beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Beta-Globulins: Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Trypsin Inhibitor, Kunitz Soybean: A high-molecular-weight protein (approximately 22,500) containing 198 amino acid residues. It is a strong inhibitor of trypsin and human plasmin.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Cadmium Poisoning: Poisoning occurring after exposure to cadmium compounds or fumes. It may cause gastrointestinal syndromes, anemia, or pneumonitis.Neopterin: A pteridine derivative present in body fluids; elevated levels result from immune system activation, malignant disease, allograft rejection, and viral infections. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Neopterin also serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of biopterin.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.CreatinineHLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Hemodiafiltration: The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.beta 2-Glycoprotein I: A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mice, Inbred C57BLMajor Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Histocompatibility Antigen H-2D: A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Calnexin: A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (1/1648)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Impaired lysosomal processing of beta2-microglobulin by infiltrating macrophages in dialysis amyloidosis. (2/1648)

BACKGROUND: Macrophages may participate in amyloid fibril formation by processing the protein precursor. Although this theory seems to apply for amyloidosis, in which proteolytic cleavage is a prerequisite for amyloid fibril formation, it has not been demonstrated for beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) amyloidosis. We aimed to establish the role played by macrophages in beta2m amyloidosis. METHODS: We used a double immunogold electron microscopy technique, including mouse antihuman CD68, rabbit antihuman beta2m, amyloid P component, and lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP-1) antibodies. Differential density labeling studies of beta2m and amyloid P component were performed extra- and intracellularly to assess protein processing by macrophages. RESULTS: The cells surrounding amyloid fibrils were found to be mostly CD68 positive, suggesting that they were of monocyte-macrophage lineage. Intracellular accumulation of amyloid fibrils was also observed; these fibrils were constantly surrounded by LAMP-1-linked gold particles, demonstrating that intracellular beta2m was almost exclusively lysosomal. The rough-surface endoplasmic reticulum was not labeled by beta2m antibody, suggesting that there was no active synthesis of beta2m by the cells. As a marker of endocytosis, protruded cytoplasmic processes in close relation with the intracellular accumulations of beta2m amyloid fibrils were observed. No difference in density labeling (extracellular vs. intracellular) was observed for beta2m, whereas intracellular P component labeling was significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: All of these data are strongly suggestive of phagocytosis and not synthesis of amyloid fibrils by macrophages. Further, they demonstrate an impaired lysosomal processing specific for beta2m, as other compounds of the amyloid fibrils (P component) are significantly cleared.  (+info)

Photophysical analysis of class I major histocompatibility complex protein assembly using a xanthene-derivatized beta2-microglobulin. (3/1648)

Spectral changes and a sixfold increase in the emission intensity were observed in the fluorescence of a single xanthene probe (Texas red) attached to beta2m-microglobulin (beta2m) upon assembly of beta2m into a ternary complex with mouse H-2Kd heavy chain and influenza nuclear protein peptide. Dissociation of the labeled beta2m from the ternary complex restored the probe's fluorescence and absorption spectra and reduced the emission intensity. Thus changes in xanthene probe fluorescence upon association/dissociation of the labeled beta2m molecule with/from the ternary complex provide a simple and convenient method for studying the assembly/dissociation mechanism of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) encoded molecule. The photophysical changes in the probe can be accounted for by the oligomerization of free labeled beta2m molecules. The fluorescence at 610 nm is due to beta2m dimers, where the probes are significantly separated spatially so that their emission and excitation properties are close to those of xanthene monomers. Fluorescence around 630 nm is due to beta2m oligomers where xanthene probes interact. Minima in the steady-state excitation (550 nm) and emission (630 nm) anisotropy spectra correlate with the maxima of the high-order oligomer excitation and emission spectra, showing that their fluorescence is more depolarized. These photophysical features are explained by splitting of the first singlet excited state of interacting xanthene probes that can be modeled by exciton theory.  (+info)

Acute haemodynamic and proteinuric effects of prednisolone in patients with a nephrotic syndrome. (4/1648)

BACKGROUND: Administration of prednisolone causes an abrupt rise in proteinuria in patients with a nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: To clarify the mechanisms responsible for this increase in proteinuria we have performed a placebo controlled study in 26 patients with a nephrotic syndrome. Systemic and renal haemodynamics and urinary protein excretion were measured after prednisolone and after placebo. RESULTS: After i.v. administration of 125-150 mg prednisolone total proteinuria increased from 6.66+/-4.42 to 9.37+/-6.07 mg/min (P<0.001). By analysing the excretion of proteins with different charge and weight (albumin, transferrin, IgG, IgG4 and beta2-microglobulin) it became apparent that the increase of proteinuria was the result of a change in size selectivity rather than a change in glomerular charge selectivity or tubular protein reabsorption. Glomerular filtration rate rose from 83+/-34 ml to 95+/-43 ml/min (P<0.001) after 5 h, whereas effective renal plasma flow and endogenous creatinine clearance remained unchanged. As a result filtration fraction was increased, compatible with an increased glomerular pressure, which probably contributes to the size selectivity changes. Since corticosteroids affect both the renin-angiotensin system and renal prostaglandins, we have evaluated the effects of prednisolone on proteinuria after pretreatment with 3 months of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril or after 2 weeks of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin. Neither drug had any effect on prednisolone-induced increases of proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: Prednisolone increases proteinuria by changing the size selective barrier of the glomerular capillary. Neither the renin-angiotensin axis nor prostaglandins seem to be involved in these effects of prednisolone on proteinuria.  (+info)

Stability of plasma levels of cytokines and soluble activation markers in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (5/1648)

Cytokine and immune activation marker levels in plasma are valuable measurements of immune status and treatment effects in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS. Five populations representing various stages of disease were studied: controls, 2 AIDS groups with <50/mm3 CD4 cells, and 2 groups of HIV-positive subjects-1 with stable CD4 T cells (median, 545/mm3) and 1 with >100/mm3 CD4 cell decline in 1 year. Relatively stable levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, soluble TNF receptor (R)II, soluble interleukin-2R, neopterin, and beta2-microglobulin (beta2M) were documented over 5-8 weeks in patients with AIDS and for 1-4 years in the other groups. beta2M was generally the most stable marker. Interferon-gamma levels, however, fluctuated substantially. Individuals, whether normal or HIV-positive, maintain characteristic plasma levels of cytokines and immune activation markers. Thus, documented changes, in excess of the variability observed in this study, are likely to be significant indicators of change in disease status or effects of therapy.  (+info)

Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is up-regulated in human pancreatic cancer. (6/1648)

A large body of evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is important in gastrointestinal cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether COX-2 was expressed in adenocarcinoma of the human pancreas. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expression of COX-2 in pancreatic tissue. Levels of COX-2 mRNA were increased by >60-fold in pancreatic cancer compared to adjacent nontumorous tissue. COX-2 protein was present in 9 of 10 cases of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas but was undetectable in nontumorous pancreatic tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that COX-2 was expressed in malignant epithelial cells. In cultured human pancreatic cancer cells, levels of COX-2 mRNA and protein were induced by treatment with tumor-promoting phorbol esters. Taken together, these results suggest that COX-2 may be a target for the prevention or treatment of pancreatic cancer.  (+info)

Soluble class I MHC with beta2-microglobulin covalently linked peptides: specific binding to a T cell hybridoma. (7/1648)

Soluble forms of the mouse MHC class I molecule, Dd, were produced in which the peptide binding groove was uniformly occupied by peptides attached via a covalent flexible peptide linker to the N terminus of the associated beta2-microglobulin. The MHC heavy chain and beta2-microglobulin were firmly associated, and the molecules displayed an Ab epitope requiring proper occupancy of the peptide binding groove. Soluble Dd containing a covalent version of a well-characterized Dd-binding peptide from HIV stimulated a T cell hybridoma specific for this combination. Furthermore, a tetravalent version of this molecule bound specifically with apparent high avidity to this hybridoma.  (+info)

Recognition of the major histocompatibility complex restriction element modulates CD8(+) T cell specificity and compensates for loss of T cell receptor contacts with the specific peptide. (8/1648)

Triggering of a T cell requires interaction between its specific receptor (TCR) and a peptide antigen presented by a self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. TCR recognition of self-MHC by itself falls below the threshold of detection in most systems due to low affinity. To study this interaction, we have used a read-out system in which antigen-specific effector T cells are confronted with targets expressing high levels of MHC compared with the selecting and priming environment. More specifically, the system is based on CD8(+) T cells selected in an environment with subnormal levels of MHC class I in the absence of beta2-microglobulin. We observe that the MHC restriction element can trigger viral peptide-specific T cells independently of the peptide ligand, provided there is an increase in self-MHC density. Peptide-independent triggering required at least four times the natural in vivo level of MHC expression. Furthermore, recognition of the restriction element at expression levels below this threshold was still enough to compensate for lack of affinity to peptides carrying alanine substitutions in major TCR contact residues. Thus, the specificity in TCR recognition and T cell activation is fine tuned by the avidity for self-MHC, and TCR avidities for peptide and MHC may substitute for each other. These results demonstrate a functional role for TCR avidity for self-MHC in tuning of T cell specificity, and support a role for cross-reactivity on "self" during T cell selection and activation.  (+info)

Molecules containing the 33-kDa plasma protein alpha1-microglobulin were isolated from human plasma by anti-(alpha1-microglobulin) affinity chromatography. Five major bands could be seen after electrophoretic separation of the alpha1-microglobulin-containing proteins under native conditions. Immunoblotting demonstrated alpha1-microglobulin in all five bands. Two of these have been described previously: free alpha1-microglobulin and alpha1-microglobulin complexed with IgA (IgA x alpha1-microglobulin). The other three bands were identified as prothrombin alpha1-microglobulin, albumin x alpha1-microglobulin and dimeric alpha1-microglobulin. Prothrombin x alpha1-microglobulin were 1:2 and 1:1 complexes which carried approximately 1% of total alpha1-microglobulin, had molecular masses of about 145 kDa and 110 kDa upon SDS/PAGE and dissociated completely to free alpha1-microglobulin and prothrombin (72 kDa) when reducing agents were added, suggesting that the complexes were stabilized by disulfide ...
