beta-Alanine-Pyruvate Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from L-ALANINE to 3-oxopropanoate to generate PYRUVATE and BETA-ALANINE.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)PyruvatesD-Alanine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.Pyruvate OxidasePyruvate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide): The E1 component of the multienzyme PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX. It is composed of 2 alpha subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) and 2 beta subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit).Alanine Racemase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Tyrosine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alanine Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (Lipoamide)-Phosphatase: (Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide))-phosphate phosphohydrolase. A mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of a phosphate on a specific seryl hydroxyl group of pyruvate dehydrogenase, reactivating the enzyme complex. EC 3.1.3.43.Aminooxyacetic Acid: A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase: A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC 2.6.1.13.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.PhosphoenolpyruvateOxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Vigabatrin: An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.MalatesIntegrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Keto AcidsEscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency Disease: An inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient enzyme activity in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX, resulting in deficiency of acetyl CoA and reduced synthesis of acetylcholine. Two clinical forms are recognized: neonatal and juvenile. The neonatal form is a relatively common cause of lactic acidosis in the first weeks of life and may also feature an erythematous rash. The juvenile form presents with lactic acidosis, alopecia, intermittent ATAXIA; SEIZURES; and an erythematous rash. (From J Inherit Metab Dis 1996;19(4):452-62) Autosomal recessive and X-linked forms are caused by mutations in the genes for the three different enzyme components of this multisubunit pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. One of the mutations at Xp22.2-p22.1 in the gene for the E1 alpha component of the complex leads to LEIGH DISEASE.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Dichloroacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.Dihydrolipoyllysine-Residue Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Cytoplasmic: An aspartate aminotransferase found in the CYTOPLASM.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.GlyoxylatesOxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ketone Oxidoreductases: Oxidoreductases that are specific for KETONES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.GalactosaminePyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase (Isomerizing): An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial: An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.ValeratesRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Glycine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the amino group of GLYCINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate GLYOXYLATE and L-GLUTAMATE.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.CitratesPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Mice, Inbred C57BLAcetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.KynurenineSuccinyldiaminopimelate Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from N-succinyl-L-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate N-succinyl-2-L-amino-6-oxoheptanedioate and L-GLUTAMATE, respectively.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase ComplexCysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reduction of lipoamide by NADH to yield dihydrolipoamide and NAD+. The enzyme is a component of several MULTIENZYME COMPLEXES.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Coenzyme AAcetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Apoenzymes: The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Pyruvate Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Hereditary disorders of pyruvate metabolism. They are difficult to diagnose and describe because pyruvate is a key intermediate in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Some inherited metabolic disorders may alter pyruvate metabolism indirectly. Disorders in pyruvate metabolism appear to lead to deficiencies in neurotransmitter synthesis and, consequently, to nervous system disorders.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Aminocaproates: Amino derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the amino caproic acid structure.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Adrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Thioctic Acid: An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Leucine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transamination of branched-chain AMINO ACIDS to 2-oxoglutarate.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningIntegrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Cyclohexylamines: A family of alicyclic hydrocarbons containing an amine group with the general formula R-C6H10NH2.Threonine Dehydratase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the deamination of THREONINE to 2-ketobutyrate and AMMONIA. The role of this enzyme can be biosynthetic or biodegradative. In the former role it supplies 2-ketobutyrate required for ISOLEUCINE biosynthesis, while in the latter it is only involved in the breakdown of threonine to supply energy. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.1.16.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Comparison of the omega-transaminases from different microorganisms and application to production of chiral amines. (1/4)

Microorganisms that are capable of (S)-enantioselective transamination of chiral amines were isolated from soil samples by selective enrichment using (S)-alpha-methyl-benzylamine ((S)-alpha-MBA) as a sole nitrogen source. Among them, Klebsiella pneumoniae JS2F, Bacillus thuringiensis JS64, and Vibrio fluvialis JS17 showed good omega-transaminase (omega-TA) activities and the properties of the omega-TAs were investigated. The induction level of the enzyme was strongly dependent on the nitrogen source for the strains, except for V. fluvialis JS17. All the omega-TAs showed high enantioselectivity (E>50) toward (S)-alpha-MBA and broad amino donor specificities for arylic and aliphatic chiral amines. Besides pyruvate, aldehydes such as propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde showed good amino acceptor reactivities. All the omega-TAs showed substrate inhibition by (S)-alpha-MBA above 200 mm. Moreover, substrate inhibition by pyruvate above 10 mm was observed for omega-TA from V. fluvialis JS17. In the case of product inhibition, acetophenone showed much greater inhibitions than L-alanine for all omega-TAs. Comparison of the enzyme properties indicates that omega-transaminase from V. fluvialis JS17 is the best one for both kinetic resolution and asymmetric synthesis to produce enantiomerically pure chiral amines. Kinetic resolution of sec-butylamine (20 mM) was done under reduced pressure (150 Torr) to selectively remove an inhibitory product (2-butanone) using the enzyme from V. fluvialis JS17. Enantiomeric excess of (R)-sec-butylamine reached 94.7% after 12 h of reaction.  (+info)

omega-Amino acid:pyruvate transaminase from Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2: a new catalyst for kinetic resolution of beta-amino acids and amines. (2/4)

