A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
An antiphospholipid antibody found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. In vitro, the antibody interferes with the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and prolongs the partial thromboplastin time. In vivo, it exerts a procoagulant effect resulting in thrombosis mainly in the larger veins and arteries. It further causes obstetrical complications, including fetal death and spontaneous abortion, as well as a variety of hematologic and neurologic complications.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
GENETIC PHENOMENA characterizing IMMUNITY and the immune response.
The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Agents that prevent clotting.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

Antiphospholipid, anti-beta 2-glycoprotein-I and anti-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome. (1/417)

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta 2-GPI) and anti-oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antibodies are all implicated in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome. To investigate whether different autoantibodies or combinations thereof produced distinct effects related to their antigenic specificities, we examined the frequencies of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-related features in the presence of different antibodies [aPL, beta 2-GPI, anti-oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL)] in 125 patients with APS. Median follow-up was 72 months: 58 patients were diagnosed as primary APS and 67 as APS plus systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-beta 2-GPI and anti-oxidized LDL antibodies were determined by ELISA; lupus anticoagulant (LA) by standard coagulometric methods. Univariate analysis showed that patients positive for anti-beta 2-GPI had a higher risk of recurrent thrombotic events (OR = 3.64, 95% CI, p = 0.01) and pregnancy loss (OR = 2.99, 95% CI, p = 0.004). Patients positive for anti-oxidized LDL antibodies had a 2.24-fold increase in the risk of arterial thrombosis (2.24, 95% CI, p = 0.03) and lower risk of thrombocytopenia (OR = 0.41 95% CI, p = 0.04). Patients positive for aCL antibodies had a higher risk of pregnancy loss (OR = 4.62 95% CI, p = 0.001). When these data were tested by multivariate logistic regression, the association between anti-beta 2-GPI and pregnancy loss and the negative association between anti-oxidized LDL antibodies and thrombocytopenia disappeared.  (+info)

Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups. (2/417)

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

Factor V Leiden and antibodies against phospholipids and protein S in a young woman with recurrent thromboses and abortion. (3/417)

We describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who suffered two iliofemoral venous thromboses, a cerebral ischemic infarct and recurrent fetal loss. Initial studies showed high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) and a moderate thrombocytopenia. After her second miscarriage, laboratory diagnosis revealed that the woman was heterozygous for the factor V Leiden mutation and had a functional protein S deficiency as well as anti-protein S and anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibodies. The impairment of the protein C pathway at various points could well explain the recurrent thromboses in the patient and supports the role of a disturbed protein C system in the pathophysiology of thrombosis in patients with APAs.  (+info)

Antibodies to adult human endothelial cells cross-react with oxidized low-density lipoprotein and beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2-GPI) in systemic lupus erythematosus. (4/417)

Cardiovascular manifestations are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is implicated in cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis, and cross-reacts with antibodies to cardiolipin (aCL). beta 2-GPI is a plasma protein participating in the coagulating cascade, and is also cofactor for aCL, and some aCL have been shown to be directed against beta 2-GPI and/or complexes between beta 2-GPI and phospholipids. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a phospholipid present both in oxLDL and in damaged endothelium, and we recently showed that LPC is involved in the antigenicity of oxLDL. Antibodies to endothelial cells (aEC) correlate with diseases activity in SLE and vasculitis, and we recently showed that aEC are enhanced in cardiovascular disease such as borderline hypertension and early atherosclerosis. aEC were determined using EC from adult V. Saphena Magna. Antibody levels were determined by ELISA. aEC of IgG type were enhanced in 184 patients with SLE compared with 85 healthy controls. There was a close correlation between aoxLDL, aCL, aLPC, a beta 2-GPI and aEC. Binding of sera to EC was competitively inhibited by beta 2-GPI, LPC and oxLDL. Taken together, the data indicate that EC share antigenic epitopes with beta 2-GPI and with oxLDL, especially LPC. Phospholipids in EC membranes may thus be antigenic epitopes. beta 2-GPI may bind to these phospholipids, and become an autoantigen. LPC is formed by oxidation of phospholipids and/or proinflammatory factors leading to activation of phospholipase A2, and the findings indicate the potential role of both lipid oxidation and phospholipase A2 in SLE.  (+info)

Conformationally altered beta 2-glycoprotein I is the antigen for anti-cardiolipin autoantibodies. (5/417)

Anti-cardiolipin autoantibodies (aCL) induce thrombosis and recurrent fetal death. These antibodies require a 'cofactor', identified as beta 2-glycoprotein I (beta 2-GPI), to bind phospholipids. We show here that aCL can bind beta 2-GPI in the absence of phospholipid. Binding of aCL to beta 2-GPI is dependent upon the beta 2-GPI being immobilized on an appropriate surface including cardiolipin, irradiated polystyrene and nitrocellulose membrane. This effect cannot be explained by increased antigen density of beta 2-GPI immobilized on these surfaces. Rather, conformational changes that occur following the interaction of beta 2-GPI with phospholipid render this protein antigenic to aCL. Liquid-phase beta 2-GPI was not antigenic for aCL. Thus, aCL cannot bind circulating beta 2-GPI. These findings may explain why patients with aCL can remain healthy for many years but then undergo episodes of thrombosis or fetal loss without changes in their circulating aCL profile, as the triggering event for these pathologies can be predicted to be one that renders beta 2-GPI antigenic for aCL.  (+info)

Staphylococcus aureus expresses a cell surface protein that binds both IgG and beta2-glycoprotein I. (6/417)

The existence of a second IgG-binding protein, protein Sbi, in Staphylococcus aureus has been reported previously. Later data indicated that protein Sbi also bound another serum component. This component has now been affinity-purified on immobilized protein Sbi and identified as beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI), also known as apolipoprotein H. The minimal beta2-GPI-binding domain was identified by shotgun phage display and the binding was shown to be mediated by a region of 57 amino acids, clearly separated from the IgG-binding domain. It is also shown that protein Sbi, and thus the beta2-GPI-binding activity, is expressed on the staphylococcal cell surface at levels varying between strains.  (+info)

Antiphospholipid antibodies from antiphospholipid syndrome patients activate endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. (7/417)

BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies are associated with thrombosis in patients diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and enhance thrombus formation in vivo in mice, but the mechanism of thrombosis by aPL is not completely understood. Although aPL antibodies have been shown to inhibit protein C activation and activate endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro, no study has examined whether these antibodies activate ECs in vivo. Therefore, human affinity-purified aPL (ap aPL) antibodies from APS patients were tested in a mouse model of microcirculation using the cremaster muscle that allows direct microscopic examination of thrombus formation and adhesion of white blood cells (WBCs) to ECs as an indication of EC activation in vivo. Adhesion molecule expression on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after aPL exposure was performed to confirm EC activation in vitro. METHODS AND RESULTS: All 6 ap aPL antibodies significantly increased the expression of VCAM-1 (2.3- to 4.4-fold), with one of the antibodies also increasing the expression of E-selectin (1.6-fold) on HUVECs in vitro. In the in vivo experiments, each ap aPL antibody except for 1 preparation increased WBC sticking (mean number of WBCs ranged from 22.7 to 50.6) compared with control (14.4), which correlated with enhanced thrombus formation (mean thrombus size ranged from 1098 to 6476 versus 594 microm2 for control). CONCLUSIONS: Activation of ECs by aPL antibodies in vivo may create a prothrombotic state on ECs, which may be the first pathophysiological event of thrombosis in APS.  (+info)

Atheroma: links with antiphospholipid antibodies, Hughes syndrome and lupus. (8/417)

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are found in a variety of autoimmune diseases, and are thought to predispose to arterial and venous thrombosis. These antibodies, when investigated in different assays in vitro, activate endothelial cells and promote uptake of modified LDL to macrophages. These observations suggest that aPL can contribute to atheroma development by targeting some of the sequential steps that constitute early atherogenesis. If substantiated by large-scale clinical trials, the pro-atherogenic properties of aPL may merit screening and intervention programs in selected populations.  (+info)

The syndrome is typically diagnosed based on the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) or lupus anticoagulant in the blood. Treatment for antiphospholipid syndrome may involve medications to prevent blood clots, such as heparin or warfarin, and aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation. In some cases, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be given to reduce the levels of antibodies in the blood. Plasmapheresis, a process that removes antibodies from the blood, may also be used in some cases.