Looking for online definition of Beta-2-microglobulin or what Beta-2-microglobulin stands for? Beta-2-microglobulin is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
Human β2microglobulin is cytophilic for mouse, rat, and to a lesser extent guinea pig lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes but not for human, rabbit, chicken, frog, and turtle cells, nor for any mature erythrocytes tested. Mouse splenic lymphocytes bind 5- 7-fold more β2microglobulin than thymocytes although hydrocortisoneresistant thymocytes resemble spleen cells in this regard. The β2microglobulin binding by B and T cells in mouse spleen is similar. The structure responsible for β2 microglobulin binding to the surface of cells is distinct from the Fc receptor specific for aggregated IgG.. ...
β2-m amyloid fibrils induce apoptosis of HIG-82 cells as measured by the TUNEL assay.After HIG-82 cells were incubated with Hams F12 medium containing vehic
Three capillary dialyzers, with highly permeable membranes, have been compared for their capacity of epuration of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, phosphorus, uric acid and beta 2 microglobulin, and for their respective protein losses. There were very little differences between the dialyzers for epuration of small uremic molecules, with no benefit due to high permeability membranes in comparison with conventional dialyzers. Protein losses may be important and have to be known. About beta 2 microglobulin, filtered quantities are not correlated to changes in serum levels, suggesting the presence of other mechanisms (adsorption on the membrane and generation during hemodialysis) which influence, together with epuration, perdialytic changes of serum beta 2 microglobulin concentrations.
Objective: To assess the behavior of Beta-2 microglobulin and serum cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 as indicators of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Eighty-nine HIV-1+ patients and 20 normal individuals were divided into 4 groups: G1- 15 HIV-1+ individuals, previously untreated or without HAART for at least six months and CD4+ , 350 cells/mm3; G2- 31 HIV-1+ individuals undergoing HAART without virological therapeutic failure (TF), G3- 43 HIV-1+ individuals undergoing HAART with TF, and GC- 20 normal individuals who served as controls for serum cytokines. Demographic, clinical and HAART data were reviewed, and Beta-2 microglobulin, serum cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10), HIV-1 genotyping, plasma viral load and CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes tests were performed.. Key words: Beta-2 microglobulin, serum cytokines, HIV-1, resistance, HAART, therapeutic failure, genotyping. ...
We analyzed the phenotype and V beta-T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, together with interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R) expression in unfractionated thymocytes stimulated in vitro with IL-7. This culture system results in a specific proliferation of mature thymocytes belonging to the CD3+CD4-, CD4+8-, and CD4-8+ subsets. IL-7 induced a preferential expansion of V beta 8.2+CD4-8- and V beta 8.2+CD4-8- thymocytes. This phenomenon is not observed in beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice, showing that a fraction of CD4+8- thymocytes, enriched in V beta 8.2+ cells, is selected by class I molecules in normal mice, as are a large proportion of CD4-8- alpha beta TCR+ thymocytes. Our findings also establish that IL-7 plays a major role in the expansion of rare thymocyte subsets, which could exert important functions in inflammatory and immune responses. ...
|strong|Mouse anti Human beta 2 microglobulin antibody, clone 2213|/strong| recognizes native human beta 2 microglobulin, a 119 amino acid component of MHC class I molecules present on all nucleated c…
Active rheumatoid arthritis and kidney disease can be partially diagnosed with a B2 microglobulin test. Visit RapidTest for kit details. Order online.
Mouse monoclonal Beta 2 Microglobulin Antibody. Tested Applications; Development of assay kits when used in conjunction with clone C21
beta 2 Microglobulin (F21-21), 0.25 mg. Like their mammalian counterparts, avian MHC Class I molecules (also known as B-F antigens) consist of a highly polymorphic alpha-chain (Mr approx.
Gene Information This gene belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. It encodes a non-classical heavy chain that forms a heterodimer with a beta-2 microglobulin light chain with the heavy chain anchored in the membrane. Unlike most other HLA heavy chains this molecule is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus with a small amount present at the cell surface in some cell types. It contains a divergent peptide-binding groove and is thought to bind a restricted subset of peptides for immune presentation. This gene exhibits few polymorphisms. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. These variants lack a coding exon found in transcripts from other HLA paralogues due to an altered splice acceptor site resulting in a shorter cytoplasmic domain. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human beta 2 microglobulin (B2MG), Tracer (HRP Labeled), Clone D3A2Collection: AntibodySub Category: Matched Antibody
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Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is a protein shed by cells into the blood, including tumor cells. The B2M test can be used as a tumor marker for some people with blood cell cancers (multiple myeloma, lymphoma) to give information about their likely prognosis.
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Mouse Monoclonal Anti-alpha 1-Microglobulin Antibody (3F1) [PE]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
Mouse monoclonal Alpha 1 microglobulin antibody [BN11.10] validated for WB, IP, ELISA, IHC, RIA, Other and tested in Human and Rat. Referenced in 1…
Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), a light chain subunit of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I complex, has been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, whether it is expressed in different epithelial-type ovarian tumours remains unknown. This study was performed to examine the expression of B2M in different histopathological types of ovarian tumours, to explore the function of B2M in ovarian cancer (OC) cells and to investigate the mechanisms underlying the regulation of B2M by the TGF-β signaling pathway. B2M expression in normal ovarian tissues and epithelia-type ovarian tumours was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, followed by the analysis of association with clinical features. OC cells were transfected with B2M-siRNA and cell proliferation, migration and invasion were determined by WST-1 assay, wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay, respectively. The regulation of B2M by the TGF-β signaling pathway in OC cells was examined by Western blot, ELISA and qRT-PCR. We
Hi, folks, Im trolling this through sci.med in the hopes of picking up some M.D. readers who have hematology experiemce but who dont ordinar- ily read the bionet newsgroups. Similarly for bionet.immunology. How- ever, I have set the followups back to bionet.cellbiol, which I think is the most appropriate newsgroup for this rather technical discussion. Ive run into an interesting problem. I am working with an an- tibody to the class I MHC molecule. I am studying class I MHC in a species of New World Monkey; some individuals react to this antibody, and some of them do not. The antibody recognizes an epitope that spans across the class I heavy chain and beta-2 microglobulin. I have identi- fied an amino acid polymorphism in beta-2m that is responsible for the antibody reactivity. You may recall that class I heavy chains are membrane-anchored molecules, but beta-2m is not. So class I heavy chains can lose their endogenous beta-2m in cell culture, and pick up the beta-2m from the cul- ture medium. ...
Part 1 of this three-part series provides an in-depth look at the history component. By Raemarie Jimenez, CPC, CPC-I, CANPC, CRHC Although evaluation and
Alteration within a discrete region of the H-2Ld alpha 1 helix upon association with human beta 2 microglobulin.: The utilization of the beta 2-microglobulin (B
Increased CSF levels, relative to serum levels, are found with CNS involvement in Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and Lymphoma (non-Hodgkin).. Increased levels are seen with severe neurological impairment in Multiple sclerosis.. ...
Mice hemizygous for the X-linked mutation, scurfy (sf), exhibit a fatal lymphoreticular disease that is mediated by T lymphocytes. To evaluate the respective roles of CD4 or CD8 single positive T cells in scurfy disease, neonates were treated with mAbs directed against the CD4 or CD8 molecules. Whereas mice treated with an anti-CD8 Ab developed lesions and succumbed to disease at the same time (17 days) as their untreated scurfy littermates, mice treated with an anti-CD4 Ab lived up to 11 wk before developing scurfy disease. To insure a more complete elimination of the T cell subsets, the scurfy mutation was bred onto beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m)-deficient (CD8-less) and CD4-deficient transgenic mouse lines. Whereas there was little moderation of disease in beta 2m-deficient scurfy mice, CD4-deficient scurfy mice had markedly decreased scurfy lesions and a prolonged life span, similar to that of anti-CD4-treated sf/Y mice. Additionally, scurfy disease was transplanted into H-2-compatible nude ...
Answers for What pill is round with a m on one side an a 23 on the other side:A round pill with a 23 on one side and an m on the other is Amlodipine. It is used with or without other medications to treat high blood pressure (hypertension).
First of all I want to thank each and everyone of you ladies for being there for me through my darkest hours. The last 48 hours have been a rollercoaster unlike any other. I went from feeling at my highest thinking I was carrying twins to most likely loosing both. I will keep this a bit short as I am exhausted from these past few days. Not physically but emotionally and mentally exhausted. I went today for the repeat Beta and unfortunately it had gone down to the 700s. My RE and i discussed it and i will continue on my meds until Monday. This way we can feel comfertable that we did not stop the meds too early. Unfortunately, I know in my heart that the Beta will be lower on Monday meaning that I did in fact have a miscarriage of both. My RE is certain that both embabies attached because of the elevated Beta levels. My RE is baffled as we are as we are. With a first Beta of 275 and then a second Beta of 1,513 we were sure that all was progressing. But we were wrong. My RE is not optimistic at ...
The biological assembly is a heterotrimeric complex consisting of one HLA-B*2709 (heavy) chain, one beta-2-microglobulin (light) chain and one decameric model peptide s10R ...
PAA260Hu01, Polyclonal Antibody to Beta-2-Microglobulin (b2M), β2-微球蛋白(b2M)多克隆抗体, BMG; B2MG | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
Vonage Every time I call I m on hold forever. I have to use my cell because my Vonage line doesn t work. Duh that s why I m calling support. Anyway most of the time my battery goes dead because I m on hold for so long. Well folks I solved the problem. I swi
Digestion information covering the digestion system and related diseases, procedures and tests, medications, and treatments. Produced by doctors.
