the worldwide nutritional supplement market by Bio-Form Essentials in 2007. Soho Flordis International became the patent Assignee as of March 30, 2012 and launched the brand Calorease in 2013. FBCx is not an ingredient, only an abbreviation, and is not part of the scientific name. The abbreviation FBCx, stands for Fat Binding Complexer and can be associated with the brand names, Alpha-Fibe and Calorease. There are two other naturally occurring cyclodextrins, β (beta) - and γ (gamma) -, which contain seven and eight glucose units respectively. In water, these fibers take on a toroid or truncated cone configuration. In aqueous ...
Just one week after the company revealed H1 losses of A$10m after tax and exceptional charges, Joe White Maltings Limited has expressed its concern to become a single track operation, concentrating on its malt activities and divesting its struggling food business. The company did make A$355,000 in pre-tax net profits, but the managing director, Ian Fraser, explained that the earnings produced by the core malting business had been negatively offset by the troubled food division, which necessitated a A$9.04m write off. This meant that the food business would be split into three as the first step of a divestment plan.In a public statement, it was announced that the peanut operation at Kingarot, Joe Whites most saleable business, is to be sold to the Peanut Company of Australia (PCA) pending approval from the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Renshaw Foods, another part of Joe White Maltings Limited Food Product Division, has also been sold to Select Harvests Limited. A signed agreement
The capabilities of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds (caryopses) to degrade starchy reserves present in the endosperm tissue were compared under anaerobic conditions. The results showed that rice, a species highly tolerant to anoxia, can readily break down starch under a …
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Date: Fri, 28 Nov 1997 12:27:41 -0500 From: David R. Burley ,Dave_Burley at compuserve.com, Subject: Home malting, cidery beer Brewsters: Keith Manefy says: ,Is the drying phase of malting barley absolutely necessary? Would it be= ,possible to germinate the barley to the required stage and then go ,straight to the brewery for mashing. = It is possible Keith, but then you would be using green malt and get a different result than with cured malt. The old time Dutch and Flemish Brewers used to ( and some may still for historical reasons) dry their malt at room temperature in lofts and call it wind malt. If it is dried quickly, I suspect it will have a very high enzyme content, especially beta amylase and the glucanases and proteases. Check out the HBD archives. Malting and Brewing Science says: Perhaps in the future there will be a market for pale malts that are only hand dry, i.e. contain perhaps 5-8% moisture. = Such materials would be much easier to use than green malt while retaining ...
Saflager S-189 is used by a large number of commercial breweries. Selected for its fairly neutral flavor development, this yeast is recommended for a wi...
ABSTRACT: Nowadays, very large malt batches are processed, which frequently leads to heterogeneities within the grain beds. As a result beta-glucanase activities, among others, vary within the batches, thus high beta-glucan concentrations remain unhydrolyzed in parts of the batches and can lead to lautering and filtration problems during the brewing process. The kernels enzyme activities mainly depend on their physiological status. Accordingly, the metabolic status of the seeds corresponds to a reliable marker for detecting heterogeneities in the grain beds and for predicting potential processing problems. Up to now, the Calcofluor method according to Carlsberg has been the only standardized method to determine the kernels homogeneity; however, its results are not very precise. In this study, malting trials under differing conditions were carried out to assess if gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) can be used as a reliable marker for determining the physiological status of the kernels. Malting ...
A chain superstructure is formed (bundles of needles) is formed during rapid co-precipitation of alpha-cyclodextrin (cyclic starch w/ glucose) and KAuBr4 in ...
Modules of approx. 100 residues. The granular starch-binding function has been demonstrated in one case. Sometimes designated as starch-binding domains (SBD ...
The granular starch-binding function has been demonstrated in several cases. Interact strongly with cyclodextrins. Often designated as starch-binding domains (SBD ...
The Sundance Kid (Robert Redford) is the frontiers fastest gun. His sidekick, Butch Cassidy (Paul Newman), is always dreaming up new ways to get rich fast. If only they could blow open a baggage car without also blowing up the money-filled safe inside... Or remember that Sundance cant swim before they escape a posse by leaping off a cliff into rushing rapids ...
Malting is the process of converting barley or other cereal grains into malt for use in brewing, distilling, or in foods and takes place in a maltings, sometimes called a malthouse, or a malting floor. The cereal is spread out on the malting floor in a layer of 8 to 12 cm (3 to 4.5 in) depth.[12] The malting process starts with drying the grains to a moisture content below 14% and then storing for around six weeks to overcome seed dormancy. When ready, the grain is immersed or steeped in water two or three times for two or three days to allow the grain to absorb moisture and to start to sprout. When the grain has a moisture content of around 46%, it is transferred to the malting or germination floor, where it is constantly turned over for about four to six days while it is air-dried[13]. The grain at this point is called green malt. The green malt is then dried and pre-toasted in an oven (or kiln) to the desired color and specification.[14] Malts range in color from very pale through crystal ...
As we known, the sweet potato is highly rich in nutrition. Experts claimed that it is not good to eat baked sweet potato together with the skins, because the
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Mon Oct 26 17:06:03 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Processing bam: Results_RSN_01926694/kayrotypic.bam [Mon Oct 26 17:06:10 2015 bam2cfg.pl] $recordcounter , $expected_max: 30001 , 30000 [Mon Oct 26 17:06:10 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Closing BAM file [Mon Oct 26 17:06:10 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Send TERM signal for 28546 [Mon Oct 26 17:06:12 2015 bam2cfg.pl] samtools pid process 28546 is still there... [Mon Oct 26 17:06:12 2015 bam2cfg.pl] invoking kill -9 on 28546 ... [Mon Oct 26 17:06:12 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Closing samtools process : 28546 [Mon Oct 26 17:06:13 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Processing bam: Results_RSN_01926692/kayrotypic.bam [Mon Oct 26 17:06:21 2015 bam2cfg.pl] $recordcounter , $expected_max: 30001 , 30000 [Mon Oct 26 17:06:21 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Closing BAM file [Mon Oct 26 17:06:21 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Send TERM signal for 28563 [Mon Oct 26 17:06:23 2015 bam2cfg.pl] samtools pid process 28563 is still there... [Mon Oct 26 17:06:23 2015 bam2cfg.pl] invoking kill -9 on 28563 ... [Mon Oct 26 17:06:23 2015 bam2cfg.pl] Closing ...
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Different temperatures optimize the activity of alpha or beta amylase, resulting in different mixtures of fermentable and ... α-Amylase[edit]. Main article: Alpha-amylase. The α-amylases (EC 3.2.1.1 ) (CAS 9014-71-5) (alternative names: 1,4-α-D-glucan ... The optimum pH for β-amylase is 4.0-5.0[4] γ-Amylase[edit]. γ-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.3 ) (alternative names: Glucan 1,4-a- ... β-Amylase[edit]. Another form of amylase, β-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2 ) (alternative names: 1,4-α-D-glucan maltohydrolase; ...
Beta-amylase is present in certain bacteria as well as in plants. Three highly conserved sequence regions are found in all ... while the smaller is formed from two long loops extending from the beta-3 and beta-4 strands of the (beta alpha)8 fold. The ... Beta-amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages in starch-type polysaccharide substrates so as to ... The 3D structure of a complex of soybean beta-amylase with an inhibitor (alpha-cyclodextrin) has been determined to 3.0A ...
Individuals from populations with a high-starch diet tend to have more amylase genes than those with low-starch diets; Beta- ... After the phosphorylation, the first degrading enzyme, beta-amylase (BAM) can attack the glucose chain at its non-reducing end ... Alpha-amylases are found in plants and in animals. Human saliva is rich in amylase, and the pancreas also secretes the enzyme. ... This process is important in the digestion of starch and is also used in brewing, where amylase from the skin of seed grains is ...
