Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaled rare metal BERYLLIUM or its soluble salts which are used in a wide variety of industry including alloys, ceramics, radiographic equipment, and vacuum tubes. Berylliosis is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airway leading to BRONCHIOLITIS; PULMONARY EDEMA; and pneumonia.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.
The branch of mathematics dealing with the purely logical properties of probability. Its theorems underlie most statistical methods. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Uncontrolled release of a chemical from its containment that either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a chemical hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Metals that constitute the group 2 (formerly group IIa) of the periodic table.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
The structural parts of the VIRION.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.
The use of HIGH-ENERGY SHOCK WAVES, in the frequency range of 20-60 kHz, to cut through or remove tissue. The tissue fragmentation by ultrasonic surgical instruments is caused by mechanical effects not heat as with HIGH-INTENSITY FOCUSED ULTRASOUND ABLATION.
The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Pain in the breast generally classified as cyclical (associated with menstrual periods), or noncyclical, i.e. originating from the breast or nearby muscles or joints, ranging from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating.
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

Mechanism of interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/Cofilin) with actin filaments. (1/202)

We characterized the interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin, a member of ADF/cofilin family, with filaments of amoeba and rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The affinity is about 10 times higher for muscle actin filaments (Kd = 0.5 microM) than amoeba actin filaments (Kd = 5 microM) even though the affinity for muscle and amoeba Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) is the same (Blanchoin, L., and Pollard, T. D. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 25106-25111). Actophorin binds slowly (k+ = 0.03 microM-1 s-1) to and dissociates from amoeba actin filaments in a simple bimolecular reaction, but binding to muscle actin filaments is cooperative. Actophorin severs filaments in a concentration-dependent fashion. Phosphate or BeF3 bound to ADP-actin filaments inhibit actophorin binding. Actophorin increases the rate of phosphate release from actin filaments more than 10-fold. The time course of the interaction of actophorin with filaments measured by quenching of the fluorescence of pyrenyl-actin or fluorescence anisotropy of rhodamine-actophorin is complicated, because severing, depolymerization, and repolymerization follows binding. The 50-fold higher affinity of actophorin for Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) than ADP-actin filaments provides the thermodynamic basis for driving disassembly of filaments that have hydrolyzed ATP and dissociated gamma-phosphate.  (+info)

Exposure of cultured murine peritoneal macrophages to low concentrations of beryllium induces increases in intracellular calcium concentrations and stimulates DNA synthesis. (2/202)

Exposure of humans to beryllium dusts can induce a specific form of chronic pneumonitis that consists mainly of noncaseating granulomas in the lungs. Multiple studies have documented both genetic and immune components of chronic berylliosis. Much work has focused on T cells and their reactivity in berylliosis, but less work has focused on the end effector cells in granulomatous inflammation, macrophages. Because macrophages must become activated to form granulomas, and they become activated by responding to numerous immunomodulatory signals, we investigated the effects of beryllium (BeCl2) on a central signal transduction pathway in macrophages, increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). Exposure of cultured murine peritoneal macrophages to low, nontoxic concentrations induced successive spikes or oscillations in [Ca2+]i. Concentrations as low as 5 nM induced significant increases in [Ca2+]i. The source of the increased [Ca2+]i was exclusively extracellular in that increases in [Ca2+]i could be completely blocked by chelating extracellular Ca2+, were inhibited by the Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil, and exposure of macrophages to BeCl2 had no effect on IP3 concentrations. DNA synthesis, a Ca2+-sensitive function, was enhanced in dividing 1LN cells and induced de novo in quiescent macrophages. Furthermore, BeCl2 enhanced DNA synthesis in the absence of coexposure to the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. These data support the hypothesis that beryllium toxicity is in part the result of altered Ca2+ metabolism in mononuclear phagocytes consequent to reversible opening of plasma membrane channels.  (+info)

Identification of pathogenic T cells in patients with beryllium-induced lung disease. (3/202)

