A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by its association with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of C-terminal extension of 400 residues.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Analysis of 4-phosphopantetheinylation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: generation of beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5 mutants and cloning of the panD gene region. (1/407)

The postulated posttranslational modification of the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHA) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha by 4-phosphopantetheine was investigated. Four beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5-induced mutants of R. eutropha HF39 were isolated, and two insertions were mapped in an open reading frame with strong similarity to the panD gene from Escherichia coli, encoding L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15), whereas two other insertions were mapped in an open reading frame (ORF) with strong similarity to the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (EC 1.6.1.1) alpha 1 subunit, encoded by the pntAA gene from Escherichia coli. The panD gene was cloned by complementation of the panD mutant of R. eutropha Q20. DNA sequencing of the panD gene region (3,312 bp) revealed an ORF of 365 bp, encoding a protein with 63 and 67% amino acid sequence similarity to PanD from E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Subcloning of only this ORF into vectors pBBR1MCS-3 and pBluescript KS- led to complementation of the panD mutants of R. eutropha and E. coli SJ16, respectively. panD-encoded L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase was further confirmed by an enzymatic assay. Upstream of panD, an ORF with strong similarity to pntAA from E. coli, encoding NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase subunit alpha 1 was found; downstream of panD, two ORFs with strong similarity to pntAB and pntB, encoding subunits alpha 2 and beta of the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase, respectively, were identified. Thus, a hitherto undetermined organization of pan and pnt genes was found in R. eutropha. Labeling experiments using one of the R. eutropha panD mutants and [2-14C]beta-alanine provided no evidence that R. eutropha PHA synthase is covalently modified by posttranslational attachment of 4-phosphopantetheine, nor did the E. coli panD mutant exhibit detectable labeling of functional PHA synthase from R. eutropha.  (+info)

H+-zwitterionic amino acid symport at the brush-border membrane of human intestinal epithelial (CACO-2) cells. (2/407)

Transport of a number of dipolar amino acids (and the orally active antibiotic D-cycloserine) across the apical membrane of human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cell monolayers is mediated by a Na+-independent, pH-dependent transport mechanism. Relatively little is known about the mode of action of this transport system so to differentiate between pH dependence and proton coupling three experimental protocols were designed and tested. The results demonstrate, firstly, that it is the transapical pH gradient and its maintenance (rather than apical acidity alone) that is important in amino acid uptake. Secondly, Na+-independent uptake of seven dipolar amino acids (with pKa (-log of acid dissociation constant) values between 1 50 and 4 23) showed a similar dependence on apical pH (half-maximal uptake being observed at pH 5 99-6 20). Thirdly, the pattern of pH-dependent amino acid ([beta]-alanine) uptake is similar irrespective of whether the cationic substrate concentration is varied or constant, demonstrating no relationship between uptake and concentration of the cationic form of the amino acid. These observations demonstrate that the transport mechanism is a H+-zwitterionic amino acid symporter and suggest that the presence of a H+ gradient at the apical surface of the human small intestine (in the form of the acid microclimate) may be important in driving nutrient absorption.  (+info)

Decreased insulin-stimulated GLUT-4 translocation in glycogen-supercompensated muscles of exercised rats. (3/407)

It was recently found that the effect of an exercise-induced increase in muscle GLUT-4 on insulin-stimulated glucose transport is masked by a decreased responsiveness to insulin in glycogen-supercompensated muscle. We evaluated the role of hexosamines in this decrease in insulin responsiveness and found that UDP-N-acetyl hexosamine concentrations were not higher in glycogen-supercompensated muscles than in control muscles with a low glycogen content. We determined whether the smaller increase in glucose transport is due to translocation of fewer GLUT-4 to the cell surface with the 2-N-4-(1-azi-2,2,2-trifluroethyl)-benzoyl-1, 3-bis(D-mannose-4-yloxy)-2-propylamine (ATB-[2-3H]BMPA) photolabeling technique. The insulin-induced increase in GLUT-4 at the cell surface was no greater in glycogen-supercompensated exercised muscle than in muscles of sedentary controls and only 50% as great as in exercised muscles with a low glycogen content. We conclude that the decreased insulin responsiveness of glucose transport in glycogen-supercompensated muscle is not due to increased accumulation of hexosamine biosynthetic pathway end products and that the smaller increase in glucose transport is mediated by translocation of fewer GLUT-4 to the cell surface.  (+info)

Alterations of intratumoral pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil in head and neck carcinoma during simultaneous radiochemotherapy. (4/407)

The kinetics of local drug uptake and metabolism of the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been monitored by means of 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 17 patients with neck tumors during concurrent radiochemotherapy. All of the patients underwent an accelerated hyperfractionated, concomitant-boost radiochemotherapy with 5-FU [600 or 1000 mg/m2 of body surface (b.s.)] and carboplatin (70 mg/m2 of b.s.). Serial 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained during and after the administration of 5-FU in a 15-T scanner with the use of a 5-cm diameter surface coil positioned on a cervical lymph node metastasis. Examinations were performed at day 1 of therapy and, in 13 patients, also after 43.5 Gy of irradiation at day 1 of the second chemotherapy cycle. Resonances of 5-FU and the catabolites 5,6-dihydro-5-fluorouracil (DHFU) and alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL) were resolved in the tumor spectra. The median of the 5-FU and FBAL levels was significantly higher (more than 2-fold) at the second compared with the first examination, whereas the level of DHFU did not change. This effect could indicate an increased delivery of 5-FU into the interstitial space of the tumor in the course of the combined treatment, which would result in an enhanced exposure of the tumor cells to the drug. A potential mechanism for synergy between radio- and chemotherapy is discussed, but alternative mechanisms are also being considered. The findings indicate that a method is available to rationally address the design of dosing schedules in concurrent therapy regimens.  (+info)

Role of tyrosine 265 of alanine racemase from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (5/407)

Tyrosine 265 (Y265) of Bacillus stearothermophilus is believed to serve as a catalytic base specific to the L-enantiomer of a substrate amino acid by removing (or returning) an alpha-hydrogen from (or to) the isomer on the basis of the X-ray structure of the enzyme [Stamper, C.G., Morollo, A.A., and Ringe, D. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 10438-10443]. We found that the Y265-->Ala mutant (Y265A) enzyme is virtually inactive as a catalyst for alanine racemization. We examined the role of Y265 further with beta-chloroalanine as a substrate with the expectation that the Y265A mutant only catalyzes the alpha,beta-elimination of the D-enantiomer of beta-chloroalanine. However, L-beta-chloroalanine also served as a substrate; this enantiomer was rather better as a substrate than its antipode. Moreover, the mutant enzyme was as equally active as the wild-type enzyme in the elimination reaction. These findings indicate that Y265 is essential for alanine racemization but not for beta-chloroalanine elimination.  (+info)

Effect of hypertonic stress on amino acid levels and system A activity in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells. (6/407)

OBJECTIVE: Peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC) are exposed to a hypertonic environment during peritoneal dialysis. When exposed to a hypertonic medium, many types of cells accumulate small osmotically active organic solutes, which are called osmolytes, to match the higher external osmolality. However, no information has been available concerning the osmolytes in PMC. To investigate osmoregulation in rat PMC, the levels of amino acids in the cells and the activity of system A, a major neutral amino acid transport, were measured after switching to a medium made hypertonic by the addition of NaCl. System A was measured by Na+-dependent [14C]-2-methylamino-isobutyric acid (MeAIB) uptake. RESULTS: Total amount of 20 amino acids increased from 306 to 757 nmol/mg protein after 12 hours of hypertonicity. The amount of neutral amino acids accounted for 81% of the increase in total amino acids. Glutamine, alanine, glycine, threonine, and serine were the major neutral amino acids that accumulated in the hypertonic mesothelial cells. The amount of neutral amino acids increased 2.9-fold after 12 hr of hypertonicity, and decreased thereafter. MeAIB uptake increased 36-fold relative to the uptake in isotonic cells after 4-8 hr of hypertonicity. When the culture medium was made hypertonic by adding raffinose or glucose, the activity of system A was also stimulated (raffinose > glucose > NaCl). System A was located on both the apical and basal sides of isotonic PMC, and extracellular hypertonicity stimulated the MeAIB uptake on both sides. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that neutral amino acids and system A transport play an important role in early-phase osmoregulation in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells.  (+info)

Fibrinogen receptor antagonist-induced thrombocytopenia in chimpanzee and rhesus monkey associated with preexisting drug-dependent antibodies to platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa. (7/407)

Most clinical trials with fibrinogen receptor antagonists (FRAs) have been associated with thrombocytopenia. This report describes the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in one chimpanzee and one rhesus monkey upon administration of potent FRAs. Chimpanzee A-264 experienced profound thrombocytopenia on two occasions immediately upon intravenous administration of two different potent FRAs, L-738, 167 and L-739,758. However, an equally efficacious antiaggregatory dose of another potent antagonist, L-734,217, caused no change in platelet count. These compounds did not affect platelet count in five other chimpanzees or numerous other nonhuman primates. Flow cytometric analysis showed drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) in the plasma of chimpanzee A-264 that bound to platelets of chimpanzees, humans, and all other primates tested only in the presence of the compounds that induced thrombocytopenia. Rhesus monkey 94-R021 experienced thrombocytopenia upon administration of a different antagonist, L-767,679, and several prodrugs that are converted into the active form, L-767,679, in the blood. More than 20 other FRAs, including those that induced thrombocytopenia in chimpanzee A-264, had no effect on platelet count in this monkey. Flow cytometric measurements again identified DDAbs that reacted with platelets of all primates tested and required the presence of L-767,679. Screening for DDAbs in the plasma of 1,032 human subjects with L-738, 167 and L-739,758 demonstrated that the incidence of these preexisting antibodies in this population was 0.8% +/- 0.6% and 1.1% +/- 0.6%, respectively.  (+info)

Investigation of the alpha(1)-glycine receptor channel-opening kinetics in the submillisecond time domain. (8/407)

The activation and desensitization kinetics of the human alpha(1)-homooligomeric glycine receptor, which was transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells, were studied with a 100-microseconds time resolution to determine the rate and equilibrium constants of individual receptor reaction steps. Concentration jumps of the activating ligands glycine and beta-alanine were initiated by photolysis of caged, inactive precursors and were followed by neurotransmitter binding, receptor-channel opening, and receptor desensitization steps that were separated along the time axis. Analysis of the ligand concentration-dependence of these processes allows the determination of 1) the rate constants of glycine binding, k(+1) approximately 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), and dissociation, k(-1) = 1900 s(-1); 2) the rates of receptor-channel opening, k(op) = 2200 s(-1), and closing, k(cl) = 38 s(-1); 3) the receptor desensitization rate, alpha = 0.45 s(-1); 4) the number of occupied ligand binding sites necessary for receptor-channel activation and desensitization, n >/= 3; and 5) the maximum receptor-channel open probability, p(0) > 0.95. The kinetics of receptor-channel activation are insensitive to the transmembrane potential. A general model for glycine receptor activation explaining the experimental data consists of a sequential mechanism based on rapid ligand-binding steps preceding a rate-limiting receptor-channel opening reaction and slow receptor desensitization.  (+info)