Oyama, T.; Kusunoki, M.; Kishimoto, Y.; Takasaki, Y.; Nitta, Y. (1999). "Crystal structure of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus ... It has a beta-jelly roll fold, with a groove on the concave surface of one of the beta-sheets. Carbohydrate-binding module ... CBM27 adopts a beta sandwich structure comprising 13 beta strands with a single, small alpha-helix and a single metal atom. ... It has a budded fibronectin type III fold consisting of two beta-sheets, arranged as a beta-sheet sandwich and a bud consisting ...
MacGregor EA, Jespersen HM, Svensson B (January 1996). "A circularly permuted alpha-amylase-type alpha/beta-barrel structure in ... have a different arrangement than those in α-amylase. The folding characteristics of α-amylase and glucansucrase are still very ... However, glucansucrase is very similar to α-amylase, another sugar-cutting enzyme. Glucansucrase thus has many of the same ... Glucansucrase proteins likely evolved from an amylase enzyme precursor. The two enzymes have similar folding patterns and ...
These test include: catalase, urease, oxidase, amylase, gelatins, phosphatase, beta-galactosidase activities, and carbon source ...
McCleary BV (November 1980). "New chromogenic substrates for the assay of alpha-amylase and (1 leads to 4)-beta-D-glucanase". ... beta-1,4-glucanase, beta-1,4-endoglucan hydrolase, endoglucanase D, 1,4-(1,3,1,4)-beta-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase), ... Separation and characterization of cellulases and beta-glucosidases". The Biochemical Journal. 177 (1): 9-19. doi:10.1042/ ... The specific reaction involved is the hydrolysis of the 1,4-beta-D-glycosidic linkages in cellulose, hemicellulose, lichenin, ...
Unconverted starch becomes sugar during the last steps of mashing, through the action of alpha and beta amylases. The oldest ... Germination produces a number of enzymes, such as amylase, that can convert the starch naturally present in barley and other ... thorough beta-glucanase rest. Rye is said to impart a spicy, dry flavor to beer. Sorghum and millet are often used in African ... and contains large quantities of beta-glucans compared to other grains; these long-chain sugars can leach out during a mash, ...
To overcome this, producers use an enzymatic hydrolysis of starch by alpha- and beta-amylase, producing maltodextrins which ...
Beta) Limit dextrin is the remaining polymer produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of amylopectin with beta amylase, which cannot ... Dextrins can be produced from starch using enzymes like amylases, as during digestion in the human body and during malting and ... produced by hydrolysis of amylopectin with alpha amylase. Highly branched cyclic dextrin is a dextrin produced from enzymatic ...
The enzymes used in the saccharification step are the amylolytic enzyme, beta-amylase (usually derived from Bacillus species) ... Such syrups are high in the simple sugar maltose and low in glucose and fructose, due to the enzymatic action of beta- and ... The enzymes used in the liquefaction step are usually alpha-amylases derived from bacterial or fungal bioreactors (Bacillus ... alpha amylase on starch supplied by the sprouted barley. These enzymes produce large amounts of maltose from starch digestion ...
... alpha and beta amylase, and, to a lesser extent, gamma amylase (together, the amylases), although many other enzymes are also ... Alpha amylase degrades starch to a mixture of the disaccharide maltose; the trisaccharide maltotriose, which contains three α ( ... Today, "diastase" refers to any α-, β-, or γ-amylase (all of which are hydrolases) that can break down carbohydrates. The ... When used as a pharmaceutical drug, diastase has the ATC code A09AA01 (WHO). Amylases can also be extracted from other sources ...
... that recognizes SP8 sequences in the 50 upstream regions of genes coding for sporamin and beta-amylase from sweet potato. Mol. ... The earliest reports identified WRKYs based on their ability to regulate β-amylase, a gene involved in catabolism of starch ... upstream regions of genes coding for sporamin and β-amylase from sweet potato. Molecular and General Genetics MGG. 244(6). 563- ... upstream regions of genes coding for sporamin and β-amylase from sweet potato. Molecular and General Genetics MGG. 244(6). 563- ...
... elegans produces amylase, beta-glucosidase, cellulase, and protease. It is able to degrade cellulose. When M. elegans is grown ...
... alpha-amylase, pullulanase, beta-amylase, and alpha-D-glucosidase) and only achieves a 40% yield of isomaltooligosaccharides ... also known as an alpha/beta barrel), an alpha/beta protein fold structure consisting of eight parallel beta-strands connected ... While most alpha-amylase enzymes only cleave alpha-1,4-linkages in their substrates, neopullulanase additionally cleaves alpha- ... This results in narrower active site than the other alpha-amylase enzymes, which do not dimerize, and likely contributes to its ...
Organisms meant to produce enzymes such as beta galactosidase, invertase or other amylases may be fed starch to select for ... Of primary interest among the intracellular components are microbial enzymes: catalase, amylase, protease, pectinase, cellulase ...
Research Service scientists are interested in specialized enzymes called serine-class proteases that digest beta-amylases, ... Malting grain develops the enzymes (α-amylase, β-amylase) required for modifying the grains' starches into various types of ...
... the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. An ... β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... 1995). "Plasma (13)-beta-D-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes". Lancet. 345 ( ... In general, β-1,3 linkages are created by 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase, and β-1,4 linkages are created by cellulose synthase. The ...
Different temperatures optimize the activity of alpha or beta amylase, resulting in different mixtures of fermentable and ... Both α-amylase and β-amylase are present in seeds; β-amylase is present in an inactive form prior to germination, whereas α- ... In human physiology, both the salivary and pancreatic amylases are α-amylases. The α-amylase form is also found in plants, ... The γ-amylase has most acidic optimum pH of all amylases because it is most active around pH 3. They belong to a variety of ...
... (EC 3.2.1.2, β-amylase, saccharogen amylase, glycogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan ... The optimum pH for β-amylase is 4.0-5.0 They belong to Glycoside hydrolase family 14. Amylase Alpha-amylase Rejzek M, Stevenson ... "Amylase, Alpha" , I.U.B.: 3.2.1.11,4-α-D-Glucan glucanohydrolase. Beta-amylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Beta-amylase is found in bacteria, fungi, and plants; bacteria and cereal sources are the most heat stable. Working from the ...
This domain is organised as a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. Several alpha-amylases contain an all-beta domain, usually ... See amylase for more uses of the amylase family in general. α-Amylase has exhibited efficacy in degrading polymicrobial ... Medical laboratories will usually measure either pancreatic amylase or total amylase. If only pancreatic amylase is measured, ... and a carboxyl-terminal Greek key beta-barrel domain. Several alpha-amylases contain a beta-sheet domain, usually at the C ...
Glucose Amylase/lipase Urine culture Urinalysis Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) Cervical cultures are recommended ...
... they are connected via an alpha 1-4 linkage instead of beta. Starches, particularly amylase, are important in many industries, ... There are also conformations that consist of a mix of alpha helices and beta sheets as well as a beta helixes with an alpha ... Beta is a protein that binds to single stranded DNA and assists homologous recombination by promoting annealing between the ... Cellulose is a polysaccharide made up of beta 1-4 linkages between repeat glucose monomers. It is the most abundant source of ...
... that digest beta-amylases, which convert carbohydrates into "simple sugars" during the sprouting process.[27] The enzyme also ...