Antiphospholipid syndrome is associated with other autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and may be triggered by certain medications or infections. It is important for individuals with antiphospholipid syndrome to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and reduce the risk of complications.

The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.

There are several subtypes of LES, including:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.

There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.

It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.

There are several types of thrombosis, including:

1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.

The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:

1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic

Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

A condition in which spontaneous abortions occur repeatedly, often due to an underlying cause such as a uterine anomaly or infection. Also called recurrent spontaneous abortion.

Synonym(s): habitual abortion, recurrent abortion, spontaneous abortion.

Antonym(s): multiple pregnancy, retained placenta.

Example Sentence: "The patient had experienced four habitual abortions in the past year and was concerned about her ability to carry a pregnancy to term."

... beta-D-mannosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl- (1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl}asparagine The 5 substrates of this ... beta-D-man nosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glu cosaminyl}asparagine) 2-beta-D- ... beta-D-, mannosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-, and glucosaminyl}asparagine) 2-beta-D- ... beta-D-mannosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-]], and [[(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl}asparagine]]. This enzyme ...
Transfer of sialic acid to glycoproteins by a sialyltransferase from colostrum". J. Biol. Chem. 248 (16): 5751-62. PMID 4723915 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucos amine alpha-2, ... 4-N-acetyl-beta-D- glucosamine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are CMP-N-acetylneuraminate and beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N- ... 6-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-, and glucosamine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically ...
... beta II and beta III. Beta tryptases appear to be the main isoenzymes expressed in mast cells and club cells, whereas in ... A possible activator of the viral fusion glycoprotein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (19): 13573-13579. PMID ... Small text Tryptase beta-2, also known as tryptase II, is a proteolytic enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TPSB2 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: tryptase beta 2 (gene/pseudogene)". Kido H, Yokogoshi Y, Sakai K, Tashiro M, Kishino Y, Fukutomi A, Katunuma N ( ...
Vertebrate beta-IG-H3. Vertebrate osteoblast-specific factor 2 (OSF-2). Mammalian NEU1/NG3 proteins. Drosophila midline ... Proteins known to contain an EMI domain include: Vertebrate Emilins, extracellular matrix glycoproteins. Vertebrate Multimerins ... extracellular matrix glycoproteins. Vertebrate Emu proteins, which could interact with several different extracellular matrix ... 484 (2): 164-8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(00)02140-2. PMID 11068053. S2CID 38531447. Callebaut I, Mignotte V, Souchet M, Mornon JP ...
Streydio C, Lacka K, Swillens S, Vassart G (Jul 1988). "The human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (PS beta G) and the ... Pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSG2 gene. Teglund, Stephan; Olsen, Anne ... "Entrez Gene: PSG2 pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 2". Thompson J, Koumari R, Wagner K, Barnert S, Schleussner C, Schrewe ... "Linkage of two human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein genes: one is associated with hydatidiform mole". Proceedings of ...
2001). "Glycoprotein 90K/MAC-2BP interacts with galectin-1 and mediates galectin-1-induced cell aggregation". Int. J. Cancer. ... The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions ... Tinari N, Kuwabara I, Huflejt ME, Shen PF, Iacobelli S, Liu FT (January 2001). "Glycoprotein 90K/MAC-2BP interacts with ... Putative ligands for a cytosolic beta-galactoside lectin". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (28): 18731-6. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)55124-3 ...
... (Gal-3) is also a member of the beta-galactoside-binding protein family that plays an important role in cell-cell ... Tinari N, Kuwabara I, Huflejt ME, Shen PF, Iacobelli S, Liu FT (January 2001). "Glycoprotein 90K/MAC-2BP interacts with ... Galectin-3 has an affinity for beta-galactosides and exhibits antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. This protein ... Putative ligands for a cytosolic beta-galactoside lectin". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (28): 18731-6. doi:10.1016/ ...
In enzymology, a glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.122) is an enzyme that catalyzes the ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-galactose:glycoprotein-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 3-beta-D-galactosyltransferase ... This enzyme is also called uridine diphosphogalactose-mucin beta-(1->3)-galactosyltransferase. This enzyme participates in o- ... glycoprotein D-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are UDP-galactose and ...
"Entrez Gene: MGAT2 mannosyl (alpha-1,6-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase". Cormier-Daire V, Amiel J, ... Mutations in this gene may lead to carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, type II. The coding region of this gene is ... 1996). "Influence of N-linked glycans in V4-V5 region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp160 on induction of ... Alpha-1,6-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MGAT2 gene ...
"Entrez Gene: MGAT1 mannosyl (alpha-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase". Kumar R, Yang J, Eddy RL, et ... Alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MGAT1 gene ... 2007). "Refolding of human beta-1-2 GlcNAc transferase (GnT1) and the role of its unpaired Cys 121". Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:alpha-3-D-mannoside beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I is a medial-Golgi enzyme essential for ...
1996). "Influence of N-linked glycans in V4-V5 region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp160 on induction of ... Matern H, Boermans H, Lottspeich F, Matern S (Oct 2001). "Molecular cloning and expression of human bile acid beta-glucosidase ... This gene encodes a microsomal beta-glucosidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of bile acid 3-O-glucosides as endogenous ... "Entrez Gene: GBA2 glucosidase, beta (bile acid) 2". Land A, Braakman I (2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus ...
β2-glycoprotein 1, also known as beta-2 glycoprotein 1 and Apolipoprotein H (Apo-H), is a 38 kDa multifunctional plasma protein ... This protein domain is composed of four well-defined anti-parallel beta-strands and two short alpha-helices, as well as a long ... Schousboe I (1985). "beta 2-Glycoprotein I: a plasma inhibitor of the contact activation of the intrinsic blood coagulation ... "APOH - Beta-2-glycoprotein 1 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - APOH gene & protein". UniProt. Retrieved 5 May 2019. Borchman D ...
Hattori N, Kuwana M, Kaburaki J, Mimori T, Ikeda Y, Kawakami Y (2000). "T cells that are autoreactive to beta2-glycoprotein I ... 1996). "Antibodies to beta 2-glycoprotein I and clinical manifestations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus". ... 1997). "Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) monoclonal antibodies with lupus anticoagulant-like activity enhance the beta2GPI ... Shi W, Chong BH, Hogg PJ, Chesterman CN (1993). "Anticardiolipin antibodies block the inhibition by beta 2-glycoprotein I of ...
... beta(1) integrin upon release from keratinocytes migrating on type I collagen". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 276 (31): 29368- ... The deficiency in glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex synthesis leads to Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Glycoprotein VI is one of the ... Platelet membrane glycoproteins are surface glycoproteins found on platelets (thrombocytes) which play a key role in hemostasis ... This transmembrane glycoprotein complex is composed of four subunits: GPIbα, GPIbβ, GPV and GPIX. Each of them has a variable ...
Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They ... laminin-10/11 are recognized by alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 4 integrins". Journal of Cell Science. 113 (5 ... However, unlike beta 1 chain, beta 2 has a more restricted tissue distribution. It is enriched in the basement membrane of ... This gene encodes the beta chain isoform laminin, beta 2. The beta 2 chain contains the 7 structural domains typical of beta ...
... is a type II membrane protein and an enzyme - ... "Entrez Gene: MGAT4B mannosyl (alpha-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, isozyme A". Retrieved 2015-09- ... in regulating the availability of serum glycoproteins, oncogenesis, and differentiation. In humans the enzyme is encoded by the ... It has been proposed that the MGAT4A isoenzyme acts as a toggle for developing of type 2 diabetes. Mice that lack MGAT4A are ...
PMID 8128436.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Viard JP, Amoura Z, Bach JF (1991). "[Anti-beta 2 ... glycoprotein I antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: a marker of thrombosis associated with a circulating anticoagulant ... 86 (2): 362-6. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.12.068. PMID 16769056. (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, CS1 French- ... 2): CD002859. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002859.pub2. PMC 6768987. PMID 15846641. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 7, 2012 ...
Sodium channel subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCN2B gene. Sodium channel GRCh38: Ensembl release ... a transmembrane glycoprotein with a CAM motif". Cell. 83 (3): 433-42. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90121-3. PMID 8521473. S2CID ... "Entrez Gene: SCN2B sodium channel, voltage-gated, type II, beta". Hartshorne RP, Catterall WA (1984). "The sodium channel from ... 1996). "Structure and function of the beta 2 subunit of brain sodium channels, ...
Vella GJ, Paulsen H, Schachter H (June 1984). "Control of glycoprotein synthesis. IX. A terminal Man alpha l-3Man beta 1- ... beta-D-mannosyl-R R represents the remainder of the N-linked oligosaccharide in the glycoprotein acceptor. Harpaz N, Schachter ... 3-mannosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, GnTI) is an enzyme with systematic name UDP-N-acetyl-D- ... beta-D-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ...
... is a glycoprotein hormone structurally related to inhibin and activin from the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, ... AMH is a dimeric glycoprotein with a molar mass of 140 kDa. The molecule consists of two identical subunits linked by sulfide ... which phosphorylates a type I receptor under the TGF beta signaling pathway. In male mammals, AMH prevents the development of ... 3.0.co;2-e. PMID 10727997. Pellatt L, Rice S, Mason HD (May 2010). "Anti-Müllerian hormone and polycystic ovary syndrome: a ...
Lutters BC, Derksen RH, Tekelenburg WL, Lenting PJ, Arnout J, de Groot PG (2003). "Dimers of beta 2-glycoprotein I increase ... It is caused by the presence of antibodies against anionic phospholipids and β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI). The anti-β2GPI ... The presence of amyloid beta (Aβ) protein deposits in neuronal extracellular space is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's ... PI3K activation leads to inhibitory phosphorylation of the tau kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3B), which alters the ...
The encoded protein, a member of the peptidase A1 protein family, is a type I integral membrane glycoprotein and aspartic ... cleaves at the beta site and within the amyloid-beta region of the amyloid-beta precursor protein". Proceedings of the National ... Beta-secretase 2 (EC 3.4.23.45, also known as Memapsin-1) is an enzyme that cleaves Glu-Val-Asn-Leu!Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe in the ... "Entrez Gene: BACE2 beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2". *Rochin, L.; Hurbain, I.; Serneels, L.; Fort, C.; Watt, B.; Leblanc, P.; ...
Hunt JE, McNeil HP, Morgan GJ, Crameri RM, Krilis SA (1992). "A phospholipid-beta 2-glycoprotein I complex is an antigen for ... Kumar KS, Jyothy A, Prakash MS, Rani HS, Reddy PP (2002). "Beta2-glycoprotein I dependent anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus ... are beta-2 glycoprotein dependent, and this can be used to tell them apart in an ELISA assay. This test is very useful as the ... The syphilis anti-cardiolipin antibodies are beta-2 glycoprotein independent, whereas those that occur in antiphospholipid ...
Prediction of the primary structure of factor XII and the tertiary structure of beta-factor XIIa". The Journal of Biological ... Factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) is a plasma glycoprotein of approximately 90 kDa molecular weight is part of the coagulation ... Henry ML, Everson B, Ratnoff OD (May 1988). "Inhibition of the activation of Hageman factor (factor XII) by beta 2-glycoprotein ... Fujikawa K, McMullen BA (September 1983). "Amino acid sequence of human beta-factor XIIa". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
"Novel pathways for biosynthesis of nucleotide-activated glycero-manno-heptose precursors of bacterial glycoproteins and cell ... D-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose-7-phosphate kinase (EC 2.7.1.167, heptose 7-phosphate kinase, D-beta-D-heptose 7- ... D-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose 1,7-bisphosphate + ADP The bifunctional protein hldE includes D-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose-7- ... D-beta-D-heptose 7-phosphate kinase/D-beta-D-heptose 1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, hldE (gene), rfaE (gene)) is an enzyme ...
"Novel pathways for biosynthesis of nucleotide-activated glycero-manno-heptose precursors of bacterial glycoproteins and cell ... D-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose 1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.70, D-beta-D-heptose 7-phosphate kinase/D-beta-D- ... ADP-D-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose + diphosphate The enzyme is involved in biosynthesis of ADP-L-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose. ... D-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose+1-phosphate+adenylyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ...
"Novel pathways for biosynthesis of nucleotide-activated glycero-manno-heptose precursors of bacterial glycoproteins and cell ... D-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose+1,7-bisphosphate+7-phosphatase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... "Biosynthesis pathway of ADP-L-glycero-beta-D-manno-heptose in Escherichia coli". Journal of Bacteriology. 184 (2): 363-9. doi: ...
This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins ... Beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the B4GALT2 gene. ... Lo NW, Shaper JH, Pevsner J, Shaper NL (Aug 1998). "The expanding beta 4-galactosyltransferase gene family: messages from the ... Pal R, Hoke GM, Sarngadharan MG (1989). "Role of oligosaccharides in the processing and maturation of envelope glycoproteins of ...
Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane glycoproteins composed of a distinct alpha chain and a common beta chain. They ... Charakida M, Tousoulis D, Stefanadis C, Toutouzas P (2003). "The impact of platelet glycoprotein IIIa and Ia polymorphisms in ... Tsantes AE, Nikolopoulos GK, Bagos PG, Vaiopoulos G, Travlou A (2007). "Lack of association between the platelet glycoprotein ... beta(1) integrin upon release from keratinocytes migrating on type I collagen". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (31): 29368-74. doi:10.1074/ ...
The use of testing for antibodies specific for individual targets of aPL such as β2 glycoprotein 1 and phosphatidylserine is ... beta 2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H)". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (11): 4120-4124. Bibcode:1990PNAS...87.4120M. doi: ... A low platelet count and positivity for antibodies against β2-glycoprotein 1 or phosphatidylserine may also be observed in a ... ApoH inhibits protein C, a glycoprotein with important regulatory function of coagulation (inactivates Factor Va and Factor ...