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was discovered 100 years ago, today it has been found to have uses in bodybuilding. Beta-Alanine is also known as 3-aminopropanoic acid. It should not be confused with alanine. Beta-Alanine is a non proteinogenic amino acid, which means it cannot be synthesized into a protein. Beta-Alanine can be found naturally in poultry and. beef.. Beta-Alanine research:. Dr. Roger Harris research, which later led to creatine on the market, has also now helped bring attention to beta-alanine. Research starting in 95 and. then by Harris in 98, showed that Beta-Alanine supplementation could help increase performance. This appears to be due to beta-alanine being a pre-cursor to converting to carnisine in muscles. You can read more about Carnisine in another article of mine. A study published in Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2006 Aug;16(4):430-46 was done for 10 weeks on 33 college football players. They had groups put in placebo, creatine, or creatine plus beta-alanine. The results of the study showed that the ...
AllMax Betasynth Beta-Alanine. AllMax Ultra-High Grade BetaSynth Beta-Alanine was built for the ultimate in performance. Research has shown Beta-Alanine increases muscle Carnosine levels that may lead to increases in Nitric Oxide (NO) production and reduced muscular acidification during intense training. Simply stated, AllMax BetaSynth Beta-Alanine delays muscular fatigue allowing you to increase your performance output. Greater intensity and exertion in the gum or on the field result in increased signals to tell your body to build muscle.. Beta-Alanine does not to be taken pre-workout. Beta-Alanine exerts its effects by building increased Carnosine in your muscle. Smaller more frequent dosages have been found to be the most effective.. BetaSynth - BetaSynth Beta-Alanine is a premium source of Beta-Alanine that has been laboratory tested and certified over 99% pure. ...
Beta-Alanine Market Outlook. Beta-alanine, also known as 3-amino propionic acid, is a non-essential amino acid that is available in the powder form. Beta-alanine is naturally found in foods such as poultry, meat, and fish. Beta-alanine is used by the muscles to synthesize carnosine, which helps to maintain the muscular pH during strenuous exercise. Beta-alanine has application in various industries such as dietary supplement, food, pharmaceutical, animal feed, etc. Beta-alanine provides several benefits such as reduces glycation, delays fatigue, improves endurance, increases carnosine levels in the muscles for a prolonged period, speeds recovery from an intense workout and improves athletic performance.. Increase in Health and Fitness Trends Boosts the Demand for Beta-Alanine.. The increase in the elderly population is anticipated to serve as a driver for the beta-alanine market. As age increases, there is a loss of skeletal muscle mass and muscle function. The elderly population may have less ...
Save 46% Now Foods - Beta-Alanine 750 mg 120 Capsules Beta-Alanine 750 mg Amino Acid Supports Muscular Endurance* Helps Delay Muscle Fatigue* CarnoSyn® - Carnosine Synthesizer Gluten Free Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that is used by muscle cells to synthesize carnosine.* Carnosine is a dipeptide (Beta-Alanine plus Histidine) that functions as a buffer for the hydrogen ions (acid) produced during strenuous exercise, thus helping to maintain optimum muscular pH.* NOW uses CarnoSyn®, a patented form of Beta-Alanine that has been clinically tested and shown to increase muscle carnosine content, allowing muscles to work harder and longer during intense exercise.* NOW Beta-Alanine is backed by scientific research demonstrating that CarnoSyn supplementation results in delayed muscle fatigue and rapid recovery time, thereby helping you attain your strength and endurance training goals.*
beta-Alanine is rapidly developing as one of the most popular sport supplements used by strength/power athletes worldwide. The popularity of beta-alanine stems from its unique ability to enhance intramuscular buffering capacity and thereby attenuating fatigue. This review will provide an overview of the physiology that underlies the mechanisms of action behind beta-alanine, examine dosing schemes, and examine the studies that have been conducted on the efficacy of this supplement. In addition, the effect that beta-alanine has on body mass changes or whether it can stimulate changes in aerobic capacity also will be discussed. The review also will begin to explore the potential health benefits that beta-alanine may have on older adult populations. Discussion will examine the potential adverse effects associated with this supplement as well as the added benefits of combining beta-alanine with creatine.
Low prices on Beta-Alanine! Increases strength and endurance, and delays muscle fatigue*. Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid that can delay muscle fatigue and increase endurance and strength. In the body, beta-alanine increases the level of L-carnosine in the muscles. Carnosine helps muscles soak up excess hydrogen ions released during intense exercise, which make muscles more acidic and contribute to muscular fatigue and decreased strength.
To wrap up their meta-analysis, the authors noted that research on beta-alanine is still in the infancy stage and more thorough studies need to be conducted before drawing definitive conclusions.. So, beta-alanine may benefit high-intensity exercise spanning from 60-240-seconds, but what about strength and power?. A study published 2018 explored how beta-alanine influenced power output with subjects following a 5-week resistance training program. Authors tested 30 trained individuals - some taking a placebo and some taking beta-alanine - and had them follow a leg training workout three times per week consisting of a back squat, barbell step-ups and loaded jumping lunges.. Throughout the five weeks, the workload was gradually increased along with volume. Upon the end of the fifth week, the author retested the subjects and found that the beta-alanine group showed superior power output to the group taking a placebo. ...
To wrap up their meta-analysis, the authors noted that research on beta-alanine is still in the infancy stage and more thorough studies need to be conducted before drawing definitive conclusions.. So, beta-alanine may benefit high-intensity exercise spanning from 60-240-seconds, but what about strength and power?. A study published 2018 explored how beta-alanine influenced power output with subjects following a 5-week resistance training program. Authors tested 30 trained individuals - some taking a placebo and some taking beta-alanine - and had them follow a leg training workout three times per week consisting of a back squat, barbell step-ups and loaded jumping lunges.. Throughout the five weeks, the workload was gradually increased along with volume. Upon the end of the fifth week, the author retested the subjects and found that the beta-alanine group showed superior power output to the group taking a placebo. ...
Novel Oral Anticoagulants: Comparative Pharmacology and Dental Implications Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs), direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran) and factor Xa inhib..
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on specific tests for water polo. Fifteen young water polo players (16 ± 2 years) underwent a 200-m swimming performance, repeated-sprint ability test (RSA) with free throw (shooting), and 30-s maximal tethered …
Background and Objectives: One of the important factors in comparative athletes, especially swimmers, is respiratory function and respiration regulation during training and competition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 14 days of beta-alanine supplementation on first and second ventilatory threshold of the male swimmers. Materials ...
WHAT IS IT? GAT Beta-Alanine is a Fatigue inhibiting supplement WHAT DOES IT DO? Beta-Alanine is a designed to fight fatigue during your workout allowing you to train harder for longer. It contains pure Beta-Alanine, which is the ingredient that provides the tingly feeling in a pre workout. Beta-Alanine also helps wi
NAI to Immediately Enter Japanese Market with CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine. CARLSBAD, Calif., April 24, 2019 - The public announcement of the approval of beta-alanine in the Japanese food market was made on March 25th via the official page of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan. Natural Alternatives International, Inc. (NAI) (Nasdaq: NAII), a leading formulator, and marketer of customized nutritional supplements, spent nearly three years navigating the application process and was instrumental in this premier achievement.. NAI applied to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare for use of beta-alanine in food products in the Japanese marketplace. We received application confirmation in May 2016 and have worked diligently since that time to gain approval. We are proud to have provided assistance in opening the market and in ultimately gaining beta-alanine approval as a food ingredient in Japan for the first time, stated Ken Wolf, NAIs President. NAI looks forward to entering the ...
Olimp beta-alanine xplode powder is a supplement designed for all those who practice strength-endurance sports, strength sports and endurance sports intensively and in prolonged sessions that require great physical fitness maintained for a longer period or with a great frequency of training sessions. Beta-alanine xplode powder helps to prolong the time from the beginning of a training session to becoming tired, thus increasing the workout volume significantly. Olimp beta-alanine xplode powder may contribute to increasing workout-related endurance, workout concentration and effort by facilitating the growth of muscles and increasing the rate of burning fat. The ingredients of beta-alanine xplode powder were selected in order to work together to increase workout volume, both in relation to the duration of the effort and the weights used, while minimizing rest between the sessions.. ...
BETA-ALANINE Xplode Powder® is a supplement designed for all those who practice strength-endurance sports, strength sports and endurance sports intensively and in prolonged sessions that require great physical fitness maintained for a longer period or with a great frequency of training sessions. BETA-ALANINE Xplode Powder® helps to prolong the time from the beginning of a training session to becoming tired, thus increasing the workout volume significantly. BETA-ALANINE Xplode Powder® may contribute to increasing workout-related endurance, workout concentration and effort by facilitating the growth of muscles and increasing the rate of burning fat. The ingredients of BETA-ALANINE Xplode Powder® were selected in order to work together to increase workout volume.
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|h1|PRADAXA (DABIGATRAN ETEXILATE)|/h1| |h2|Pradaxa Description|/h2| |p|Pradaxa capsules contain the active ingredient Dabigatran Etexilate, which is a type of medicine known as a direct thrombin inhibitor. Pradaxa stops the formation of fibrin, the ess
The RE-DUAL PCI™ trial explored anticoagulation with Pradaxa® (dabigatran etexilate) dual therapy without aspirin in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and stent placement: results showed significantly lower rates of major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding events for dual therapy with Pradaxa® when compared to triple therapy with warfarin.1,2 The risk for the primary safety endpoint was 48% lower for Pradaxa® 110 mg dual therapy and 28% lower for Pradaxa® 150 mg dual therapy (relative difference), with similar rates of overall thromboembolic events. Both Pradaxa® doses have been approved by regulatory authorities around the world for stroke prevention in AF. The results were presented today as a late-breaker at the ESC Congress 20171 and have been simultaneously published in the New England Journal of Medicine. 2 This Smart News Release features multimedia. View the full release here: http://www.businesswire.com/new
Four non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), including the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, are currently licensed as alternatives to heparins and vitamin K antagonists for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran is the only NOAC that inhibits thrombin; the others inhibit factor Xa. All of the NOACs are at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism, and they are associated with less life-threatening bleeding, in particular less intracranial hemorrhage.1,2 Nonetheless, serious bleeding can occur with NOACs. In addition, patients taking NOACs may sustain trauma and may require urgent surgery or interventions. Consequently, the availability of specific reversal agents for NOACs could ...
Dabigatran etexilate, an oral prodrug of the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran, and the oral direct inhibitors of factor Xa, rivaroxaban and apixaban, are approved in the United States, Europe, and Canada to prevent stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). They are also variably licensed for treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and prevention of VTE after major orthopedic surgery (MOS) in certain jurisdictions. We refer to these agents collectively as non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in this paper. Synonymous terms preferred by other researchers include direct-acting oral anticoagulant agents and new, novel, or target-specific oral anticoagulant agents (1).. Unlike warfarin and other vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), the NOACs are administered in fixed doses and do not require routine laboratory monitoring (2-4). However, measurement of their anticoagulant activity may be desirable in special clinical settings such as bleeding; the ...
A new study, published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, compared the side effects of Pradaxa use and Warfarin. Both medications are considered anticoagulants, or blood thinners, and are typically prescribed to treat non-valvular atrial fibrillation, a condition in which the heart does not beat properly.. The purpose of the study was to determine if Pradaxa could be used as a blood thinning medication for patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation. About 290 people were involved in the study, half of whom received Pradaxa while the other half received warfarin.. The researchers from the University of Kansas Hospital and Medical Center state that the group of Pradaxa users faced a higher risk for experiencing adverse side effects including bleeding problems, stroke, and mini strokes than warfarin users. According to the study Pradaxa users had a 16% higher risk. Pradaxa is included in a class of drugs referred to as direct thrombin inhibitors which work by preventing the ...
GAT Beta-Alanine supplementation has been shown to increase muscle carnosine levels which lead to improved physical performance during high-intensity exercise.* GAT Beta-Alanine can help you knock out more reps!. ...
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Product Overview Beta-alanine is a non essential amino acid that is naturally created by your body. When exercising, taking additional beta-alanine can be very beneficial. Beta-Alanine works by creating a compound called carnosine in the body, which is activated when muscular pH levels drop. Carnosine then works to blo
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CarnoSyn provides guides and resources about how much beta-alanine you should be using in your musclebuilding supplement. Ask CarnoSyn about how to stack your beta-alanine to accomplish your training goals.
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Four nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are approved for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. These include the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban. Bleeding is a complication for all anticoagulants and concerns regarding bleeding risk and the suitability of effective reversal strategies may be a barrier to their prescription. Despite the reduced risk of bleeding compared with vitamin K antagonists, questions persist regarding the management of bleeding related to NOAC use. To date, although a number of assays are responsive to NOACs, no single routine laboratory test has been identified to accurately measure the clinical anticoagulation state of patients on NOACs or established as a reliable predictor of bleeding risk. In addition, the establishment of a reliable human bleeding model to test novel inhibitors of the coagulation
It works in conjunction with another compound to produce carnosine, which limits how much lactic acid builds up in your muscles during your workouts. This mechanism improves your stamina and capacity to do work. For instance, it lengthens a measure of fitness known as Time To Exhaustion (TTE), offers a clinically demonstrated benefit during short duration exercises, and may even elevate nitric oxide levels, which are associated with overall health and longevity. Beta-alanine also seems to be able to play a role in building lean muscle mass. Trials show that beta-alanine supplementation can help elderly men and women function better. Many animal and test tube studies hint at additional benefits, but these studies arent as powerful as clinical, double-blind trials.. ...
Although there have been question marks over beta-alanines effectiveness for enhancing sprinting power in trained athletes such as cyclists, the researchers in this study were left in no doubt about its efficacy, commenting: Beta-alanine supplementation was effective at improving repeated high-intensity cycling performance in both trained and non-trained individuals, highlighting its efficiency as an ergogenic aid for high-intensity exercise, regardless of the training status of the individual.. These findings fit well with previous research involving trained cyclists, which showed that average and peak power output during a sprint at the end of a 110-minute simulated race was increased by 5 per cent and 11.4 per cent respectively when the cyclists had supplemented with 2.4 grams per day of beta-alanine(1).. ...
The Food and Drug Administration approved Pradaxa use in October 2010. Shortly after, the agency received a number of reports that the drug causes adverse side effects which are both serious and often fatal.. Pradaxa (dabigatran) is a medication designed to treat patients diagnosed with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. It is included in a class of drugs referred to as direct thrombin inhibitors that work by preventing an enzyme which causes blood to clot. When not treated, blood clots have the tendency to travel through the body to the brain and cause stroke which can in most cases lead to death. Increased concerns associated with Pradaxa use caused the FDA to issue a safety communication in December 2011, warning the public and medical community about the risk of injury and other complications associated with Pradaxa.. Reported side effects of Pradaxa include internal bleeding, caused by the drug hindering kidney function leading to an excess of the drug spreading through the system, brain ...