... amylases MeSH D08.811.277.450.066.050 - alpha-amylase MeSH D08.811.277.450.066.100 - beta-amylase MeSH D08.811.277.450.114 - ... 4-beta-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.600 - glucan endo-1,3-beta-d-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.375 - glucan ... 4-beta-cellobiosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.450 - endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.500 - glucan 1 ... 4-beta xylanases MeSH D08.811.277.450.950.500 - xylan endo-1,3-beta-xylosidase MeSH D08.811.277.656.149 - atp-dependent ...
... which is then removed by hydrolysis with alpha-amylase. The residual solution usually contains coextracts of hemicelluloses and ... 1160/2011 of the Commission, foodstuffs through which 3 g/day of oat beta-glucan are consumed (1 g of oat beta-glucan per ... In November 2011, the EU Commission published its decision in favour of oat beta-glucans with regard to Article 14 of the EC ... Diabetic people who increased their daily consumption of beta-glucans by more than 3 grams per day for months also lost body ...
... beta-D-glucosidase, beta-glucoside glucohydrolase, arbutinase, amygdalinase, p-nitrophenyl beta-glucosidase, primeverosidase, ... Beta-glucosidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds to terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides and ... Vicianin beta-glucosidase. References[edit]. *^ PDB: 3AHX​; Jeng WY, Wang NC, Lin MH, Lin CT, Liaw YC, Chang WJ, Liu CI, Liang ... amygdalase, linamarase, salicilinase, and beta-1,6-glucosidase. Cellulose is a polymer composed of beta-1,4-linked glucosyl ...
Organisms can either by alpha-hemolytic, beta-hemolytic, or gamma-hemolytic (non-hemolytic). Amylases are a group of ... The different classes of amylases are α-amylases, β-amylases, and glucoamylases. The α-amylases hydrolyze starch by randomly ... Amylase breaks down carbohydrates into mono- and disaccharides, so a starch agar must be used for this assay. Once the bacteria ... In humans, amylases are secreted by the pancreas and salivary glands, with both sources of the enzyme required for complete ...
Beta-amylase. *Lipoxygenase. *Cysteine proteases. Trypsin inhibitors. *Kunitz inhibitor. *Bowman-Birk inhibitor ...
Beta-amylase. *Lipoxygenase. *Cysteine proteases. Trypsin inhibitors. *Kunitz inhibitor. *Bowman-Birk inhibitor ...
... in Earl Grey tea Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C 30) - color Beta-apo-8'-carotenic acid ethyl ester - color Betanin - color (red) ... improving agent Amylases - flour treatment agent Angelica (Angelica archangelica) Anise - Annatto - color Anthocyanins - color ... Carotenes - color Alpha-carotene - color Beta-carotene - color Gamma-carotene - color Carrageenan - thickener, vegetable gum, ... artificial sweetener beta-cyclodextrin - emulsifier Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, C. flexuosus, and other species) - Damiana ...
Schiffer CF, Burke JF, Besarab A, Lasker N, Simenhoff ML (January 1977). "Amylase/creatinine clearance fraction in patients on ... modeling beta-galactosidase and butyrylcholinesterase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects. 1770 (5): 733- ...
"High-resolution chromosomal localization of human genes for amylase, proopiomelanocortin, somatostatin, and a DNA fragment ( ... and blood flow within the intestine Suppresses the release of pancreatic hormones Somatostatin release is triggered by the beta ...
Second is an N-terminal beta-sandwich domain, identified via two antiparallel beta pleated sheets. The third and largest domain ... In the small intestine, this enzyme works in synergy with sucrase-isomaltase and alpha-amylase to digest the full range of ... The fourth and 5th domains are C-terminal domains, similar to the N-terminal beta-sandwich domain. The N-terminal Maltase- ... consists of a catalytic (beta/alpha) barrel type domain containing two inserted loops. ...
Beta-Carotene, a pigment in halophilic bacteria that contributes to their red coloration, is used in the food industry as a ... Halophiles produce degradative enzymes such as lipases, amylases, proteases, and xylanases that are used in various food ...
... the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. An ... β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... Each type of beta-glucan comprises a different molecular backbone, level of branching, and molecular weight which affects its ... 1995). "Plasma (13)-beta-D-glucan measurement in diagnosis of invasive deep mycosis and fungal febrile episodes". Lancet. 345 ( ...
Spirulina is a blue-green plant plankton rich in raw protein, vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C and E, beta-carotene, color ... Most of the carbohydrates that are incorporated into aquatic diets are of plant origin and are sources of the enzyme amylase. ... Some fish foods also contain additives such as sex hormones or beta carotene to artificially enhance the color of ornamental ...
The enzyme beta-glucogallin-tetrakisgalloylglucose O-galloyltransferase uses 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose and 1,2,3,6-tetrakis-O- ... Pentagalloyl glucose can precipitate proteins, including human salivary α-amylase. 1,2,3,4,6-Pentagalloyl glucose can be found ... 6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose have potent anti-aggregation effects on Alzheimer's amyloid beta proteins in vitro and ... Chen Y, Hagerman AE (February 2005). "Reaction pH and protein affect the oxidation products of beta-pentagalloyl glucose". Free ...
2015). "Structural forms of the human amylase locus and their relationships to SNPs, haplotypes and obesity". Nature Genetics. ... 2010). "Measurement methods and accuracy in copy number variation: failure to replicate associations of beta-defensin copy ...
The active inhibitory site containing the scissile bond is located in the loop between beta-strands 4 and 5 in STI and ETI. The ... and the bifunctional proteinase K/alpha-amylase inhibitor from wheat (PK13) have been solved, showing them to share the same ... Murzin AG, Lesk AM, Chothia C (January 1992). "beta-Trefoil fold. Patterns of structure and sequence in the Kunitz inhibitors ... interleukins-1 beta and 1 alpha and fibroblast growth factors". J. Mol. Biol. 223 (2): 531-43. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(92)90668-A ...
Arora, K; Levine, M S; O'Connor, M B (1994). "The screw gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed member of the TGF-beta family ... Chronobiology University of Geneva Circadian Rhythm suprachiasmatic nucleus Rev-ErbA alpha PER CRY BMAL1 alpha-amylase CRE Ueli ...
For example, beta-glycosidase will only react with beta-glycosidic bonds which are present in cellulose, but not present in ... For instance, the enzyme Amylase is present in mammal saliva, that is stereo-specific for alpha-linkages, this is why mammals ... beta glycosidic linkages). Enzymes that are stereochemically specific will bind substrates with these particular properties. ... are able to efficiently use starch and glycogen as forms of energy, but not cellulose (because it is a beta-linkage). kd, is ...
In addition, a gluten-extrinsic allergen has been identified as aspergillus amylase, added to flour to increase its baking ... specifically beta-glucan, vegetable starch. Triticeae gluten-free oats (free of wheat, rye or barley) may be a useful source of ... A recent study in Europe confirmed the increased presence of allergies to amylase/trypsin inhibitors (serpins) and lipid ... 2007). "Wheat IgE-mediated food allergy in European patients: alpha-amylase inhibitors, lipid transfer proteins and low- ...
Beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) Hyaluronidase (EC 3.2.1.35) Function: Amylase is an enzyme that is responsible for the ... Clinical Significance: Amylase also has medical history in the use of Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Therapy (PERT). One of the ... EC 3.2.1 Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) Sucrase (EC 3.2.1.10) Chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) Lysozyme (EC 3.2.1.17) Maltase (EC 3.2.1.20) ... Beta-lactamase (EC 3.5.2.6) Category:EC 3.5.3 (In linear amidines) Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) Category:EC 3.5.4 (In cyclic amidines ...
Studies in cells and in mouse have shown that specifically targeting Amyloid beta-producing genes (e.g. BACE1 and APP) by RNAi ... RNAi silencing of alpha-amylase have also been used to decrease Aspergillus flavus fungal growth in maize which would have ... "RNA interference-based silencing of the alpha-amylase (amy1) gene in Aspergillus flavus decreases fungal growth and aflatoxin ...