Article Optimising logistic processes with rapidM2M. When delivering products, it is crucial to keep an eye on GPS positions, delivery dates as well as the quality of the products. Machine-to-Machine technology enables you to do so from your office d...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Persistent fever and destructive arthritis caused by dialysis-related amyloidosis. AU - Matsumoto, Kotaro. AU - Kikuchi, Jun. AU - Kaneko, Yuko. AU - Yasuoka, Hidekata. AU - Suzuki, Kazuko. AU - Tokuyama, Hirobumi. AU - Kameyama, Kaori. AU - Yamaoka, Kunihiro. AU - Takeuchi, Tsutomu. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Rationale: Dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) can present rheumatic manifestations in patients on long-term hemodialysis. Typical articular symptoms with DRA involve carpal-tunnel syndrome, effusion in large joints, spondyloarthropathy, or cystic bone lesions, which are usually with non-inflammatory processes. Patient concerns: A 64-year-old man on hemodialysis for ,30 years was admitted because of intermittent fever, polyarthritis, and elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level, which was continuous for 2 years. Several antibiotics were ineffective for 3 months before his admission. On physical examination, joint swelling was observed at bilateral wrists, knees, ...
Protein aggregation is the cause of several human diseases such as diabetes mellitus type 2, Parkinson s disease, Alzheimer s disease, Huntington s disease, spongiform encephalopathies, congestive heart failure or dialysis-related amyloidosis. All of these disorders result from protein misfolding which leads to fibrillization and deposition of amyloid plaques in different parts of the body.Due to high molecular weight of the amyloid fibrils and intrinsic heterogeneity of the intermediate states, protein aggregation is a very challenging field of study for the structural biologist. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a unique possibility to investigate aggregation at all stages, from the monomer to the fibrils.In this work, structural changes involved in prion diseases and dialysis-related amyloidosis are investigated with the help of various NMR techniques.Prion diseases are caused by the aggregation of the natively α-helical prion protein PrPC into its pathological β-sheet-rich ...
Long-term dialysis treatment is tough on the body in many ways, but one of the most serious complications is dialysis-related amyloidosis, a disease characterized by abnormal buildup of protein aggregates-called amyloid fibrils-in joints, tissues and organs.. Although there is no cure, recent research by Osaka University researchers sheds light on how amyloid fibrils form and aggregate, thereby allowing the identification of new therapeutic and preventive avenues to further improve the lives of sufferers.. In a study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Osaka University researchers have identified that polyphosphate (polyP), which is a naturally occurring polymer in the body and a food and drink additive, induces the formation of amyloid fibrils from β2 microglobulin proteins.. PolyPs play an important role in life as storage of phosphorous. When kidney function is normal, β2 microglobulin serum blood levels remain low. However, β2 microglobulin are not efficiently ...
Looking for online definition of beta2 microglobulin in the Medical Dictionary? beta2 microglobulin explanation free. What is beta2 microglobulin? Meaning of beta2 microglobulin medical term. What does beta2 microglobulin mean?
Mhc class I molecules display intracellularly derived peptides on the surface of almost all nucleated mammalian cells for recognition by the immune system. MHC class I heavy chain, which contains the peptide binding site, is a classical type I transmembrane protein with a large luminal/extracellular domain and a short cytosolic tail. The heavy chain enters the secretory pathway via the ER translocon, a channel whose major component is Sec61. The light chain β2 microglobulin (β2m)1 and the peptide associate with the heavy chain after it has been inserted into the ER membrane, and the complex is then transported, via the Golgi, to the plasma membrane. In humans, the MHC class I heavy chain is a 43-kD protein that contains a single N-linked glycan.. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) evades detection by the immune system by targeting MHC class I heavy chains for destruction soon after they have been synthesized. The HCMV proteins responsible for MHC class I heavy chain destruction are US11 and US2 ...
Misfolding and aggregation of normally soluble proteins into amyloid fibrils and their deposition and accumulation underlies a variety of clinically significant diseases. Fibrillar aggregates with amyloid-like properties can also be generated in vitro from pure proteins and peptides, including those not known to be associated with amyloidosis. Whereas biophysical studies of amyloid-like fibrils formed in vitro have provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms of amyloid generation and the structural properties of the fibrils formed, amyloidogenic proteins are typically exposed to mild or more extreme denaturing conditions to induce rapid fibril formation in vitro. Whether the structure of the resulting assemblies is representative of their natural in vivo counterparts, thus, remains a fundamental unresolved issue. Here we show using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy that amyloid-like fibrils formed in vitro from natively folded or unfolded β2-microglobulin (the protein ...
Serial determinations of beta 2-microglobulin, lactoferrin and lysozyme in CSF were performed in 14 patients with acute cerebrovascular lesions. Marked elevations were noted in patients with cerebral bleeding or hemorrhagic infarction. Patients with infarction without signs of bleeding or with cerebrovascular lesions undetectable by computed tomography also had an increase in these proteins. The increases in CSF of beta 2-microglobulin, lactoferrin and lysozyme could not be explained by a damaged blood-brain barrier but was believed to be a local product of the central nervous system. Peak levels of lactoferrin and lysozyme were noted on day 2-3 after onset of symptoms. Lactoferrin then declined while lysozyme remained elevated for another few days. beta 2-microglobulin gradually increased reaching peak levels on day 4-5 and remained elevated even 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms. We suggest that the increases of lactoferrin, lysozyme and beta 2-microglobulin reflect various inflammatory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide association study identified the human leukocyte antigen region as a novel locus for plasma beta-2 microglobulin. AU - Tin, Adrienne. AU - Astor, Brad C.. AU - Boerwinkle, Eric. AU - Hoogeveen, Ron C.. AU - Coresh, Josef. AU - Kao, Wen Hong Linda. PY - 2013/6. Y1 - 2013/6. N2 - Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is a component of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule and has been studied as a biomarker of kidney function, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Little is known about the genes influencing its levels directly or through glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We conducted a genome-wide association study of plasma B2M levels in 6738 European Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study to identify novel loci for B2M and assessed its association with known estimated GFR (eGFR) loci. We identified 2 genome-wide significant loci. One was in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region on chromosome 6 (lowest p value = 1.8 × 10 -23 for ...
Normal kidneys filter and remove excess small proteins from the blood, thus keeping blood levels normal. When the kidneys dont work properly, as in patients receiving dialysis, one type of small protein calle beta-2-microglobulin builds up in the blood. When this occurs, beta-2-microglobulin molecules may join together, like the links of a chain, forming a few very large molecules from many smaller ones. These large molecules can form deposits and eventually damage the surrounding tissues and cause great discomfort. This condition is called dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA). DRA is relatively common in patients, especially older adults, who have been on hemodialysis for more than 5 years. Hemodialysis membranes that have been used for many years dont effectively remove the large, complex beta-2-microglobulin proteins from the bloodstream. Newer hemodialysis membranes, as well as peritoneal dialysis, remove beta-2-microglobulin more effectively, but not enough to keep blood levels normal. As a ...
A multi-institutional trials program was initiated to define the effects of interferons in disseminated human breast carcinoma. Interferon alpha, prepared from buffy coats, was administered intramuscularly at 3 ×106 U daily for an initial period of 28 days. Of 23 patients who entered the program, five had an objective partial response of 92 days mean duration at diverse sites of involvement. Patients who responded were significantly older (p = 0.05) than nonresponders. Dose escalation in eight patients did not result in any clear evidence of additional responses. Major toxicities were fatigue, anorexia with weight loss, and reversible leukopenia (less than 3.5 ×109 leukocytes/L in 16 patients). Natural killer cell and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity were significantly (p , 0.05) enhanced 48 hours after interferon administration began but subsequently declined despite continued therapy. Serum β2microglobulin concentration increased on day 15 (p , 0.05) and remained significantly ...
Overview: Immunopathogenesis of sepsis, innate immunity Research Interests. We demonstrated that ß2 microglobulin knockout mice that are depleted of natural killer (NK) cells by treatment with anti-asialoGM1 exhibit decreased systemic inflammation, less metabolic acidosis, reduced hypothermia, better hemodynamic function and improved survival compared to control mice following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). ß2MKO/aAsGM1 mice have multiple immunological defects including an absence of CD8+ T, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cells as well as deficient expression of the class I major histocompatability complex (MHC-I) and CD1 molecules. Our recent ?ndings strongly support the contention that depletion of CD8+ T and NK cells are the primary factors providing protection from CLP-induced injury in ß2MKO/aAsGM1 mice. Most recently, we have focused on the contributions of NK cells to the pathogenesis of septic shock caused by cecal ligation and puncture. Our recent studies ...
Principal Investigator:MARUYAMA Hiroki, Project Period (FY):1998 - 2000, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Kidney internal medicine
Approval for the lixelle® ß2-microglobulin apheresis column (also called the beta2-microglobulin apheresis column or ß2m). This device is indicated for the treatment of patients with clinically diagnosed dialysis-related amyloidosis (dra ...
Correlation of Beta-2 Microglobulin with serum creatinine and creatinine clearance in patients with different levels of renal function
RefSeq Summary (NM_002116): HLA-A belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. Hundreds of HLA-A alleles have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_002116): HLA-A belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. Hundreds of HLA-A alleles have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Bortezomib-melphalan-prednisone (VMP) showed superior efficacy versus MP as first-line treatment for transplantation-ineligible multiple myeloma (MM). This study investigated the efficacy of VMP for Korean patients with MM. Overall, 177 MM patients received 9 cycles of VMP in this prospective, multicenter, observational study. The primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Thirty-nine (22%) patients were aged >= 75 years and 83 (47.4%) patients had International Staging System stage III. A median of 5 cycles were delivered. Overall response rate (ORR) was 72.9%, and complete response (CR) rate was 20.3%. With a median follow-up of 11.9 months, median PFS was 17 months. The 2-year PFS and overall survival (OS) rates were 29.2% and 80.0%, respectively. Median OS was not reached. PFS was significantly different depending on performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group < 2 vs. >= 2; p = 0.0002), beta(2)-microglobulin level (< 5.5 vs. = 5.5 mg/L; p = 0.0481), and ...
Measurement of urinary beta core fragment of human chorionic gonadotrophin in women with vulvovaginal malignancy and its prognostic significance
Small Round Blue Pill With M On One Side And H25 The Other - Topics (Showing results 1 - 6 of 6)... round blue pill with m on one side and 15 other: Small blue round pill. M on one side,H25 on the other. Can you identify for me please? ## The tablet... h25 on one side m the other very small round blue pill: I wondered
1I1F: The structural basis for the increased immunogenicity of two HIV-reverse transcriptase peptide variant/class I major histocompatibility complexes.