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is caused by beryllium exposure and is characterized by granulomatous inflammation with accumulation of CD4+ T cells in the lung. We analyzed TCR beta-chain and alpha-chain genes expressed by these CD4+ T cells. In the lungs of individual patients, as well as among four of five CBD patients studied, different oligoclonal expansions within the Vbeta3 subset were found to express homologous or even identical CDR3 amino acid sequences. These related expansions were specific for CBD patients, were compartmentalized to lung, and persisted at high frequency in patients with active disease. Limiting dilution cloning and analysis of coexpressed TCR alpha-chain genes confirmed that these TCRs were selectively expanded by a common Ag involving beryllium. Overall, homologous TCR beta- and alpha-chains showed identical V regions and invariant charged residues within the CDR3 but considerable variability in TCRJ usage. Remarkably, CBD patients expressing nearly identical TCRs did not share common HLA-DRB1 or DQ alleles. These results implicate particular CD4+ cells in the pathogenesis of CBD and provide insight into how beryllium is recognized in human disease.  (+info)

Partial IL-10 inhibition of the cell-mediated immune response in chronic beryllium disease. (4/202)

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) provides a human disorder in which to study the delayed type IV hypersensitivity response to persistent Ag that leads to noncaseating pulmonary granuloma formation. We hypothesized that, in CBD, failure of IL-10 to modulate the beryllium-specific, cell-mediated immune response would result in persistent, maximal cytokine production and T lymphocyte proliferation, thus contributing to the development of granulomatous lung disease. To test this hypothesis, we used bronchoalveolar lavage cells from control and CBD subjects to evaluate the beryllium salt-specific production of endogenous IL-10 and the effects of exogenous human rIL-10 (rhIL-10) on HLA expression, on the production of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, and on T lymphocyte proliferation. Our data demonstrate that beryllium-stimulated bronchoalveolar lavage cells produce IL-10, and the neutralization of endogenous IL-10 does not increase significantly cytokine production, HLA expression, or T lymphocyte proliferation. Second, the addition of excess exogenous rhIL-10 partially inhibited the beryllium-stimulated production of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha; however, we measured no change in T lymphocyte proliferation or in the percentage of alveolar macrophages expressing HLA-DP. Interestingly, beryllium salts interfered with an IL-10-stimulated decrease in the percentage of alveolar macrophages expressing HLA-DR. We conclude that, in the CBD-derived, beryllium-stimulated cell-mediated immune response, low levels of endogenous IL-10 have no appreciable effect; exogenous rhIL-10 has a limited effect on cytokine production and no effect on T lymphocyte proliferation or HLA expression.  (+info)

Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant. (5/202)

Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization.  (+info)

Characterization of the hinges of the effector loop in the reaction pathway of the activation of ras-proteins. Kinetics of binding of beryllium trifluoride to V29G and I36G mutants of Ha-ras-p21. (6/202)

This work experimentally confirms the pathway of activation of Ha-ras-p21, which was calculated by the method of Targeted Molecular Dynamics (TMD) (Diaz JF, Wroblowski B, Schlitter J, Engelborghs Y, 1997a, Proteins Struct Funct Genet 28:434-451). The process can be studied experimentally by analyzing the binding of BeF3- to the GDP complex of the active fluorescent mutant Y32W (Diaz JF, Sillen A, Engelborghs Y, 1997b, J Biol Chem 227:23138-23143). Two mutants, V29G and 136G, have been constructed at both sides of the effector loop of the active fluorescent mutant. This was done to check the proposed reaction pathway and to provide further insight into the mechanism of the activation of ras proteins. Both mutations accelerate the conformational isomerization with two orders of magnitude, demonstrating convincingly the role of these residues as hinges of the effector loop in one or more of the transitions of the conformational change. These results provide experimental support to the pathway calculated by TMD analysis.  (+info)

Aluminum fluoride inhibition of cabbage phospholipase D by a phosphate-mimicking mechanism. (7/202)