The monomeric protein contains a central domain in which eight parallel beta-strands are surrounded by eight parallel alpha ... Their catalyses are similar to that of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, respectively. Their active sites are selective towards ... 1-S-dimethylarsino-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside". J. Biol. Chem. 255 (18): 8451-7. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)43517-X. PMID ...
... belongs to the α-amylase family of enzymes, which include α-amylases, pullulanas/isoamylase, ... insights of N-terminal beta-sandwich in substrate specificity and enzymatic activity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 ... While the central (α/β) barrel domain is common in members of the α-amylase family, numerous variations exist between the ... Buisson G, Duée E, Haser R, Payan F (December 1987). "Three dimensional structure of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase at 2.9 A ...
Fiber may affect amylase activity and hence the rate of hydrolysis of starch. The more viscous polysaccharides extend the mouth ... Examples are beta-glucans (in oats, barley, and mushrooms) and raw guar gum. Psyllium - a soluble, viscous, nonfermented fiber ... April 2006). "Amylase-resistant starch as adjunct to oral rehydration therapy in children with diarrhea". Journal of Pediatric ... Regular intake of soluble fibers, such as beta-glucans from oats or barley, has been established to lower blood levels of LDL ...
Yao Y, Hu Y, Zhu Y, Gao Y, Ren G (2016). "Comparisons of phaseolin type and α-amylase inhibitor in common bean (Phaseolus ... Zheng Z, Sumi K, Tanaka K, Murai N (November 1995). "The Bean Seed Storage Protein [beta]-Phaseolin Is Synthesized, Processed, ... Phaseolin is able to inhibit the activity of the enzyme α-amylase, which is responsible for the cleavage of carbohydrates. ...
Furthermore, markers of infection (complete blood count, C-reactive protein) and acute pancreatitis (amylase and lipase) may be ... which are converted through a process called beta oxidation, again in the liver, into ketone bodies (acetoacetate and β- ...
... see beta-lactams). Its potential as an antibiotic was realized in the late 1930s, and Howard Florey and Ernst Chain purified ... amylases, cellulases, and proteases. Some Penicillium species have shown potential for use in bioremediation, more specifically ... "Phylogenetic analysis of Penicillium subgenus Pencillium using partial beta-tubulin sequences" (PDF). Studies in Mycology. 49: ...
November 2009). "Amyloid-beta dynamics are regulated by orexin and the sleep-wake cycle". Science. 326 (5955): 1005-7. Bibcode: ... Louis suggests that saliva tests of the enzyme amylase could be used to indicate sleep debt, as the enzyme increases its ... Louis has illuminated important connections between sleep debt, orexin, and amyloid beta, with the suggestion that the ...
August 2000). "A beta-turn rich oats peptide as an antigen in an ELISA method for the screening of coeliac disease in a ... one of them an α-amylase inhibitor as identified by protein homology. A follow-up study showed that most celiacs have anti- ...
Beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2, β-amylase, saccharogen amylase, glycogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan ... The optimum pH for β-amylase is 4.0-5.0 They belong to Glycoside hydrolase family 14. Amylase Alpha-amylase Rejzek M, Stevenson ... "Amylase, Alpha" , I.U.B.: 3.2.1.11,4-α-D-Glucan glucanohydrolase. Beta-amylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Beta-amylase is found in bacteria, fungi, and plants; bacteria and cereal sources are the most heat stable. Working from the ...
PS00506. BETA_AMYLASE_1. 1 hit. PS00679. BETA_AMYLASE_2. 1 hit. ... PS00506. BETA_AMYLASE_1. 1 hit. PS00679. BETA_AMYLASE_2. 1 hit ... Beta-amylaseUniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been generated by the UniProtKB automatic annotation system, without ... tr,Q42989,Q42989_ORYSA Beta-amylase OS=Oryza sativa OX=4530 PE=3 SV=1 ...
... and beta =101.95 degrees. The structures of free and maltose-bound beta-amylases were determined by X-ray crystallography at ... and beta =101.95 degrees. The structures of free and maltose-bound beta-amylases were determined by ... ... The crystals of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus belong to space group P21 with the following cell dimensions: a = 57.70 A, b ... The crystals of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus belong to space group P21 with the following cell dimensions: a = 57.70 A, b ...
Alpha-amylase/branching enzyme, C-terminal all beta (IPR006048). Short name: A-amylase/branching_C ... Alpha-amylase/branching enzyme, C-terminal all beta (IPR006048) *Alpha-amylase, C-terminal domain (IPR031319) ... Evolution of alpha-amylases: architectural features and key residues in the stabilization of the (beta/alpha)(8) scaffold.. Mol ... such as alpha-amylases and 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme. This domain forms a Greek key beta-barrel fold in these enzymes [ ...
Anti-beta Amylase antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, Dot, EM. Immunogen corresponding to full length native ... Anti-beta Amylase antibody (HRP) - Azide free. See all beta Amylase primary antibodies. ... Beta Amylase is an enzyme found in the seeds of higher plants and in sweet potatoes. It hydrolyses 1,4 alpha D glucosidic ...
Literature: Alpha-amylase/branching enzyme, C-terminal all beta (IPR006048). References used in this entry. The following ... Evolution of alpha-amylases: architectural features and key residues in the stabilization of the (beta/alpha)(8) scaffold.. ... Crystal structure of yellow meal worm alpha-amylase at 1.64 A resolution.. Strobl S, Maskos K, Betz M, Wiegand G, Huber R, ... Molecular basis of the effects of chloride ion on the acid-base catalyst in the mechanism of pancreatic alpha-amylase.. Qian M ...
Browse our Pancreatic Amylase Beta RNAi catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Pancreatic Amylase Beta RNAi available through Novus Biologicals. ... Alternate Names for Pancreatic Amylase Beta RNAi. Pancreatic Amylase Beta RNAi, AMY2B RNAi, alpha-amylase 2B RNAi, AMY2 RNAi, ... We offer Pancreatic Amylase Beta RNAi for use in common research applications. Each Pancreatic Amylase Beta RNAi is fully ...
Downregulation of a chloroplast-targeted beta-amylase leads to a starch-excess phenotype in leaves.. Scheidig A1, Fröhlich A, ... Expression of the gene in E. coli showed that the protein product was a functional beta-amylase that could degrade both starch ... Analysis of plants reduced in the presence of this beta-amylase isoform showed that their leaves had a starch-excess phenotype ... One clone isolated had a sequence very similar to a recently described chloroplast-targeted beta-amylase of Arabidopsis. ...
However, like barley, sorghum beta-amylase was more temperature-labile than its alpha-amylase. Beta-amylase activity in sorghum ... beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt confirmed that ungerminated sorghum grain exhibited essentially no beta-amylase activity ... despite the fact that alpha-amylase and not beta-amylase is the predominant diastatic enzyme in sorghum malt. ... Malted sorghum had beta-amylase activity less than 25% of the level in barley malt. Neither reducing agents nor papa in ...
Crystal Structures of beta-Amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides in Complexes with Substrate Analogs and Affinity-Labeling ... Description: Beta-amylase protein , Length: 516 No structure alignment results are available for 1J10.A, 1J10.B, 1J10.C, 1J10.D ...