1I1Y: The structural basis for the increased immunogenicity of two HIV-reverse transcriptase peptide variant/class I major histocompatibility complexes.
The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party. Please direct any questions regarding coding to the payer being billed ...
Affiliation:Fujita Health Univ.,Sch.of Medicine,Assistant,医学部,助手, Research Field:Digestive surgery, Keywords:Lymphokine activated killer,Beta 2 microgobulin,Cancer metastasis,Interleukin-2,beta_2 microglobulin,胸管リンパ球,高速度ビデオ,組織適合抗原,養子免疫療法,Major histocompatibility complex, # of Research Projects:2, # of Research Products:0
A select number of offers are issued in December and are based on a combination of Grade 11 and Grade 12 results. To be eligible for an early offer you must have 1.0 final Grade 12 result at the 4U or 4M-level, and five Grade 11 U or M-level credits. Averages are in the high 80s or 90s. The first major round of admission offers to Ontario applicants is in February. Admission averages are calculated using a minimum 3.0 first-semester Grade 12 4U or 4M finals, with registration in 3.0 additional 4U or 4M credits, including prerequisites. If you are in a non-semester school, we will use 6.0 mid-term grades at the Grade 12 4U or 4M level, including prerequisites. The final round of admission offers happens in May. If you do not receive an offer in February, or if you are still in studies and received an alternate program offer, we will automatically reassess you for eligibility for your preferred program in May. We will continue to make offers based on final grades, as well as summer school grades ...
Billing E&M level with mod 25 and procedure 97597; no wound closure, just a dressing application. Medicare is paying the E&M but not processin
Stomach. (a) The expression of PPARα, β, and γ mRNA is shown across the fetal age range. Log plot of mean ± SEM Ct is normalized to β-2-microglobulin (B2M
We have an innate mechanism that ensures that our blood vessels do not become blocked. The protein A1M, alpha-1-microglobulin, is naturally present in the body and prevents oxidation of blood fats-a major cause of atherosclerosis. The discovery is the work of a research group led by Bo Åkerström of Lund University, Sweden.. ...
Salesforce has undertaken a significant commitment to equality, according to APAC CMO Wendy Johnstone, putting its money where its mouth is on the gender wage gap.
Another day, another new chapter added to the ongoing Johnny Manziel saga. ESPN reported on Tuesday that an autograph broker paid the Texas A&M quarterback $7,500 for 300 ...
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Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/southkorea/7376178/Korean-couple-let-baby-starve-to-death-while-caring-for-virtual-child. ...
Thanks for your explanation Moritz. I meant $1 value got changed similar to $_ value for better understanding. I know that $_ value getting changed due to substitute operator replaces matched digits to null string. I have a doubt in your example, how $1 value getting changed every recursive call. As per your code, your m// expression will match first digits ( 55 ) at all time as per my understanding. Of course, when I checked the code, it gives $1 value as 55, 666, 7777 and 1 respectively. Kindly give me some detail about it ...
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Dano is a leaked beta version of the Be Operating System (BeOS). It is more properly called Exp/Dano, or 5.1d0. This was the last stage in the official...
We introduced criteria for the clinical diagnosis of dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) from the Amyloidosis Research Group study supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. DRA exhibits various kinds of bone articular lesions, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, destructive spondyloarthropathy, spinal canal stenosis, and joint pains. These bone articular lesions, excluding destructive spondyloarthropathy, are observed in non-dialysis patients or dialysis patients without DRA. We carefully compared these lesions between DRA and non-DRA patients and summarized the differences between them. The incidence age, male to female ratio, and coincidence rate were distinct between these groups of patients. Biopsies from bone articular lesions are invasive and burdensome for dialysis patients; therefore, a precise clinical diagnosis is required for DRA. We discussed the validity and availability of our proposed criteria.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) have been developed for the measurement of beta 2-microglobulin (B2M), retinol-binding protein (RBP), alpha 1-microglobulin (A1M) and urine protein 1 (UP1) in children. Results from random urine samples in 43 children (31 for B2M) are, when corrected for urine creatinine (geometric mean (range)): B2M 9.8 (6.0-40.7) micrograms/mmol, RBP 8.1 (less than 1-24.5) micrograms/mmol, A1M 0.4 (0.1-2.2) mg/mmol and UP1 17.8 (less than 2-309.4) micrograms/mmol. Fractional excretions (FE) in 23 children (14 for B2M) are (geometric mean (range)): FEB2M 0.04% (0.02-0.10%) and FEUP1 0.10% (0.01-1.21%). Results in overnight urine collections are also presented. Our results extend existing data for normal ranges in adults to include children and provide data on UP1 concentrations.
Referring to uremic toxicity profile, â2-microglobulin levels are reported to be lower in on-line hemofiltration/hemodiafiltration (33,36) with respect to low/high-flux hemodialysis, the reduction rate increasing from 58% to 73% due to the higher clearances. Of course these results, may, at least in part, be influenced by the quality of water in conventional/high-flux dialysis on the amount of â2-microglobulin production through the generation of inflammatory mediators triggered by endotoxins and pyrogens. These data are relevant from a clinical point of view: in fact, it has been reported that patients undergoing hemofiltration or hemodiafiltration have a risk for tunnel carpal syndrome that is 44% lower than those on standard dialysis (RR=0.56; 95% C.I. 0.34-0.92; p=0.02) (20). The relationship between the amount of substitution fluids and the risk of developing dialysis-related amyloidosis has been further confirmed by the Japanese Registry, where it was found to be progressively lower (the ...
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The CD8 coreceptor of cytotoxic T lymphocytes binds to a conserved region of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules during recognition of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens on the surface of target cells. This event is central to the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector functions. The contribution of the MHC complex class I light chain, beta(2)-microglobulin, to CD8alphaalpha binding is relatively small and is mediated mainly through the lysine residue at position 58. Despite this, using molecular modeling, we predict that its mutation should have a dramatic effect on CD8alphaalpha binding. The predictions are confirmed using surface plasmon resonance binding studies and human CTL activation assays. Surprisingly, the charge-reversing mutation, Lys(58) --| Glu, enhances beta(2)m-MHC class I heavy chain interactions. This mutation also significantly reduces CD8alphaalpha binding and is a potent antagonist of CTL activation. These results suggest a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beta-2-microglobulin in autism spectrum disorders. AU - Goines, Paula. AU - Schauer, Joseph. AU - Heuer, Luke. AU - Ashwood, Paul. AU - Van de Water, Judith A. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m), a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16) but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of anti-beta-2 microglobulin autoantibodies in sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients with extra-articular manifestations. AU - Falus, A.. AU - Meretey, K.. AU - Bozsoky, S.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - The frequency and concentration of specific factors binding β2 microglobulin were investigated in sera and synovial fluids of patients and in sera of normal controls. High anti-β2m activity was detected in the sera of adult RA patients, particularly in those of with extra-articular disease. Similarly, anti-β2m was present in the synovial fluids of RA but not of osteoarthrosis patients. Both the binding of anti-β2m activity to the Sepharose staphylococcal protein A and its elution position in the second IgG peak after Sephadex G-200 gel filtration suggest the antibody nature of the activity. The possibility of differences not only in titre but also in the specificity of heterologous and homologous anti-β2m antibodies are discussed.. AB - The frequency and ...
International Staging System (ISS) Criteria:. Stage I: Serum β2-microglobulin , 3.5mg/L and Serum Albumin ≥ 3.5 g/dL; expected median survival is 62 months. Stage II*: Not Stage I or III; expected median survival is 44 months. Stage III: Serum β2-microglobulin , 5.5 mg/L; expected median survival is 29 months.. *There are two categories for stage II: serum β2-microglobulin , 3.5 mg/L but serum albumin , 3.5 g/dL; or serum β2-microglobulin 3.5 to , 5.5 mg/L irrespective of the serum albumin level. ...
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 COMPOSITIONS BASED ON TransHCFO-1233zd WT % IN WT % IN WT % IN COMPOSITION- COMPOSITION- COMPOSITION- SURFACTANT RANGE 1* RANGE 2* RANGE 3* Formula I 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 Formula II 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 Formula I, with m on average 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 about 4** Formula I, with m on average 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 about 6** Formula I, with m on average 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 about 8** Formula I, with m on average 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 about 10** Formula I, with m on average 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 about 12** Formula II, with m on average 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 about 4** Formula II, with m on average 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 about 6** Formula II, with m on average 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 about 8** Formula II, with m on average 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 to 0.5 0.01 to 0.2 about 10** Formula II, with m on average 0.005 to 3.0 0.005 ...
We found that this phenomenon was associated with the different susceptibility of human and mouse NK cells to autologous tumour cell-induced NK cell abnormalities (NKCA). The latter includes CD16 down-regulation and NK cell depletion. Induction of NKCA by leukaemia and solid tumour cells was influenced neither by IL2 treatment nor by HLA class I antigen expression, but was abrogated by a 10 day culture. Following a 10 day of PBMCs culture, NK cells became resistant to leukaemia and solid tumor cell induced NKCA but maintained their cytotoxic activity. Actinomycin D restored the susceptibility of long term NK (LTNK) cells to NKCA suggesting that the generation of resistance to NKCA required RNA transcription. TAPI-0, a functional analogue of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) 3 inhibited cancer cell induced NKCA underlying a role for a restricted number of metalloproteinases in the generation of this phenomenon. Finally, we found an association of TIMP3 gene and protein ...
Kulig, Kimary and Nandi, Dipankar and Bacík, Igor and Monaco, John J and Vukmanovic, Stanislav (1998) Physical and functional association of the major histocompatibility complex class I heavy chain alpha 3 domain with the transporter associated with antigen processing. In: Journalof Experemental Medicine, 187 (06). pp. 865-874. ...