"Inhibition of Beta Interferon Induction by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Suggests a Two-Step Model for ... In SARS-CoV, the causative agent of SARS, the N protein is 422 amino acid residues long and in SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent ... 81 (2): 548-557. doi:10.1128/JVI.01782-06. PMC 1797484. PMID 17108024. Chang, Chi-You; Liu, Helene Minyi; Chang, Ming-Fu; Chang ... SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein is arginine methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1)at residues R95 and ...
The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) comprises a group of proteins that are critical to the stability of muscle fiber ... beta-dystroglycan, and dystrophin molecules in normal skeletal myofiber: triple immunogold labeling electron microscopy". ... "Entrez Gene: SGCA sarcoglycan, alpha (50kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein)". Bowe MA, Mendis DB, Fallon JR (Feb 2000). " ... "Primary structure and muscle-specific expression of the 50-kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein (adhalin)". The Journal of ...
Beta-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein+beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine ... Beta-1,3-galactosyl-O-glycosyl-glycoprotein beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.102, O-glycosyl-oligosaccharide- ... core 6-beta-GlcNAc-transferase A, UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:O-glycosyl-glycoprotein (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to N-acetyl-D- ... O-glycosyl-glycoprotein (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to N-acetyl-D-galactosamine of beta-D-galactosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-D- ...
They showed that human beta interferon was an unusually hydrophobic glycoprotein. This explained the large loss of interferon ... The superinduced human beta interferon messenger RNA was prepared by Tan's lab for Cetus corp. to clone the human beta ... Interferon beta-1a and interferon beta-1b are used to treat and control multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disorder. This ... Large amounts of human beta interferon were made by superinducing the beta interferon gene in human fibroblast cells. Cantell's ...
... also known as hexabrachion-like protein is a glycoprotein that is expressed in connective tissues including skin, joints and ... Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-2), TSSK6 (Testis-Specific Serine Kinase 6), NT5DC2 (Cytosolic 5'- ... 2 (5): 1233-1243. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2012.09.033. ISSN 2211-1247. PMID 23168260. Landgraf P, Rusu M, Sheridan R, et al. (June ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2) and PRKD3 (Serine/threonine-protein kinase D3). Neault et al. recently identified miR-137 ...
Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome Carbon baby syndrome Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency Carcinoid syndrome Carcinoma ... deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta- ... neutropenia Cyclic vomiting syndrome Cyclosporosis Cyclothymia Cypress facial neuromusculoskeletal syndrome Cystathionine beta ... X-linked type 2, recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, X-linked type 3, recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth peroneal muscular ...
The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein called a "spike" to connect to the ACE2 receptor and enter the host cell. ... Beta, Delta, and Gamma, giving the justification that they "will be easier and more practical to discussed by non-scientific ... the Beta variant (B.1.351, formerly called the South Africa variant), the Gamma variant (P.1, formerly called the Brazil ... The SARS-CoV-2 virus can infect a wide range of cells and systems of the body. COVID‑19 is most known for affecting the upper ...
... was first isolated from mouse embryonic kidney in 1997 as a 36 kDa beta-galactoside lectin protein. Human galectin-9 ... The mechanism of how Galectin-9 activates AMPK involves recognition of exposed lysosomal lumenal glycoproteins such as LAMP1, ... Wada J, Kanwar YS (February 1997). "Identification and characterization of galectin-9, a novel beta-galactoside-binding ... 16 (2): 269-73. doi:10.3892/ijmm.16.2.269. PMID 16012760. Dai SY, Nakagawa R, Itoh A, Murakami H, Kashio Y, Abe H, Katoh S, ...
The enzyme activity is further influenced by the amino acids around the sequon, with beta-loop structures especially important ... May 2017). "Production of homogeneous glycoprotein with multisite modifications by an engineered N-glycosyltransferase mutant ... for the N-glycosylation step during glycoprotein biosynthesis". The Biochemical Journal. 195 (3): 639-644. doi:10.1042/ ... 2017, p. 2. Cuccui et al. 2017, p. 10. Rempe et al. 2015, p. 5. Rempe et al. 2015, p. 4. McCann & St Geme 2014, p. 1. Rempe et ...
Bi-directional permeability tests gave efflux ratios close to unity indicating that C286 is likely not a P-glycoprotein ... orally bioavailable retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ) agonist (EC50 = 1.9nM) with good selectivity over the RARα, and RARγ ... The best was the highly potent RARβ agonist oxadiazole 2, that had 12- and 19-fold selectivity as an agonist over RARα and RARγ ... of this success has been the incorporation of heterocyclic linkers culminating in the discovery of the selective RAR beta ...
TLRs are integral membrane glycoproteins with typical semicircular-shaped extracellular parts containing leucine-rich repeats ... "The Fas-associated death domain protein suppresses activation of NF-kappa B by LPS and IL-1 beta". The Journal of Clinical ... 45 (2): 332-9. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4940. PMID 9344657. Muzio M, Ni J, Feng P, Dixit VM (November 1997). "IRAK (Pelle) family ... 2 (6): 346-51. doi:10.1038/35014038. PMID 10854325. S2CID 32036101. Jefferies C, Bowie A, Brady G, Cooke EL, Li X, O'Neill LA ( ...
de Castro M, Elliot S, Kino T, Bamberger C, Karl M, Webster E, Chrousos GP (September 1996). "The non-ligand binding beta- ... TIF1beta interacts with transcription factor C/EBPbeta and glucocorticoid receptor to induce alpha1-acid glycoprotein gene ... Hecht K, Carlstedt-Duke J, Stierna P, Gustafsson J, Brönnegârd M, Wikström AC (October 1997). "Evidence that the beta-isoform ... The role of alpha and beta isoforms of the glucocorticoid receptor]". Archivos de Bronconeumologia. 38 (9): 436-440. doi: ...
Kitamura T, Sato N, Arai K, Miyajima A (1991). "Expression cloning of the human IL-3 receptor cDNA reveals a shared beta ... Chirmule N, Goonewardena H, Pahwa S, Pasieka R, Kalyanaraman VS, Pahwa S (1995). "HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins induce ... Martinez-Moczygemba M, Huston DP (2003). "Biology of common beta receptor-signaling cytokines: IL-3, IL-5, and GM-CSF". J. ... "Three residues in the common beta chain of the human GM-CSF, IL-3 and IL-5 receptors are essential for GM-CSF and IL-5 but not ...
Beta-2 microglobulin is elevated in proportion to tumor mass. Coagulation abnormalities may be present. Prothrombin time, ... Patients with findings of peripheral neuropathy should have nerve conduction studies and antimyelin associated glycoprotein ... Beta-2 microglobulin and C-reactive protein test results are not specific for Waldenström macroglobulinemia. ... An M component with beta-to-gamma mobility is highly suggestive of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Immunoelectrophoresis and ...
There are several clusters, the first being albumin, the second being the alpha, the third beta and the fourth gamma ( ... Acute-phase glycoproteins: molecular biology, biochemistry and clinical applications. CRC Press. pp. 3-19. Guttman O, ... Like all serine protease inhibitors, A1AT has a characteristic secondary structure of beta sheets and alpha helices. Mutations ... A1AT is a single-chain glycoprotein consisting of 394 amino acids in the mature form and exhibits many glycoforms. The three N- ...
... beta adrenergic receptor - beta sheet - beta-1 adrenergic receptor - beta-2 adrenergic receptor - beta-thromboglobulin - ... platelet glycoprotein GPIb-IX complex - platelet membrane glycoprotein - platelet-derived growth factor - platelet-derived ... transforming growth factor beta - transforming growth factor beta receptor - transient receptor potential - translation ( ... alpha-beta T-cell antigen receptor - alpha-fetoprotein - alpha-globulin - alpha-macroglobulin - alpha-MSH - Ames test - amide ...