The Lack of Beta-amylase Activity in Soybean Cultivar Altona sp 1 is Associated with a 1.2 kb Deletion in the 5′ Region of Beta ... Expression patterns of alpha-amylase and beta-amylase genes provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the ... Identification and Characterization of a Phloem-Specific [beta]-Amylase Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Identification and Characterization of a Phloem-Specific [beta]-Amylase. Q. Wang, J. Monroe, R. D. Sjolund ...
tr,D7MUR1,D7MUR1_ARALL Beta-amylase OS=Arabidopsis lyrata subsp. lyrata OX=81972 GN=ARALYDRAFT_356484 PE=3 SV=1 ...
... and the amino acid sequences of the five regions in the beta-amylase molecules were determined. The mature beta-amylase ... Cloning of the beta-amylase gene from Bacillus cereus and characteristics of the primary structure of the enzyme.. T Nanmori, M ... Cloning of the beta-amylase gene from Bacillus cereus and characteristics of the primary structure of the enzyme. ... Cloning of the beta-amylase gene from Bacillus cereus and characteristics of the primary structure of the enzyme. ...
Recombinant Protein and Inactive beta-amylase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Inactive beta-amylase 4. Inactive beta-amylase 4 ELISA Kit. Inactive beta-amylase 4 Recombinant. Inactive beta-amylase 4 ... Inactive beta-amylase 9. Inactive beta-amylase 9 ELISA Kit. Inactive beta-amylase 9 Recombinant. Inactive beta-amylase 9 ... Also known as Inactive beta-amylase 4, chloroplastic (Inactive beta-amylase 6).. In vitro assay indicates no beta-amylase ...
Betamyl-3 beta-Amylase test kit for the specific measurement and analysis of beta-amylase in malt flour and other products - ... β-Amylase (Barley) E-BAMBC - β-Amylase (Bacillus cereus) E-MALAA - Maltogenic amylase (Bacillus sp.) E-MAST - Malt Amylase ... PNPG5 is rapidly hydrolysed by β-amylase but less readily by cereal α-amylases. The substrate is hydrolysed by β-amylase to ... α-amylase, betaamylase and limit dextrinase. The analysed barley malt samples were previously characterised by 27 conventional ...
What is saccharogen amylase? Meaning of saccharogen amylase medical term. What does saccharogen amylase mean? ... Looking for online definition of saccharogen amylase in the Medical Dictionary? saccharogen amylase explanation free. ... beta-amylase. (redirected from saccharogen amylase) β-am·y·lase. (amil-ās), A glucanohydrolase yielding β-maltose units from ... a href=https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/saccharogen+amylase,beta-amylase,/a,. *Facebook ...
Filed Under: Brewed For Thought Tagged With: alpha amylase, beta amylase, enzymes, enzymes in the mash ... So, the enzymes in barley are active as low as 34 °F (1.1 °C). The amylase enzymes we use in brewing slowly turn the starch in ...
... Important enzymes in brewing beer and liquor made from sugars derived from starch. Different ... temperatures optimize the activity of alpha or beta amylase, resulting in different mixtures of fermentable and unfermentable ...
Different temperatures optimize the activity of alpha or beta amylase, resulting in different mixtures of fermentable and ... α-Amylase[edit]. Main article: Alpha-amylase. The α-amylases (EC 3.2.1.1 ) (CAS 9014-71-5) (alternative names: 1,4-α-D-glucan ... The optimum pH for β-amylase is 4.0-5.0[4] γ-Amylase[edit]. γ-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.3 ) (alternative names: Glucan 1,4-a- ... β-Amylase[edit]. Another form of amylase, β-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2 ) (alternative names: 1,4-α-D-glucan maltohydrolase; ...
This product does not contain CMRs or PBTs. This beta-Amylase also has a DOZN score of 1. More information on beta-Amylases ... or waste at the manufacturing facility for beta-Amylase.. Renewable Energy Use. The manufacturing facility at which this beta- ... This beta-Amylase is manufactured in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Product Content. This product is comprised of 100% bio ... The packaging for this beta-Amylase does not contain sustainable content.. Energy Consumption. This product does not consume ...
beta Amylase recombinant proteins are produced in house and quality guaranteed.All the beta Amylase recombinant proteins are in ... Among these beta Amylase proteins, there are 2 Human beta Amylase protein. All these beta Amylase protein are expressed by ... Human beta Amylase Protein, Recombinant (2). beta Amylase Protein, Human, Recombinant (His Tag) 13575-H08H Expression host: ... beta Amylase Protein Background. There are 2 beta Amylase protein produced in house with high quality which are covering ...
Not all amylases are the same, alpha and beta amylases perform similar but different jobs. Alpha amylases hydrolyze [HI-dro- ... Alpha-amylase functions at temperatures between 145° to 158° F, while beta-amylase operates between 131° and 149° F.2 Therefore ... At the end of the mashing period, the wort contains (from the alpha-amylase) and maltose (from the beta-amylase), two principal ... you would run past the beta-amylases optimal temperature and mash within alpha-amylases optimal temperature range. ...
Question about Mash times, boil, alpha and beta amylase? Thanks for looking in.... I have been reading and cannot seem to find ... Quote from BeerSmiths page: A low step temperature (146-150F/63-66 C) emphasizing beta amylase will therefore result in a more ... Brewing with additional apha amylase - how much to use? Hi everyone, Im experimenting with alpha amylase to increase the ... Cold Crash after amylase remedy? Hi, First, some background. Im brewing a high gravity Belgium Triple. After three weeks in ...
Alpha and Beta amylase are important malt enzymes crucial for successful mashing. Find out how you can alter the mashing ... Alpha and beta amylase are both critical enzymes in mashing but it is beta amylase that defines the fermentability of wort ... Alpha and Beta Amylase - Essential Enyzmes in Mashing. Dee Kupa October 19, 2013 Mashing No Comments ... The enzyme beta amylase is very specific in its mode of action in that it will sit at the end of the carbohydrate chain and ...
The Immobilization of a Chemically Thermostabilized Beta-amylase.In: Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie, ... The Immobilization of a Chemically Thermostabilized Beta-amylase Primary tabs. *Détail(active tab) ...
Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on the Alpha and Beta Amylase Activity in the Stems and Leaves of Red Kidney Bean ...
Which kits can be used to measure beta-amylase and alpha-amylase? Modified on: Fri, 22 Apr, 2016 at 12:57 PM ... The K-MALTA contains 50 assays each of K-CERA and K-BETA3 so measures beta- and alpha-amylase activity (separately). ... K-AMYLSD can be used for measuring alpha-amylase in barley samples (the Amylase SD assay is more sensitive than the K-CERA). ... Knowledge Base Home FAQs ,, FAQs Assay Kits & Reagents α-Amylase SD Assay Kit (High Sensitivity Method) (K-AMYLSD) ...
This process of transitory starch degradation is mostly attributable to the β-Amylase (BAM) family, which are starch ... Pope, Lauren, "Tetrameric Structure of Beta-amylase 2 (BAM2) in Arabidopsis thaliana" (2017). Senior Honors Projects, 2010- ... This process of transitory starch degradation is mostly attributable to the β-Amylase (BAM) family, which are starch ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF SOYBEAN BETA-AMYLASE REACTED WITH BETA-MALTOSE AND MALTAL: ACTIVE SITE COMPONENTS AND THEIR APPARENT ROLE ... Mikami, B. et al., Crystal structures of soybean beta-amylase reacted with beta-maltose and maltal: active site components and ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF SOYBEAN BETA-AMYLASE REACTED WITH BETA-MALTOSE AND MALTAL: ACTIVE SITE COMPONENTS AND THEIR APPARENT ROLE ... 1 x BGC- GLC- GLC- GLC: alpha-D-glucopyranose-(1-4)-alpha-D-glucopyranose-(1-4)-alpha-D-glucopyranose-(1-4)-beta-D- ...