Aluminum fluoride (AlF(4)(-)) inhibited phospholipase D (PLD) purified from cabbage in both PIP(2)-dependent and PIP(2)-independent assays, consistent with its previously observed effect on mammalian PLD. The possibility that AlF(4)(-) may exert this effect through its known phosphate-mimicking property was examined. Inorganic phosphate, as well as two phosphate analogs, beryllium fluoride and orthovanadate, also inhibited cabbage PLD. Enzyme kinetic studies confirmed that PLD followed Hill kinetics, characteristic for allosteric enzymes, with an apparent Hill coefficient (n(app)) of 3.8, indicating positive cooperativity among multiple substrate-binding sites and suggesting possible functional oligomerization of the enzyme. AlF(4)(-) modification of PLD kinetics was consistent with a competitive mode of enzyme inhibition. It is therefore proposed that AlF(4)(-), and other phosphate analogs, inhibits plant PLD by competing with a substrate phosphate group for a substrate-binding site, thereby preventing the formation of an enzyme-phosphatidyl intermediate. This may be a conserved feature of PLD superfamily enzymes.  (+info)

Theoretical studies of metal-phosphate interactions: interaction of Li+, Na+, K+, Be++, Mg++, and Ca++ with H2PO4- and (CH3O)2PO2-: implications for nucleic acid solvation. (8/202)

Model phosphate-metal solvation complexes have been studied by ab-initio self-consistent-field techniques. The complexes studied include (RO)2PO2-(R = H or CH3) with Li+, Na+, K+, Be++, Mg++, Ca++, H2O, and Cl-. The geometries of the complexes were chosen to approximate reasonable model solvation complexes for phosphate groups in a nucleic acid environment. Calculated energies of formation vary as Be++ greater than Mg++ greater than Ca++ greater than Li+ greater than Na+ greater than K+ for all isostructural complexes, consistent with experimental binding trends. These results suggest that site binding of this type can successfully account for the relative specificities of ion binding in polynucleotides and other phosphate-containing molecules.  (+info)