Alcaligenes denitrificans Y2k-2 was obtained by selective enrichment followed by screening from soil samples, which showed omega-amino acid:pyruvate transaminase activity, to kinetically resolve aliphatic beta-amino acid, and the corresponding structural gene (aptA) was cloned. The gene was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 by using an isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible pET expression system (9.6 U/mg), and the recombinant AptA was purified to show a specific activity of 77.2 U/mg for L-beta-amino-n-butyric acid (L-beta-ABA). The enzyme converts various beta-amino acids and amines to the corresponding beta-keto acids and ketones by using pyruvate as an amine acceptor. The apparent K(m) and V(max) for L-beta-ABA were 56 mM and 500 U/mg, respectively, in the presence of 10 mM pyruvate. In the presence of 10 mM L-beta-ABA, the apparent K(m) and V(max) for pyruvate were 11 mM and 370 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme exhibits high stereoselectivity (E > 80) in the kinetic resolution of 50 mM D,L-beta-ABA, producing optically pure D-beta-ABA (99% enantiomeric excess) with 53% conversion.  (+info)

The primary structure of omega-amino acid:pyruvate aminotransferase. (3/4)

The complete amino acid sequence of bacterial omega-amino acid:pyruvate aminotransferase (omega-APT) was determined from its primary structure. The enzyme protein was fragmented by CNBr cleavage, trypsin, and Staphylococcus aureus V8 digestions. The peptides were purified and sequenced by Edman degradation. omega-ATP is composed of four identical subunits of 449 amino acids each. The calculated molecular weight of the enzyme subunit is 48,738 and that of the enzyme tetramer is 194,952. No disulfide bonds or bound sugar molecules were found in the enzyme structure, although 6 cysteine residues were determined per enzyme subunit. Sequence homologies were found between an omega-aminotransferase, i.e. mammalian and yeast ornithine delta-aminotransferases, fungal gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase and 7,8-diaminoperalgonate aminotransferase, and 2,2-dialkylglycine decarboxylase. The enzyme structure is not homologous to those of aspartate aminotransferases (AspATs) including the enzymes of Escherichia coli and Sufolobus salfactaricus, though significant homology in the three-dimensional structures around the cofactor binding site has been found between omega-APT and AspATs (Watanabe, N., Sakabe, K., Sakabe, N., Higashi, T., Sasaki, K., Aibara, S., Morita, Y., Yonaha, K., Toyama, S., and Fukutani, H. (1989) J. Biochem. 105, 1-3).  (+info)

Crystal structure analysis of omega-amino acid:pyruvate aminotransferase with a newly developed Weissenberg camera and an imaging plate using synchrotron radiation. (4/4)

The three-dimensional structure of omega-amino acid:pyruvate aminotransferase from Pseudomonas sp. F-126, an isologous alpha 4 tetramer containing pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution. The diffraction data were collected with a newly developed Weissenberg camera with a Fuji Imaging Plate, using synchrotron radiation. The mean figure-of-merit was 0.57. The subunit is rich in secondary structure and comprises two domains. PLP is located in the large domain. The high homology in the secondary structure between this enzyme and aspartate aminotransferase strongly indicates that these two types of enzymes have evolved from a common ancestor.  (+info)

*Beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase

Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This ... In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine ... beta-alanine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine and 3-oxopropanoate, whereas its two products are pyruvate ... and beta-alanine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.347 --- d-alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.470 --- ... alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.120 --- 2-aminoadipate transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.200 --- 4- ... pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) MeSH D08.811.682.657.350.937 --- pyruvate oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.657.350.968 --- pyruvate ... 4-beta-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.600 --- glucan endo-1,3-beta-d-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.375 --- ...

*Glucagon

... often from muscle-derived pyruvate/glutamate transamination (see alanine transaminase reaction). Acetylcholine Cholecystokinin ... Production, which is otherwise freerunning, is suppressed/regulated by insulin from the adjacent beta cells. When blood sugar ... Feliú JE, Hue L, Hers HG (August 1976). "Hormonal control of pyruvate kinase activity and of gluconeogenesis in isolated ... Secretion of glucagon is stimulated by: Hypoglycemia Epinephrine (via β2, α2, and α1 adrenergic receptors) Arginine Alanine ( ...

*R)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate-pyruvate transaminase

D-3-aminoisobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase, (R)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase, and D-beta-aminoisobutyrate:pyruvate ... L-alanine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are (R)-3-amino-2-methylpropanoate and pyruvate, whereas its two products are ... Other names in common use include D-3-aminoisobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase, beta-aminoisobutyrate-pyruvate aminotransferase, ... Also other names of enzymes similar to this contains, L-3-aminoisobutyrate transaminase, beta-aminobutyric transaminase, L-3- ...

*Cathinone

... with pyruvate and producing CO2. 1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione goes though a transaminase reaction to replace a ketone with an ... After this, the molecule can either go through a beta-oxidative pathway or a non-beta-oxidative pathway. The beta-oxidative ... This synthetic route starts out with the N-acetylation of the optically active amino acid, S-alanine. Then, phosphorus ... Aside from the beta- and non-beta-oxidative pathways, the biosynthesis of cathinone can proceed through a CoA-dependent pathway ...