The silk worm produces fibroin with three chains, the light, heavy, and the glycoprotein P25. The heavy and light chains are ... The heavy fibroin protein consists of layers of antiparallel beta sheets. Its primary structure mainly consists of the ... 24 (2-3): 237-42. doi:10.1016/S0141-8130(99)00002-1. PMID 10342770. Tokiwa Y, Calabia BP, Ugwu CU, Aiba S (August 2009). " ...
... binds with P53 to inhibit cell death and interacts with beta-catenin to promote the tissue-invasiveness of cancer cells; and 6 ... overexpression of the P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 gene whose protein product promotes cell attachment to vascular ... 79 (2): 1244-51. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.2.1244-1251.2005. PMC 538532. PMID 15613351. Youngster I, Vaisben E, Cohen H, Nassar F ( ... 88 (2): 645-56. doi:10.1182/blood.V88.2.645.bloodjournal882645. PMID 8695812. (CS1 Japanese-language sources (ja), CS1 errors: ...
2002). "N-acetyl beta-D-glucosaminidase is not attached to human sperm membranes through the glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI ... and role in the lysosomal degradation of Asn-linked glycoproteins". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 272 (2): 290-300. doi:10.1016/0003- ... doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)41818-2. PMID 1527079. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
Chou YT, Yang YC (Jul 2006). "Post-transcriptional control of Cited2 by transforming growth factor beta. Regulation via Smads ... "MRG1 binds to the LIM domain of Lhx2 and may function as a coactivator to stimulate glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit gene ... "MRG1 binds to the LIM domain of Lhx2 and may function as a coactivator to stimulate glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit gene ... 204 (1-2): 235-41. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00551-9. PMID 9434189. Sun HB, Zhu YX, Yin T, Sledge G, Yang YC (Nov 1998). "MRG1 ...
This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta 5 subunit of chorionic gonadotropin ( ... CG). Glycoprotein hormones are heterodimers consisting of a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit which confers ... The beta subunit of CG is encoded by 6 genes which are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q13.3 and ... Chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CGB5 gene. ...
The encoded glycoprotein is a small type II membrane receptor with an extracellular C-type lectin-like domain fold and a ... Taylor PR, Brown GD, Herre J, Williams DL, Willment JA, Gordon S (January 2004). "The role of SIGNR1 and the beta-glucan ... Willment JA, Marshall AS, Reid DM, Williams DL, Wong SY, Gordon S, Brown GD (May 2005). "The human beta-glucan receptor is ... Taylor PR, Brown GD, Reid DM, Willment JA, Martinez-Pomares L, Gordon S, Wong SY (October 2002). "The beta-glucan receptor, ...
... platelet glycoprotein Ib and von Willebrand factor, and integrin alpha 5 beta 1 and fibronectin. Emphasizing their importance ... integrin alpha 4 beta 1 with vascular adhesion molecule 1, integrin alpha M beta 2 with ICAM-1, integrin alpha V beta 3 with ... including P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a glycoprotein that is normally decorated with sulfated sialyl-Lewis x. ... CMR has been observed for interactions between integrin alpha 5 beta 1 and fibronectin and between G-actin and G-actin or F- ...
Gazumyan A, Reichlin A, Nussenzweig MC (Jul 2006). "Ig beta tyrosine residues contribute to the control of B cell receptor ... CD79A also known as B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein alpha chain and MB-1 membrane glycoprotein, is a protein ... "B cell progenitors are arrested in maturation but have intact VDJ recombination in the absence of Ig-alpha and Ig-beta". ... 3.0.co;2-o. PMID 11449366. S2CID 31494726. Kabak S, Skaggs BJ, Gold MR, Affolter M, West KL, Foster MS, Siemasko K, Chan AC, ...
Cytosolic beta-glucosidase, also known as cytosolic beta-glucosidase-like protein 1, is a beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) enzyme ... Land A, Braakman I (2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... Cytosolic beta-glucosidase is a predominantly liver enzyme that efficiently hydrolyzes beta-D-glucoside and beta-D-galactoside ... 2010). "The cytosolic beta-glucosidase GBA3 does not influence type 1 Gaucher disease manifestation". Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 46 ...
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)-alpha-D-mannosyl)-glycoprotein 4-beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses ... Alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein+4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.145, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IV, N- ... beta-D-mannosyl-R R represents the remainder of the N-linked oligosaccharide in the glycoprotein acceptor. Gleeson PA, ...
Examples of CAMs specific to neural systems include N-CAM, TAG-1 - an axonal glycoprotein - and MAG, all of which are part of ... The motor neurons of the different motor fibers, were the lower motor neurons - alpha motor neuron, beta motor neuron, and ... Furley AJ, Morton SB, Manalo D, Karagogeos D, Dodd J, Jessell TM (April 1990). "The axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 is an ... beta, gamma, and delta fibers - Aα, Aβ, Aγ, and Aδ. ... 3.0.CO;2-#. PMID 8807532. Salzer JL, Zalc B (October 2016). " ...
January 2006). "R-Spondin proteins: a novel link to beta-catenin activation". Cell Cycle. 5 (1): 23-6. doi:10.4161/cc.5.1.2305 ... Glycoproteins, Extracellular matrix proteins). ... "R-Spondin2 is a secreted activator of Wnt/beta-catenin ... R-spondin 2 also known as roof plate-specific spondin-2 is a secreted protein that in humans that is encoded by the RSPO2 gene ... R-spondin 2 synergizes with canonical WNT to activate beta-catenin. RSPO2 has been proposed to regulate craniofacial patterning ...
beta]2GPI was purified and used for measurement of antibodies directed against [beta]2GPI ([alpha][beta]2GPI). [beta]2GPI has ... Elevated [beta]2GPI antigen and [alpha][beta]2GPI levels and modified [beta]2GPI function were associated with a history of ... These patients had reduced [beta]2GPI aPA cofactor activity, suggesting that[beta]2GPI is compromised. Measurement of [beta] ... beta]2GPI, for binding to phospholipids. [beta]2GPI has demonstrated in vitro anticoagulant properties, so modulation of [beta] ...
... Averna M;Paravizzini G;Marino G; ... Beta-2-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) is mainly produced by the liver and is found in plasma partially associated to lipoproteins ... Beta-2-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) is mainly produced by the liver and is found in plasma partially associated to lipoproteins ... Expression studies in HepG2 cells demonstrate that beta(2)GPI mRNA is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with very low ...
Book a Fastest Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG Test Near Me in Gurgaon + Free Home Collection test & avail flat ₹ 100 off on your ... What are the normal values for the Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test?. 0.70-1.80 mcg/mL. What is the type of sample required?. ... What are the normal values for the Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test?. 0.70-1.80 mcg/mL. What is the type of sample required?. ... Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test?. Fasting is not required for this test. Any other precautions to be taken before getting myself ...
Beta B.1.351 Variant). Cat# abx620004. Supplier: abbexa. Research Use Only! ... Spike Glycoprotein (S1), His-Tag (CHO) , REC32009 from Native Antigen is available for delivery. SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Spike (CHO ... Beta B.1.351 Variant) , abx620004 abbexa SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein RBD (Beta B.1.351 Variant) , abx620004. (No reviews yet) ... The Beta (B.1.351) variant was first identified in South Africa. It contains the K417N, E484K and N501Y mutations in the spike ...
Beta-2-Glycoprotein 1. ATG01-10. Native - Human Plasma. $605.00 Vial Size. 1.0mg ...