Structure- Type I MHC- It has a 45 KD alpha chain associated noncovalently with a 12 KD beta 2 microglobulin molecule. Alpha chain is a trans membraneglycoprotein encoded by A, B, C region in human HLA complexes and by K, D/L region in mice. Association of alpha chain and beta 2 microglobulin require for expression of class I molecule on cell membrane. Alpha chain bind to plasma membrane by its hydrophobic transmembrane segment and hydrophilic cytoplasmic tail. Alpha chain is made up of three external domain(α1,α2,α3). Each domain have 90 amino acid, a trans membrane domain have 25 hydrophobic amino acid, a short segment of hydrophilic amino acid and a cytoplasmic segment of 30 amino acid. Peptide which bind to class I MHC is made up of 8-9 amino acid ...
Clone REA672 recognizes the class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA) B and C. Expressed on the surface of most nucleated cells, class I molecules are heterodimeric molecules and consist of a type I integral membrane α heavy chain and soluble β2 microglobulin protein. The extracellular region of the heavy chain further consists of three domains, one of which comprises the peptide binding groove. Antigens binding to class I molecules are 8-10 amino acids long and play an important role in recognition of the virus infected and malignant cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In addition, class I molecules interact with NK cell receptors to modulate the activity of NK cells. Additional information: Clone REA672 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - USA
Prices are in US dollars.. These products are for laboratory research purposes only, not for any human or animal diagnostic or therapeutic use.. All site content © 2017 Cell Sciences, Inc.. ...
HLA-A, B and C are polymorphic class I proteins expressed by most nucleated cells that must be matched for histocompatibility. The Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2M) gene encodes a common subunit essential for cell surface expression of all HLA class I heterodimers (the other subunits are the heavy chains for HLA-A, B, C, E, F, or G), so B2M-/- cells are class I-deficient. We edit both B2M genes to create human pluripotent cells that lack polymorphic class I proteins. These editing steps also introduce a Thymidine Kinase (TK) suicide gene to allow for in vivo elimination of transplanted cells.. For some cell types, a lack of class I expression leads to lysis by Natural Killer (NK) cells. To overcome this "missing self" response, we simultaneously knock in the heavy chain of the non-polymorphic HLA-E gene using HLA single chain technology (see below). This provides a class I-positive signal to inhibit NK cells. These class I-engineered stem cells can serve as universal donor cells in applications where ...
rat HFE protein: an MHC class I-like protein that must bind beta2-microglobulin for proper cell surface expression; GenBank AJ001517
Waheed A, Parkkila S, Zhou XY, Tomatsu S, Tsuchihashi Z, Feder JN, et al. Hereditary hemochromatosis: Effects of C282Y and H63D mutations on association with beta(2)-microglobulin, intracellular processing, and cell surface expression of the HFE protein in COS-7 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997; 94: 12384-12389 ...
Domanska, K., S. Vanderhaegen, V. Srinivasan, E. Pardon, F. Dupeux, J. A. Marquez, S. Giorgetti, M. Stoppini, L. Wyns, V. Bellotti, et al., Atomic structure of a nanobody-trapped domain-swapped dimer of an amyloidogenic beta2-microglobulin variant., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 108, issue 4, pp. 1314-9, 2011 Jan 25. ...
Domanska, K., S. Vanderhaegen, V. Srinivasan, E. Pardon, F. Dupeux, J. A. Marquez, S. Giorgetti, M. Stoppini, L. Wyns, V. Bellotti, et al., Atomic structure of a nanobody-trapped domain-swapped dimer of an amyloidogenic beta2-microglobulin variant., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 108, issue 4, pp. 1314-9, 2011 Jan 25. ...
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khangman-3.4.0_beta2.ebuild: Ebuild for 3.4.0_beta2. Note that beta2 has NOT been released as of this date. This ebuild is for inside testing by the KDE team, and is of course package.masked. *khangman-3.4.0_beta1 (15 Jan 2005) 15 Jan 2005; Dan Armak ...
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab124957 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P,Flow Cyt,ICC/IF
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab109509 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,ICC
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HLA-B belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exon 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. Hundreds of HLA-B alleles have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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Background. An altered renal function is an essential component of the patho-physiology of pre-eclampsia. The plasma levels of low molecular mass proteins, e. g. beta-trace protein, beta-2-microglobulin and cystatin C, are increased in the third trimester of normal pregnancy. The plasma levels of cystatin C and beta-2-microglobulin are further increased in preeclampsia, and the cystatin C level has been reported to be a reliable marker for the disease. The aim of this investigation was to study the plasma levels of beta-trace protein, beta-2-microglobulin and cystatin C in pre-eclampsia, and to determine the diagnostic performance of these proteins compared to that of urate and creatinine. Methods. A case-control study of 57 women diagnosed with pre-eclampsia, and 218 healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies in the third trimester. Women in the catchment area of Lund, Sweden, were included during an 18-month period from October 2003 to April 2005. Venous blood samples were drawn ...
Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA I) molecules composed of alpha (heavy) chain, including HLA-A, -B, or -C encoded by HLAgenes, and beta-2-microglobulin (β2M) are membrane proteins on all...
Human cytomegalovirus encodes two glycoproteins, US2 and US11, which cause rapid degradation of MHC class I molecules, thus preventing recognition of virus-infected cells by the immune system. This degradation process involves retrograde transport or dislocation of MHC class I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol, where they are deglycosylated by an N-glycanase and degraded by the proteasome. At present it is unknown whether ubiquitination is required for US2- and US11-mediated dislocation and degradation of MHC class I molecules. Here, we show that in E36ts20 hamster cells, which contain a temperature-sensitive mutation in the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, US11-mediated degradation of MHC class I molecules is strongly impaired at the non-permissive temperature, indicating the necessity for ubiquitination in this process. We next addressed the question of whether ubiquitination is a condition for the retrograde movement of MHC class I molecules from the ER to the ...
The protein-bound uremic toxins para-cresyl sulfate (pCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) are associated with cardiovascular disease in chronic renal failure, but the effect of different dialysis procedures on their plasma levels over time is poorly studied. The present prospective, randomized, cross-over trial tested dialysis efficacy and monitored pre-treatment pCS and IS concentrations in 15 patients on low-flux and high-flux hemodialysis and high-convective volume postdilution hemodiafiltration over six weeks each. Although hemodiafiltration achieved by far the highest toxin removal, only the mean total IS level was decreased at week three (16.6 ± 12.1 mg/L) compared to baseline (18.9 ± 13.0 mg/L, p = 0.027) and to low-flux dialysis (20.0 ± 12.7 mg/L, p = 0.021). At week six, the total IS concentration in hemodiafiltration reached the initial values again. Concentrations of free IS and free and total pCS remained unaltered. Highest beta2-microglobulin elimination in hemodiafiltration (p | 0.001) led to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nocardia asteroides peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. T2 - First case in pediatrics, treated with protracted linezolid. AU - El-Naggari, Mohamed. AU - El Nour, Ibtisam. AU - Al-Nabhani, Dana. AU - Al Muharrmi, Zakaria. AU - Gaafar, Heba. AU - Abdelmogheth, Anas A W. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Nocardia asteroides is a rare pathogen in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis. We report on a 13-year-old female with Nocardia asteroides peritonitis complicated by an intra-abdominal abscess. Linezolid was administered intravenously for 3 months and followed by oral therapy for an additional 5 months with close monitoring for adverse effects. The patient was discharged after 3 months of hospitalization on hemodialysis. The diagnosis and management of such cases can be problematic due to the slow growth and difficulty of identifying Nocardia species. The optimal duration of treatment for Nocardia peritonitis is not known. Linezolid can be used for prolonged periods in ...
Beta-2-microglobulin regulator is a protein in humans that is encoded by the B2MR gene. "Entrez Gene: Beta-2-microglobulin ...
MHC class I contains Beta-2 microglobulin. The short cytoplasmic/intracellular tail (C) of CD4 contains a special sequence of ... For the first 2 years of HIV therapy, CD4 counts may be done every 3-6 months. If a patient's viral load becomes undetectable ... 1589 (2): 140-50. doi:10.1016/S0167-4889(02)00165-9. PMID 12007789. Foti M, Phelouzat MA, Holm A, Rasmusson BJ, Carpentier JL ( ... 2 (7): 580-5. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve141. PMC 1083955 . PMID 11463741. Greenway AL, Holloway G, McPhee DA, Ellis P, ...
Beta-2 microglobulin is elevated in proportion to tumor mass. Coagulation abnormalities may be present. Prothrombin time, ... 109/L B2-microglobulin > 3 mg/L Serum monoclonal protein concentration > 70 g/L The risk categories are: Low: ≤ 1 adverse ... Beta-2 microglobulin and C-reactive protein test results are not specific for Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. ... An M component with beta-to-gamma mobility is highly suggestive of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. Immunoelectrophoresis and ...
... higher levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and Beta-2 microglobulin; and c) lower rates of bone but higher rates of soft ... It is the terminal stage and most aggressive form of these dyscrasias, constituting 2% to 4% of all cases of plasma cell ... median survival rates from the time of diagnosis for pPCL and sPCL were 8-11 months and 2-8 months, respectively, even when ...
... each half is made up of the long alpha helix and one beta strand of one partner, and four beta strands of the other partner. ... "Effect of corticosteroid therapy on serum cystatin C and beta2-microglobulin concentrations". Clin. Chem. 48 (7): 1123-6. PMID ... Cystatin C was first described as 'gamma-trace' in 1961 as a trace protein together with other ones (such as beta-trace) in the ... 2007). "Cystatin C, beta-2-microglobulin and beta-trace protein in pre-eclampsia". Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 86 (8): 921-926. ...
A collagen-binding, I domain-containing, beta(1)-associated integrin alpha-chain present in muscle tissues". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ... Homma N, Gejyo F, Isemura M, Arakawa M (1989). "Collagen-binding affinity of beta-2-microglobulin, a preprotein of hemodialysis ... 249 (2): 204-18. doi:10.1006/dbio.2002.0764. PMID 12221002. "Entrez Gene: EMID2 EMI domain containing 2". Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C ...
The urinary beta-2 microglobulin test is an indirect method of measuring cadmium exposure. Under some circumstances, the ... Increased concentrations of urinary beta-2 microglobulin can be an early indicator of renal dysfunction in persons chronically ... 208 (1-2): 123-6. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(97)00273-8. PMID 9496656. "BBC News - Enquiry into spray cancer claims". 2005-12-07. ... 12 (2): 261. Bibcode:1965AuJES..12..261T. doi:10.1080/00167616508728596. Taylor, M.D. (1997). "Accumulation of cadmium derived ...