*Chromosome 2 (human)

... encoding protein Beta-centractin AGXT: alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (oxalosis I; hyperoxaluria I; glycolicaciduria; ... serine-pyruvate aminotransferase) ALS2: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) ALS2CR8: encoding protein Amyotrophic ... glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 GKN1: gastrokine 1 GPATCH11: G-patch domain containing protein 11 GTF2A1L: ... beta subunit HSPC159: Galectin-related protein LEPQTL1: Leptin, serum levels of MEMO1: Mediator of cell motility 1 MPHOSPH10: M ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 2)

... succinyldiaminopimelate transaminase EC 2.6.1.18: b-alanine-pyruvate transaminase EC 2.6.1.19: 4-aminobutyrate transaminase EC ... 6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-beta-L-altrosamine transaminase EC 2.6.1.93: neamine transaminase EC 2.6.1.94: 2'-deamino-2'-hydroxyneamine ... alanine-glyoxylate transaminase EC 2.6.1.45: serine-glyoxylate transaminase EC 2.6.1.46: diaminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase ... aspartate transaminase EC 2.6.1.2: alanine transaminase EC 2.6.1.3: cysteine transaminase EC 2.6.1.4: glycine transaminase EC ...

*Amino acid

A rare exception to the dominance of α-amino acids in biology is the β-amino acid beta alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), which ... This process involves transaminases, often the same as those used in amination during synthesis. In many vertebrates, the amino ... For example, serine dehydratase converts serine to pyruvate and ammonia. After removal of one or more amino groups, the ... In some amino acids, the amine group is attached to the β or γ-carbon, and these are therefore referred to as beta or gamma ...

*List of enzymes

EC 2.6.1 Alanine transaminase EC 2.6.1.2 Aspartate transaminase EC 2.6.1.1 Category:EC 2.7.2 Butyrate kinase (EC 2.7.2.7) ... Beta-lactamase (EC 3.5.2.6) Category:EC 3.5.3 (In linear amidines) Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) Category:EC 3.5.4 (In cyclic amidines ... Pyruvate carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.1) Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2) DNA ligase (EC 6.5.1.1). ... Beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) Hyaluronidase (EC 3.2.1.35) Category:EC 3.3 Adenosylmethionine hydrolase S-adenosyl-L- ...

*Pyridoxal phosphate

Examples of inhibitors: AlaP (alanine phosphonate) inihibits alanine racemases, but its lack of specificity has prompted ... PLP is also involved in various beta-elimination reactions such as the reactions carried out by serine dehydratase and GDP-4- ... In addition, PLP is used by aminotransferases (or transaminases) that act upon unusual sugars such as perosamine and desosamine ... and pyruvate. The condensation product of 3-hydroxy-1-aminoacetone phosphate and deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate is pyridoxine 5'- ...