The CCP structure is shown to be based on a beta-sandwich arrangement; one face made up of three beta-strands hydrogen-bonded ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE GLYCOSYLATED FIVE-DOMAIN HUMAN BETA2-GLYCOPROTEIN I PURIFIED FROM BLOOD PLASMA. ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF HUMAN BETA-2-GLYCOPROTEIN-I (APOLIPOPROTEIN-H). 1ckl. N-TERMINAL TWO DOMAINS OF HUMAN CD46 (MEMBRANE ... The regions between the beta-strands are composed of both well-defined turns and less well-defined loops. Analysis of CCP ...
Gall bladder contractility in children with beta-thalassaemia ... Effects of mucous glycoprotein on nucleation time of human bile ... Beta-thalassaemia is a disease of the chronic haemolytic state which is a predisposing factor for formation of gallstones early ... suggested that the beta-thalassaemia genotype associated with Gilbert syndrome is a risk factor for development of gallstones ... in their adult beta-thalassaemia patients [20].. Emptying time was significantly prolonged in our patients compared with ...
IgG anti-β2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies are more closely associated with thrombosis in the primary antiphospholipid syndrome and ... Antibodies to beta 2-glycoprotein I and clinical manifestations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus [see comments]. ... Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss: prevalence and ... Autoantibodies to beta2-glycoprotein I in systemic lupus erythematosus and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: clinical ...
Compound: Beta-2-microglobulin. Species: Mus musculus [TaxId:10090]. Gene: B2M. Database cross-references and differences (RAF- ... Compound: Glycoprotein B. Species: synthetic, synthetic. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): *Uniprot ... Compound: Beta-2-microglobulin. Species: Mus musculus [TaxId:10090]. Gene: B2M. Database cross-references and differences (RAF- ... Compound: Glycoprotein B. Species: synthetic, synthetic. Database cross-references and differences (RAF-indexed): *Uniprot ...
Book Beta-2 Microglobulin Serum Test in ahmedabad online from Dr. B. Lal Lab at the best prices. ✔️Free Home Collection ✔ ... BETA 2 TRANSFERRIN-CARBOHYDRATE RESISTANT (O.S.). 1 Test Included. ₹. 5700. Add ... BETA 2 TRANSFERRIN-CARBOHYDRATE RESISTANT (O.S.). 1 Test Included. ₹. 5700. Add ... BETA 2 TRANSFERRIN-CARBOHYDRATE RESISTANT (O.S.). 1 Test Included. ₹. 5700. Add ...
The transferrin receptor gene 1, located at 3q29 is a cell surface glycoprotein transferrin receptor that also appears to ... alpha and beta. Alpha dystroglycan appears to be necessary for infection with viruses of the LCMV-Lassa complex and some New ... The S segment encodes for the nucleocapsid protein (N) and the glycoprotein precursor polypeptide (GPC) that is differentially ... Primary structure of dystrophin-associated glycoproteins linking dystrophin to the extracellular matrix. Nature. 1992 Feb 20. ...
Crystal structure of the dengue 2 virus envelope glycoprotein in the postfusion conformation ... 3 x NAG: 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose(Post Translational Modification). NAG.1: 3 residues within 4Å:*. Chain A: N. ... 2° Structure. Bfactor. Bfactor Range. SOA. Entropy. Clustal. Hydrophobic. Size. Charged. Polar. Proline. Ser/Thr. Cysteine. ... Crystal structure of the dengue 2 virus envelope glycoprotein in the postfusion conformation Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X- ...
Beta/B.1.351 (n = 1, 0.07%), and Delta/B.1.617.2 (n = 1, 0.07%) and VOIs Epsilon/B.1.427/B.1.429 (n = 416, 27.0%), Iota/B.1.526 ... harbor the E484K mutation in the spike glycoprotein gene (4). Studies have demonstrated that the E484K mutation reduces ... Nonaka CKV, Franco MM, Gräf T, de Lorenzo Barcia CA, de Ávila Mendonça RN, de Sousa KAF, et al. Genomic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 ... Rambaut A, Holmes EC, OToole Á, Hill V, McCrone JT, Ruis C, et al. A dynamic nomenclature proposal for SARS-CoV-2 lineages to ...
Anti-beta-2-Glycoprotein. Anti-Cardiolipin IgA. Anti-Cardiolipin IgGM. Anti-Cardiolipin Screen. Anti-Phosphatidic Acid IgG. ...
Beta 2 Glycoprotein IgG Rs.1670 Beta 2 Glycoprotein IgM Rs.1670 ... GTT 2 hrs. 75 gm Glucose Rs.1570 GTT 3 hrs. 100 gm Glucose Rs. ...
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been recognized as a central player in the robust pulmonary inflammatory ... However, the role of glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) in TGF-beta1 mediated fibrosis has not been fully explored. We used OPN- ... TNF-beta, IL-6), diminished pulmonary damage markers, and less pronounced neutrophil accumulation were found in broncho- ... Advanced Search Search Help About NIOSHTIC-2 Feedback Terms: ultrafine* OR (nano* AND particle*) OR nanotech* OR ...
Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG. *Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 IgM. *Lupus Anticoagulant ...
beta 2-Glycoprotein I * Blood Coagulation Factors [D12.776.124.125] Blood Coagulation Factors ... Glycoproteins [D12.776.395] Glycoproteins * Golgi Matrix Proteins [D12.776.407] Golgi Matrix Proteins ...
... beta Actin Beta-Microseminoprotein Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein Cathepsin K Club Cell Protein Clusterin Connective ... Thyrostimulin Beta Subunit Transferrin receptor TRAP 5 Trefoil Factor 1 Trefoil Factor 2 Trefoil Factor 3 Urinary Trypsin ... Leucine-Rich Alpha-2-Glycoprotein Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein Mannose Receptor Midkine MMP-9 Myc Tag Myosin Light Chain-I ... SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein-S1 Protein Secretagogin Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) sPLA2-IB ...
Glycoproteins are more hydrophilic than simple proteins. This means glycoproteins are more attracted to water than ordinary ... Membrane glycoprotein: Interacts with envelope E protein in the budding compartment of the host cell, which is located between ... 2. 2019-nCov full synopsis: All recognized cases globally with links- Pin Request--. 01/30/20. ... ORF6 protein (open reading fram 6): Binds to and disrupts nuclear import complex formation by tethering karyopherin alpha 2 and ...
Michalski JC, Klein A. Glycoprotein lysosomal storage disorders: alpha- and beta-mannosidosis, fucosidosis and alpha-N- ... Within lysosomes, the enzyme helps break down complexes called glycoproteins and glycolipids, which consist of sugar molecules ... interfering with its ability to break down glycoproteins and glycolipids. These substances accumulate in the lysosomes and ... 2009 Oct 23;393(2):435-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.08.021. Epub 2009 Aug 14. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed ...
루푸스항응고인자, 항인지질항체 (IgG and IgM), anti-beta-2 glycoprotein-1 항체는 모두 음성이었다. 항중성구세포질항체, 항핵항체, 류마티스인자, anti-SSA/Ro 항체, anti-SSB/LA ... Hyun Kyung Park1, Dae Wook Hwang2, Eun Ha Kang1, Chang Jin Yoon3, Yun-Gyoo Lee1, Jeong-Ok Lee1, Soo-Mee Bang1, ... 내원 2개월 전 급성충수염으로 충수돌기절제술을 시행 받았고 당시 시행한 복부 컴퓨터 단층촬영에서는 급성 충수염 외에 하대정맥이나 간정맥의 혈전 소견은 없었다. 이후 발생한 수술 부위의 2.2 cm 크기의 농양으로 수술 9일째부터 ... 1C, D). 추후 치료로 PT INR 2-3을 목표로 와파린 처방을 시행하였고, 적어도 6개월 이상 동안 시행 예정이다. 시술 3개월째 큰 합병증 없이 외래 추적 중이며, 베체트병에 대해서는 콜키친과 댑손을 투약하며 증상 조절 ...
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You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for * Author: CC Lee x ... alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein alpha and beta chain, complement, ... Furthermore, clusterin, alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor, prothymosin alpha and alpha-fetoprotein were found to be down- ...
Neem Leaf Glycoprotein in immunoregulation of cancer. Singh, Arunangsu; Chatterjee, Arya; Rakshit, Sudeshna; Shanmugam, Geetha ... Of particular interest, significant expression changes in beta-2-glycoprotein 1, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, alpha-2- ... The purified pea glycoprotein PGP2 has been shown to inhibit the activity of α-glucosidase and α-amylase in previous studies. ... Neem Leaf Glycoprotein (NLGP) modifies immune cells present in the tumor surroundings as well as in the peripheral system, ...
Deficiency of Glycoprotein Ib (GpIb) Receptor. Symptoms. Mucosal Membrane Bleeding. Menorrhagia. Easy Bruising. Labs. Large ... Deficiency of Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (Gp IIb/IIIa) Receptor. Defective Platelet-to-Platelet Aggregation. Symptoms. Mucous ... the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2. , were here to help.. Works better than traditional ...