... alpha/beta T cells demonstrates preferential use of several V beta genes and an invariant TCR alpha chain". Journal of ... Like MHC class I, MR1 is found in all a large variety of cells and associates with β2-microglobulin. However, it remains to be ... with beta(2)-microglobulin". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 290 (2): 722-729. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.6277 ... The TCRα originates from the rearrangement of TCRα variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments TRAV1-2/TRAJ12/20/33 during VDJ ...
1994). "Beta 2-microglobulin-independent MHC class Ib molecule expressed by human intestinal epithelium". Science. 265 (5169): ... 1999). "Immunolocalization of CD1d in human intestinal epithelial cells and identification of a beta2-microglobulin-associated ... 19 (2): 285-92. doi:10.1002/eji.1830190211. PMID 2467814. Yu CY, Milstein C (1990). "A physical map linking the five CD1 human ... 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Kawano T, Cui J, Koezuka Y, et al. (1997). "CD1d-restricted ...
Estrogen receptor beta gene (ESR2) seems to be a key to pathogenesis and response to therapy. Other genes that have been ... In addition, the cancer markers used vary with tumor type: choriocarcinomas are monitored with beta-HCG and endodermal sinus ... The OVA1 panel includes CA-125, beta-2 microglobulin, transferrin, apolipoprotein A1, and transthyretin. OVA1 above 5.0 in ... People with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (Lynch Syndrome), and those with BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 genetic abnormalities are ...
Hallek M, Wanders L, Ostwald M, Busch R, Senekowitsch R, Stern S, Schick HD, Kuhn-Hallek I, Emmerich B (1996). "Serum beta(2)- ... microglobulin and serum thymidine kinase are independent predictors of progression-free survival in chronic lymphocytic ... beta-2 microglobulin, and thymidine kinase". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 18 (1-2): 87-92. doi:10.3109/10428199509064927. PMID 8580834 ... 3.0.co;2-j. PMID 2167141. Korkmaz T, Seber S, Okutur K, Basaran G, Yumuk F, Dane F, Ones T, Polat O, Madenci OC, Demir G, ...
MHC class I contains Beta-2 microglobulin. The short cytoplasmic/intracellular tail (C) of CD4 contains a special sequence of ... 2 (2): 141-51. doi:10.2174/1570162043484924. PMID 15078178.. *. Hout DR, Mulcahy ER, Pacyniak E, Gomez LM, Gomez ML, Stephens ... D2 and D4 resemble immunoglobulin constant (IgC) domains.. The immunoglobulin variable (IgV) domain of D1 adopts an ... 2 (3): 255-70. doi:10.2174/1570162043351246. PMID 15279589.. *. Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (January 2005). "Nef: "necessary ...
2007). "Melanoma inhibiting activity protein (MIA), beta-2 microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metastatic melanoma ... 18 (2): 92-101. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0749.2005.00212.x. PMID 15760338. Aung PP, Oue N, Mitani Y, et al. (2006). "Systematic ... 14 (2): 91-5. doi:10.1097/00008390-200404000-00003. PMID 15057037. Marr DG, Poser I, Shellman YG, et al. (2005). "Ultraviolet ...
September 1993). "beta 2-Microglobulin modified with advanced glycation end products is a major component of hemodialysis- ... Long-term haemodialysis results in a gradual accumulation of β2 microglobulin, a serum protein, in the blood. It accumulates ... Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999- ...
Because beta-2-microglobulin is a large molecule, with a molecular weight of about 11,600 daltons, it does not pass at all ... Beta-2-M is removed with high-flux dialysis, but is removed even more efficiently with IHDF. After several years (usually at ... The goal of high-flux membranes is to pass relatively large molecules such as beta-2-microglobulin (MW 11,600 daltons), but not ... Beta-2-M amyloidosis can cause very serious complications, including spondyloarthropathy, and often is associated with shoulder ...
Praetor A, Hunziker W (2002). "beta(2)-Microglobulin is important for cell surface expression and pH-dependent IgG binding of ... "Functional reconstitution of human FcRn in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells requires co-expressed human beta 2-microglobulin". J ... 321 (2): 277-84. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00626-5. PMID 12144784. Shah U, Dickinson BL, Blumberg RS, Simister NE, Lencer WI, ... 73 (1-2): 97-8. doi:10.1159/000134316. PMID 8646894. "Entrez Gene: FCGRT Fc fragment of IgG, receptor, transporter, alpha". ...
This class I molecule mainly exists as a heterodimer associated with the invariant light chain beta-2 microglobulin. The heavy ... 3.0.CO;2-L. PMID 11169396. Lee N, Ishitani A, Geraghty DE (August 2010). "HLA-F is a surface marker on activated lymphocytes". ... 2 (5): 571-6. doi:10.1093/hmg/2.5.571. PMID 8518796. Schwartz O, Maréchal V, Le Gall S, Lemonnier F, Heard JM (Mar 1996). " ... 2 (6): 531-7. doi:10.1093/intimm/2.6.531. PMID 1707659. Takahashi H, Merli S, Putney SD, Houghten R, Moss B, Germain RN, ...
Mandal, M., Jagannadham, M. V., and Nagaraj, R. (2002). "Antibacterial activities and conformations of bovine beta-defensin ... microglobulin: An atomic force microscopy study". Biopolymers. 90 (6): 783-791. doi:10.1002/bip.21087. CS1 maint: Multiple ... "Organic solvent mediated self-association of an amyloid forming peptide from beta(2)- ...
This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is ... 52 (2): 97-103. doi:10.1016/j.patbio.2003.04.006. PMID 15001239. Tolstrup M, Ostergaard L, Laursen AL, et al. (2004). "HIV/SIV ... 28 (2): 208-12. PMID 10816129. Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). "Structure-function relationships in HIV-1 Nef". EMBO ... 2 (7): 580-5. doi:10.1093/embo-reports/kve141. PMC 1083955 . PMID 11463741. Langat DK, Hunt JS (2003). "Do nonhuman primates ...
They use an MHC class I molecule coupled to beta-2 microglobulin to display endogenous peptides on the cell membrane. These ... 32 (2): 139-155. doi:10.1615/critrevimmunol.v32.i2.30. Barral, Duarte C.; Brenner, Michael B. "CD1 antigen presentation: how it ... 162 (2): 103-112. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2014.10.011. Hivroz, Claire; Chemin, Karine; Tourret, Marie; Bohineust, Armelle. " ...
A mouse model with deregulation of beta-catenin levels was created. The conditional stabilizing mutation in the beta-catenin ... there was substantial nuclear localization of beta-catenin as well as increased cytoplasmic beta-catenin. However, in mice fed ... Furthermore, when evaluated for ERCC1, beclin-1, and beta-catenin in the stem cell region of crypts, the colonic tissues of ... Today we know that the beta-catenin protein (part of the Wnt signaling pathway) is implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis and ...
If a leak is identified, a beta-2 transferrin test of the leaking fluid, when positive, is highly specific and sensitive for ... Choroid plexuses also secrete growth factors, vitamins B1, 12 C, folate, beta-2 microglobulin, arginine vasopressin and nitrous ... CSF pressure, as measured by lumbar puncture, is 10-18 cmH2O (8-15 mmHg or 1.1-2 kPa) with the patient lying on the side and 20 ...
Beta 2-microglobulin-, CD8+ T-cell-deficient mice survive inoculation with high doses of vaccinia virus and exhibit altered IgG ... beta2-Microglobulin dependence of the lupus-like autoimmune syndrome of MRL-lpr mice. J. Immunol. 156: 4932-4939. Junghans, R. ... Requirement for a b2-microglobulin-associated Fc receptor for acquisition of maternal IgG by fetal and neonatal mice. J. ... The protection receptor for IgG catabolism is the b2- microglobulin-containing neonatal intestinal transport receptor. Proc. ...
Sheena's work on dialysis-dependent amyloidosis has shown that protein unfolding of beta-2-microglobulin is a key step in ... Domains and conformational flexibility in the catalytic mechanism of the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes (PhD thesis). ...
... and beta-2 microglobulin which provides prognostic information. On peripheral blood smear, the rouleaux formation of red blood ... elevated beta-2 microglobulin, or a high serum protein (especially raised globulins or immunoglobulin) may prompt further ... 6 (2): 53-55. doi:10.1016/S1548-5315(11)70208-X. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2010-10-19. Johnson WJ, Kyle RA, Pineda AA ... 3.0.CO;2-U. PMID 1182674. Lauby-Secretan, B; Scoccianti, C; Loomis, D; Grosse, Y; Bianchini, F; Straif, K; International Agency ...
Protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein that is similar to MHC class I-type proteins and associates with beta-2 ... microglobulin (beta2M). It is thought that this protein functions to regulate circulating iron uptake by regulating the ... 66 (2): 83-100. doi:10.1080/00365510500495616. PMID 16537242. Zamboni P, Gemmati D (July 2007). "Clinical implications of gene ... 4 (2): 183-98. doi:10.1089/10906570050114902. PMID 10953959. Fairbanks, Virgil F. (2000). Barton, James C.; Edwards, Corwin Q ...
... beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) - bilirubin - bioavailability - biological response modifiers (BRMs) - biopsy - biotechnology - ... HIV-2) - human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human ... herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ... HIV-2 - HIV-associated dementia - HIV-related tuberculosis - HLA - Hodgkin's disease - holistic medicine - homology (biology) ...
... neonatal Fc receptor is an Fc receptor which is similar in structure to the MHC class I molecule and also associates with beta- ... 2-microglobulin. It was first discovered in rodents as a unique receptor capable of transporting IgG from mother's milk across ...
Cerebrospinal fluid pz microglobulin in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Neurology 1989;39(6):830-834 17. ... AIDS 1989;3:285-288 7. Sonnerborg A, von Stedingk L-K, Hansson L-0, Strannegard 0. Elevated neopterin and beta-2 microglobulin ... such as beta-2 microglobulin 1161 and quinolinic acid C171, is thus not disease-specific. Nonetheless, the finding of greatest ... Lancet 1985;2:51-52 3. Fuchs D, Jaeger H, Popescu M. Neopterin levels correlating with the Walter Reed staging classification ...