*Index of oncology articles

... serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase - Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase - serum tumor marker test - sesquiterpene ... beta alethine - beta carotene - beta hemolytic streptococcus group B - beta-endorphin - beta-glucan - beta-human chorionic ... alanine aminopeptidase - alanine transferase - alanosine - aldesleukin - alemtuzumab - alendronate sodium - alkalinization - ... epoetin beta - epothilone - epothilone B - epothilone D - epratuzumab - Epstein-Barr virus - EPT - ER - ER+ - ER- - ERA-923 - ...
Chiral amines are frequent in today´s top selling pharmaceuticals. Classical organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals is often work intensive involving many synthesis steps, the use of protection group chemistry, heavy metal catalysts and chiral crystallization techniques. In recent years biocatalysts have proven their outstanding ability to synthesize chiral compounds. In this work the possibility of employing biocatalysts as alternative catalysts for API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) synthesis was explored. Three compounds currently on the market were selected as viable case studies: Cinacalcet (a hyperparathyroidism drug), Vyvanse (an ADHD-drug) and Sertraline (an antidepressant). Two enzyme classes were investigated to directly provide the chiral amines - transaminases and imine reductases. Ketoreductases were also investigated to provide the chiral amine via the chiral alcohol. Laccases and hydrolases were employed to complete the synthesis pathways to the final API. In the case of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines with ω-transaminase. AU - Shin, Jong Shik. AU - Kim, Byung Gee. PY - 1999/10/20. Y1 - 1999/10/20. N2 - The asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines using prochiral ketones was carried out with (S)-specific ω-transaminase (ω-TA) from Vibrio fluvialis JS17. This reaction is inhibited severely by both products, (S)-amine and deaminated ketone. In addition, thermodynamic equilibrium strongly favored the reverse reaction. L-Alanine proved to be the best amino donor based on easy removal of the products. Optimal pH of the reactions with both whole cells and cell-free extract was 7. Amino acceptor reactivities of ketone substrates and reaction profiles of the asymmetric synthesis showed that the initial rate as well as the reaction yield were lower when the resulting (S)- amine from a prochiral ketone substrate was a more reactive amino donor. The yield could be increased dramatically by removing pyruvate, which is a more inhibitory product than ...
Amine dehydrogenase (AmDH) possesses tremendous potential for the synthesis of chiral amines because AmDH catalyzes the asymmetric reductive amination of ketone with high enatioselectivity. Although a reductive application of AmDH is favored in practice, the oxidative route is interesting as well for the preparation of chiral amines. Here, the kinetic resolution of racemic amines using AmDH was first extensively studied, and the AmDH reaction was combined with an NADH oxidase (Nox) to regenerate NAD+ and to drive the reaction forward. When the kinetic resolution was carried out with 10 mM rac-2-aminoheptane and 5 mM rac-α-methylbenzylamine (α-MBA) using purified enzymes, the enantiomeric excess (ee) values were less than 26% due to the product inhibition of AmDH by ketone and the inhibition of Nox by the substrate amine. The use of a whole-cell biocatalyst co-expressing AmDH and Nox apparently reduces the substrate and product inhibition, and/or it increases the stability of the enzymes. Fifty
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
A versatile and highly stereoselective synthetic route to functionalized bi- and tricyclic lactams (up to , 20:1 dr and 99% ee) in one pot from simple starting materials (allylic alcohols, enals, diamines and amino alcohols) using cascade transformations promoted by chiral amine/BrOnsted or metal/chiral amine/BrOnsted relay catalysis is disclosed. Here molecular oxygen is employed as the terminal oxidant for the latter relay catalysis approach.. ...
A reaction flask was charged with the chiral amine (34) (1.07equivalent (eq.); and anhydrous toluene (15vol) with stirring under an inert atmosphere. The solution was cooled below -70°C and BuLi (2.5M in hexane, 1.04 eq.) was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 min at this temperature, then at -10° to 0°C for 10 min. A solution of t-butyl 2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-l-yl)-acetate (32) (GOOmg, 1 eq., Iwt) in toluene (5 vol) was added slowly, keeping the reaction temperature below -70°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at -40 to -50°C for 30 min. Ethyl iodide 2.5eq., Ivol) was then added and the reaction mixture was stirred at -50 to -40°C for 3 hrs. After being kept in the freezer at approximately -40°C overnight, the reaction mixture was diluted with pH 7 buffer (KH2PO4/KOH, 1M, 33vol) and dichloromethane (33vol). The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 16vol) and the combined organic extracts were then dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacua to give crude ...
This thesis investigates the biocatalytic synthesis of amines and amino alcohols. The applicability and economic feasibility of biocatalysis for chiral amine synthesis is reviewed and the findings were compared to established chemical processes using relevant process parameters (TON, TOF and STY). This review clearly showcases the potential of biocatalysis for the synthesis of chiral amines and provides a valuable guide for synthetic chemists who want to benefit from these new opportunities. Next, biocatalysis is applied for the synthesis of an amino alcohol with two stereocentres: A novel route for the synthesis of all four stereoisomers of 4-amino-1-phenylpentane-2-ol is presented. Enzymes were applied to install both stereocentres successively, which allowed the selective synthesis with high yields and optical purities. A small scale preparative asymmetric transamination yielded one amino alcohol stereoisomer selectively. The approach presented in this thesis provides a valuable option for ...
Lorfords Antiques (1) By Invitation Only (23) Wallpaper Change (2) 17th-18th Century (1) Acanthus (1) Achillea (1) Advent - Classic Music - Chopin Piano Concerto - Alexis Weissenberg (1) advertising (1) Albrecht Dürer (1) Alfred Lord Tennyson (1) Alsace (1) Altweibersommer (1) Americain Houses (1) American Independance Day - 4th July 1776 (1) Animals (2) Anthony van Dyck (1) Antique Hemp (1) Antique Textiles (1) Antiques (22) Antiques - German grain sacks - Old Linen - Interior - Kymberley Fraser (1) Antiques-Country Furniture (1) Architekt Mies van der Rohe (1) Arcimboldo (3) Arcimboldo - Summer (1) Art (4) Artists (1) Ashes and Snow (2) Auctions (2) August (1) Australia (2) Autumn (7) Ballet (1) Barbara and René Stoeltie (1) Baroque Music Festival (4) Baroque Music Festival - Perigord - Bach - Ton Koopman - Gustav Leonhardt and others.... (1) Barron family (1) Baskets (1) Bedrooms (1) Beethoven (2) Beethoven Piano Concerto No.3 (1) Birds (5) Black Forest (6) Black Forest - Germany - ...