Beta2 Glycoprotein 1 - IgG. Beta2 Glycoprotein - IgM. Beta2 Glycoprotein - IgA. Stool Hanging Drop. Sodium Spot Urine. ... Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (Beta HCG). Complete Haemogram. Vitamin D3 (25 Hydroxy Cholecalciferol). Immunoglobulin A - ... Beta Cross Laps. Bile Acid. Biopsy (Extra Large Specimen). extra large biopsy. Biopsy (Large Sized Specimen). large biopsy. ... Free Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (Free B HCG). Free PSA / Total PSA Ratio. Zinc (Serum). Free Testosterone. Bilirubin ...
Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies incomplex with beta2-glycoprotein I can activate platelets in a dysregulated manner via ... IgG antibodies that recognize epitope Gly40-Arg43 in domain I of beta 2-glycoprotein I causeLAC, and their presence correlates ... The most relevant targets on platelets have been proposed to be the ApoE2 receptor [56] and glycoprotein Ibalpha [56, 57]. ... Anti-beta2 glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) autoantibodies recognize an epitope on the first domain of beta2GPI Proc Natl Acad Sci US ...
  • This gene encodes a divergent member of the CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which are structurally related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and form heterodimers with beta-2-microglobulin. (nih.gov)
  • The class 6 semaphorins are type I transmembrane glycoproteins that contain the characteristic extracellular beta propeller-structured N-terminal semaphorin (sema) domain and also an extracellular plexin-semaphorin-integrin (PSI) domain (2, 3). (rndsystems.com)
  • The purpose of this thesis was to study the interactions of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPAs) and [beta]2 glycoprotein-I ([beta]2GPI) and examine their effects on haemostatic reactions occurring on plasma lipids. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Antiphospholipid antibodies are now well recognised to be associated with thrombosis and recurrent fetal loss and some aPAs have recently been shown to require a cofactor, [beta]2GPI, for binding to phospholipids. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Inhibition of the [beta]2GPI activity was demonstrated by some antibodies, indicating that this may contribute to the pathogenic mechanism for thrombosis in some patients with aPAs. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG serum test analyzes the presence of beta-2 glycoprotein antibodies in the blood. (orangehealth.in)
  • Importantly, the methods for detecting these antibodies are not specified by the ARA, and this article aims to highlight the fact that the particular assay used will crucially influence the interpretation of the test (table 2). (bmj.com)
  • Apart from the well-known role of anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies, complement, endocrine and genetic factors and a variety of other molecules are now under investigation. (openurologyandnephrologyjournal.com)
  • Correlation between beta-2-glycoprotein I gene polymorphism and anti-beta-2 glycoprotein I antibodies in patients with multibacillary leprosy. (cdc.gov)
  • Within lysosomes, the enzyme helps break down complexes called glycoproteins and glycolipids, which consist of sugar molecules attached to certain proteins and fats. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glycoproteins are more hydrophilic than simple proteins. (godlikeproductions.com)
  • This means glycoproteins are more attracted to water than ordinary proteins. (godlikeproductions.com)
  • Our results indicate that several plasma proteins including transferrin, prothrombin, angiotensinogen, haptoglobin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein alpha and beta chain, complement, lipoproteins and fibrinogen are up-regulated by THs. (bioscientifica.com)
  • This results in decreased proximal reabsorption of proteins-in particular, low molecular weight proteins (generally below 25,000 Daltons) such as beta-2 microglobulin. (medscape.com)
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19) Spike Protein Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) is a recombinant protein expressed in Mammalian cells. (proteomecommons.org)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein (S protein) is a viral protein that allows the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into human cells. (proteomecommons.org)
  • Virus expressing NSP12L323 was less sensitive to perturbations in PP2A and supports the paradigm that ongoing genotype to phenotype adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in humans is not exclusively restricted to the spike protein. (bvsalud.org)
  • Michalski JC, Klein A. Glycoprotein lysosomal storage disorders: alpha- and beta-mannosidosis, fucosidosis and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As previously reported for endothelial cells, beta(2)GPI behaves as survival factor for HepG2 cells: when increasing amounts of the protein (10-50 mug) have been added to serum deficient cultured liver cells a progressive reduced cell loss was observed. (unict.it)
  • Impaired gall bladder motility was evident in patients with beta-thalassaemia and it may be related to disease duration, serum ferritin and total serum bilirubin level. (who.int)
  • In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that beta(2)GPI gene expression is strictly related to the proliferative status of hepatic cells and that this protein could play a role in maintaining liver cells vitality when exposed to different stress factors such as regeneration after partial hepatectomy or growth factors depletion. (unict.it)
  • Beta/B.1.351, Gamma/P.1, Delta/B.1.617.2) harbor the E484K mutation in the spike glycoprotein gene ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The novel variant had 11 lineage-defining mutations, including V213G and E484K in the spike gene, a 9-nt deletion in open reading frame (ORF) 1ab (ΔSGF3675-77), a 3-nt insertion in the noncoding intergenic region upstream of the N gene, and other synonymous substitutions (Appendix Table 2, Figure 1). (cdc.gov)
  • We retrospectively examined three patient cohorts with hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative invasive breast cancer: 51 patients who underwent 21-gene expression analysis (multi-gene assay-cohort), 96 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (neoadjuvant chemotherapy-cohort), and 609 patients whose tumor tissue was used in tissue-microarrays (tissue-microarray-cohort). (bvsalud.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 has been proposed to encode ORF10 as the 3' terminal gene in the viral genome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although many mutations have little or no consequence on virus fitness, some mutations affect receptor binding or reduce antibody neutralization ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The solution structure of the 16th CCP module from human complement factor H has been determined by a combination of 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and restrained simulated annealing. (embl.de)
  • An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and compared to immunoelectrophoretic (IEP) assay, an assay for estimation of [beta]2GPI aPA cofactor activity was also developed. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The protein forms trimers on the viral capsid and binds to human Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) located on the cell surface. (proteomecommons.org)
  • Most of these mutations are believed to change the 3-dimensional shape of the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase enzyme, interfering with its ability to break down glycoproteins and glycolipids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 2000. A metabolite of methoxychlor, 2,2-bis( p hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, reduces testosterone biosynthesis in rat leydig cells through suppression of steady-state messenger ribonucleic acid levels of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme. (cdc.gov)
  • beta]2GPI has demonstrated in vitro anticoagulant properties, so modulation of [beta]2GPI function may therefore result in altered haemostatic regulation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • 2000. The effect of raloxifene on the uterine weight response in immature mice exposed to 17- estradiol, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis ( p -chlorophenyl)ethane, and methoxychlor. (cdc.gov)