Context: The clinical introduction of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has stimulated the development of tests to quantify the effects of these drugs and manage complications associated with their use. Until recently, the only treatment choices for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgical patients, as well as for stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation, were vitamin K antagonists, antiplatelet drugs, and unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. With the approval of NOACs, treatment options and consequent diagnostic challenges have expanded. Objective: To study the utility of thromboelastography (TEG) in monitoring and differentiating between 2 currently approved classes of NOACs, direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban). Design: Blood samples from healthy volunteers were spiked with each NOAC in both the presence and absence of ecarin, and the effects on TEG were evaluated. Results: Both ...
Context: The clinical introduction of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has stimulated the development of tests to quantify the effects of these drugs and manage complications associated with their use. Until recently, the only treatment choices for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgical patients, as well as for stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation, were vitamin K antagonists, antiplatelet drugs, and unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. With the approval of NOACs, treatment options and consequent diagnostic challenges have expanded. Objective: To study the utility of thromboelastography (TEG) in monitoring and differentiating between 2 currently approved classes of NOACs, direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran) and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban). Design: Blood samples from healthy volunteers were spiked with each NOAC in both the presence and absence of ecarin, and the effects on TEG were evaluated. Results: Both ...
Take Pradaxa exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label and read all medication guides or instruction sheets.. Take this medicine with a full glass of water. You may take Pradaxa with or without food.. Swallow the capsule whole and do not crush, chew, break, or open it.. Because Pradaxa keeps your blood from coagulating (clotting) to prevent unwanted blood clots, this medicine can also make it easier for you to bleed, even from a minor injury such as a fall or a bump on the head. Contact your doctor or seek emergency medical attention if you fall or hit your head, or have any bleeding that will not stop.. If you need surgery, dental work, or any type of medical test or treatment, tell the doctor or dentist ahead of time if you have taken Pradaxa within the past 12 hours.. Your kidney function may need to be checked before and during treatment with Pradaxa.. Do not stop taking Pradaxa without your doctors advice. Stopping the medication can increase ...
RIDGEFIELD, Conn., Nov. 4, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. presented study results from a new retrospective sub-analysis of the RE-LY® trial that indicated patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) who also have diabetes experienced similar safety and efficacy with Pradaxa® (dabigatran etexilate mesylate) 150mg or dabigatran 110mg* relative to warfarin, in comparison to patients with NVAF who do not have diabetes. This data was presented today during the American Heart Associations Scientific Sessions 2012.. Diabetes affects 25.8 million Americans. It is one of the most common conditions associated with atrial fibrillation (AFib), and patients with both conditions have up to double the risk of experiencing a stroke compared to those with only AFib.. These results are encouraging, as they indicate PRADAXA 150mg twice daily is effective in this higher risk NVAF patient population, a group in need of effective treatments, said Paul Reilly, PhD, ...
Do you wonder what makes your muscles fatigue during your workout? Beta-alanine may help you buffer muscle fatigue! Find out more below.
Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that is used by muscle cells to synthesize Carnosine. Carnosine is a dipeptide (Beta- Alanine plus Histidine) that functions as a buffer for the hydrogen ions (acid) produced during strenuous exercise, thus helping to maintain optimum muscular pH. NOW Sports uses CarnoSyn, a patented form of Beta-Alanine that has been clinically tested and shown to increase muscle Carnosine content, allowing muscles to work harder and longer during intense exercise. NOW Beta-Alanine is backed by scientific research demonstrating that CarnoSyn supplementation results in delayed muscle fatigue and rapid recovery time, thereby helping you attain your strength and endurance training goals. ...
Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that is used by muscle cells to synthesize Carnosine. Carnosine is a dipeptide (Beta- Alanine plus Histidine) that functions as a buffer for the hydrogen ions (acid) produced during strenuous exercise, thus helping to maintain optimum muscular pH. NOW Sports uses CarnoSyn, a patented form of Beta-Alanine that has been clinically tested and shown to increase muscle Carnosine content, allowing muscles to work harder and longer during intense exercise. NOW Beta-Alanine is backed by scientific research demonstrating that CarnoSyn supplementation results in delayed muscle fatigue and rapid recovery time, thereby helping you attain your strength and endurance training goals. ...
What Health Canada is doing: Health Canada is working with the manufacturer of Pradaxa, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd., to update the Canadian Product Monograph for Pradaxa to strengthen the present warning that the drug should not be prescribed to patients with artificial heart valves. The Product Monograph for Pradaxa currently recommends against the use of Pradaxa in patients with artificial heart valves. Background: As per the Canadian Product Monograph, Pradaxa (dabigatran etexilate) is approved for the prevention of blood clots in patients who have undergone hip replacement or total knee replacement surgery, and for the prevention of stroke and blood clots in the body in patients with atrial fibrillation (irregular heart beat) in whom a medication to prevent blood clotting is considered appropriate. A recent European clinical trial involving patients with a type of artificial heart valve was terminated early due to significantly more adverse events for patients using Pradaxa. ...
What Health Canada is doing: Health Canada is working with the manufacturer of Pradaxa, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd., to update the Canadian Product Monograph for Pradaxa to strengthen the present warning that the drug should not be prescribed to patients with artificial heart valves. The Product Monograph for Pradaxa currently recommends against the use of Pradaxa in patients with artificial heart valves. Background: As per the Canadian Product Monograph, Pradaxa (dabigatran etexilate) is approved for the prevention of blood clots in patients who have undergone hip replacement or total knee replacement surgery, and for the prevention of stroke and blood clots in the body in patients with atrial fibrillation (irregular heart beat) in whom a medication to prevent blood clotting is considered appropriate. A recent European clinical trial involving patients with a type of artificial heart valve was terminated early due to significantly more adverse events for patients using Pradaxa. ...
Among patients with a history of stroke/transient ischemic attack and prior VKA experience, switching to dabigatran was associated with an increased stroke/transient ischemic attack rate for both dabigatran doses compared with continuing on warfarin (D110 hazard ratio [HR] 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-2.78; D150 HR 2.34; 95% CI, 1.60-3.41). Among prior stroke/transient ischemic attack patients who were new starters on dabigatran or warfarin, the rate of stroke/transient ischemic attack for both doses of dabigatran was similar to or lower than warfarin (D110 HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.80; D150 HR 0.92l; 95% CI, 0.73-1.15). ...
During high intensity exercise, lactic acid is formed in the muscles and splits into lactate and hydrogen ions (H+). These H+ ions cause the blood to become more acidic (a drop in pH) which is one of the main causes of fatigue for this type of exercise. When this acid build up occurs, the muscle losses contractility and strength thus making it impossible to continue to exercise at the same intensity. Therefore, to cope with this acidity the body uses buffers and one of these buffers is called carnosine.. Carnosine it made up of histidine and beta-alanine. We have plenty of histidine in our body, but a lack of beta-alanine. Therefore it is this lack of beta-alanine which effects how much carnosine there is. Therefore, beta-alanine supplementation may help to increase the amount of muscle carnosine, a buffer of acidity in high intensity exercise. The body may therefore be able to cope with higher levels acidification.. Who can benefit from using Beta-Alanine?. Beta-alanine works in high intensity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Review of new oral anticoagulants. AU - Frye, Lindsay. AU - Katz, Heather. AU - Bray, Natasha. AU - Berman, Barry. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - New oral anticoagulants have been developed over the past several years. These include the factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors. These anticoagulants have been tested for safety and efficacy against standard therapies including subcutaneous enoxaparin or oral warfarin. The following is a review of pertinent trials comparing the new oral anticoagulants to standard therapy.. AB - New oral anticoagulants have been developed over the past several years. These include the factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors. These anticoagulants have been tested for safety and efficacy against standard therapies including subcutaneous enoxaparin or oral warfarin. The following is a review of pertinent trials comparing the new oral anticoagulants to standard therapy.. KW - Anticoagulation. KW - Atrial fibrillation. KW - Deep ...
Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid. It is considered non-essential as the body is able to manufacture it. However, some believe it may not be produced at optimal levels biologically, which is why some athletes will supplement with it. Beta-alanine improves carnosine levels in muscles. Carnosine is believed to help reduce acid buildup during exercise, the cause of muscle fatigue. Many who take this supplement notice improved performance upon exertion. However, what do the studies suggest? A 2017 study evaluated 23 highly trained judo athletes. Half were given beta-alanine while the other half were given a placebo. The study lasted four weeks, and baseline performance levels were measured. At the end of the study, the scientists concluded, 4 weeks of beta-alanine supplementation effectively enhance judo-related performance in highly trained athletes. A 2013 study also saw performance improvement in cyclists who were also given four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation. A subsequent ...
Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid. It is considered non-essential as the body is able to manufacture it. However, some believe it may not be produced at optimal levels biologically, which is why some athletes will supplement with it. Beta-alanine improves carnosine levels in muscles. Carnosine is believed to help reduce acid buildup during exercise, the cause of muscle fatigue. Many who take this supplement notice improved performance upon exertion. However, what do the studies suggest? A 2017 study evaluated 23 highly trained judo athletes. Half were given beta-alanine while the other half were given a placebo. The study lasted four weeks, and baseline performance levels were measured. At the end of the study, the scientists concluded, 4 weeks of beta-alanine supplementation effectively enhance judo-related performance in highly trained athletes. A 2013 study also saw performance improvement in cyclists who were also given four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation. A subsequent ...
1) Dunnett M., R.C. Harris. Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius. Equine Vet J. 30 (suppl): 499-504, 1999.. 2) Dunnett M., Harris RC, Dunnett CE, Harris PA. Plasma carnosine concentration: Diurnal variation and effects of age, exercise and muscle damage. Equine Vet J Suppl; Sept 2002. (34): 283-7. 3) Harris R. C. Muscle Carnosine elevation with supplementation and training, and the effects of elevation on exercise performance. (ISSN conference, 2005).. 4) Harris RC, et al; The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine sythesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids; 2006 May; 30 (3): 279-289.. 5) Hill CA, Harris RC, Kim HJ, Harris BD, Sale C, Boobis LH, Kim CK, Wise JA; Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino Acids. 2007 Feb: 32(2) 225-33. 6) Pottier, A, Ozdemir M, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, Hrris R, Wise ...
PRODUCT MONOGRAPH Pr PRADAXA Dabigatran Etexilate Capsules Capsules 75 mg, 110 mg and 150 mg Dabigatran Etexilate, (as Dabigatran Etexilate Mesilate) Anticoagulant Boehringer Ingelheim Canada Ltd. 5180
Coagulation factor Xa (recombinant), inactivated-zhzo (andexanet alfa; Andexxa - Portola) has received accelerated approval from the FDA for urgent reversal of the anticoagulant effect of the direct factor Xa inhibitors apixaban (Eliquis) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto). Andexanet alfa is the second antidote for a direct oral anticoagulant to become available in the US, and the fi rst for factor Xa inhibitors. Idarucizumab (Praxbind) was approved in 2015 for reversal of the anticoagulant effect of the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate (Pradaxa). Andexanet alfa has not been approved to date for reversal of anticoagulation with the direct factor Xa inhibitors edoxaban (Savaysa) or betrixaban (Bevyxxa). ... more ...
Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia and accounts for one-third of hospitalizations for rhythm disorders in the United States. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation averages 1% and increases with age. With the aging of the population, the number of patients with atrial fibrillation is expected to increase 150% by 2050, with more than 50% of atrial fibrillation patients being over the age of 80. This increasing burden of atrial fibrillation will lead to a higher incidence of stroke, as patients with atrial fibrillation have a five- to sevenfold greater risk of stroke than the general population. Strokes secondary to atrial fibrillation have a worse prognosis than in patients without atrial fibrillation. Vitamin K antagonists (e.g., warfarin), direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran), and factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban) are all oral anticoagulants that have been FDA approved for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation. This review will summarize the
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-alanine (BA) ingestion on tissue carnosine levels and the impact such changes would have on combat specific activity. Eighteen soldiers (19.9 ± 0.8 year) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a BA or placebo (PL) group. Be …
View more ,Background: Carnosine is a naturally present dipeptide abundant in skeletal muscle and an over-the counter food additive. Animal data suggest a role of carnosine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease but only limited human data exists. Methods and Results: Samples of vastus lateralis muscle were obtained by needle biopsy. We measured muscle carnosine levels (high-performance liquid chromatography), % body fat (bioimpedance), abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity (magnetic resonance imaging), insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic hyperinsulinemic clamp), resting energy expenditure (REE, indirect calorimetry), free-living ambulatory physical activity (accelerometers) and lipid profile in 36 sedentary non-vegetarian middle aged men (45±7 years) with varying degrees of adiposity and glucose tolerance. Muscle carnosine content was positively related to % body fat (r = 0.35, p = 0.04) and subcutaneous ...
Product Description: • High potency• Helps delay muscle fatigue• Improves endurance and performance in high intensity exerciseTested Beta Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that is converted to carnosine by the muscle cells. Beta-Alanine supplementation can increase muscle Carnosine content and delay muscle fatigue.Tested Beta Alanine can improve muscular endurance and performance during high intensity exercise.Directions: As a dietary supplement, take 3 capsules twice daily, preferably before and after exercise.
Tested Beta Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that is converted to carnosine by the muscle cells. Beta-Alanine supplementation can increase muscle Carnosine content and delay muscle fatigue. Tested Nutrition Beta Alanine can improve muscular endurance and performance during high intensity exercise. Features: High p
Background: Dabigatran etexilate is one of the few direct thrombin inhibitors with anti-coagulant activities and the following distinctive features: taken orally, no need to closely monitor for complications, and no need for regular dose adjustments. Relying on the above mentioned valuable advantages, dabigatran etexilate can be considered as a premier choice ...
Beta-alanine, a non-essential amino acid, research has shown to increase Carnosine concentration. Carnosine is an intra-muscular dipeptide that offsets muscle fatigue during high intensity workouts. If youre looking to increase endurance and Nitric oxide production (pumps), you need beta-alanine.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of Dabigatran on select specialty coagulation assays. AU - Adcock, Dorothy M.. AU - Gosselin, Robert. AU - Kitchen, Steve. AU - Dwyre, Denis M. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - Dabigatran etexilate is a new oral anticoagulant that functions as a direct thrombin inhibitor. An inhibitor of thrombin has the potential to interfere with essentially all clot-based coagulation assays and select chromogenic assays, whereas the drug would not be expected to interfere in antigen-based assays. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of dabigatran on various specialized coagulation assays using normal plasma specimens with varying concentrations of dabigatran (the active form of dabigatran etexilate). We have demonstrated that samples containing therapeutic levels of dabigatran may lead to underestimation of intrinsic factor activities with abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) mixing study results and a false-positive factor VIII Bethesda titer; ...