Biocatalysis offers an alternative to classic chemistry by using enzymes, the protein catalysts of Nature, for production of fine chemicals. Evolution has created enzymes capable of catalysis at moderate temperature of a specific reaction in the presence of a plethora of compounds in the aqueous cell environment. The focal point of biocatalysis is to utilise these traits in vitro, for creation of valuable molecules.. The ω-transaminase is an enzyme capable of producing chiral amines, compounds used to great extent in pharmaceuticals. Much effort has in recent years been invested in the research and engineering of this enzyme type since the catalysed reaction offers an advantageous alternative to classical techniques. Nevertheless, there is a need for method development, adaptation of the enzyme and increased understanding of the catalytic mechanism for feasibility as an effective biocatalyst for unnatural substrates. This thesis addresses a chosen set of obstacles as a contribution to meeting ...
Graduated from the University of York in 2014. During her placement year at AstraZeneca she worked on the manufacture of chiral amines via catalytic and flow processing methods. She also undertook a placement at the University of Nottingham looking at the synthesis and characterisation of materials which promote stem cell attachment for biomedical applications. She is currently working under the supervision of Profs. Jonathan Clayden and Kevin Booker-Milburn on the development of methodology for the ring-expansion of nitrogen heterocycles via aryl and vinyl migrations ...
Accepted name: β-alanine pyruvate transaminase. Reaction: L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate = pyruvate + β-alanine. Other name(s): β-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase; β-alanine-α-alanine transaminase. Systematic name: L-alanine:3-oxopropanoate aminotransferase. Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 61461-61-8. References: 1. Hayaishi, O., Nishizuka, Y., Tatibana, M., Takeshita, M. and Kuno, S. Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of β-alanine. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 781-790.. 2. Stinson, R.A. and Spencer, M.S. β-Aalanine aminotransferase(s) from a plant source. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1969) 120-127. [PMID: 5762452]. ...
Accepted name: β-alanine pyruvate transaminase. Reaction: L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate = pyruvate + β-alanine. Other name(s): β-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase; β-alanine-α-alanine transaminase. Systematic name: L-alanine:3-oxopropanoate aminotransferase. Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 61461-61-8. References: 1. Hayaishi, O., Nishizuka, Y., Tatibana, M., Takeshita, M. and Kuno, S. Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of β-alanine. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 781-790.. 2. Stinson, R.A. and Spencer, M.S. β-Aalanine aminotransferase(s) from a plant source. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1969) 120-127. [PMID: 5762452]. ...
SGPT blood test is a test used to measure the amount of the enzyme glutamate pyruvate transaminase in blood serum. Know significance, benefits & features.
The study reported in The Lancet, analyzed the results of 4,068 cases observed collapse of adults in the Kanto region of Japan more . The prospective, multicenter observational study called SOS - KANTO is the first large-scale account comparing the survival rates of out-of - hospital cardiac arrest patients who were treated either with or without mouth-to-mouth ventilations of spectators to the scene. - For cardiac arrest, the term breathing is actually a paradox, says Ewy. We now know that it is not only not helpful, but it is likely to be destructive. .. ###Summary Enantioselective Organocatalysis with SOMO activation Teresa Beeson, Anthony Mastracchio, Jun - Bae Hong, and David MacMillanThe invention of new forms of catalytic activation is essential for the future development of the field of asymmetric catalysis. Here a unique fashion is organocatalytic activation is presented, with a chiral amine catalyst reacts with an aldehyde to produce an enamine transiently one-electron in turn a ...
Roodveldt C, Tawfik DS. C. CAS ISI PubMed Article Goddard, J. Error Prone Pcr Mutagenesis It will be impressive if these methodologies can be extended to tune the redox properties of such synthetic cofactors to match the oxidation potential of organic molecules and then to orient For example, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (aaRS) activity promotes amber stop codon suppression, leading to the expression of full-length Taq polymerase. W. Int. http://parasys.net/error-prone/error-prone-pcr-taq.php Opin. Lutz S, Ostermeier M, Moore GL, Maranas CD, Benkovic SJ. et al. More information Accept Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips Browse by Discipline Architecture & Design Astronomy Biomedical Sciences Business & Management Chemistry Computer Science Earth Sciences & Geography Economics Cancer Ther. 12, 2273-2281 (2013). Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines from ketones applied to sitagliptin manufacture. et al. To provide clearer data to guide improvements, it would also be ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Alanine Aminotransferase, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase, Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase, Serum ALT, ALT, SGPT, Aminotransferase.
Ramesh N. Patel. 4.1 Introduction 71. 4.2 Saxagliptin: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]N?]Boc?]3?]Hydroxyadamantylglycine 71. 4.3 Sitagliptin: Enzymatic Synthesis of Chiral Amine 72. 4.4 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]6?]Hydroxynorleucine 73. 4.5 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of Allysine Ethylene Acetal 74. 4.6 Vanlev: Enzymatic Synthesis of Thiazepine 74. 4.7 Tigemonam: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]β?]Hydroxyvaline 76. 4.8 Autoimmune Diseases: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]Neopentylglycine 76. 4.9 Atazanavir: Enzymatic Synthesis of (S)?]Tertiary Leucine 77. 4.10 Thrombin Inhibitor (Inogatran): Synthesis of (R)?]Cyclohexylalanine 78. 4.11 Gamma Secretase Inhibitor: Enzymatic Synthesis of (R)?]5,5,5?]Trifluoronorvaline 79. 4.12 NK1/NK2 Dual Antagonists: Enzymatic Desymmetrization of Diethyl 3?][3′,4′?]Dichlorophenyl] Glutarate 80. 4.13 Pregabalin: Enzymatic Synthesis of Ethyl (S)?]3?]Cyano?]5?]Methylhexanoate 81. 4.14 Chemokine Receptor Modulator: Enzymatic Synthesis of ...
A hydrogen-bonded complex between an aromatic acid and an enantiopure chiral amine has been dissolved in a nematic solvent, giving rise to a cholesteric medium. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) experiments have been performed at various temperatures on both sides of the cholesteric-isotropic transition. Liquid crystalline order provides significant enhancement to the strength of interaction, inducing a discontinuous jump in concentration of the complex at the cholesteric-isotropic transition.
Enantiospecific synthesis reactions are of intense interest, owing to the increasing request for enantiopure compounds in both research and industry. Lithium amides containing a secondary chelating group are a class of powerful ligands for asymmetric addition reactions. Based on earlier experiences with lithium N,O and N,S amides, synthesis and properties of chiral lithium N,P amides and their use in asymmetric addition are investigated in the present thesis. Several chiral amines were synthesized with previously published methods, which were improved in different ways. A new synthetic route towards chiral aminophosphines via cyclic sulfamidates has been developed. The use of silica in the synthesis of sulfamidate and the chiral aminophosphine shortened the reaction time considerably, compared to previous methods. The reactions are fast, clean and highyielding. Furthermore, the synthesis could successfully be scaled up with no loss in yield or purity and gives a general and simple route to a ...

Beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase - WikipediaBeta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase - Wikipedia

Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This ... In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine ... beta-alanine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine and 3-oxopropanoate, whereas its two products are pyruvate ... and beta-alanine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta-alanine%E2%80%94pyruvate_transaminase

KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Acinetobacter baumannii AYEKEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Acinetobacter baumannii AYE

... beta-alanine ligase [EC:6.3.2.1] K00822 E2.6.1.18; beta-alanine--pyruvate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.18] K01692 paaF; enoyl-CoA ... ABAYE1295 Omega-amino acid--pyruvate aminotransferase (Omega-APT) (Beta-alanine--pyruvate aminotransferase) ABAYE2370 paaF; ... ABAYE1295 Omega-amino acid--pyruvate aminotransferase (Omega-APT) (Beta-alanine--pyruvate aminotransferase) ABAYE2291 conserved ... beta-alanine--pyruvate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.18] K01968 E6.4.1.4A; 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase alpha subunit [EC:6.4.1.4 ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?aby00001+ABAYE2333

KEGG SSDB Paralog Search Result: bpl:BURPS1106A A0396KEGG SSDB Paralog Search Result: bpl:BURPS1106A A0396

bpl:BURPS1106A_3101 beta-alanine--pyruvate transaminase K00822 442 550 ( -) 131 0.312 410 -, bpl:BURPS1106A_0412 ... bpl:BURPS1106A_A1009 beta-alanine--pyruvate transaminas K00822 466 489 ( -) 117 0.301 405 -, bpl:BURPS1106A_A1595 non-ribosomal ... 4-aminobutyrate transaminase; K00823 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase. Update status:. T00480 (apre,bapi,bgg,bhan,bths,cchv,ceh ... bpl:BURPS1106A_0532 2,4-diaminobutyrate 4-transaminase K00836 450 712 ( -) 168 0.348 445 -, bpl:BURPS1106A_A2215 2,4- ...
more infohttp://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_paralog?org_gene=bpl:BURPS1106A_A0396

Algae Energy - the past and the future - Algae: CO2 sequestering organisms revolutionizing biotechnology through nutrition,...Algae Energy - the past and the future - Algae: CO2 sequestering organisms revolutionizing biotechnology through nutrition,...

... beta-Alanine-alpha-Alanine Transaminase; (4) Alanine Aminomutase; (5) Pyruvate Synthase; (6) Pyruvate Water (Phosphate) ... beta-Alanine-Pyruvate Transaminase and (C8) Alanine 2,3-Aminomutase.. Interestingly, the metabolic pathways used by ... Module A: (A1) Pyruvate Water (Phosphate) Dikinase; (A2) PEP Carboxylase and (A3) Pyruvate Carboxylase. Module B: (B1) Acetyl- ... Enzymes: 1, pyruvate synthase (reduced MV); 2, pyruvate:water dikinase; 3, PEP carboxylase; 4, malate dehydrogenase (NADH); 5, ...
more infohttp://algaeenergy.weebly.com/fixing-co2-ccm.html

Predicted Orthologs - RBBH
	Predicted Orthologs - RBBH

beta alanine--pyruvate transaminase Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (Reference) PA0132 Beta-alanine:pyruvate transaminase 448 99.8 ... DNA polymerase III subunit beta Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (Reference) PA0002 DNA polymerase III, beta chain 367 100.0 ...
more infohttp://beta.pseudomonas.com/rbbh/pairs?query_strain_id=107&queryStrain=Pseudomonas+aeruginosa+PAO1+%28Reference%29&hit_strain_id=109&hitStrain=Pseudomonas+aeruginosa+UCBPP-PA14&max=100&sort=gene.locusTag&offset=700&order=asc

Network Portal - Gene PA0130Network Portal - Gene PA0130

beta-alanine--pyruvate transaminase (NCBI). 145, 191. PA0337. ptsP. phosphoenolpyruvate-protein phosphotransferase PtsP (NCBI) ...
more infohttp://networks.systemsbiology.net/pae/gene/PA0130

Network Portal - Gene PA5496Network Portal - Gene PA5496

beta-alanine--pyruvate transaminase (NCBI). 145, 191. PA0337. ptsP. phosphoenolpyruvate-protein phosphotransferase PtsP (NCBI) ... electron transfer flavoprotein beta-subunit (NCBI). 342, 462. PA3043. PA3043. deoxyguanosinetriphosphate triphosphohydrolase ( ...
more infohttp://networks.systemsbiology.net/pae/gene/PA5496

List of MeSH codes (D08) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D08) - Wikipedia

... beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.347 --- d-alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.470 --- ... alanine transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.120 --- 2-aminoadipate transaminase MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.200 --- 4- ... pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) MeSH D08.811.682.657.350.937 --- pyruvate oxidase MeSH D08.811.682.657.350.968 --- pyruvate ... 4-beta-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.200.600 --- glucan endo-1,3-beta-d-glucosidase MeSH D08.811.277.450.420.375 --- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D08)

KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: sbh:SBI 07687KEGG SSDB Best Search Result: sbh:SBI 07687

0665 beta alanine--pyruvate transaminase K00822 441 114 ( 12) 32 0.359 78 -, 3 bpeu:Q425_31350 beta alanine--pyruvate ... bpc:BPTD_3119 beta alanine--pyruvate transaminase K00822 441 114 ( 13) 32 0.359 78 -, 2 bpe:BP3157 omega-amino acid--pyruvate ... tgr:Tgr7_0829 beta-lactamase domain protein 260 110 ( 7) 31 0.303 152 -, 2 ttc:FOKN1_2150 phenylalanine tRNA synthetase, beta- ... bamn:BASU_0798 Pyruvate phosphate dikinase,PEP/pyruvate K01007 803 101 ( -) 29 0.307 166 -, 1 ban:BA_3709 formimidoylglutamase ...
more infohttp://www.kegg.jp/ssdb-bin/ssdb_best?org_gene=sbh:SBI_07687