Beryllium can be harmful if it is inhaled, depending on how much beryllium one inhales and how long the exposure lasts. If beryllium air levels are high enough (greater than 1000 µg/m3), an acute condition can result. This condition resembles pneumonia and is called acute beryllium disease.[6]. Individuals who are sensitive to beryllium can develop an inflammatory reaction in the respiratory system. This is called chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and can occur many years after exposure to higher than normal levels of beryllium (greater than 0.5 µg/m3). This disease can make you feel weak and tired, and can cause difficulty in breathing. It can also result in anorexia, weight loss, and may also lead to right side heart enlargement and heart disease in advanced cases. Some people who are sensitized to beryllium may not have any symptoms. The general population is unlikely to develop acute or chronic beryllium disease because ambient air levels of beryllium are normally very low ...
Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent cytokine involved in normal immune functions. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is an association between chronic beryllium disease or beryllium sensitization and two variants of the TAT-a gene located at -308 and -238 called TNF-alpha-308*02 and TNF-alpha-238*02. Methods: TNF-alpha-308 and TNF-alpha-238 genotyping was
Beryllium nitrate, also known as beryllium dinitrate, is an ionic beryllium salt of nitric acid with the chemical formula Be(NO3)2. Each formula unit is composed of one Be2+ cation and two NO3− anions. Beryllium nitrate is a toxic chemical, like all other beryllium compounds. It is also an irritant in small doses. When burned, it gives off irritating or toxic fumes. However, when massive short-term exposure occurs, acute pneumonitis can set in, but symptoms do not manifest themselves for 3 days. Beryllium nitrate can be prepared by reacting beryllium hydroxide in nitric acid. s NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0054. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Beryllium Nitrate (ICSC). IPCS INCHEM. Retrieved 13 September 2010. Walsh, Kenneth (2009). Beryllium chemistry and processing. ASM International. pp. 121-122. ISBN 978-0-87170-721-5. Retrieved 3 January 2011 ...
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently issued a final rule modifying a 40-year-old standard pertaining to exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. It contains new requirements for general, construction and shipyard industries. Similar to the recent changes to crystalline silica regulations, the rule is anticipated to save lives and protect workers from serious illnesses. Beryllium and beryllium compounds are lightweight, extremely strong metals used in the aerospace, electrical, energy, telecommunications, medical and defense fields. Beryllium-copper alloys are frequently used for their electrical and thermal conductivity as well as their hardness. Beryllium oxide is used as a component in ceramics for electronics and other electrical equipment because of its heat conductivity, high strength, hardness and electrical insulating properties. Unfortunately, beryllium is highly toxic when inhaled. Inhaling airborne beryllium can result in a lung condition known as ...
Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) primarily affects the lungs. CBD may occur among dental laboratory technicians when they inhale dust containing beryllium when working on items such as dental crowns, bridges, and partial denture frameworks made from dental alloys containing beryllium. CBD may develop within months after initial exposure to beryllium or may have a very slow onset and not develop until years after exposure to beryllium has occurred. The amount or length of exposure to beryllium necessary to cause a specific individual to develop CBD is not known, but recent information suggests that even short exposures (weeks or months) to levels of beryllium below OSHAs PEL of 2 μg/m3 averaged over an 8-hour day may lead to CBD in some workers (Source: OSHA). ...
People working or living near beryllium industries have the greatest potential for exposure to beryllium. Lung damage has been observed in people exposed to high levels of beryllium in the air. About 1-15% of all people occupationally-exposed to beryllium in air become sensitive to beryllium and may develop chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an irreversible and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs. CBD may be completely asymptomatic or begin with coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, and/or fatigue. Beryllium has been found in at least 535 of the 1,613 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Exposure to beryllium can occur when cutting, torching, or welding of the materials listed above. Employees who torch or weld these materials run the greatest risk of exposure. Workers are primarily exposed to beryllium by breathing in dusts, fumes, or mists containing beryllium. Beryllium compounds can also get on the skin, contaminate clothing or food, and be ingested.. Employers must assess employee exposures to beryllium. That includes determining if material being received at the recycling facility contains beryllium. If it does then the employer must determine if dust, fumes, or mists are being created in the processing of the beryllium scrap. This can be done by monitoring employees and areas for in a manner similar to monitoring for other hazardous metals such as lead or cadmium.. Employers must establish and maintain a regulated area if employees are, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium at levels above the listed TWA PEL or STEL in that work area. ...