Increases exercise capacity so you can train harder and longer. How Does Beta-Alanine Work?. The support of high caliber researchers speaks volumes about the efficacy of beta-alanine and the science itself is even more impressive. Much of beta-alanines effects are realized by boosting the synthesis of carnosine, a dipeptide (two amino acids) intracellular (inside the cell) buffer. To understand how beta-alanine works, you must first understand its connection to carnosine. It is by boosting carnosine levels that beta-alanine exerts its performance benefits.. History and Background of Carnosine. The Russian scientist Gulewitsch was the first to identify carnosine in 1900. Eleven years later, he would discover and identify its constituent amino acids, beta-alanine and histidine. Seven years later, Barger and Tutin and Baumann and Ingvaldsen confirmed Gulewitschs findings. However, it wasnt until 1938 that the first research on carnosine and its effects on muscle buffering were ...
This, however, requires that pradaxa dental extraction we as a global agreement to phase pradaxa antidote out ozone-depleting substances, saved the ozone layer. There are excellent examples of evidence-based policy, such as the polio vaccine, and worrying truths, such as. The PLOS Biology Staff Editors are Ines Alvarez-Garcia, Gabriel Gasque, Liza Gross, Paula pradaxa dental extraction Jauregui, Nonia Pariente, Roland Roberts, and Lucas Smith. Citation: Pariente N, on behalf of the Amazon has hit a record high during the current Brazilian Administration. Treatments that are the result of many years of research and development pradaxa dental extraction are touted as miracles, undermining the role of scientists in bringing them to the COVID-19 pandemic, and these countries are for the benefit of society.. This editorial could signal individuals out by name but the sad truth is that these issues are pervasive throughout the world burns around us, and the undermining of institutions that have the ...
Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a dipeptide abundant in mammalian skeletal muscles [1, 2]. Various physiological actions have been ascribed to carnosine in muscle, including acting as an antioxidant [3], regulating Ca2+ sensitivity [4], protecting proteins against glycation by acting as a sacrificial peptide [5], and preventing the formation of protein-protein cross links by reacting with protein-carbonyl groups [6]. Primarily, carnosine with pH buffering capacity is widely used in the field of sports nutrition [7]. Because the dissociation exponent (pKa) of carnosine is 6.83 [8, 9], it is suggested that carnosine attenuates the reduction in blood pH by a large amount of H+ originating from the dissociation of lactic acid during strenuous exercise, and suppresses a loss of force [10]. At the same time, muscle carnosine contents are positively correlated with high-intensity exercise performance [11] and fast-twitch muscle fibers [12]. Increase of muscle carnosine predominantly was due to the ...
GAT Beta-Alanine supplementation has been shown to increase muscle carnosine levels which lead to improved physical performance during high-intensity exercise.* GAT Beta-Alanine can help you knock out more reps!. Beta-Alanine can help you knock out more reps!. Net Weight: 200g (100-Servings). ...
Dabigatran etexilate, a prodrug of dabigatran, which reversibly inhibits the active site of thrombin, has an oral bioavailability of ≈6%.39 After oral administration, dabigatran etexilate is rapidly and completely converted to dabigatran by esterases. Plasma levels of dabigatran peak ≈2 hours after drug administration. Dabigatran has a half-life of 14 to 17 hours, which permits once- or twice-daily administration, and ≈80% of the drug is excreted unchanged by the kidneys. Dabigatran etexilate is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter. This efflux transporter is highly expressed in the intestine and kidneys, and coadministration of potent P-gp inhibitors, such as quinidine, can increase plasma levels of dabigatran by reducing its clearance.37 Consequently, quinidine is contraindicated in patients taking dabigatran etexilate. Coadministration of dabigatran etexilate and amiodarone, a weak P-gp inhibitor, increases dabigatran levels by ≈50% without significantly affecting ...
Posted on January 21, 2012 the medical comments are impressive and Florida lawyers are taking notice and accepting cases for injuries from Pradaxa. Pradaxa lawyers are accepting cases from victims of Pradaxa. Pradaxa is part of a new group of anticoagulants (thrombin X inhibitors) that eventually will allow anticoagulation by the pill route without requiring patients to alter their food and medication intake and avoid foods and medications that interfere with the anticoagulant as patients must do with Warfarin. Pradaxa additionally eliminates the need to take blood tests (INR/ PT) to monitor the dosage as one has to do with Warfarin (Coumadin). There is a large commercial advertising campaign underway on TV and print media to encourage patients with atrial fibrillation to ask their doctors to switch them from Coumadin to Pradaxa (Dabigatrin). Pradaxa lawyers are also advertising extensively regarding the dangers of pradaxa and offering a Pradaxa lawyer, The campaign bases its claims on the RE-LY ...
Posted on January 21, 2012 the medical comments are impressive and Florida lawyers are taking notice and accepting cases for injuries from Pradaxa. Pradaxa lawyers are accepting cases from victims of Pradaxa. Pradaxa is part of a new group of anticoagulants (thrombin X inhibitors) that eventually will allow anticoagulation by the pill route without requiring patients to alter their food and medication intake and avoid foods and medications that interfere with the anticoagulant as patients must do with Warfarin. Pradaxa additionally eliminates the need to take blood tests (INR/ PT) to monitor the dosage as one has to do with Warfarin (Coumadin). There is a large commercial advertising campaign underway on TV and print media to encourage patients with atrial fibrillation to ask their doctors to switch them from Coumadin to Pradaxa (Dabigatrin). Pradaxa lawyers are also advertising extensively regarding the dangers of pradaxa and offering a Pradaxa lawyer, The campaign bases its claims on the RE-LY ...
Dansylated analogues of the potent and selective μ opioid peptide agonist [Dmt1]DALDA (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt = 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) were prepared either by substitution of Nβ-dansyl-α,β-diaminopropionic acid or Nε-dansyllysine for Lys4, or by attachment of a dansyl group to the C-terminal carboxamide function via a linker. All three analogues displayed high μ agonist potency in vitro and the C-terminally dansylated one retained significant μ receptor selectivity. The three analogues showed interesting differences in their fluorescence emission maxima and quantum yields, indicating that the dansyl group in two of them was engaged in intramolecular hydrophobic interactions. These dansylated [Dmt1]DALDA analogues represent valuable tools for binding studies, cellular uptake and intracellular distribution studies, and tissue distribution studies ...
Source of beta alanine in an easy-to-dose powder form Helps provide stronger training Enhances your performance during any kind of exercise May slow down ageing processes Increases physical endurance Delays the onset of fatigue QRP Nutrition Beta Alanine is a source of pure beta alanine which allows precise dosage of this potent, performance-enhancing amino acid. It increases endurance and thus allows you provide stronger training stim. Beta-alanine is an amino acid synthesised in the liver and a precursor to carnosine, i.e. a compound which is vital to homeostasis in the body. In food, it is found mainly in meat (beef, pork and poultry) and fish. Beta alanine levels affect the synthesis of carnosine. It is formed when L-histidine, another amino acid, binds to a beta-alanine molecule. Since carnosine cannot cross myocyte membranes, beta-alanine supplementation is the most effective way to boost its levels in the body. Enhanced training performance Carnosine acts as an acid-base buffer in e.g. muscle
|h3||span style=color: #ff0000;|GAT Beta-Alanine - German Quality Beta Alanine!|/span||/h3| |p|GAT Beta Alanine – now in stock at Genesis – has been shown to raise muscle carnosine levels which lead to improved physical performance during h
Beta-Alanine is a precursor to the amino acid Carnosine, which functions as a lactic acid buffer capable of reducing fatigue in the working muscle. Though it takes time to accumulate in muscle tissue, Beta-Alanine supplementation, for at least two weeks, is highly effective at increasing muscular Carnosine concentration.. One study in particular that measured the Carnosine levels of sprinters found that individuals with higher muscular Carnosine levels exhibited higher power output in the latter half of a 30m sprint (because they had less lactic acid build-up). Multiple studies have confirmed that Beta Alanine supplementation increases muscular Carnosine in a dose dependent manner. In particular, a 2012 study published in Amino Acids found that subjects who consumed 1.6 or 3.2 grams of Beta Alanine daily experienced significant increases in muscle Carnosine in as little as two weeks, with the higher dose achieving a higher concentration of Carnosine. The doses used in this study, 1.6 and 3.2g, ...
Pradaxa (dabigatran) is an atrial fibrillation medicine linked to internal bleeding and death. Contact The Clark Firm LLP for a Pradaxa lawyer in Texas.
AIMS: To summarize and analyse the published literature on the efficacy and safety of dabigatran for anticoagulation during atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation.. METHODS AND RESULTS: A comprehensive search of the literature in the English language was conducted and 10 studies were identified which compared dabigatran therapy with warfarin. Data were extracted and meta-analysed using appropriate methodology. There was significant clinical heterogeneity among studies concerning study designs and methodologies. Most studies consisted of retrospective single-centre observational studies. A total of 3648 patients were included of whom 2241 were receiving warfarin and 1407 dabigatran. Only 12 thrombo-embolic events were reported, 3 during warfarin and 9 during dabigatran therapy [odds ratio (OR) 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-6.85, P = n.s.). The pooled rate of major bleeding events was similar for warfarin and for dabigatran (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.62-1.80; P = n.s.). Rates of minor bleeding events ...
Inclusion criteria:. Patients of 18 years of age or above undergoing elective total hip or knee replacement surgery who consent in writing to their participation in this observational study. Exclusion criteria:. All patients who should not be treated with Pradaxa 220 mg according to the European Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC): age of , 75 years, renal impairment (creatinine clearance ,50 ml/min), patients with concomitant therapy of amiodarone, elevated liver enzymes , 2 upper limit of normal (ULN) and/or hepatic impairment or liver disease expected to have any impact on survival, anaesthesia with post operative indwelling epidural catheters, hypersensitivity to dabigatran etexilate or to any of the excipients, active clinically significant bleeding, organic lesion at risk of bleeding, spontaneous or pharmacological impairment of haemostasis except for the above included patients groups, concomitant treatment with quinidine ...
rs37369 is a SNP located in the coding region of the alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-2 (AGXT2) gene within chromosome 5 at position 35,072,872. This polymorphism constitues a nonsynonymous valine-to-isoleucine (V140I) substitution in the AGXT2 protein. rs37369 has been proposed by one study to be the causative SNP of hyper-beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria. Beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) is the end product of pyrimidine metabolism. Hyper-BAIB is an autosomal recessive phenotype that is distinguished by high urinary excretion levels of beta-aminoisobutyric acid [PMID 10819024]. Elevated levels of BAIB have been suggested to contribute to neurological and developmental problems, as BAIB is a structural analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glycine--two major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system [PMID 15385443]. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database states that hyper-beta-aminoisobutyric aciduria is likely the most common Mendelian metabolic variant in man ...
Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are 2 novel oral anticoagulant agents that have been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment and prophylaxis of VTE and for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation. Following these results, both drugs were registered for VTE prevention despite the lack of information on the proper method to neutralize their anticoagulant activity. Findings from this study, the first conducted in humans, indicate that a nonactivated PCC immediately reverses the effect of full-dose rivaroxaban in healthy individuals but not dabigatran at the PCC dose used in this study.. Prothrombin complex concentrate (Cofact) was chosen as a method of reversal for both rivaroxaban and dabigatran for the following reasons. It contains 4 coagulation factors, namely factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX, and X, that stimulate thrombin formation, thereby potentially bypassing the anticoagulant effect of both drugs. The assessment of the reversal of the anticoagulant effects was based on ...
Beta-Alanine metabolism starts as a product of aspartate metabolism. Aspartate is decarboxylated by aspartate 1-decarboxylase, releasing carbon dioxide and beta-alanine. Beta-Alanine is then metabolized through a pantothenate synthease resulting in pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid then undergoes phosphorylation through an ATP-driven pantothenate kinase, resulting in D-4-phosphopantothenate. Pantothenate, vitamin B5, is a precursor for synthesis of 4-phosphopantetheine moiety of coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein. Plants and microorganisms can synthesize pantothenate de novo, but animals must obtain it from diet. Enzymes of beta-alanine metabolism are targets for anti-microbial drugs ...
Beta-alanine is the limiting substrate for the production of Carnosine. Carnosine (not carnitine) is the primary intracellular buffer for lactate....
Like creatine, you can not take beta-alanine and expect an instant performance boost (although there is some stimulatory benefit taking it pre-workout, which is why it is found in Ignite). It takes time for the carnosine created by the beta-alanine to increase in your muscles.. The good thing is the benefits are lasting and stick around even if you are not able to take beta-alanine for some time. Carnosine has a clearance rate of only 2% every 2 weeks. So the longer you take beta-alanine, the more carnosine you build up and the longer you will benefit from it.. ...
EXTENDS PERFORMANCE: Carnosine is regarded as one of the most powerful acid-buffering substances known to man. Produced by the body, its stored in cells and released in response to reduced pH. The problem is we produce only enough carnosine to complete day-to-day activities and to extend performance for short periods. Carnosine is composed of two aminos: histidine and, you guessed it, beta-alanine. BETA-ALANINEs specific purpose is to improve and extend performance ...
Comparisons between dabigatran trough plasma levels as predicted by simulations to those observed in the study are performed to validate the dosing algorithm for Dabigatran Etexilate (DE).. (As the trial was stopped prematurely, EOT may not be 12 weeks after randomisation for most of the patients). Despite the primary endpoint only being assessed in patients who received dabigatran etexilate, Warfarin was included as a comparator treatment in this study in order to facilitate informal comparisons of outcome events, and to look for efficacy signals in this previously unexplored population. ...
This study investigated the pharmacikinetics and pharmacodynamics of dabigatran etexilate after switching from enoxaparin sodium to dabigatran etexilate as
Alanine also directly affects levels of carnosine in the body. Carnosine is a unique dipeptide that interferes with the glycation process. Levels of carnosine decline with age and carnosine supplements are not readily absorbed. Alanine supplementation is more effective at upgrading stores of carnosine in the body.. A simple definition of glycation is the cross-linking of proteins and sugars to form non-functioning structures in the body. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are formed when sugars react with proteins, such as collagen, an essential component of healthy skin, which comprises up to one-third of the bodys proteins and has a slow turnover rate. AGEs threaten healthy skin by increasing collagen breakdown and reducing collagens regenerative ability. The result is wrinkling and sagging skin. Carnosine effectively prevents glycation from damaging the structure of skin, thus keeping skin firm, elastic and youthful.. Muscle carnosine content is inversely related to age. After the age ...
-100% Pure Powder -Supports Muscular Endurance -Helps Delay Muscle Fatigue -High Potency -A Dietary Supplement -Vegetarian Product Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid naturally produced in muscle cells. Clinical studies have shown that Beta-Alanine can help delay muscle fatigue for increased endurance during exercise. Serving Size: 1/2 Teaspoon (2.0 g) Servings Per Container: 250 Suggested Usage: As a dietary supplement, take a level 1/2 teaspoon (2.0 g) 4 to 6 times daily. Mix into 8 fl. oz. of water or your favorite beverage. For best results, allow at least 2 hours between doses. We recommend taking this product in combination with a NOW Ribose supplement. Contains no: sugar, salt, starch, yeast, wheat, gluten, corn, soy, milk, egg, shellfish or preservatives. Vegetarian/Vegan Product. Caution: Beta-Alanine may cause a harmless, temporary tingling sensation on the skin for some individuals. After a few weeks of supplementation with Beta-Alanine, this
Page 2 of 9 - KFD Premium Beta-Alanine - 300 g - posted in Ranking Odżywek: już jest, mam w domu i czeka na swoją kolej Nie ma na sklepie bo się pewnie wyprzedało. A widzisz chwilę było i myślałem, że przez przypadek dali, bo całkowicie zniknęło a nie jak w przypadku braków magazynowych że nie można tylko do koszyka wrzucić.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intramolecular interactions in beta-alanine, 3-aminopropanal and 3-aminopropanol. AU - Ramek, Michael. AU - Flock, Michaela. AU - Kelterer, Anne-Marie. AU - Cheng, Vincent K.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. M3 - Article. VL - 276. SP - 61. EP - 81. JO - Journal of Molecular Structure / Theochem. JF - Journal of Molecular Structure / Theochem. SN - 0166-1280. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Patients satisfaction with warfarin and willingness to switch to dabigatran. T2 - A patient survey. AU - Elewa, Hazem F.. AU - DeRemer, Christina E.. AU - Keller, Kimble. AU - Gujral, Jaspal. AU - Joshua, Thomas V.. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Warfarin is an anticoagulant medication that is challenging to manage. Dabigatran has been approved by the FDA for stroke and systemic embolism prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation as an alternative to warfarin. Dabigatran does not require routine monitoring, has an established dose, and lacks many of the drug, herbal, and food interactions that afflict warfarin. To evaluate patients satisfaction with their current warfarin treatment and their opinion on switching to a newly marketed medication (dabigatran) through a brief survey. Two separate surveys were administered to (1) evaluate the patients opinion of their warfarin therapy and (2) evaluate their thoughts on switching to a newer anticoagulant. Responses were recorded ...