... aggregation of beta-2-microglobulin (hβ2m) - the light chain of the type I major histocompatibility complex. Due to its low ... beta-2-Microglobulins (hβ2m) der leichteren Kette des Typ I Haupt-Histokompatibilitätskomplexes. Aufgrund des niedrigen ... Protein aggregation is the cause of several human diseases such as diabetes mellitus type 2, Parkinson s disease, Alzheimer s ... Investigation of solvent protection of PrP fibrils reveals increased flexibility of helix 1 and β-strand 2 regions and ...
351 APP; amyloid beta precursor protein 334 APLP2; amyloid beta precursor like protein 2 117166 WFIKKN1; WAP, follistatin/kazal ... 259 AMBP; alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor 6692 SPINT1; serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 1 10653 SPINT2; serine ... amyloid beta A4 protein K08117 APLP2; amyloid-like protein 2 K23621 WFIKKN; WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain- ... K23620 AMBP; protein AMBP K15619 SPINT1; Kunitz-type protease inhibitor 1 K23421 SPINT2; Kunitz-type protease inhibitor 2 ...
Low levels of β2 microglobulin can indicate non-progression of HIV.[citation needed] Levels of β2 microglobulin can be elevated ... the β2 microglobulin protein is encoded by the B2M gene. β2 microglobulin lies beside the α3 chain on the cell surface. Unlike ... The normal value of β2 microglobulin is 4 mg/L has a median survival of only 12 months. β2 microglobulin levels cannot, however ... β2 microglobulin also known as B2M is a component of MHC class I molecules, which are present on all nucleated cells (excludes ...
Beta-2 Microglobulin and Serum Cytokines x HAART. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Cross-sectional study to assess the behavior of Beta-2 microglobulin and serum cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 as ... Objective: To assess the behavior of Beta-2 microglobulin and serum cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 as indicators ... Demographic, clinical and HAART data were reviewed, and Beta-2 microglobulin, serum cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL- ...
Browse our beta 2-Microglobulin ELISA catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... beta chain of MHC class I molecules elisa kit, beta-2-microglobin elisa kit, beta-2-microglobulin elisa kit ... Our beta 2-Microglobulin ELISA Kits can be used in a variety of model species: Human, Rat. Use the list below to choose the ... Each beta 2-Microglobulin ELISA Kit is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when ...
Heterodimer of an alpha chain and a beta chain. Beta-2-microglobulin is the beta-chain of major histocompatibility complex ... Beta-2-microglobulinAdd BLAST. 98. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view. ... Belongs to the beta-2-microglobulin family.Curated. Keywords - Domaini. Immunoglobulin domain, Signal. Phylogenomic databases. ... sp,P30441,B2MG_HORSE Beta-2-microglobulin OS=Equus caballus OX=9796 GN=B2M PE=1 SV=1 ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-beta 2 Microglobulin antibody [B2M-01] (ab759) : Flow cytometry protocols, ...
MHC class I/beta 2-microglobulin complexes associate with TAP transporters before peptide binding.. Ortmann B1, Androlewicz MJ ... In human B-cell lines, however, class I/beta 2m dimers in the ER are physically associated with TAP molecules rather than ... Our results suggest that calnexin mediates class I/beta 2m dimerization, and subsequent binding of the dimers to TAP molecules ... beta 2m) peptide complex. Free class I heavy chains are associated in the ER with the chaperone calnexin. ...
beta 2m caused inhibition only when added to the virus preparation and not to the antibody-capture stage. We conclude that beta ... We postulate that CMV in fresh urine specimens is similarly coated with beta 2m, accounting for the failure to detect it by ... Detection of cytomegalovirus by ELISA in urine samples is inhibited by beta 2 microglobulin.. McKeating JA, Grundy JE, Varghese ... The addition of a known urinary protein of this molecular weight, beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m; 11,700 daltons), inhibited the ...
A beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) tumor marker test measures the amount of B2M in the blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid. Its ... A beta-2 microglobulin test is usually a blood test, but may also be given as a 24-hour urine test, or as a cerebrospinal fluid ... A beta-2 microglobulin tumor marker test is most often given to people who have been diagnosed with certain cancers of the bone ... What is a beta-2 microglobulin tumor marker test?. This test measures the amount of a protein called beta-2 microglobulin (B2M ...
Page last updated: 4/2/2015 10:20 PM RCPA Manual last revised: 9/02/2015 9:00 AM ...
A recurrent D-strand association interface is observed in beta-2 microglobulin oligomers.. Colombo, M., de Rosa, M., Bellotti, ... Crystal structure of the beta-2 microglobulin DIMC50 disulphide-linked homodimer mutant. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3TM6/pdb ... β-2 microglobulin (β2m) is an amyloidogenic protein responsible for dialysis-related amyloidosis in man. In the early stages of ... β-2 microglobulin (β2m) is an amyloidogenic protein responsible for dialysis-related amyloidosis in man. In the early stages of ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about beta-2 Microglobulin Mouse anti-Human, Porcine, Clone: B2M-02, ... Beta-2 microglobulin is also found in free form in the plasma. The amino acid sequence of Beta-2-microglobulin is homologous to ... Beta 2-microglobulin is encoded by the B2M gene located on chromosome 15. A mutation in the Beta-2-microglobulin gene has been ... Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) is a 12-14 kDa protein that is a subunit of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. ...
Beta-2 microglobulin (β2m) is a structural protein sub-unit of the class I major histocompatibility complex. β2m is composed of ... 2. Calabrese, M.F., Eakin, C.M., Wang, J.M., Miranker, A.D. (2008) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 15, 965-971. ... Retrieved from "http://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/Molecular_playground/beta_2_microglobulin" ...
Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the ... Beta-2-microglobulin, B2M.. Introduction. ?2 microglobulin is an 11 kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many ... B2 Microglobulin Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain having a molecular mass of 11.76 ... Human Beta 2 microglobulin levels can rise either because its rate of synthesis has increased (e.g. in AIDS, malignant ...
... does not associate with beta 2m when the mouse beta 2mb gene is transfected into the R1E transfectant expressing the truncated ... Beta 2-microglobulin is not required for cell surface expression of the murine class I histocompatibility antigen H-2Db or of a ... Beta 2-microglobulin is not required for cell surface expression of the murine class I histocompatibility antigen H-2Db or of a ... Beta 2-microglobulin is not required for cell surface expression of the murine class I histocompatibility antigen H-2Db or of a ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-beta 2-Microglobulin Antibody (B2M/1118) [PerCP]. Renal Failure & Tumor Marker. Validated: Flow, IHC-P. ... Blogs on beta 2-Microglobulin. There are no specific blogs for beta 2-Microglobulin, but you can read our latest blog posts. ... beta 2 microglobulin is a 12KDa protein with a pI of 5.6. Serum beta 2 microglobulin levels are a reflection of cell turnover. ... FAQs for beta 2-Microglobulin Antibody (NBP2-47702PCP) (0). There are no specific FAQs related to this product. Read our ...
The value of beta 2-MG in plasma as an index of inflammatory activity in RA is questioned. ... 33% of the patients had increased concentrations of beta 2 MG, but the levels were found to correlate poorly with the values of ... Using the immunodiffusion method we have measured the plasma levels of beta 2-MG in 135 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA ... A simple and inexpensive method is described for the determination of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG) by enzyme-amplified ...
Malignant lymphoma? do I need nuclear scan or beta-2-microglobulin test?. Dec 12, 2001 Im a 25 yrs old male with no other ... In terms of your questions about beta-2-microglobulin and nuclear scans, neither test is indicated based on what you have ... 3) Would you recommend other tests (including a beta 2 microglobulin - I heard it is lymphoma marker), or a nuclear scan? ... 2) If it would be malignant lymphoma, wouldnt it show other changes on these blood tests? ...
MHC CLASS I H-2KB HEAVY CHAIN COMPLEXED WITH BETA-2 MICROGLOBULIN AND AN (L4V) MUTANT OF THE VESICULAR STOMATITIS VIRUS ...
ß2-microglobulin (B2M) is a principal component of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecule, a terry ... Localization: ß2-microglobulin is mainly on the cell surface and occasionally cytoplasmic. Staining: Beta-2-microglobulin as ... Localization: ß2-microglobulin is mainly on the cell surface and occasionally cytoplasmic. Staining: Beta-2-microglobulin as ... Beta-2-microglobulin antibody. Not available. Mouse. IgG1. D2E9. Aff - Purified. Hu. E, E(capture), F, ICC/IF, WB. 0.5 mg / € ...
We tested whether beta 2m-dependent T cells were essential for Th2 cell-mediated allergic reactions by treating wild-type, beta ... Beta 2-microglobulin-dependent T cells are dispensable for allergen-induced T helper 2 responses.. Y Zhang, K H Rogers, D B ... OVA-treated beta 2m -/- mice had circulating levels of total and OVA-specific IgE, pulmonary eosinophilia, and expression of IL ... alpha/beta+ CD8+ T cells, most of which require beta 2m for their development, have also been proposed as positive regulators ...
The research teams found that a blood-borne molecule (beta-2 microglobulin, or B2M, a component of a larger molecule called MHC ... beta-2 micro globulin, B2M, MHC, Nature Medicine ...
Active rheumatoid arthritis and kidney disease can be partially diagnosed with a B2 microglobulin test. Visit RapidTest for kit ... Material Provided with B2 Microglobulin ELISA Kit:. 1. Microplate: wells coated with Anti-Beta-2 MG antibody. 2. Sample diluent ... Beta 2 Microglobulin ELISA kit description:. The Beta-2 Microglobulin ELISA test is an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the ... Human Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2MG) is an 11.8 kD protein identical to the light chain of the HLA-A, -B, and -C antigen. B2MG is ...