Alpha and Beta Amylase. Enzymes that help digest carbohydrates by catalyzing the transformation of starch into simpler sugars. ... These whole foods consist of edible grasses, antioxidants, essential fatty acids, and amylase to produce a distinctive mixture. ... A fibrous taproot vegetable used as an important source of vitamin A (beta-carotene) and lutein. ... Research has shown that amylase may aid with digestion, Food and Function reports. ...
  • The crystals of beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus belong to space group P21 with the following cell dimensions: a = 57.70 A, b = 92.87 A, c = 65.93 A, and beta =101.95 degrees. (rcsb.org)
  • Crystal structure of calcium-depleted Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase at 2.2 A resolution. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 1J10: beta-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. (rcsb.org)
  • Cloning of the beta-amylase gene from Bacillus cereus and characteristics of the primary structure of the enzyme. (asm.org)
  • The gene encoding the beta-amylase of Bacillus cereus BQ10-S1 (SpoII) was cloned into Escherichia coli JM 109. (asm.org)
  • The amino acid sequence homology with those of known beta-amylases was 52.7% for Bacillus polymyxa, 52.0% for Bacillus circulans, 43.4% for Clostridium thermosulfurogenes, 31.8% for Arabidopsis thaliana, 31.5% for barley, 29.9% for sweet potato, and 28.9% for soybean. (asm.org)
  • The α-amylase form is also found in plants, fungi ( ascomycetes and basidiomycetes ) and bacteria ( Bacillus ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinetic Evidence of a Thermostable AY-Amylase from Chemically Improved Mutant Strain of Bacillus subtilis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In the present article we report on the kinetic characterization of enhanced AY-amylase production from a derepressed mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis under solid-state fermentation (SSF). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Keywords: Bacillus subtilis / AY-amylase / induced mutagenesis / solid-state fermentation / kinetic study / thermal characterization. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The first step is generally carried out with Bacillus subtilis amylase. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Avizyme ® 1505 is based on three enzyme activities produced by three genetically modified microorganisms: xylanase, subtilisin and amylase produced by Trichoderma reesei, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, respectively. (europa.eu)
  • The preferred alpha-amylases are prepared by culturing a strain of a Bacillus stearothermophilus microorganism in a suitable culture medium. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. A heat and acid-stable alpha-amylase enzyme characterized as having a pH optimum between 4.0 and 5.2 and as being derived from a strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus which is a member selected from the group consisting of ATCC Nos. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • AMAFERM ® is a fermentation product produced by Aspergillus oryzae NRRL 458, containing alpha‐amylase and cellulase enzyme activities, authorised for use as a feed additive for cows. (europa.eu)
  • A total of 15 variants were compared with the wild type by monitoring the alpha-amylase and protease inhibitory activities using Blue Starch and azoalbumin, respectively, and the kinetics of binding to target enzymes by surface plasmon resonance. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • Malted sorghum had beta-amylase activity less than 25% of the level in barley malt. (csir.co.za)
  • Neither reducing agents nor papa in affected beta-amylase activity in sorghum, indicating that the enzyme is not in a bound form, unlike in barley. (csir.co.za)
  • Isoelectric focusing indicated that sorghum beta-amylase comprises just one major and one minor isozyme of pI approximately 4.4-4.5, unlike the many isozymes all of higher pI in barley. (csir.co.za)
  • However, like barley, sorghum beta-amylase was more temperature-labile than its alpha-amylase. (csir.co.za)
  • A ribbon model of beta amylase from barley. (beerandwinejournal.com)
  • So, the enzymes in barley are active as low as 34 °F (1.1 °C). The amylase enzymes we use in brewing slowly turn the starch in this seed into sugar, which is used as fuel for germination and early growth. (beerandwinejournal.com)
  • Structure of barley beta-amylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural representation of the enzyme beta-amylase from barley. (wordpress.com)
  • K-AMYLSD can be used for measuring alpha-amylase in barley samples (the Amylase SD assay is more sensitive than the K-CERA). (megazyme.com)
  • Due to the usually higher level of higher alpha-amylase in barley grains the only suggested alteration to the standard procedure is that 0.5 g of milled barley grain is extracted in 25 mL of extraction buffer (instead of 0.5 g extracted in 4 mL). (megazyme.com)
  • However, micromalting barley sourced from different regions showed that malting conditions had a strong influence on the malt levels of alpha-amylase and limit dextrinase. (edu.au)
  • The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor ( BASI) inhibits alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) with subnanomolar affinity. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • This enzyme acts on starch, glycogen and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides producing beta-maltose by an inversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working from the non-reducing end, β-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 glycosidic bond, cleaving off two glucose units (maltose) at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the ripening of fruit, β-amylase breaks starch into maltose, resulting in the sweet flavor of ripe fruit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structures of free and maltose-bound beta-amylases were determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.1 and 2.5 A with R-factors of 0.170 and 0.164, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • The structure of the core domain is similar to that of soybean beta-amylase except for the L4 maltose-binding site, whereas the C-terminal domain has the same secondary structure as domain E of cyclodextrin glucosyltransferase. (rcsb.org)
  • These results indicate that the ability of B. cereus beta-amylase to digest raw starch can be attributed to the additional two maltose-binding sites. (rcsb.org)
  • The substrate is hydrolysed by β-amylase to maltose and p -nitrophenyl maltotriose (PNPG3). (megazyme.com)
  • By acting at random locations along the starch chain, α-amylase breaks down long-chain saccharides , ultimately yielding either maltotriose and maltose from amylose , or maltose, glucose and "limit dextrin" from amylopectin . (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of the mashing period, the wort contains (from the alpha-amylase) and maltose (from the beta-amylase), two principal sugars used in fermentation. (wordpress.com)
  • The enzyme beta amylase is very specific in its mode of action in that it will sit at the end of the carbohydrate chain and break it down into maltose. (homebrewtechniques.com)
  • Alpha and beta amylase are both critical enzymes in mashing but it is beta amylase that defines the fermentability of wort because it releases maltose from starch. (homebrewtechniques.com)
  • This process of transitory starch degradation is mostly attributable to the β-Amylase (BAM) family, which are starch exohydrolases that cleave the penultimate α-1,4 glycosidic bonds of starch to release maltose. (jmu.edu)
  • 2007). Among them AY-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) is an important exo-acting enzyme that cleaves second a-14 glycosidic linkages from the non-reducing ends of amylose amylopectin and glycogen molecules producing maltose. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Amylases split long polysaccharide chains, producing a mixture of glucose and maltose. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Amylases break the long polysaccharide chains, leaving a mixture of the sugars glucose and maltose. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Largely responsible for maltose production ("exo" activity) Less thermostable than alpha-amylase. (summitbrewing.com)
  • Beta-amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages in starch-type polysaccharide substrates so as to remove successive maltose units from the non-reducing ends of the chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amylase enzymes are used to metabolize starch into sugars like glucose and maltose [2]. (coursehero.com)
  • Beta amylase then breaks down dextrin into maltose. (thefreshloaf.com)
  • Expression of the gene in E. coli showed that the protein product was a functional beta-amylase that could degrade both starch granules and solubilized amylopectin, while import experiments demonstrated that the beta-amylase was imported and processed into pea chloroplasts. (nih.gov)
  • There are 2 beta Amylase protein produced in house with high quality which are covering various species. (sinobiological.com)
  • Among these beta Amylase proteins, there are 2 Human beta Amylase protein. (sinobiological.com)