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Beryllium is a crucial metal in the automotive, aviation, nuclear and consumer industries. The unique combination of high rigidity, low density, thermal stability and conductivity makes it highly useful in consumer products such as cell phones and computers. However, beryllium is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive element, a class A carcinogen, and the cause oflife-threatening chronic beryllium disease. Even with its poor reputation, its use is continued in commercial, industrial, and governmental applications. In contrast, the efforts to understand berylliums fundamental chemistry have been severely neglected. We are interested in developing a suite of chemical chelators which show strong and selective binding towards beryllium. These studies will lead to specific applications such as the detection of beryllium in the environment, protocols to remediate its contamination, and therapies for individuals exposed to its toxicity. This work will focus on both the computational studies ...
Federal Register Volume 84, Number 189 (Monday, September 30, 2019)] [Rules and Regulations] [Pages 51377-51400] From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov] [FR Doc No: 2019-21037] ======================================================================= ----------------------------------------------------------------------- DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Parts 1915 and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-H005C-2006-0870] RIN 1218-AD21 Occupational Exposure to Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds in Construction and Shipyard Sectors AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Final rule. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY: OSHA is finalizing the proposed rule on occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds in construction and shipyards by delaying the compliance deadlines for nearly all provisions of the standards to September 30, 2020. The ...
Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) appeared to be waning 30 yrs ago 1. In 1980, less than one case per year was reported and the incidence rate per ton of beryllium produced had declined from between five and 10, to less than 0.001. CBD appeared to be heading toward the medical archives as a success story of environmental control in the absence of understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease. However, in 1982, an immunological test performed on lymphocytes recovered from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid demonstrated a marked increased in the number of beryllium-sensitive cells in the lung compared to the blood, strongly suggesting that CBD was a hypersensitivity to beryllium 2. The findings of that initial study were confirmed in larger studies 3 and by different investigators 4, 5. Around 10 yrs later, an immunological test (the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT)) was initially used in cross-sectional studies and later in the surveillance and screening of current and former ...
Synopsis of Global Beryllium Copper Market 2017 Research Report. The report about Global Beryllium Copper Market 2017 constitutes of pervasive fundamental research along with a structured analysis of qualitative as well as quantitative facet by assorted industry connoisseurs and main opinion leaders to gain a profound insight of the market and industry performance.. The report Global Beryllium Copper Market 2017 gives a clear sight of the present-day market scenario which comprises of historical and estimated forthcoming market size on the basis of technological growth, value and volume, prominent economic and governing elements in the market.. Do Inquiry Before Accessing Global Beryllium Copper Market 2017 Report at: https://market.biz/report/global-beryllium-copper-market-icrw/83388/#inquiry. The report Global Beryllium Copper Market 2017 further imparts detail information about approaches and tactics used by elite key players in the Beryllium Copper industry. It also gives an extensive ...
To investigate the effects of short-term exposure of beryllium on the human immune system, the proportion of T-lymphocytes such as CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD95, and NK cells, andthe proportion of B cells and TNFα level in peripheral blood and immunoglobulins in the serum of 43 exposed workers and 34 healthy control subjects were studied. External exposure to beryllium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometer as recommended by the NIOSH analytical method 7300. T lymphocyte subpopulation analysis was carried out with flow cytometer. The working duration of exposed workers was less than 3 months and the mean ambient beryllium level was 3.4 μg/m(3), 112.3 μg/m(3), and 2.3 μg/m(3) in molding (furnace), deforming (grinding), and sorting processes, respectively (cited from Kim et al., 2008). However, ambient beryllium level after process change was non-detectable (| 0.1 μg/m(3)). The number of T lymphocytes and the amount of immunoglobulins in the beryllium-exposed workers and control subjects were not
DOE describes Hanford as the worlds largest environmental remediation project. In addition to the remnants of nine plutonium reactors, Hanford holds 4.6 million pounds of irradiated uranium fuel rods and 53 million gallons of radioactive waste buried in underground tanks, some of which have leaked into the groundwater and are moving toward the Columbia River. Radiation has long been the dean of hazards at nuclear cleanup sites, but in April 2009, the Hanford Advisory Board, a group chartered by DOE that includes current and former Hanford workers, medical specialists, environmental and worker-safety advocates, and local government officials, wrote a letter advising the department that from a worker safety perspective ... beryllium currently rates as a greater hazard than radiation. The letter included a disquieting calculation: Studies have found that between 2 percent and 6 percent of people exposed to beryllium will become sensitized or develop CBD. At the time of the letter, 115 of 4,583 ...
We read with great interest the Letter to the Editor by Newman and colleagues(1) in response to our article entitled Industries in the United States with Airborne Beryllium Exposure and Estimates of the Number of Current Workers Potentially Exposed.(2) We commend the authors of the letter for raising a number of issues that, while clearly beyond the scope of our article, are relevant to the heal