Atrial fibrillation affects millions of patients in the United States and imparts a five-fold increase in stroke risk, as compared to the general population.1 Oral anticoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for thromboprophylaxis in atrial fibrillation patients. Until recently, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin in the US) were the sole option for patients at moderate to high risk for stroke or systemic embolism. Now there are several novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) available in the US as alternatives to warfarin, with good evidence for their efficacy and safety.2-4 While dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban have been approved for use, there is little practical and even less published experience with these drugs in common clinical situations that require transitions onto or off of NOACs. We aim to discuss the risk of temporary interruptions, the possible hazard of transitioning from one anticoagulant to another, the pharmacokinetic properties of NOACs, and the data around bridging with oral ...
Experts are debating whether dabigatran (Pradaxa) will replace warfarin for patients with atrial fibrillation.... Learn more with Pharmacists Letter.
The VP35 protein directly inhibits the production of interferon-beta.[95] By inhibiting these immune responses, EBOV may ... elevated levels of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST); and abnormalities in ...
Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This ... L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. pyruvate + beta-alanine. Thus, the two substrates of this ... In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Stinson RA, Spencer MS (1969). "Beta alanine aminotransferase (s) from a plant source". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1): ...
... a derivative of amino acid beta-alanine), oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE, a natural compound) and OLE's active ingredient para- ...
... virus-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes associated with TGF-beta, TNF-alpha and NK cells activity". Virology. 345 (1): 22-30. ... and normalised levels of alanine aminotransferase, a liver damage marker. The mechanism of action of ribavirin in reducing ...
The non-proteinogenic amino acid beta-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is ubiquitously produced by cyanobacteria in marine, ... Weiss JH, Koh JY, Choi DW (1989). "Neurotoxicity of β -N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and β-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA) on ... 2008). "β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) in novel South African cyanobacterial isolates". Ecotoxicology and Environmental ... "Diverse taxa of cyanobacteria produce b-N-methylamino-L-alanine, a neurotoxic amino acid". PNAS. 102 (14): 5074-5078. Bibcode ...
The Alanine-World-Hypothesis assumes that known life biochemistry originated within the frame of the old RNA world ("GC code"). ... Photoanomerization with UV light allows for inversion about the 1' anomeric centre to give the correct beta stereochemistry; ... "Alanine World" hypothesis[102] places the canonical amino acid Alanine in the centre of the so-called Protein-World. Dominant ... away from the alanine world!". Curr. Op. Biotechnol. 60: 242-249. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2019.05.006. PMID 31279217.. ...
"G93A" means that the 93rd amino acid residue in the SOD1 protein has been changed from glycine to alanine. ... beta-carotene intake, and head injury; and weak evidence for omega-three fatty acid intake, exposure to extremely low frequency ... Beta-adrenergic agonist drugs have been proposed as a treatment for their effects on muscle growth and neuroprotection, but ...
Long sequences of alternating glycine and alanine have been shown to inhibit substrate unfolding, decreasing the efficiency of ... "Contribution of proteasomal beta-subunits to the cleavage of peptide substrates analyzed with yeast mutants". The Journal of ... Such glycine-alanine repeats are also found in nature, for example in silk fibroin; in particular, certain Epstein-Barr virus ... "Glycine-alanine repeats impair proper substrate unfolding by the proteasome". The EMBO Journal. 25 (8): 1720-9. doi:10.1038/sj ...
Alanine Branched-chain. amino acids Aspartate. group Homoserine. group. & lysine Glutamate. group. & proline ...
Studies suggest that neurotrophic factors have a protective role against amyloid beta toxicity.[84] ... adducins possess a myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) domain which regulates their capping activity.[54] ...
The class I aaRSs have the ubiquitous Rossmann fold and have the parallel beta-strands architecture, whereas the class II aaRSs ... have a unique fold made up of antiparallel beta-strands. The alpha helical anticodon binding domain of Arginyl, Glycyl and ... you can see the general structure of the Rossmann fold seen in class I aaRSs and the general structure of antiparallel beta- ...
beta-Ergocryptine. CH(CH3)2. CH(CH3)CH2CH3 (S). Isoleucine ... Ergotamine group (alanine at R2) *Ergotamine *IUPAC name: ... beta-Ergosine. CH3. CH(CH3)CH2CH3 (S). Isoleucine ... IUPAC name: (8beta)-9,10-didehydro-N-(1-(hydroxymethyl)propyl)- ... beta-Ergocryptine *IUPAC name: Ergotaman-3',6',18-trione, 12'-hydroxy-2'-(1-methylethyl)-5'-(1-methylpropyl)-, (5'alpha(S))- ... beta-Ergosine *IUPAC name: Ergotaman-3',6',18-trione, 12'-hydroxy-2'-methyl-5'-(1-methylpropyl)-, (5'-alpha(S))- ...
... alanine and leucine.[35] ... Beta-conglycinin. *Glycinin. PHAs (Lectins). *Soybean ...
Beta blockers (e.g., alprenolol, carteolol, cyanopindolol, iodocyanopindolol, isamoltane, oxprenolol, penbutolol, pindobind, ... Theanine; Glycine site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine. *ACBD. *ACC (ACPC). *ACPD ...
It is also the active component of the prodrug balsalazide along with the inert carrier molecule 4-aminobenzoyl-beta-alanine.[ ...
This has two alanine[contradictory] molecules attached. Aspergillomarasmine B differs in that the last alanine is replaced by ... New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) and Verona integron-encoded metallo-beta-lactamase (VIM-2), and make those ...
Alanine. 1.528 g. Aspartic acid. 3.662 g. Glutamic acid. 6.269 g. Glycine. 1.611 g. ...
"Compartmentalization of GABA synthesis by GAD67 differs between pancreatic beta cells and neurons". PLOS One. 10 (2): e0117130 ... Inhibitors: β-Alanine. *Bafilomycin A1. *Chicago sky blue 6B. *Evans blue. *GABA ...
Alanine (D-alanine, L-alanine) - endogenous glycine site agonist. *Aspartic acid (aspartate) - endogenous glutamate site ... a process that is independent of neuregulin beta signaling through ErbB2 and ErbB4 receptors.[48] ...
10] Name this class of molecules that make up proteins, examples of which include tryptophan, alanine, and lysine.. ANSWER: ... "Beta Tournaments Debut" (PDF). Scholastic Visions. Evanston, IL: Illinois Scholastic Bowl Coaches Association (IHSSBCA). 6 (1 ...
These five are alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine. There are six conditionally essential amino acids ... beta-lactoglobulin and casein.[23] For milk proteins, about 50% of the ingested protein is absorbed between the stomach and the ... alanine, serine) and other physiologically important nitrogen-containing compounds such as nucleic acids, creatine, and ... "Gastrojejunal kinetics and the digestion of [15N]beta-lactoglobulin and casein in humans: the influence of the nature and ...
D. (1989). "Neurotoxicity of β -N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and β-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA) on cultured cortical ... "The cyanobacteria derived toxin beta-n-methylamino-L-alanine and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis". Toxins. 2 (12): 2837-2850. doi ... β-Methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria. BMAA is a neurotoxin and its ... BMAA is a derivative of the amino acid alanine with a methylamino group on the side chain. This non-proteinogenic amino acid is ...
A memo to study locations stated that telcagepant had preliminarily been reported to increase the hepatic liver enzyme alanine ...
Beta Pictoris, the second brightest star in the constellation Pictor, shows an excess of infrared emission compared to normal ...
Beta-peptides. *β-Alanine. *β-Leucine. Antibiotic. *2-Aminoisobutyric acid (AIB). *Enduracididine ...
Beta-Alanin etil estar na Vikimedijinoj ostavi.. *Beta-Alanine ethyl ester. Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? ... Beta-Alanin etil estar je organsko jedinjenje, koje sadrži 5 atoma ugljenika i ima molekulsku masu od 117,146 Da. ...
Alanine Branched-chain. amino acids Aspartate. group Homoserine. group. & lysine Glutamate. group. & proline ...
Penisilin dapat digabungkan dengan penghambat beta-laktamase untuk membantu melawan enzim beta-laktamase. ... Beta -laktam akan terikat pada enzim transpeptidase yang berhubungan dengan molekul peptidoglikan bakteri, dan hal ini akan ... Alergi terhadap antibiotika beta-laktam dapat terjadi pada 10% pasien. 0.01% dapat menderita anafilaksis. ... Penemuan ini sangat penting untuk melawan spesies bakteria yang memiliki beta-laktamase, namun tidak dapat melawan strain ...
A majority of the proteins are of the 11-S storage kind[20] (alpha - component of 32 kDa, beta - component of 22 kDa), most of ... alanine is present at a concentration of 0.8 mg/g and asparagine at 0.36 mg/g.[22][23] The free hydrophobic amino acids in ... It is composed of beta-1-3-linked galactan main chains, with frequent members of arabinose (pentose) and galactose (hexose) ... alanine is the amino acid with the highest concentration, i.e. 1.2 mg/g, followed by asparagine of 0.66 mg/g, whereas in C. ...
... and beta-SNAPs". Neuron. 21 (1): 99-110. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80518-8. PMID 9697855.. ... Theanine; Glycine site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine. *ACBD. *ACC (ACPC). *ACPD ...
Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This ... L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. pyruvate + beta-alanine. Thus, the two substrates of this ... In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Stinson RA, Spencer MS (1969). "Beta alanine aminotransferase (s) from a plant source". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1): ...
Beta-alanine is an amino acid that is often taken as a sports supplement. It can improve exercise performance and boost overall ... Supplementing with beta-alanine has been shown to elevate carnosine levels in muscles by 80% (. 4. , 5. , 6. , 7. , 8. ). ... For older adults, beta-alanine can help increase muscle endurance (. 16. ).. In resistance training, it can boost training ... Beta-alanine can help increase exercise volume. This could lead to increases in lean body mass - although the evidence is mixed ...
Beta Alanine Categories Supplements Amino Acids Beta Alanine Categories Sports Nutrition Pre-Workout Supplements Beta Alanine ... MusclePharm, Beta Alanine 3 Results (showing 1 - 3) Visit Manufacturers Website » How Can Beta-Alanine Boost Exercise ...
I have a study that I can send any of you if you want regarding beta-alanine supplementation. Short-duration β-alanine ... Beta-Alanine. Ask and answer questions, discuss research and applications. Moderators: Ironman, Jungledoc, jethrof, parth, ... The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 28 days of beta-alanine (b-Ala) and creatine monohydrate (CrM) ... EFFECTS OF TWENTY-EIGHT DAYS OF BETA-ALANINE AND CREATINE MONOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION ON THE PHYSICAL WORKING CAPACITY AT ...
Find patient medical information for BETA-ALANINE on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, ... B-alanine, B-aminopropionic Acid, Beta-alanina, Bêta-Alanine, Beta-alanine Ethyl Ester, Beta-am.... See All Names3- ... B-alanine, B-aminopropionic Acid, Beta-alanina, Bêta-Alanine, Beta-alanine Ethyl Ester, Beta-amino Acid, Non-essential Amino ... BETA-ALANINE Side Effects & Safety. Beta-alanine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately for a short time. Side ...
... beta-alanine and baking soda. Whats interesting is that both are supposed to work in roughly the same way, by counteracting ... In the time-to-exhaustion test, beta-alanine but not baking soda offered an advantage (BAl is beta-alanine, SB is baking soda, ... but its beta-alanine that boosts performance most effectively. As the authors point out, this suggests that beta-alanine may ... The beta-alanine protocol was six weeks starting at 4.8 g/day and increasing to 6.4 g/day for the last two weeks; the baking ...
Beta-alanine synonyms, Beta-alanine pronunciation, Beta-alanine translation, English dictionary definition of Beta-alanine. n. ... Beta-alanine - definition of Beta-alanine by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Beta-alanine ... Beta-alanine ([beta]-ALA; 1.. Repeated supramaximal exercise-induced oxidative stress: effect of [beta]-alanine plus creatine ... alanine. (redirected from Beta-alanine). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. al·a·nine. (ăl′ə-nēn′). n. ...
Beta-alanine aminotransferase may refer to: Alanine transaminase, an enzyme 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, an enzyme This set ...
D. (1989). "Neurotoxicity of β -N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and β-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA) on cultured cortical ... "The cyanobacteria derived toxin beta-n-methylamino-L-alanine and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis". Toxins. 2 (12): 2837-2850. doi ... β-Methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria. BMAA is a neurotoxin and its ... BMAA is a derivative of the amino acid alanine with a methylamino group on the side chain. This non-proteinogenic amino acid is ...
Enter nutrition science and the supplement beta-alanine. ... Beta-Alanine. Supplement Review: Beta-Alanine. Looking to ... Enter nutrition science and the supplement beta-alanine. Beta-alanine has been getting quite a bit of attention in the cycling ... Thats where beta-alanine comes into play!. How it works. As I just mentioned, carnosine can help reduce the hydrogen ion ... Beta-alanine is an amino acid that is naturally synthesized in the body. Its main function is to aid in the synthesis of ...
This is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. ... Shop Precision Engineered Beta-Alanine Tablets at Holland & Barrett. ... Precision Engineered Beta-Alanine tablet is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. ... Beta-alanine supports muscle health. You must be 18 years or older to purchase this product. Suitable for vegetarians and ...
beta-Alanine, N-(5-bromo-1-naphthalenyl)-, monosodium salt (9CI) beta-ALANINE, N-(5-BROMO-1-NAPHTHYL)-, SODIUM SALT N-(5-Bromo- ... beta-ALANINE, N-(5-BROMO-1-NAPHTHYL)-, SODIUM SALT beta-alanine sodium salt sodium 3-[(5-bromonaphthalen-1-yl)amino]propanoate 34592-40-0
Potential Side Effects of Beta-Alanine. Beta-alanine is generally considered safe. One thing to note about beta-alanine is that ... What Is Beta-Alanine?. Beta-alanine is an amino acid. Its considered a non-essential amino acid, which means it is made in the ... Dietary sources of beta-alanine include meat, poultry and fish.. How Beta-Alanine Works. When too many hydrogen ions are ... How to Use Beta-Alanine. Suggested Dosage. In general, beta-alanine levels will vary within products like pre-workout formulas ...
Alanine Extreme delays muscle fatigue and helps extend high intensity training sessions with a dynamic blend of CarnoSyn beta ... Beta alanine floods the muscles with the specialized amino acid carnosine to work as a buffer against lactic acid buildup ... Prolab Beta Alanine Extreme delays muscle fatigue and helps extend high intensity training sessions with a dynamic blend of ... Beta Alanine Extreme also supports prolonged stamina and can help reduce muscle soreness both during and after training ...
So here is is some backround info: Beta-Alanine ... also as a location to discuss all aspects of beta alanine. ... So how can beta-alanine help us overcome this drop in pH that limits exercise performance? To understand how beta-alanine works ... The greatest natural dietary sources of beta-alanine are believed to be obtained through ingesting the beta-alanine containing ... Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. Not to be confused with regular ...
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Imporve musclar endurance for your wrokout with Beta-Alanine. Beta-Alanine is a precursor t ... Redcon1 Beta Alanine Superior Muscular Endurance! The Objective: To get the most out of a workout, you need to push that ... Imporve musclar endurance for your wrokout with Beta-Alanine. Beta-Alanine is a precursor to carnosine, and is shown to ... its from Beta Alanine. Beta Alanine a staple ingredient in many pre-workout supplements, and for very good reason, it helps ...
  • I have a study that I can send any of you if you want regarding beta-alanine supplementation. (exrx.net)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation in collegiate football players on anaerobic performance measures. (exrx.net)
  • Both oral carnosine and beta-alanine ([beta]-ALA) supplementation have been explored to raise muscle carnosine levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Harris, "Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius," Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta-alanine (CarnosynTM) supplementation in elderly subjects (60-80 years): effects on muscle carnosine content and physical capacity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta-alanine supplementation has been well studied in research and has good results in athletes who are hitting threshold and VO2 power zones. (saris.com)
  • Save the beta-alanine supplementation for times of the year when you are doing explosive training such as plyometrics, short punchy hill repeats, big gear sprints or shorter, more intense races such as crits, time trials or cross. (saris.com)
  • However, the most notable method of increasing beta-alanine is through supplementation. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Only when the body has excess beta-alanine (via supplementation) does it yield elevated muscle carnosine levels. (bodybuilding.com)
  • 1,2,3 Although aerobic power is not improved, there is some data to suggest that anaerobic threshold is improved with beta-alanine supplementation. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Specifically, it has been shown that 28 days of beta-alanine supplementation at a dosage of 4-6.4 grams per day increases carnosine levels in muscle by approximately 60 percent. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Beta-alanine supplementation does not appear to have a strong effect on endurance performance. (bodybuilding.com)
  • 2 Beta-alanine supplementation began 3 weeks before preseason training camp and continued for an additional nine days during camp. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Studies show that beta alanine supplementation helps to produce the powerful muscle buffer carnosine in the body like nothing else. (netrition.com)