  • All these beta Amylase protein are expressed by different host cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • SDS-PAGE analysis of purified enzyme revealed a single visible protein band corresponding to about 113 kDa mass showing amylase activity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It has been determined that β-amylase isoenzymes may play a role in the aggregating capacity of the grain protein complex via the formation of S-S bonds. (deepdyve.com)
  • An amylase ( / ˈ æ m ɪ l eɪ z / ) is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch (Latin amylum ) into sugars . (wikipedia.org)
  • α- and β-amylases are important in brewing beer and liquor made from sugars derived from starch . (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that beta-amylase largely produces the greatest amount of fermentable sugars. (wordpress.com)
  • Hi everyone, I'm experimenting with alpha amylase to increase the fermentability of malt extracts by breaking down some of the complex sugars and other hard-to-ferment components. (homebrewtalk.com)
  • Quote from BeerSmith's page: A low step temperature (146-150F/63-66 C) emphasizing beta amylase will therefore result in a more complete conversion to simple sugars, but will. (homebrewtalk.com)
  • Next issue, I will delve into the amylases, the enzymes that convert starches into sugars. (morebeer.com)
  • Cellulases break down the cellulose molecule into monosaccharides ("simple sugars") such as beta- glucose , or shorter polysaccharides and oligosaccharides . (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2, β-amylase, saccharogen amylase, glycogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan maltohydrolase. (wikipedia.org)
  • saccharogen amylase) is also synthesized by bacteria , fungi , and plants . (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-amylase is an essential enzyme in alpha-glucan metabolism, acting to catalyse the hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds of glycogen, starch and related polysaccharides. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Influence of 1-butanol & cyclohexanol on the hydrolysis of amylose by alpha-amylase & beta-amylase. (bvsalud.org)
  • The specific reaction involved is the hydrolysis of the 1,4-beta-D- glycosidic linkages in cellulose, hemicellulose , lichenin , and cereal beta-D-glucans . (wikipedia.org)
  • An investigation into factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt confirmed that ungerminated sorghum grain exhibited essentially no beta-amylase activity. (csir.co.za)
  • Beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt was increased by germination time, high germination moisture and over the germination temperature range investigated (24-32-degrees-C), 24-degrees-C gave the highest activity. (csir.co.za)
  • The beta-amylase activity of sorghum malts was significantly correlated with malt diastatic power, despite the fact that alpha-amylase and not beta-amylase is the predominant diastatic enzyme in sorghum malt. (csir.co.za)
  • β-Amylase test kit is suitable for the specific measurement and analysis of β-amylase in malt flour. (megazyme.com)
  • The homology search revealed that this C-terminal region has homology with C-terminal regions of the beta-amylase from C. thermosulfurogenes, some bacterial alpha-amylases, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, and glucoamylase. (asm.org)
  • They are categorized into three main groups i.e. a- amylase AY-amylase and glucoamylase (Saxena et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 5. The ester of claim 4, wherein the starch is a non-pregelatinized granular waxy maize starch or corn starch and wherein the alpha amylase is mixed with a beta amylase or a glucoamylase. (patentgenius.com)
  • Alternative catalytic anions differentially modulate human alpha-amylase activity and specificity. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The K-MALTA contains 50 assays each of K-CERA and K-BETA3 so measures beta- and alpha-amylase activity (separately). (megazyme.com)
  • and (3) capable of retaining at least about 50% of its initial alpha-amylase activity when held at 80° C. and at a pH of 4.5 for 10 minutes in the presence of 5 mM of calcium ion. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The alpha-amylase enzyme of claim 1, wherein said enzyme is capable of retaining at least about 50% of its initial alpha-amylase activity at a temperature of 85° C. and at a pH of 4.55 for 30 minutes in the presence of 5 mM of calcium ion and 22.5%, by weight, starch, d.s. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • β-amylase is present in an inactive form prior to germination , whereas α-amylase and proteases appear once germination has begun. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 4. The method according to claim 1, further comprising treating said fabric or garment with an enzyme selected from the group consisting of proteases, amylases, cellulases, peroxidases, oxidases, pectinases, lipases other than ETE or BEB hydrolyases, and combinations of any of the foregoing. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The optimum pH for β-amylase is 4.0-5.0 They belong to Glycoside hydrolase family 14. (wikipedia.org)
  • This entry represents the all-beta C-terminal domain that is found in members of the glycosyl hydrolase 13 family, such as alpha-amylases and 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Animal tissues do not contain β-amylase, although it may be present in microorganisms contained within the digestive tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that B. cereus beta-amylase has an extra domain which has raw-starch-binding ability and that the domain has considerable sequence homology with those of other amylases or related enzymes from a wide variety of microorganisms. (asm.org)
  • Three highly conserved sequence regions are found in all known beta-amylases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Os CME utilizados foram compostos de Energex (beta-glucanase, pectinase, hemicelulase) e Bio-Feed Alpha (beta-glucanase, amilase). (doaj.org)
  • The MECs used were made up of Energex (beta-glucanase, pectinase, hemicellulose) and Bio-Feed Alpha (beta-glucanase, amylase). (doaj.org)
  • The N-terminal sequences (AVNGKG MNPDYKAYLMAPLKKI), the C-terminal sequences (SHTSSW), and the amino acid sequences of the five regions in the beta-amylase molecules were determined. (asm.org)
  • The function of the class of enzymes known as amylases is to break down starch and glycogen, both of which are glucose polymers (molecules consisting of repeating units of glucose molecules), by hydrolyzing [HI-dro-LIZE] or "cutting" the chemical bonds that glucose polymers use to link glucose, the α1→4 glycosidic [GLY-co-SID-ick] bond. (wordpress.com)
  • Alpha amylases hydrolyze [HI-dro-LIZE] or "cut" glycosidic bonds in random areas along the glucose chain, eventually degrading the starch completely into individual glucose molecules. (wordpress.com)
  • To unravel the structure of these molecules, enzymes were needed: alpha- and beta-amylases, phosphorylase, etc. (nobelprize.org)
  • Whereas alpha amylase is a lot less specific in its mode of action as it moves along the chain and randomly breaks it down into smaller dextrins and straight chain carbohydrates. (homebrewtechniques.com)
  • Neither alpha nor beta amylase will act on areas of the starch molecule where it branches which gives rise to the presence of larger unfermentable dextrins in the finished beer. (homebrewtechniques.com)
  • Largely responsible for mash viscosity reduction and production of dextrins ("endo" activity) More thermostable than beta-amylase. (summitbrewing.com)
  • Simple dextrins, from the reduction of starch by alpha amylase. (castlemalting.com)
  • These two structures are a simple long chain molecule known as amylase and a more complex branched version called amylopectin. (homebrewtechniques.com)
  • A sequenced DNA fragment of 2,001 bp contains the beta-amylase gene. (asm.org)
  • To identify genes involved in banana starch metabolism and investigate their evolutionary history, we analyzed six gene families playing a crucial role in plant starch biosynthesis and degradation: the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (AGPases), starch synthases (SS), starch branching enzymes (SBE), debranching enzymes (DBE), α-amylases (AMY) and β-amylases (BAM). (frontiersin.org)
  • A Stowaway -like element resides within the fourth intron of a β-amylase gene in representatives of five genera in the wheat tribe, Triticeae. (springer.com)
  • Its presence vs. absence was examined with reference to the β-amylase gene tree topology, and in light of sequence comparisons of the β-amylase elements to Triticeae Stowaway elements in the Entrez nucleotide database. (springer.com)
  • Computer graphics representation of the enzyme amylase (diastase), a member of a group of close- related enzymes that degrade starch, glycogen and other polysaccharides. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Amylases are a group of related enzymes that break down starch, glycogen and other polysaccharides. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Many microbes also produce amylase to degrade extracellular starches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants and some bacteria also produce amylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, more than 1,000 commercial malting samples from Australia and elsewhere, primarily malted in 2005 and 2006, were analyzed for their levels of the diastatic power (DP) enzymes alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and limit dextrinase. (edu.au)