NCBI Conserved Domain SearchNCBI Conserved Domain Search

beta alanine--pyruvate transaminase; Provisional. Pssm-ID: 181707 [Multi-domain] Cd Length: 445 Bit Score: 204.32 E-value: 5.53 ... Alternate names include GABA transaminase, gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase, and beta-alanine--oxoglutarate aminotransferase ... alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, dialkylglycine decarboxylase, 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, beta-alanine-pyruvate ... alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, dialkylglycine decarboxylase, 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, beta-alanine-pyruvate ...
more infohttps://0-www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.brum.beds.ac.uk/Structure/cdd/wrpsb.cgi?INPUT_TYPE=live&SEQUENCE=2OAT_B

Human ADMA ELISA Kit | biobool.comHuman ADMA ELISA Kit | biobool.com

... pyruvate transaminase (EC:2.6.1.40) ELISA KIT; Beta-ALAAT II ELISA KIT; Beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase ELISA KIT; D- ... Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial ELISA KIT; (R)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate-- ...
more infohttps://www.biobool.com/elisa_kit/3872.html

DiVA - SøkeresultatDiVA - Søkeresultat

Despite sharing 28% sequence identity with its closest structural homologues, including beta-alanine: pyruvate and gamma- ... A1RDF1 from Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 is a fold type I, PLP-dependent enzyme in the class III transaminase (TA) subgroup. ... Structurally, PON1 is a six-bladed beta-propeller with a flexible loop (residues 70-81) covering the active site. This loop ... Here we introduced aryl or aralkyl substituents at the beta-position of the hydroxamate analogue of 2. While direct addition of ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22organisationId%22%3A%228750%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=no&query=

Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase 2 ELISA & Assay KitsAlanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase 2 ELISA & Assay Kits

Compare and order Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase 2 Kits ELISA. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, ... pyruvate transaminase , alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial , beta-ALAAT II , beta-alanine-pyruvate ... Plus produit pour Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase 2 ELISA Kit * 41 anti-Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase 2 Primary ... Alanine Glyoxylate Aminotransferase 2 ELISA Kit. 8 products by 3 suppliers: EIAab , Abbexa , CUSABIO ...
more infohttps://www.anticorps-enligne.fr/monocarboxylic-acid-catabolic-process-pathway-92/agxt2-elisa-kit-14791/

AGXT2 Gene - GeneCards | AGT2 Protein | AGT2 AntibodyAGXT2 Gene - GeneCards | AGT2 Protein | AGT2 Antibody

Alanine--Glyoxylate Aminotransferase 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Beta-ALAAT II 2 3 4 * (R)-3-Amino-2-Methylpropionate--Pyruvate Transaminase 3 4 ... L-alanine + glyoxylate = pyruvate + glycine. *AGT2_HUMAN,Q9BYV1. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot CatalyticActivity: (R)-3-amino-2- ... AGXT2 (Alanine--Glyoxylate Aminotransferase 2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with AGXT2 include Beta- ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?id_type=entrezgene&id=64902

RMDB: Showing L-Alanine (RMDB00161)RMDB: Showing L-Alanine (RMDB00161)

R)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate--pyruvate transaminase. *Beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase. *Beta-ALAAT II ... L-Alanine. Description. Alanine is a nonessential amino acid made in the body from the conversion of the carbohydrate pyruvate ... Alanine is highly concentrated in meat products and other high-protein foods like wheat germ and cottage cheese. Alanine is an ... Normal alanine metabolism, like that of other amino acids, is highly dependent upon enzymes that contain vitamin B6. Alanine, ...
more infohttp://www.rumendb.ca/cgi-bin/show_metabolite.cgi?METABOCARD=RMDB00161

Presyncope - RightDiagnosis.comPresyncope - RightDiagnosis.com

Beta-adrenergic blocking agent *Beta-adrenoceptor *Beta-alanine synthase deficiency *Beta-Alanine-Pyruvate Transaminase *Beta- ... Beta thalassemia major anemia *Beta Thalassemia minor *Beta thionase *Beta vulgaris *Beta wave *Beta-adrenergic blocker * ...
more infohttp://www.rightdiagnosis.com/medical/presyncope.htm

DBGET Search Result: ENZYME 2.6.1.1DBGET Search Result: ENZYME 2.6.1.1

beta-alanine---pyruvate transaminase; beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase; beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase ... beta-alanine-oxoglutarate transaminase; aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ambiguous); beta-alanine aminotransferase; beta-alanine ... alanine---oxo-acid transaminase; L-alanine-alpha-keto acid aminotransferase; leucine-alanine transaminase; alanine-keto acid ... glutamine---pyruvate transaminase; glutaminase II; L-glutamine transaminase L; glutamine-oxo-acid transaminase ...
more infohttps://www.genome.jp/dbget-bin/www_bfind_sub?dbkey=enzyme&keywords=2.6.1.1&mode=bfind&max_hit=1000

Anti-AGXT2 antibody - C-terminal (ab224537) | AbcamAnti-AGXT2 antibody - C-terminal (ab224537) | Abcam

Alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 mitochondrial antibody. *Beta-ALAAT II antibody. *Beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase ... R)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate--pyruvate transaminase antibody. *AGT2 antibody. *AI303810 antibody ... It catalyzes the conversion of glyoxylate to glycine using L-alanine as the amino donor. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/agxt2-antibody-c-terminal-ab224537.html

ENZYME: 2.-.-.ENZYME: 2.-.-.