  • Supplementation with Beta-Alanine has been shown to be a precursor that increases the concentration of Carnosine in muscles, decrease fatigue in athletes and increase total muscular work done. (ageforce.com)
  • Increased vascularity and pump is also correlated with Beta Alanine supplementation, as well as flushing of the face and tingling in the extremities. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • Don't worry, this is nothing to be alarmed about, and just means that the Beta Alanine is working, and this effect will fade as supplementation occurs regularly. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • The investigation, published ​ ​ in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition ​, looked at whether beta-alanine supplementation would improve power output, kilograms lifted, and movement velocity during a circuit of leg exercise tests. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • They found that five weeks of supplementation with 6.4 g per day of beta-alanine led to increases in power output, kilograms lifted, and number of sets executed compared to a placebo group. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • To test the researchers' hypothesis that beta-alanine supplementation would improve power output, kilograms lifted, movement velocity, and lower average power losses, they created a five-week long training program for all participants. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Beta-Alanine is backed by scientific research demonstrating that supplementation with the trademarked ingredient CarnoSyn® results in delayed muscle fatigue and rapid recovery time, thereby helping attain strength and endurance training goals. (nowfoods.com)
  • β-Alanine is also the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, as a result supplementation with β-alanine increases the concentration of carnosine in muscles. (lookchem.com)
  • Derave W, Everaert I, Beeckman S, Baguet A (2010) Muscle carnosine metabolism and β-alanine supplementation in relation to exercise and training. (springer.com)
  • Since one of the primary causes of fatigue during exercise is metabolically mediated decreases in pH (or acidosis), it should come as no surprise that beta alanine supplementation and subsequent increased muscle carnosine levels would help to support increased workout volume and intensity. (prosource.net)
  • In fact, in clinical investigations, beta alanine supplementation over a period as short as four weeks has been shown to increase muscle carnosine levels by more than 60%, leading to increased muscle endurance and workout intensity. (prosource.net)
  • After 4 weeks of beta alanine supplementation, they ingested either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate before the cycling test. (prosource.net)
  • Results showed that 4 weeks of beta alanine supplementation allowed subjects to exercise for about 17 seconds longer when they ingested maltodextrin and 23 seconds longer when they ingested sodium bicarbonate. (prosource.net)
  • then by Harris in 98, showed that Beta-Alanine supplementation could help increase performance. (bodybuildingweb.net)
  • showed that beta-alanine supplementation significantly increased endurance. (bodybuildingweb.net)
  • The researchers discovered that in both tests the beta-alanine supplementation made the mice braver. (ironmagazine.com)
  • In the case of beta-alanine, there have now been enough meaty studies to answer some of the tough questions on the factors affecting response to beta-alanine supplementation. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • In this expert's guide on beta-alanine, we'll take a look at some of the important issues affecting response to beta-alanine supplementation and how best to optimise dosage as well as minimising side-effects. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • the most common complaint associated with beta-alanine supplementation. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Activities involving short, high intensity efforts of exercise are most likely to benefit from β-alanine supplementation. (sportsdietitians.com.au)
  • Study authors also wrote through beta-alanine supplementation, 'some aspects of endurance performance, such as anaerobic threshold and time to exhaustion, can be enhanced. (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • Effects of B-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • Clinical studies suggest that Beta-Alanine supplementation can delay muscle fatigue. (vitaglo.com)
  • After a few weeks of supplementation with Beta-Alanine, this sensation normally lessens or subsides. (vitanetonline.com)
  • Effect of Beta Alanine and Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Repeated-Sprint Performance. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • So this is where Beta Alanine supplementation comes into play. (selen-dar.com)
  • Keep in mind that Beta Alanine supplementation isn't just limited to bodybuilders either. (selen-dar.com)
  • Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study examined the effects of 28 days of beta-alanine supplementation on the physical working capacity at fatigue threshold (PWCFT), ventilatory threshold (VT), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2-MAX), and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) in women. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results of this study indicate that beta-alanine supplementation delays the onset of neuromuscular fatigue (PWCFT) and the ventilatory threshold (VT) at submaximal workloads, and increase in TTE during maximal cycle ergometry performance. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, beta-alanine supplementation did not affect maximal aerobic power (VO2-MAX). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In conclusion, beta-alanine supplementation appears to improve submaximal cycle ergometry performance and TTE in young women, perhaps as a result of an increased buffering capacity due to elevated muscle carnosine concentrations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Beta-alanine supplementation comes into consideration because it is essential for the formation of carnosine, which acts in the body like an acid buffer, therefore delaying the fatiguing effects of lactic acid build-up. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • A recent study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research examined the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on a population of college level wrestlers and football players. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • thus, for the full effects of carnosine to be realised, supplementation (of beta-alanine) is required. (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • This discussion will focus on the scientific studies regarding beta-alanine supplementation & its role in generating carnosine in the body to support overall systemic health, cognitive function & muscle function. (ihsymposium.com)
  • Studies show that 2.4 grams of beta-alanine per day is the effective amount of supplementation needed to support everyday wellness. (ihsymposium.com)
  • Participants will be able to learn how beta-alanine supplementation can lead to support other functions critical for healthy aging and wellness-such as brain health, muscle function, heart health, systemic protection and bone health. (ihsymposium.com)
  • 2007. Beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic bouts in trained sprinters. (glogster.com)
  • Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2014, 11:15 doi:10.1186/1550-2783-11-1253) Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercis3e performance: a meta-analysis. (glogster.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on specific tests for water polo. (nih.gov)
  • The mean and total RSA times, the magnitude based inference analysis showed a likely beneficial effect for beta-alanine supplementation (both). (nih.gov)
  • Six weeks of beta-alanine supplementation was effective for improving ball velocity shooting in the RSA, maintaining performance in the 30-s test, and providing possibly beneficial effects in the 200-m swimming performance. (nih.gov)
  • NOW® Sports Beta-Alanine is backed by scientific research demonstrating that CarnoSyn® supplementation results in delayed muscle fatigue and rapid recovery time, thereby helping you attain your strength and endurance training goals. (beyond-a-century.com)
  • Promotional nonessential amino acid beta alanine powder ! (alibaba.com)
  • ANSI Xtreme Shock Elite Powder is a Beta-Alanine/Kre-Alkalyn/N.O. pump amplifier! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Optimum Nutrition Beta-Alanine Powder has been formulated to boost your intramuscular buffering syst. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Get a 1.6 Gram dosage with every 1/2 a Teaspoon of Beta Alanine Powder! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta Alanine Powder is pure, flavorless Beta Alanine with no fillers or additives. (prolab.com)
  • Beta Alanine Powder also supports prolonged stamina and can help reduce muscle soreness both during and after training allowing for faster recovery time between sets and between workouts. (prolab.com)
  • NOW® Sports offers vegan-friendly beta-alanine supplements in easy to swallow capsules and powder for mixing into drinks and smoothies. (nowfoods.com)
  • Mix one scoop of Beta Alanine Powder with a glass (200-250ml) of water or your favorite beverage. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Add 1 scoop of Beta-Alanine Powder to a glass or shaker cup filled with 6-8 oz. of cold water or your favorite beverage. (muscleandstrength.com)
  • VitaSprings does not imply any medical claims from the customer reviews on this Beta-Alanine Powder product on this website. (vitasprings.com)
  • Write a Review on this Beta-Alanine Powder product and share your experience or opinion with other customers. (vitasprings.com)
  • Buy Beta-Alanine Powder from Betancourt Nutrition at VitaSprings, and we guarantee you a safe, secure online shopping experience! (vitasprings.com)
  • Reflex Nutrition's Beta Alanine is a pure amino acid supplement in powder form, designed to support sporting goals. (powerhouse-fitness.co.uk)
  • Balance 100% Beta-Alanine is a high quality powder that helps provide the nutritional stimulus to increase anaerobic and aerobic endurance and delays in muscular fatigue, allowing you to push through every workout by providing the fuel to accelerate maximal workout power. (fitnessmarket.com.au)
  • If taking beta-alanine in powder form, then it is much harder to take precise amounts. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Balance 100% Beta Alanine deliver pure Beta Alanine with no added fillers, sweeteners or other unnecessary additives in powder form. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • Beta-Alanine Powder is manufactured in an NSF certified cGMP facility in Miami, Florida. (vitaglo.com)
  • You can come across beta-alanine in powder form, which you can easily add to your shakes and pre-workouts, or as capsules. (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • Beta-alanine is a popular supplement among athletes and fitness enthusiasts. (healthline.com)
  • Subjects were randomly divided into a supplement (β-alanine group [BA], 4.5 g·d−1 of β-alanine) or placebo (placebo group [P], 4.5 g·d−1 of maltodextrin) group. (exrx.net)
  • ER: Carnosine is an extremely safe compound that's composed of the amino acids beta-alanine and L-histidine and should be on your daily supplement list. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enter nutrition science and the supplement beta-alanine. (saris.com)
  • Sustained Release of a Beta-Alanine dietary supplement provides an even supply of beta-alanine to your muscles. (ageforce.com)
  • Beta-Alanine has become a very popular supplement but for those who don't know, your body makes carnosine but cannot make enough to effectively block the buildup of lactic acid. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Active individuals and athletes may want to add beta-alanine to their pre-workout supplement stacks for endurance. (nowfoods.com)
  • If you've taken a pre-workout or energy supplement and have experienced a slight, energizing tingle on your skin, chances are, it's from Beta Alanine. (a1supplements.com)
  • It's also present in meat and fish, but many fitness and endurance athletes supplement with Beta-Alanine to get even more performance enhancing benefits. (a1supplements.com)
  • Because Beta Alanine is such a key performance ingredient, we've included it in the Basic Training Series lineup so you can take it by itself before training, add it to a product that doesn't already include Beta-Alanine, or add more to your current all-in-one pre-workout supplement, like Total War for additional benefits. (a1supplements.com)
  • Adding Beta Alanine from APS to your supplement program means blocking lactic acid, thereby slowing fatigue. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • The Australian sports scientist has shown that a daily supplement containing 6 g beta-alanine can help runners reduce their time on the 800 m by almost four seconds. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Before we get to the topic of how to supplement wisely with beta alanine, let's talk about its function. (prosource.net)
  • They had healthy men supplement for 4 weeks with either beta alanine (6.4 grams per day) or a placebo. (prosource.net)
  • AllegroMedical.com presents The iForce Nutrition Xtreme Series Beta Alanine 3000 - Unflavored Sport Performance Supplement. (allegromedical.com)
  • This supplement actually lives up to its claim: beta-alanine efficacy is backed by major university, peer-reviewed studies performed on humans, not the typical cell or rat studies upon which many supplement manufacturers generally base claims. (bodybuilding.com)
  • It looks like the good doctor has found another juggernaut of a supplement in beta-alanine. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Beta Alanine is a great supplement available for strength athletes. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • They hypothesized that a slow Beta Alanine supplement may not cause parasthesia at all. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Beta Alanine is a naturally occurring amino acid found in food and the human body4 tablets deliver 3.2g premium Beta-Alanine Recommended Usage: To supplement effectively with Beta Alanine, it is recommended that you adhere to the following research supported 8 week protocol:Plan to start supplementing with Beta Alanine tablets about 4 weeks before you ramp up your high intensity training. (snowboardclub.co.uk)
  • Many supplement users have no idea how much of an impact and just how strong Beta-Alanine is. (bodybuildingweb.net)
  • https://www.mrsupplement.com.au/pure-supps-beta-alanine Pure Supps Beta-Alanine With nearly as much supporting evidence behind it as creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine is fast becoming a staple of every keen athlete's supplement cabinet. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • A sustained or slow release form of (β-alanine) or splitting the daily dose over two doses (e.g. morning and evening) as well as taking the supplement a meal with a meal can help to maximise uptake into the muscles. (sportsdietitians.com.au)
  • Of all the products contained in the Supplement Database, 36% of them contain beta-alanine, making it the second most popular ingredient behind caffeine. (straighthealth.com)
  • Therefore, most serious participants in weight lifting, baseball, football, CrossFit, volleyball, gymnastics, and track and field know of and probably take a beta-alanine supplement to support their performance goals . (thorne.com)
  • However, if efficient production from these pathways is lacking or there is insufficient intake from a well-formulated diet, then a beta-alanine dietary supplement can be quite supportive for everyday physiological functions. (thorne.com)
  • But don't wait until your half-century birthday to consider how a beta-alanine supplement could work for you. (thorne.com)
  • Balance Beta Alanine is a great addition to any sports nutrition supplement regime. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • In other words, to increase carnosine content one must supplement with Beta-Alanine. (firstendurance.com)
  • So, even though carnosine is widely available as a supplement, it is only through the availability of beta-alanine that intra-muscular carnosine can increase. (firstendurance.com)
  • For beta alanine and any other supplement that you are considering to use, it's wise to read more on the product to be comfortable when using it. (minds.com)
  • Hey what's up, this is Sean Nalewanyj of EliteImpactLabs.com and today I want to talk about the muscle building benefits of Beta Alanine and how to incorporate it into your supplement plan for the best results. (selen-dar.com)
  • Although Beta Alanine is a relatively newer supplement when compared to others like creatine or branched chain amino acids, the research is pretty solid. (selen-dar.com)
  • Beta-alanine isn't just a respected ergogenic supplement for athletes. (ergo-log.com)
  • Since beta-alanine supplements increase carnosine levels, they help your muscles reduce their acid levels during exercise. (healthline.com)
  • Beta-alanine supplements increase carnosine, which reduces the acidity in your muscles during high-intensity exercise. (healthline.com)
  • Similarly, 20 men on a comparable cycling test increased their time to exhaustion by 13-14% after four weeks of beta-alanine supplements ( 13 ). (healthline.com)
  • Beta-alanine supplements might also improve physical performance and delay muscle fatigue in older adults. (webmd.com)
  • The researchers recommended future studies to examine the effects of taking both beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplements during a strength training program, as well as possible interactions or synergistic effects of caffeine. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Beta Alanine a staple ingredient in many pre-workout supplements, and for very good reason, it helps enhance muscular endurance and can improve performance by reducing exhaustion or fatigue. (a1supplements.com)
  • If it wasn't for them, great supplements like beta-alanine and creatine might never have seen the light of day. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Taking creatine with Beta-Alanine will mean you will get benefits of both supplements simultaneously. (bodybuildingweb.net)
  • Beta-Alanine Supplements at the Lowest Prices! (a1supplements.com)
  • What other supplements should I stack Beta-Alanine with? (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Beta Alanine stacks well with creatine, pre workout supplements in general as well as sodium bicarbonate. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Some powdered beta-alanine supplements do provide a measuring scoop that allows more discrete dosing. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • A number of slow-release beta-alanine supplements are now available. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Beta-alanine is a very popular non-essential amino acid found in many pre-workout supplements. (straighthealth.com)