  • The bacteria composition may comprise a mixture of fungic amylases, amylases of bacterial origin, amyloglucosidase, and hemicellulase. (patentgenius.com)
  • 9. Process of claim 6, wherein the enzyme is chosen from the group consisting of fungic amylase, bacerial hemicellulase, amyloglucosidase and mixtures thereof. (patentgenius.com)
  • β-amylase is present in an inactive form prior to seed germination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3D structure of a complex of soybean beta-amylase with an inhibitor (alpha-cyclodextrin) has been determined to 3.0A resolution by X-ray diffraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-amylase is classified as family 13 of the glycosyl hydrolases and is present in archaea, bacteria, plants and animals. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The screening of Beta-lactam residues in milk is important due to the hypersensitivity of some individuals to these antibiotics and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. (equl.com)
  • Beta-amylase is present in certain bacteria as well as in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta amylase tends to be more prevalent among bacteria, yeast and mold [1]. (coursehero.com)
  • Amylase from Faculative Thermophilic Bacteria", Arch. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Amylase Produced from Thermophilic Bacteria", Chem. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Structure of a complex of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 alpha-amylase 2 with maltohexaose demonstrates the important role of aromatic residues at the reducing end of the substrate binding cleft. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Because it can act anywhere on the substrate , α-amylase tends to be faster-acting than β-amylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pancreas and salivary gland make amylase ( alpha amylase ) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro assay indicates no beta-amylase activity of BAM4. (mybiosource.com)
  • See more of our amylase assay kits and other kit products for measurement of enzyme activities. (megazyme.com)
  • A procedure previously developed for the assay of cereal-flour β-amylase has been improved and standardised. (megazyme.com)
  • This information can be used to set up an assay to find the best concentration of alpha amylase to use for testing. (coursehero.com)
  • 2010). The induced mutagenesis involving radiations (like ultraviolet or gamma rays) or chemicals (like alkylating agents or nitrous acid) has been attempted to increase the metabolic performance of bacterial strains for better amylase production (Daba et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Beta-lactam Antibiotics are among the most widely used antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infections in cattle and therefore trace amounts are possible in the milk produced by a treated animal. (equl.com)
  • 13. Process of claim 6 wherein the enzyme is bacterial amylase and is added in amounts of 0.05 to 0.20 per thousand by weight of the material to be ensilaged and has an activity of 250 units/gram. (patentgenius.com)
  • Amylase is a very important starch- metabolizing enzyme that is produced in both the saliva and in the pancreas to speed the digestive process. (organicfacts.net)
  • Once the food reaches the acidic environment of the stomach, different amylase enzymes (produced in the pancreas) break down the food more fully. (organicfacts.net)
  • I decided to work on the purification of hog pancreas amylase. (nobelprize.org)
  • Within a couple of years, we succeeded in crystallizing alpha-amylase from pork pancreas and soon after that, from a variety of other sources including human pancreas and saliva, two strains of A. oryzae , B. subtilis and P. saccharophila . (nobelprize.org)
  • In humans, amylases are produced in the salivary glands and the pancreas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Also known as Inactive beta-amylase 9 (1,4-alpha-D-glucan maltohydrolase) (Inactive beta-amylase 3). (mybiosource.com)
  • 1 The product is suitable for poultry feed with complex components, can degrade cellulose, xylan, beta-glucan and anti-nutritional divisor in daily ration. (viv.net)
  • This domain forms a Greek key beta-barrel fold in these enzymes [ PMID: 7877175 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Specific amylase proteins are designated by different Greek letters. (wikipedia.org)
  • These beta Amylase proteins are produced with different tags, such as His Tag, Fc Tag. (sinobiological.com)
  • The enzyme consists of a core (beta/alpha)8-barrel domain (residues 5-434) and a C-terminal starch-binding domain (residues 435-613). (rcsb.org)
  • Evolution of alpha-amylases: architectural features and key residues in the stabilization of the (beta/alpha)(8) scaffold. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The mature beta-amylase contains 514 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 57,885 Da. (asm.org)
  • Ten well-conserved regions were found between the N terminus and the area around residue 430, but the C-terminal region of 90 residues has no similarity with those of the plant beta-amylases. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore both alpha and beta amylase, because they are enzymes, are sensitive to pH and temperature i.e. there is an optimum temperature and pH at which they operate most efficiently. (homebrewtechniques.com)
  • The table below details the pH and temperature optima for alpha and beta amylase. (homebrewtechniques.com)
  • As you can see from the table if you are looking to increase the fermentability of your wort then you need to aim at a lower mashing temperature to favour the action of beta amylase. (homebrewtechniques.com)
  • The brewer controls the relative activities of alpha and beta amylase using mash temperature to achieve the desired level of wort fermentability. (summitbrewing.com)
  • There are two other factors besides temperature that affect the amylase enzyme activity. (howtobrew.com)
  • At a higher temperature, a stiffer mash and a higher pH, the alpha amylase is favored and starch conversion will be complete in 30 minutes or less. (howtobrew.com)
  • 6. The process of claim 3, wherein the starch hydrolysate is heated to a temperature above 100° C. and thereafter cooled and treated with additional alpha-amylase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • All amylases are glycoside hydrolases and act on α-1,4- glycosidic bonds . (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various types of this enzyme, but all are digestive enzymes - alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, and y-amylase. (organicfacts.net)
  • pancreatic amylase has a greater digestive efficiency than salivary amylase. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Molecular basis of the effects of chloride ion on the acid-base catalyst in the mechanism of pancreatic alpha-amylase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Once food is swallowed, the acid stomach conditions prevent further amylase activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The novel alpha-amylases are useful in hydrolyzing and/or liquefying starch and due to their stability at low pH values they can be used in conjunction with other acid stable amylases such as gluco-amylase in either a soluble or an immobilized form. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the spirit of the holiday, I'm going to showcase two interesting enzymes (or beerzymes as I whimsically and somewhat superfluously call them) that are necessary for the fermentation process of brewing beer - α(alpha) and β(beta) amylase [AM-uh-lace]. (wordpress.com)
  • Motorina, I. 2012-02-20 00:00:00 The polymorphism of winter common wheat with respect to β-amylase isoenzymes has been analyzed using electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (PAAG) buffered with a Tris-glycine system (pH 8.3). (deepdyve.com)
  • Seven β-amylase isoenzymes have been found in wheat varieties and the breeding stocks. (deepdyve.com)
  • cases of increased serum amylase without obvious pancreatitis or parotitis require quantification of amylase isoenzymes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although all alpha-amylases possess the same catalytic function, they can vary with respect to sequence. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The chloride-binding functions to activate the enzyme, which acts by a two-step mechanism involving a catalytic nucleophile base (usually an Asp) and a catalytic proton donor (usually a Glu) that are responsible for the formation of the beta-linked glycosyl-enzyme intermediate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • M2 (pH 7) as moisture content supported 55% higher amylase activity by the potent mutant in 72 h of incubation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Measurement of serum α-amylase activity is an important diagnostic test for acute and chronic pancreatitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • You may find sparge viscosity problems arise with raw grains high in beta-glucans like rye - and then this can be an issue. (hbd.org)
  • The γ-amylase has most acidic optimum pH of all amylases because it is most active around pH 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two main starch degrading enzymes that have the most impact during mashing are alpha and beta amylase. (homebrewtechniques.com)
  • Cellobiases (EC 3.2.1.21) or beta-glucosidases hydrolyse the exocellulase product into individual monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)