  • Brinkman et al5 examined whether the presence and foods.1,2 However, much less is known about the poten- severity of AD was predictive of the occurrence and mag- tial influence that skin challenges have on the systemic nitude of early and late asthmatic responses to inhaled immune response, in particular whether sensitization allergens. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies have demonstrated that the E484K mutation reduces antibody neutralization ( 2 , 5 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • As of July 2021, the US SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group has designated 4 variants of concern (VOC) and 7 variants of interest (VOI) in the United States based on the combination of mutations and associated attributes ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In an effort to provide statewide genomic surveillance, we sequenced the SARS-CoV-2 genome from 1,663 positive samples collected December 28, 2020-April 12, 2021 in Arizona, United States. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the role of glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) in TGF-beta1 mediated fibrosis has not been fully explored. (cdc.gov)
  • The sushi domain folds into a small and compact hydrophobic core enveloped by six beta-strands and stabilised by two disulfide bridges. (embl.de)
  • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution. (rndsystems.com)
  • Why should I book a Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test with Orange Health Labs in Gurgaon? (orangehealth.in)
  • What is the Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test? (orangehealth.in)
  • When is the Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test recommended? (orangehealth.in)
  • The Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test: Analyzes and measures one or more classes (IgG, IgM, or very rarely, IgA) of beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibody. (orangehealth.in)
  • How often should I get the Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test? (orangehealth.in)
  • The Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test is prescribed by your doctor after completing the assessment of your condition. (orangehealth.in)
  • What are the normal values for the Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test? (orangehealth.in)
  • Any other precautions to be taken before getting myself tested for a Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test? (orangehealth.in)
  • How can I book a Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 IgG test in Gurgaon? (orangehealth.in)
  • Methods for study of [beta]2GPI were first established. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Assessment of the subcellular localization of MUC1 glycoprotein may be useful for identifying patients who can avoid adjuvant chemotherapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • ORF6 protein (open reading fram 6): Binds to and disrupts nuclear import complex formation by tethering karyopherin alpha 2 and karyopherin beta 1 to the membrane. (godlikeproductions.com)
  • Furthermore, clusterin, alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor, prothymosin alpha and alpha-fetoprotein were found to be down-regulated by THs.Transferrin, an iron-binding protein expressed in all mammals, and mainly synthesized in the liver, was investigated further. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Arenaviruses have been divided into 2 groups based on whether the virus is found to infect Old World (ie, Eastern Hemisphere) rodents (family Muridae, subfamily Murinae) or New World (ie, Western Hemisphere) rodents (family Muridae, subfamily Sigmodontinae). (medscape.com)
  • We then used a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection and determined that the ORF10KO virus has attenuated pathogenicity (as measured by weight loss). (bvsalud.org)
  • The past 2 years have witnessed remarkable advances in the development of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, as well as measurement of HIV plasma RNA (viral load) to guide the use of antiretroviral drugs. (cdc.gov)
  • p21 WAF-dependent growth arrest, induced by butyrate treatment, down-regulate beta(2)GPI mRNA levels. (unict.it)
  • beta]2GPI has been shown to bind to plasma lipids and work presented in this thesis has demonstrated increased levels of [beta]2GPI in patients with hyperlipidaemia. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • These patients had reduced [beta]2GPI aPA cofactor activity, suggesting that[beta]2GPI is compromised. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Measurement of [beta]2GPI in lipoprotein fractions, separated by density ultracentrifugation, of normal subjects and hyperlipidaemia patients demonstrated [beta]2GPI in association with HDL but none was detected in LDL or VLDL fractions. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • beta]2GPI caused a dose dependent inhibition of FXIIa generation but no consistent effects were demonstrated with the IgG fractions from aPA patients. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • SARS-CoV-2 emerged into the human population in late 2019 and human to human transmission has dominated the evolutionary landscape and driven the selection of different lineages. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5 μg/mL of Recombinant Mouse Semaphorin 6B Fc Chimera causes >50% growth cone collapse in the presence of 10 ng/mL of Recombinant Human beta -NGF (Catalog # 256-GF ). (rndsystems.com)
  • We studied gall bladder contractility in 61 children with beta-thalassaemia who were asymptomatic for gall bladder disease and 51 sex- and age-matched controls in Cairo, Egypt, using real-time ultrasonography. (who.int)
  • Expression studies in HepG2 cells demonstrate that beta(2)GPI mRNA is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with very low expression in low cycling conditions and increasing levels in proliferating cells. (unict.it)
  • One in three healthy people have detectable ANAs on HEp-2 cells at a screening dilution of 1/40 and one in 20 will be positive at 1/160. (bmj.com)
  • Reduced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-beta, IL-6), diminished pulmonary damage markers, and less pronounced neutrophil accumulation were found in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) of OPN-KO mice as compared to WT mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Outcome Measures: At baseline and postintervention, the research team measured the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD), diastolic and systolic left ventricular anterior wall (LVAW) thickness, left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW) thickness, and expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), HSP70, soluble glycoprotein 130 (SGP130). (bvsalud.org)
  • Beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibody is a protein c-factor that binds to phospholipids. (orangehealth.in)
  • The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been recognized as a central player in the robust pulmonary inflammatory response involved in the development of granulomas and interstitial fibrosis. (cdc.gov)
  • On a observé des différences statistiquement significatives entre les sujets malades et les sujets témoins en ce qui concerne le volume à jeun, le volume résiduel, la durée de vidange et l'indice de contractilité de la vésicule. (who.int)
  • G633-6Insert Size:1 kb fragment of partial ORF7a, ORF8, and partial N SARS-COV-2 sequenceStorage Condition:Store at. (proteomecommons.org)
  • G633-3Insert Size:1 kb fragment of ORF1ab (3376 - 4376) SARS-CoV-2 sequenceStorage Condition:Store at -20°C. Avoid cycles of freezing and thawing. (proteomecommons.org)
  • Intervention: The research team: (1) induced HF using coronary artery ligation and established different HF models and (2) randomly divided the rats into two groups with 20 rats in each group-an experimental group, which received high-dose, microR-199a (miR-199a) NPs, and a control group, which received low-dose miR-199a NPs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Beta-2-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) is mainly produced by the liver and is found in plasma partially associated to lipoproteins. (unict.it)