  • Beta-alanine does not enhance athletic performance and improve recovery, according to a literature-based review of dietary supplements by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP). (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • As a result, beta-alanine is commonly formulated into sports nutrition dietary supplements, including pre-workout products. (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • Later each man was given one of four different supplements: baking soda, beta-alanine , both baking soda and beta-alanine, or a sugar pill and a swift pat on the bum. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • Now, finding muscle building supplements backed by reliable research and solid real world evidence can be a pretty difficult task these days, but Beta Alanine is one of the rare muscle building compounds that really does deserve your attention. (selen-dar.com)
  • It's possible that beta-alanine improves body composition by increasing training volume and promoting muscle growth. (healthline.com)
  • Beta-alanine improves athletic performance by reducing fatigue, increasing endurance and boosting performance in high-intensity exercises. (healthline.com)
  • For older adults, beta-alanine can help increase muscle endurance ( 16 ). (healthline.com)
  • No need to take beta-alanine if you are in an endurance training cycle or enjoying some lower intensity tour riding. (saris.com)
  • Designed for endurance, team, and strength athletes, these Beta-Alanine tablets are formulated to help enhance both high-intensity training and Beta-Alanine is one of the precursors to carnosine, which is actually the molecule of interest in reducing fatigue. (ageforce.com)
  • Redcon1 Beta Alanine - Promotes Muscular Endurance, Supports Training Intensity, Reduce Muscular Fatigue. (a1supplements.com)
  • Imporve musclar endurance for your wrokout with Beta-Alanine. (a1supplements.com)
  • Ingredient Info: Beta Alanine is a naturally occurring version of the amino acid 'alanine' studied for its ability to enhance muscular endurance and reduce exhaustion. (a1supplements.com)
  • APS Beta Alanine is an anabolic fuel that helps provide an increase in anaerobic and aerobic endurance by delaying muscular fatigue. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • High amounts of carnosine are boosted by the use of beta-alanine in the muscles and can reduce lactic acid build-up, allowing you to train longer and harder - this can mean more workout endurance and more strength. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta-Alanine will increase your training endurance which means you can train harder and longer. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Chances are, if you're one of these athletes, you're already supplementing with the endurance amino, beta alanine . (prosource.net)
  • Beta Alanine is a popular choice by athletes who want increases in strength and endurance. (professionalwhey.com.au)
  • Reflex Nutrition Beta Alanine can also be used with Reflex Nutrition Creatine as they both help with endurance of the muscles. (monstersupplements.com)
  • Beta-alanine has an abundance of published research to support its effectiveness in exercise performance, particularly muscular endurance - improving time to fatigue and decreasing exhaustion in events lasting from seconds to upward of four minutes. (thorne.com)
  • Musashi Beta Alanine is a amino acid widely used to support endurance and strength training goals. (sportsfuel.co.nz)
  • Beta-Alanine has been a staple of endurance and strength athletes for over a decade. (firstendurance.com)
  • Beta-alanine has become widely accepted as a highly effective nutrient for endurance training and racing. (firstendurance.com)
  • Based on current research, Beta-Alanine's primary role appears to be its effect on lactate threshold, which in endurance training is defined as the rate at which there is equilibrium in lactic acid production and lactic acid elimination. (firstendurance.com)
  • Clinical studies have shown that Beta-Alanine can help delay muscle fatigue for increased endurance during exercise. (vitanetonline.com)
  • As a result of the study, researchers believe beta-alanine may be useful for assisting athletes in increasing their anaerobic endurance, increasing muscle mass and in particular, in the case of competitive wrestlers, maintaining muscle mass while cutting weight. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • However, not all research shows beneficial effects of beta-alanine on physical performance. (webmd.com)
  • After dozens of human lab studies, sports scientists no longer doubt the ergogenic effects of beta-alanine. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Effects of Beta-Alanine on Muscle Carnosine and Exercise Performance: A Review of the Current Literature. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • Some evidence suggests that beta-alanine may benefit body composition. (healthline.com)
  • As the authors point out, this suggests that beta-alanine may boost performance through entirely different mechanisms (one possibility they mention is that carnosine is an antioxidant). (runnersworld.com)
  • On the other hand, strong evidence suggests that beta-alanine effects anaerobic performance, including power output and fatigue threshold. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Prolab Beta Alanine Extreme delays muscle fatigue and helps extend high intensity training sessions with a dynamic blend of CarnoSyn beta alanine and the amino acid L-histidine. (netrition.com)
  • ProLab Beta Alanine Extreme gives you a dose of there signature Carnosyn Beta Alanine! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • *Carnosyn® Beta Alanine enhances athletic performance and exercise capacity helping you build more lean muscle mass. (prolab.com)
  • Beta Alanine Extreme contains CarnoSyn beta alanine and L-histidine in precise dosages for maximum effectiveness. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • The firms were accused of infringing NAI's US patent #8,067,381 ​ covering its CarnoSyn beta-alanine product in lawsuits filed in Texas earlier this year along with DNP International, Woodbolt Distribution, Vitaquest International (doing business as Garden State Nutritionals) and F.H.G. Corporation (doing business as Integrity Nutraceuticals). (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • NAI claims that the only licensed distributor of its CarnoSyn beta-alanine product is the distributor Compound Solutions, Inc, but said neither defendant had purchased beta-alanine from Compound Solutions. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Under the terms of the settlement agreement with BPI and Image, both will purchase CarnoSyn beta-alanine from Compound Solutions pursuant to a separate supply agreement between the parties and will receive a license from NAI to its IP rights regarding CarnoSyn. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • We look forward to partnering with these prominent brands who chose to respect NAI's extensive beta-alanine patent rights in return for a long-term business solution to exclusively use NAI's CarnoSyn beta-alanine in their products. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Natural Alternatives International says that as the sole U.S. patent holder of CarnoSyn beta-alanine, it has a responsibility to ensure that consumers are taking the ingredient properly in order to reap its muscle-building benefits. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • Carlsbad, CA), announced that it will be launching an education campaign that aims to inform manufacturers and consumers about the proper loading period and dosing of CarnoSyn beta-alanine. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • NAI says that as the sole U.S. patent holder of CarnoSyn beta-alanine, it has a responsibility to ensure that CarnoSyn beta-alanine is being taken properly to ensure its purported muscle-building benefits. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • doi:10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z.4) Stopanni, J. Your Expert Guide to CarnoSyn Beta-Alanine. (glogster.com)
  • CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine 2 g (2,000 mg) * Other Ingredients: None. (beyond-a-century.com)
  • Beta-alanine increases muscle carnosine content and improves performance in certain activities. (straighthealth.com)
  • Ingestion of Beta-Alanine for 4 to 8 weeks has been shown to elevate muscle carnosine content by 42%, 47%, 64% and 65% respectively (Pottier 2007, Harris 2006, Hill 2007). (firstendurance.com)
  • Participants will be able to explain the best delivery form of beta-alanine to increase carnosine content in tissue. (ihsymposium.com)
  • NOW Sports uses CarnoSyn®, a patented form of beta-alanine that has been clinically tested and shown to increase muscle carnosine content, allowing muscles to work harder and longer during intense exercise. (beyond-a-century.com)
  • Beta alanine floods the muscles with the specialized amino acid carnosine to work as a buffer against lactic acid buildup helping to allow higher intensity for a longer period of time before fatigue sets in. (netrition.com)
  • Beta-Alanine works by increasing muscle carnosine levels, buffering lactic acid that builds up during high-intensity exercise, which can reduce muscle burn and fatigue. (ageforce.com)
  • Beta Alanine is a staple in most pre workout formulas, and is a non essential amino acid which results in the increased synthesis of carnosine, delaying fatigue and allowing you to train longer and harder every session. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • Beta-Alanine is a precursor to carnosine, and is shown to increase carnosine levels, which increases mucle PH, thus controlling musclar fatigue. (a1supplements.com)
  • Beta Alanine helps increase the amount of work your muscles and body can do and offsets fatigue so you can train harder, longer. (a1supplements.com)
  • Beta-alanine is the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, which is claimed to decrease fatigue in athletes. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Beta Alanine Delays the Onset of Muscle Fatigue! (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • 4-6 grams of supplemented Beta Alanine for around 2-4 weeks has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce neuromuscular fatigue predominantely in older subjects 2 . (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • A creatine plus beta-alanine formula helps you fight fatigue while supplying oxygen to muscle tissue. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • For untrained populations, Beta Alanine is reported to increase total work done, time to exhaustion, and physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold during exercise performed at maximal and supramaximal intensities. (musclefeast.com)
  • A second showed that Beta Alanine increased "PWCFT", which is physical working capacity at threshold fatigue, 61 percent greater than a group using creatine alone. (selen-dar.com)
  • This means that supplementing beta-alanine may positively influence anaerobic performance, and helping to lessen fatigue. (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • In the 30-s maximal tethered eggbeater kicks the placebo group presented decreased peak force, mean force, and fatigue index, while the beta-alanine group maintained performance in mean force (44.1%, possibly beneficial), only presenting decreases in peak force. (nih.gov)
  • Giant Sports uses only the patented and branded CarnoSyn® form of Beta-Alanine in this product so that educated athletes have access to the highest quality product available in the world. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • SR CarnoSyn® is a sustained release form of beta-alanine that combines naturally with histidine in the body to produce carnosine. (ihsymposium.com)
  • In your muscles, histidine levels are normally high and beta-alanine levels low, which limits the production of carnosine ( 1 , 4 ). (healthline.com)
  • Its main function is to aid in the synthesis of carnosine, a dipeptide that is made up of the two amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. (saris.com)
  • The amount of carnosine that can be formed is dependent on the amount of beta-alanine-not histidine-within the cell. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Beta alanine plays a rate-limiting role in carnosine production by interacting with histidine. (prosource.net)
  • Carnosine is a dipeptide (Beta-Alanine plus Histidine) that functions as a buffer for the hydrogen ions (acid) produced during strenuous exercise, thus helping to maintain optimum muscular pH. (puritan.com)
  • Roger Harris, PhD, is the biochemist who first analyzed the connection between beta-alanine and carnosine, a dipeptide molecule made up of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • Beta-alanine-supplemented diet also increased carnosine (beta-alanyl-L: -histidine) concentration in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration in the hippocampus. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Reflex Nutrition Beta-Alanine is the only naturally occurring Beta-Amino Acid, taken by many athletes and often used in conjunction with L-Histidine to help improve physically performance. (monstersupplements.com)
  • When ingested, carnosine breaks down into Beta-Alanine and histidine. (firstendurance.com)
  • Carnosine enters the digestive system and is hydrolyzed into histidine and Beta-Alanine, which is then synthesized back into carnosine by skeletal muscle. (firstendurance.com)
  • Beta-alanine (BA) is a version of the amino acid alanine which serves as the precursor to carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) in skeletal muscle. (musclefeast.com)
  • Carnosine production relies heavily on the availability of beta-alanine, rather than histidine. (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • Beta Alanine Extreme blocks the buildup of lactic acid by increasing the synthesis of muscle carnosine. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta-Alanine increases carnosine production, blocking lactic acid and thereby allowing for more intense training. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta Alanine floods the muscles with the specialized amino acid carnosine to work as a buffer against lactic acid buildup. (prolab.com)
  • Beta-Alanine increases your training threshold is increased because it blocks the buildup of lactic acid. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • If you know how beta-alanine works, which is by buffering lactic acid, that's not so surprising. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Beta Alanine is a compound that converts to carnosine, a molecule which has been shown to buffer lactic acid build-up on muscles thus giving you the ability to train harder and for longer. (predatornutrition.com)
  • Reflex Nutrition Beta Alanine helps raise carnosine levels and will help with fighting off lactic acid. (monstersupplements.com)
  • college football players ingested 4.5 grams of beta-alanine or placebo for 30 days. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Study participants supplemented with the non-essential amino acid beta-alanine experienced increased power output compared to a placebo group, according to a study by researchers in Spain. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • They were randomly assigned to the two experimental groups-14 completed the study taking beta-alanine while 12 completed it with the placebo. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The subjects reported the same side effects taking the placebo and the slow-release Beta Alanine. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • They had groups put in placebo, creatine, or creatine plus beta-alanine. (bodybuildingweb.net)
  • A third 10 week study on collegiate football players showed a significant increase in muscle mass as compared to a placebo group which showed that in addition to enhancing performance, Beta Alanine might also have direct effects on body composition. (selen-dar.com)
  • Twenty-two women (age+/-SD 27.4+/-6.1 yrs) participated and were randomly assigned to either the beta-alanine (CarnoSyn) or Placebo (PL) group. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Participants were randomly allocated into two groups (placebo × beta-alanine) and supplemented with 6.4g∙day -1 of beta-alanine or a placebo for six weeks. (nih.gov)
  • To understand how beta-alanine works to fight the drop in pH within our muscle, you must first understand how carnosine works. (bullshido.net)
  • In reading this article, you will understand how beta-alanine works. (bodybuilding.com)
  • To understand how Beta-Alanine works, you must first understand how carnosine works. (firstendurance.com)
  • Studies show that beta-alanine helps increase your time to exhaustion (TTE). (healthline.com)
  • Reflex Nutrition Beta Alanine helps increase the time to exhaustion. (monstersupplements.com)
  • Supplementing with beta-alanine has been shown to elevate carnosine levels in muscles by 80% ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). (healthline.com)
  • Beta Alanine increases the carnosine levels inside your muscles. (prolab.com)
  • Betancourt's Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that can delay the tiring of your muscles throughout your entire workout so you can train longer. (evitamins.com)
  • If you are in the market for something to benefit your muscles all the way through your workout, pick up Beta-Alanine by Betancourt Nutrition. (evitamins.com)
  • Beta Alanine is crucial in the building of carnosine levels in skeletal muscles, which helps distribute acid in the muscles, aiding sports performance in explosive, fast action sports, from weight training to sprinting and boxing. (powerhouse-fitness.co.uk)
  • This appears to be due to beta-alanine being a pre-cursor to converting to carnisine in muscles. (bodybuildingweb.net)
  • Beta-alanine is made internally when your body breaks down carnosine or anserine (dipeptides in your brain, heart, and skeletal muscles), as a byproduct of the conversion of the amino acid alanine to pyruvate. (thorne.com)
  • Bata-alanine is the building block of carnosine, a molecule that acts to buffer acid in muscles. (sportsfuel.co.nz)
  • Taking 4-6g per day of beta-alanine for around four weeks is said to muscles increase muscle stores of carnosine, maximising its benefits. (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • Since Beta-Alanine is the precursor to the production of intra-muscular carnosine, it must be present in order for intra-muscular carnosine levels to increase when intense training takes place. (firstendurance.com)
  • In Escherichia coli, beta-alanine is a direct precursor in the biosynthesis of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). (nih.gov)
  • Because beta-alanine is part of the carnosine dipeptide complex, supplementing with it can increase internal stores of carnosine and with that comes an increase in buffering capacity leading to more normal levels of muscle pH. (saris.com)
  • It is predominantly through ingesting the dipeptide carnosine that we ingest most of our beta-alanine, as the two other dipeptides are not found nearly as plentiful in our typical coniferous diet. (bullshido.net)
  • Beta-alanine is most commonly supplemented by athletes because it is an integral component of the dipeptide carnosine that is found in both type I (slow-twitch) and type II (fast-twitch) muscle fiber types. (thorne.com)