Beta-alanine--pyruvate transaminase 2.6.1.19 4-aminobutyrate--2-oxoglutarate transaminase 2.6.1.20 Deleted entry 2.6.1.21 D- ... phenylpyruvate transaminase 2.6.1.65 N(6)-acetyl-beta-lysine transaminase 2.6.1.66 Valine--pyruvate transaminase 2.6.1.67 2- ... pyruvate transaminase 2.6.1.42 Branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase 2.6.1.43 Aminolevulinate transaminase 2.6.1.44 Alanine-- ... glyoxylate transaminase 2.6.1.46 Diaminobutyrate--pyruvate transaminase 2.6.1.47 Alanine--oxomalonate transaminase 2.6.1.48 5- ...
more infohttps://enzyme.expasy.org/EC/2.-.-.-

Main - Drug Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors in Lung CancerMain - Drug Resistance to EGFR Inhibitors in Lung Cancer

Glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase); Glutamate ionotropic receptor Glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA ... Triggered by a couple of growth elements and morphogens including people from the changing growth element beta 1 (TGF-1) super- ... and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) amounts. Results showed how the levels had been significantly improved in the I/R group in ... type subunit 2B; Glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 3A; Glycogen 155558-32-0 IC50 synthase kinase 3 beta; ...
more infohttp://elevateblogconference.com/category/main/

Imaging With 111 Indium (111In)-Pertuzumab (PmAb) to Predict Response to Trastuzumab (TmAb) in Human Epidermal Growth Factor-2 ...Imaging With 111 Indium (111In)-Pertuzumab (PmAb) to Predict Response to Trastuzumab (TmAb) in Human Epidermal Growth Factor-2 ...

... and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase(SGPT)] ,2.5 × ULN, ... Known pregnancy or lactating female (e.g. positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG) pregnancy test). ... aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT)] ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01805908

Imaging With 111 Indium (111In)-Pertuzumab (PmAb) to Predict Response to Trastuzumab (TmAb) in Human Epidermal Growth Factor-2 ...Imaging With 111 Indium (111In)-Pertuzumab (PmAb) to Predict Response to Trastuzumab (TmAb) in Human Epidermal Growth Factor-2 ...

... and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase(SGPT)] ,2.5 × ULN, ... Known pregnancy or lactating female (e.g. positive serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-hCG) pregnancy test). ... aspartate aminotransferase (AST) [serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT)] ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01805908?term=pertuzumab&rank=21

Gentaur Molecular :Gene Link \ Amino dC C6 2 umol scale \ 26-6670-03Gentaur Molecular :Gene Link \ Amino dC C6 2 umol scale \ 26-6670-03

bauA PA0132] Beta-alanine--pyruvate aminotransferase (Beta-A--Py AT) (EC 2.6.1.18) (Beta-alanine--pyruvate transaminase) (Omega ... 2-aminoadipate transaminase) (Alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase) (AadAT) (Aromatic amino acid aminotransferase 1) (EC 2.6. ... acid aminotransferase) (Omega-amino acid AT) (Omega-amino acid--pyruvate aminotransferase) (Omega-APT). [TTHA1582] 8-amino-7- ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=2927038&supplier=search&name=Amino%20dC%20C6%202%20umol%20scale

Gentaur Molecular :Gene Link \ Amino dA C6 1 umol scale \ 26-6666-01Gentaur Molecular :Gene Link \ Amino dA C6 1 umol scale \ 26-6666-01

bauA PA0132] Beta-alanine--pyruvate aminotransferase (Beta-A--Py AT) (EC 2.6.1.18) (Beta-alanine--pyruvate transaminase) (Omega ... 2-aminoadipate transaminase) (Alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase) (AadAT) (Aromatic amino acid aminotransferase 1) (EC 2.6. ... acid aminotransferase) (Omega-amino acid AT) (Omega-amino acid--pyruvate aminotransferase) (Omega-APT). [TTHA1582] 8-amino-7- ...
more infohttp://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=1074752&supplier=search&name=Amino%20dA%20C6%201%20umol%20scale

IMP: Integrative Multi-species PredictionIMP: Integrative Multi-species Prediction

glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (alanine aminotransferase). 0.019. UPB1. ureidopropionase, beta. 0.019. ATOH8. atonal homolog 8 ... thyroid hormone receptor, beta (erythroblastic leukemia viral (v-erb-a) oncogene homolog 2, avian). 0.011. ... aldo-keto reductase family 1, member D1 (delta 4-3-ketosteroid-5-beta-reductase). 0.022. ... hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 2. 0.011. ...
more infohttp://imp.princeton.edu/predictions/process/human-context-global/7144/?gene=16044
  • Alanine levels parallel blood sugar levels in both diabetes and hypoglycemia, and alanine reduces both severe hypoglycemia and the ketosis of diabetes. (rumendb.ca)
  • Is highly enantioselective toward (S)-beta-phenylalanine (is not active with (R)-beta-phenylalanine) and derivatives with different substituents on the phenyl ring, allowing the kinetic resolution of various racemic beta-amino acids to yield (R)-beta-amino acids with >95% enantiomeric excess (ee). (mybiosource.com)