  • Protein aggregation is the cause of several human diseases such as diabetes mellitus type 2, Parkinson s disease, Alzheimer s disease, Huntington s disease, spongiform encephalopathies, congestive heart failure or dialysis-related amyloidosis. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Ann Neurol 1990;28.556-560 Elevated serum and urine concentrations of neopterin (dihydroneopterin), a pteridine compound that has been considered a marker of cell-mediated immune reactions 111, have been found to correlate with the Walter Reed stage of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)infection [2-41. (docme.ru)
  • Proteinaggregation ist die Ursache vieler Krankheiten, wie Diabetes Mellitus Typ 2, Parkinsonsche, Alzheimersche und Huntingtonsche Krankheit, spongiforme Encephalopathien, Stauungsinsuffizienz und Dialyse-assoziierte Amyloidose. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Falus, A , Meretey, K & Bozsoky, S 1981, ' Prevalence of anti-beta-2 microglobulin autoantibodies in sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients with extra-articular manifestations ', Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases , vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 409-413. (elsevier.com)
  • They are transported into the ER by the transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP), a complex formed from two subunits, TAP.1 and TAP.2 (refs 3-5). (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that the mouse class I antigen H-2Db is expressed at the cell surface even when there is no beta 2m present within the cell. (pnas.org)
  • We show further that a deletion construct of the Db gene, which consists of exon 1 linked to exons 4-8, expresses a truncated Db antigen lacking domains 1 and 2 [Db-(1 + 2)] at the cell surface after transfection into the R1E line. (pnas.org)
  • This suggests that interactions with domains 1 and 2 are important for the paired association of domain 3 and beta 2m in the native Db antigen. (pnas.org)
  • Human Beta-2 Microglobulin (B2MG) is an 11.8 kD protein identical to the light chain of the HLA-A, -B, and -C antigen. (rapidtest.com)
  • As assessed by immunization with protein antigen, infection with Leishmania major, embolization with eggs of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, or induction of airway hyperreactivity to aerosolized antigen, beta 2m-deficient mice developed functional type 2 immune responses that were not substantially different than those in wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • Beta 2 Microglobulin is a human leukocyte antibody (HLA) major histocompatibility antigen that exists with increased numbers on white blood cells (WBCs) and particularly on lymphatic cells. (wbccount.org)
  • Skin graft rejection elicited by beta 2-microglobulin as a minor transplantation antigen involves multiple effector pathways: role of Fas-Fas ligand interactions and Th2-dependent graft eosinophil infiltrates. (ac.be)
  • Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA I) molecules composed of alpha (heavy) chain, including HLA-A, -B, or -C encoded by HLA genes, and beta-2-microglobulin (β2M) are membrane proteins on all nucleated cells that display peptide antigens for recognition by CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells. (springer.com)
  • β2 microglobulin also known as B2M is a component of MHC class I molecules, which are present on all nucleated cells (excludes red blood cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The 90/45 kD LA45 proteins thus appear to be non-beta 2m-associated MHC class I alpha chains that are selectively expressed by activated but not by resting human T lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • In an article appearing in the December 2007 issue of the JASMS, researchers at Leeds describe the successful separation and analysis of various folded forms of the proteins cytochrome c and beta-2-microglobulin , an achievement the Ashcroft Laboratory hopes will lead to a more complete understanding of the biological processes responsible for amyloid fibril formation, bacterial pilus aggregation and virus capsid assembly -- all associated with debilitating diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The plasma levels of low molecular mass proteins, e. g. beta-trace protein, beta-2-microglobulin and cystatin C, are increased in the third trimester of normal pregnancy. (lu.se)
  • The upper reference limits ( parametric 97.5 percentile) were 2.57 mg/l for beta-2-microglobulin, 0.72 mg/l for beta-trace protein and 1.37 mg/l for cystatin C. ROC analysis showed similar diagnostic performance for the 3 proteins, with b-trace protein displaying the best diagnostic performance of all the analytes. (lu.se)
  • Normal development of mice deficient in beta 2M, MHC class I proteins, and CD8+ T cells. (jax.org)
  • Murine NK1.1+ (CD4+ or CD4-CD8-) alpha/beta+ T cells comprise a beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m)-dependent cell population that rapidly produces IL-4 after cell activation in vitro and in vivo and has been proposed as a source of IL-4 for Th2 cell differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • A number of investigations have established the critical role of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in mediating the development of T helper (Th)2 effector cells in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • β2 microglobulin associates not only with the alpha chain of MHC class I molecules, but also with class I-like molecules such as CD1 and Qa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, in the absence of β2 microglobulin, very limited amounts of MHC class I (classical and non-classical) molecules can be detected on the surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that the TAP molecules are intimately involved in the assembly of the class I/beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) peptide complex. (nih.gov)
  • In human B-cell lines, however, class I/beta 2m dimers in the ER are physically associated with TAP molecules rather than calnexin. (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that calnexin mediates class I/beta 2m dimerization, and subsequent binding of the dimers to TAP molecules facilitates their association with TAP-transported peptides. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that beta 2m in urine prevents the detection of CMV by ELISA by binding to the virus and masking its antigenic determinants and we calculate that of the order of 10(5) molecules of beta 2m bind to each particle of cell culture-grown CMV. (nih.gov)
  • Very limited amounts of MHC class I molecules can be found on the surface in the absence of ?2 microglobulin. (prospecbio.com)
  • On the other hand, we could show that the separation of HLA-A,B,C and beta 2m molecules, induced by SDS-denaturation, leads to a conformational change in the heavy chain in such a way that it becomes reactive with LA45. (rupress.org)
  • MHC class 1 molecules consist of an α heavy chain that contains three subdomains (α1, α2, α3) and a non-covalent associating light chain, known as β-2-Microglobulin. (biotium.com)
  • In the absence of B2M(β2 microglobulin), very limited amounts of MHC class I (classical and non-classical) molecules can be detected on the surface. (sinobiological.com)
  • CD4 interacts with the β 2 -domain of MHC class II molecules through its D 1 domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CD85J/leukocyte inhibitory receptor-1 distinguishes between conformed and beta 2-microglobulin-free HLA-G molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, this mutation apparently precludes the formation of long amyloid fibrils and instead progress to off-pathway oligomers [2] . (proteopedia.org)
  • Several studies have shown a reduction in many inflammation-related parameters, better nutritional indices, reduced beta-2-microglobulin levels, and improved anemia management achieved with less erythropoietin stimulating agents when hemodialysis patients are treated with ultrapure dialysate, in comparison with standard dialysate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The frequency and concentration of specific factors binding β 2 microglobulin were investigated in sera and synovial fluids of patients and in sera of normal controls. (elsevier.com)
  • Serum concentration of beta- 2-microglobulin was significantly higher among uranium workers than comparisons. (cdc.gov)
  • 33% of the patients had increased concentrations of beta 2 MG, but the levels were found to correlate poorly with the values of several variables generally used as indices of the degree inflammatory activity in RA. (bmj.com)
  • The authors conclude that low concentrations of beta-2- microglobulin and aminoaciduria are found in workers exposed to yellowcake. (cdc.gov)
  • We have used solid-state NMR to probe the structural features of fibrils formed by full-length beta 2m (99 residues) at pH 2.5 and pH 7.4. (epfl.ch)
  • Lastly, the analogy of the spectra recorded on beta 2m fibrils grown at different pH values hints at a conserved architecture of the amyloid species thus obtained. (epfl.ch)
  • The objective of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of β2 microglobulin for PAD in patients with diabetes and varying renal function. (up.ac.za)
  • Renal function and its effects on the association between β2 microglobulin and PAD need further study. (up.ac.za)
  • In a linear regression model, the interaction term between estimated glomerular filtration rate categories and the inverse of β2 microglobulin was highly significant (p-value = 0.001). (up.ac.za)
  • These results indicate that the NK1.1+ alpha/beta+ T cell population, as well as other beta 2m-dependent populations, such as most peripheral alpha/beta+ CD8+ T cells, are dispensable for the Th2 pulmonary response to protein allergens. (rupress.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (up.ac.za)
  • These mice demonstrate that β2 microglobulin is necessary for cell surface expression of MHC class I and stability of the peptide binding groove. (wikipedia.org)
  • We tested whether beta 2m-dependent T cells were essential for Th2 cell-mediated allergic reactions by treating wild-type, beta 2m-deficient (beta 2m -/-), and IL-4-deficient (IL-4 -/-) mice of the C57BL/6 genetic background with ovalbumin (OVA), using a protocol that induces robust allergic pulmonary disease in wild-type mice. (rupress.org)
  • We used beta 2m-deficient mice on both BALB/c and C57BL/6 backgrounds to examine their capacity to mount Th2 immune responses after challenge with a number of well-characterized antigens administered by a variety of routes. (rupress.org)
  • Collectively, these results present a comprehensive analysis of type 2 immune responses in beta 2m-deficient mice, and indicate that beta 2m-dependent NT cells are not required for Th2 development in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Because class I MHC Ags have been implicated as modulators of target cell sensitivity to NK cell-mediated lysis, the regulation of virus infections and the fate of NK cells and their natural targets was examined in beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice, which have defective class I MHC expression. (umassmed.edu)
  • Infections with either the NK cell-sensitive murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) or the NK cell-resistant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) significantly augmented NK cell activity in either C57BL/6 (+/+) or beta 2-microglobulin knockout (-/-) mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • Studies in humans and mice have shown that this iron-dependent pathway requires the presence of Hfe, hemojuvelin, and probably transferrin receptor 2 (tfr-2). (scripps.edu)
  • To determine whether activation of hepcidin transcription by IL-6 also requires Hfe and tfr-2, we have studied mice homozygous for targeted disruption of HFE, beta(2)-microglobulin, and for a truncating mutation of TFR-2. (scripps.edu)
  • 2. The recombinant nucleic acid of claim 1, wherein said first region and said second region are in proximity to each other or are adjacent to each other or overlap with each other or one encompasses the other. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The recombinant nucleic acid of claim 2, wherein the 3′ end of the first region is adjacent to the 5′ end of the second region or the 3′ end of the second region is adjacent to the 5′ end of the first region or the first region is located within the second region. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The other locus of B2M was on chromosome 12 (rs3184504 at SH2B3, beta = 0.02, p value = 3.1 × 10 -8 ), which was previously implicated as an eGFR locus. (elsevier.com)