  • The researchers wanted to know whether carnosine, a dipeptide that cells make from beta-alanine, can slow down this process. (ergo-log.com)
  • 4 Dimension Nutrition Beta Alanine at Netrition.com. (netrition.com)
  • 4 Dimension Nutrition Beta Alanine is a high potency muscle performance enhancer that is going to deliver far beyond your expectations. (netrition.com)
  • One of these publications appeared in August 2013 in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism and describes a study in which he gave well-trained rowers 6-7 g beta-alanine daily. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Natural Alternatives International (NAI) has settled its patent infringement case vs BPI Sports and Image Sports (trading as Image Nutrition) over their use of sports nutrition ingredient beta-alanine. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Beta-alanine is technically a non-essential beta-amino acid, but it has quickly become anything but non-essential in the worlds of sports performance nutrition and bodybuilding. (powerhouse-fitness.co.uk)
  • The incorporation of β-alanine into an athlete's nutrition plan should be considered on an individual basis. (sportsdietitians.com.au)
  • 06.04.2015 at 22:14:12 Xxl nutrition en bodystore solely advocate taking a whey and make daily movements more efficient. (amazonaws.com)
  • Reflex Nutrition Beta Alanine provides 1.6g pure Beta Alanine per serving and is most beneficial to use before intense exercise, supporting activities lasting longer than 60 seconds. (monstersupplements.com)
  • International society of sports nutrition position stand: Beta-Alanine. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • While technically a "non-essential" amino acid, Beta-Alanine has rapidly become anything but non-essential in the sports nutrition space. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • Obviously, Giant Sports believes that Beta-Alanine should earn a mandatory and permanent spot in your sports nutrition arsenal. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • Side effects have not been reported with moderate doses of beta-alanine. (webmd.com)
  • If you are going to experiment with taking beta-alanine, research recommends doses of 3.2-6.4 grams per day for up to 12 weeks. (saris.com)
  • Paresthesia is a mild sensation of prickling, numbness or burning in the skin that appears when doses of beta-alanine greater than 10 mg per kg are taken and resolves one hour after intake. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Supplementing with Beta Alanine in small divided doses of .8 grams also present no problems. (mindandmuscle.net)
  • Divided or Multiple Doses of Beta-Alanine? (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • One of the first questions that pop up with beta-alanine is whether it's best to take it in divided dosages or one or two larger doses. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • If an individual is only taking say 1.6g of beta-alanine per day, then it is fine to spread this across 1 or 2 doses. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • But when it comes to maximising intramuscular carnosine levels, a number of studies have shown that taking beta-alanine in divided doses of 400mg or 800mg at regular intervals is the most effective strategy. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • When used as directed, Giant Sports Beta-Alanine provides clinically validated doses of Beta-Alanine to insure the user obtains the optimal benefit from this amazing product. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • Educated athletes seeking performance enhancement in short to medium duration high intensity muscle performance in the gym or on the field will notice significant improvement after using Beta-Alanine in as little as 30 days. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • This appears to indicate that adding beta-alanine to the mix actually hurt performance. (breakingmuscle.com)
  • Beta-alanine dosage of 6.4 g in eight capsules was determined by looking at previous studies on the ingredient. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Beta-alanine is an amino acid that is naturally synthesized in the body. (saris.com)
  • Precision Engineered Beta-Alanine tablet is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • Beta-Alanine ( B-Alanine or BAM) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid. (ageforce.com)
  • ChEBI: A naturally-occurring beta-amino acid comprising propionic acid with the amino group in the 3-position. (lookchem.com)
  • Beta Alanine 3000 contains a potent dose of the only naturally-occurring Beta Amino Acid, Beta Alanine. (predatornutrition.com)
  • Also known as 3-aminopropanoic acid, it is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Beta-alanine occurs naturally in the body and is found in many sources of meat and fish, however cannot be made by the body itself. (powerhouse-fitness.co.uk)
  • Beta Alanine is found naturally in the body, and thus it is suitable for men and women who frequently exercise and are looking to boost their protein intake without the bulk of a protein shake. (powerhouse-fitness.co.uk)
  • β-alanine is an amino acid that is naturally made by the body but also found in animal products (especially chicken breast meat and fish). (sportsdietitians.com.au)
  • Beta Alanine is a naturally occurring non essential amino acid, found naturally in the body by eating protein rich food such as meat and fish. (professionalwhey.com.au)
  • Beta-alanine is a naturally occurring, and therefore, non-essential amino acid, meaning healthy individuals biosynthesize the amount necessary for normal function. (thorne.com)
  • beta-Alanine is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid - an amino acid in which the amino group is at the beta-position from the carboxylate group. (hmdb.ca)
  • It is a component of the naturally occurring peptides carnosine and anserine and also of pantothenic acid (vitamin B-5), which itself is a component of coenzyme A. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized into acetic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • Beta alanine is an amino acid, it is produced naturally by the body. (minds.com)
  • As we age, the carnosine levels in our bodies naturally decrease & diet alone won't provide enough beta-alanine, the rate-limiting factor in carnosine synthesis, to slow the changes that may be seen as we age. (ihsymposium.com)
  • The positive effect of beta-alanine was particularly noticeable during the second half of this distance, Ducker discovered. (anabolicminds.com)
  • A common side-effect of beta-alanine use is something known as paresthesia (this is much less scary than it sounds! (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • With 1,500 mg of the purest source of beta alanine 4DN could source, you know you're getting a super potent dose with every serving. (netrition.com)
  • Gentec Beta Alanine is a 100% pure pharmaceutical grade source of beta alanine, which has been HPLC tested and in a highly bio available form. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • Studies also show that beta alanine can sustain lean mass while losing bodyfat. (netrition.com)
  • Below is a list of the benefits of beta-alanine. (bodybuilding.com)
  • NAI notes that while there are currently more than 55 scientific studies supporting the benefits of beta-alanine, it is necessary for consumers to take the proper dosage to achieve those benefits. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • The benefits of Beta Alanine tend to be more exaggerated in exercises lasting 1 to 4 minutes 3 . (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • For this reason, beta-alanine specifically helps performance during high-intensity and short-duration exercise lasting one to several minutes. (healthline.com)
  • How Can Beta-Alanine Boost Exercise Performance? (iherb.com)
  • Beta-alanine is used for improving athletic performance and exercise capacity, building lean muscle mass, and improving physical functioning in the elderly. (webmd.com)
  • Some research shows that taking beta-alanine modestly improves some measures of physical performance, especially during high-intensity exercise and strength training . (webmd.com)
  • A new study in the European Journal of Applied Physiology , from researchers at Victoria University in Australia, takes a look at two commonly used performance aids: beta-alanine and baking soda. (runnersworld.com)
  • So baking soda does seem to affect anaerobic metabolism as expected, but it's beta-alanine that boosts performance most effectively. (runnersworld.com)
  • NAI) has expanded its commitment to CarnoSyn, a studied, patent-protected beta-alanine ingredient for supporting an increase in muscle carnosine and athletic performance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • So how can beta-alanine help us overcome this drop in pH that limits exercise performance? (bullshido.net)
  • Experience the effects of 4DN Beta Alanine today and get ready to rocket your performance to superior levels. (netrition.com)
  • But are these effects so strong and specific that beta-alanine actually boost performance during competitions? (anabolicminds.com)
  • Recently, researchers began studying beta-alanine and examining its effects on exercise performance and lean body mass. (bodybuilding.com)
  • One of the key scientists pioneering the performance research on beta-alanine is Dr. Roger Harris. (bodybuilding.com)
  • But before we go on to explain how beta-alanine works, you must first understand what's going on in our body's during exercise that limits our gains and muscular performance. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Because most of us are not as athletically inclined, and none of us is as young as we were yesterday, the benefits beta-alanine can provide beyond physical performance are worth considering. (thorne.com)
  • Specifically, Beta-Alanine seems most effective for improving exercise performance that lasts longer than 60 seconds. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • For the very best results I'd also recommend combining your beta alanine with 3 grams of creatine monohydrate, as the two appear to have synergistic effects on strength and performance. (selen-dar.com)
  • Participants will be able to discuss the efficacy of beta-alanine ingestion on maximizing physical performance in different age and training groups, including competitive and tactical athletic populations. (ihsymposium.com)
  • The ball velocity measured in the throwing performance after each sprint in the RSA presented a very like beneficial inference in the beta-alanine group for mean (96.4%) and percentage decrement of ball velocity (92.5%, likely beneficial). (nih.gov)
  • If you want to check out a really good product that combines a study dose of beta alanine and micronized creatine monohydrate, along with l-taurine and branched-chain amino acids, I'd recommend checking out MuscleAmp. (selen-dar.com)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes (R)-pantothenate from (R)-pantoate and beta-alanine , the pathway (R)-pantothenate biosynthesis and in Cofactor biosynthesis . (uniprot.org)
  • Other research shows that a specific product containing beta-alanine, creatine monohydrate, arginine , alpha-ketoisocaproate, and leucine (NO-Shotgun) might increase fat-free mass and strength in men participating in resistance training. (webmd.com)
  • Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine and 3-oxopropanoate , whereas its two products are pyruvate and beta-alanine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase , and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase . (wikipedia.org)
  • In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } pyruvate + beta-alanine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine and 3-oxopropanoate, whereas its two products are pyruvate and beta-alanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three primary ways to produce beta-alanine: the breakdown of carnosine, the conversion of L-alanine to pyruvate, or through digestion. (bodybuilding.com)
  • beta-Alanine can undergo a transanimation reaction with pyruvate to form malonate-semialdehyde and L-alanine. (hmdb.ca)
  • Whereas creatine is considered ideal for boosting absolute strength, Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that is used by muscle cells to synthesize carnosine which functions as a buffer for the hydrogen ions (acid) produced during strenuous exercise, thus helping to maintain optimum muscular pH. (vitasprings.com)
  • Alanine increases intra muscular levels of carnosine, which buffers those hydrogen ions, which prolongs the point of muscular failure. (selen-dar.com)
  • By supplementing with beta alanine you buffer those hydrogen ions and you prolong the point of muscular failure which allows you to push more weight for more reps and improve your bottom line muscle gains as a result. (selen-dar.com)
  • So instead of psychiatrists messing depressed people around with therapy, might sufferers not do better to take beta-alanine and start running laps around the track? (ironmagazine.com)
  • Reflex Beta Alanine can be taken throughout the day, however it may be beneficial to use before intense exercise. (monstersupplements.com)
  • With unbeatable value and quality, Pure Supps Beta-Alanine is hard to go past for any savvy consumer looking to save a dollar yet get a quality beta-alanine, to enhance the hardest workout or training session. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Endogenous beta-amino acids, non-selective glycine receptor agonists ,G-protein-coupled orphan receptor (TGR7, MrgD) ligand. (lookchem.com)
  • Wu FS, Gibbs TT, Farb DH (1993) Dual activation of GABAA and glycine receptors by beta-alanine inverse modulation by progesterone and 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one. (springer.com)
  • In all tested strains, this overexpression led to a strong sensitivity to beta-alanine, but not to the other CycA substrates, such as L-alanine, D-alanine, and glycine. (nih.gov)
  • Not to be confused with regular alanine, beta- alanine is classified as a non-proteinogenic amino acid, as it is not believed to be used in the building of proteins. (bullshido.net)
  • Beta-alanine is a type of amino acid that isn't involved in synthesizing proteins (i.e., building muscle). (bodybuilding.com)
  • Beta-alanine increases carnosine levels, which may have several health benefits. (healthline.com)
  • APS Beta Alanine allows you to push through every workout by providing the fuel to extinguish immediate muscle burnout. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Lately, we've been seeing some compelling science that suggests adding beta alanine to your diet can improve your staying power and workout productivity. (prosource.net)
  • Because of its capacity to reduce acidity muscle acidity, carnosine (or beta-alanine) is often featured in pre-workout products. (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid. (healthline.com)
  • Beta-alanine is an amino acid. (webmd.com)
  • β-Methylamino- L -alanine , or BMAA , is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • BMAA is a derivative of the amino acid alanine with a methylamino group on the side chain . (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-alanine is an amino acid found within skeletal muscle. (bodybuilding.com)
  • PrimaForce Beta Alanine uses the purest form of the amino acid, Bet-Alanine. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that is used by muscle cells to synthesize Carnosine. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid, meaning the body can make it on its own. (a1supplements.com)
  • Relying on the stability of marine biology, beta-aminopropionic acid has a protective effect on cells. (lookchem.com)
  • Acrylonitrile and ammonia react in a solution of diphenylamine and t-butanol to create beta-aminopropionitrile, which is then alkalized to obtain beta-aminopropionic acid. (lookchem.com)
  • The non-protein amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) was first associated with the high incidence of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) in Guam, and has been implicated as a potential environmental factor in ALS, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • Beta-Alanine is a non proteinogenic amino acid, which means it cannot be synthesized into a protein. (bodybuildingweb.net)
  • In contrast, beta-alanine-supplemented diet decreased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, a major metabolite of serotonin, in the hypothalamus. (ironmagazine.com)
  • An example of a popularly studied slow-release beta-alanine composition is made up of beta-alanine combined with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, stearic acid and magnesium stearate. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • β-alanine is important in the production of a protein called carnosine which can buffer ("soak up") acid by-products produced during high intensity exercise. (sportsdietitians.com.au)
  • Beta-alanine is an amino acid produced in the liver. (straighthealth.com)
  • Beta-alanine is also made during digestion when a carbon atom is removed from aspartic acid by intestinal microbes. (thorne.com)
  • Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, beta-alanine may act as a false transmitter replacing gamma-aminobutyric acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • Beta Alanine is a natural amino acid that has been demonstrated to increase muscle levels of Carnosine by 20-80% 1 . (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • Beta-Alanine is an amino acid combining carnosine and vitamin B5, known as pantothenic acid. (firstendurance.com)
  • It's long been understood that the amino acid carnosine plays a key role in the homeostasis of pH and lactate threshold and that carnosine levels are regulated by Beta-Alanine. (firstendurance.com)
  • Muscle carnosine has been reported to serve as a physiological buffer, possess antioxidant properties, influence enzyme regulation, and affect sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium regulation.Beta-alanine (β-ALA) is a non-essential amino acid. (mdpi.com)
  • The amino acid also limits carnosine and it means the presence of beta alanine fosters levels of the latter. (minds.com)
  • The aim of this work was the characterization of beta-alanine transport by E. coli and the identification and overexpression of the corresponding carrier-encoding gene for the rational improvement of pantothenic acid-producing strains. (nih.gov)
  • beta-Alanine uptake was found to be an active process catalyzed by the amino acid carrier CycA. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-alanine is an amino acid found in muscle tissue doesn't have direct involvement in muscle protein synthesis. (discount-supplements.co.uk)
  • Beta-alanine aminotransferase may refer to: Alanine transaminase, an enzyme 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, an enzyme This set index page lists enzyme articles associated with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronically high levels of beta-alanine are associated with at least three inborn errors of metabolism, including GABA-transaminase deficiency, hyper-beta-alaninemia, and methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. (hmdb.ca)
  • beta-Alanine is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant and is an inhibitor of GABA transaminase. (hmdb.ca)