PITTSBURGH, June 23, 2017 - The United Steelworkers (USW) today blasted the Administrations proposal to cancel important protections for shipyard and construction workers exposed to beryllium. Under the proposal OSHA released this morning, employers would no longer have to measure beryllium levels in the workplace or provide medical testing to workers at risk of fatal lung disease. In addition, workers would not have the right to wear protective clothing or to shower at the end of the work shift, making it possible for beryllium to be taken home and exposed to spouses and children. Beryllium is a highly useful metal, but it can cause a crippling and sometimes fatal disease that ultimately robs sufferers of the ability to breathe. OSHA issued new beryllium standards in January covering workers in all industries. Todays proposal eliminates most of the provisions covering the maritime and construction industries. The USW has members in both industries, including workers at the Newport News ...
The first problem was one I was handed sort of on a silver platter when I went to the Mass General Hospital in Boston. I was in the department of medicine at Harvard was located at Mass General Hospital in the Huntington laboratories. The Chief of the laboratory, Dr. Joseph Aub who is a world known physician told me about beryllium and the fact that beryllium was causing very severe illness in women who were working in factories to remove the phosphors from inside fluorescent lamp bulbs. They wanted to retrieve the phosphors. One of the key ingredients in the phosphor was beryllium, the metal beryllium. Its the lightest metal with an atomic weight of 9.I think thats right. Its long time ago.. It caused some interesting effects that the scientists have studied, mainly if injected into rabbits it caused bad bone tumors. If it was injected into-well, these women who were scrubbing out the tubes died, almost all of them of severe pulmonary disease as a result of breathing in the beryllium. So he ...
Summary of lung function and beryllium exposure of case 2. (A) Results of pulmonary function tests before, during, and after acute work-related illness. (B) TWA
Schubauer-Berigan MK, Deddens JA, Couch JR, Petersen MR. Risk of lung cancer associated with quantitative beryllium exposure metrics within an occupational cohort. Occup Environ Med. 2011; 68(5): 354-60 ...
United States Beryllium Aluminum Alloy Industry 2016 Market Research Report is a new market research publication announced by Reportstack. This report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Beryllium Aluminum Alloy industry.. The report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Beryllium Aluminum Alloy market analysis is provided for the United States markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status.. Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and Bill of Materials cost structures are also analyzed. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand Figures, cost, price, revenue and gross margins.. To access full report with TOC, please visit United States Beryllium Aluminum Alloy Industry 2016 Market Research Report. The report focuses on United States major leading industry ...
Press Release issued Jul 21, 2017: The purpose of Global Beryllium Oxide (BeO) Powder Market report is to provide the newest industry data and Beryllium Oxide (BeO) Powder industry future trends, allowing consumers to identify the Beryllium Oxide (BeO) Powder market Application, Type, Manufacturers and Regions, Beryllium Oxide (BeO) Powder market Forecast up to 2022.
We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 {mu}m hr{sup {minus}1} were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates.
Beryllium (chemical symbol Be) is an alkaline earth metallic element, that has no known function in any organism. Unfortunately beryllium is very poisonous, manifesting as chronic beryllium lung disease, which causes premature mortality in one th...
Analytical techniques have been developed for the determination of carbon in high-purity beryllium. The method, a modification of the combustion-conductometric technique, permits an increase in the sample size of about four times, thereby achieving a fourfold reduction in the lower limit of useful analytical results. Sensitivity has been demonstrated for carbon contents as low as 25 ppm. The accuracy of a solution distillation technique for determination of nitrogen in high-purity beryllium has been established. A modified micro-Kjeldahl still was employed. Nitrogen contents less than 10 ppm can be accurately determined. Three batches of beryllium weighing roughly 5 pounds each have been prepared. Each batch was attritioned, sized and blended to provide a homogeneous material for analytical standards. These standards, in the form of coarse chips, have the following carbon and nitrogen contents for the 3 standards in parts per million, respectively: carbon, 25, 101, and 120 and nitrogen, 11, 55,
Periodic Audio Beryllium In-Ear Headphones OverviewThe Periodic Audio Beryllium In-Ear Headphones are the new flagship in-ear monitors from Periodi...
Read chapter 5 Assessment of Other Health End Points: Beryllium is an important metal that is used in a number of industries-including the defense, aer...
Read chapter Front Matter: Beryllium is an important metal that is used in a number of industries-including the defense, aerospace, automotive, medical...
Los Alamos National Laboratory announced Wednesday it is notifying nearly 2,000 current and former employees and visitors that they may have been exposed to beryllium in the lab and may be at risk of disease.
On January 9, 2017, OSHA published a final rule amending its standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. United States Employment and HR Arnold & Porter 26 Jan 2017
The question of whether the federal government has been at fault for the deaths and injuries of American beryllium workers will be the subject of a formal investigation by the General Accounting Office, the investigative arm of Congress.. The order to GAO to study the hazards of beryllium, a metal used by the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy because of its light weight and strength in the manufacture of weapons, came from a bipartisan group of eight members of Congress.. Led by Sen. Mike DeWine (R., O.), the ad hoc coalition includes Sens. John McCain (R., Ariz.) and Robert Bennett (R., Utah); and Reps. Marcy Kaptur (D., Toledo), Chris Shays (R., Conn.), Jim Kolbe (R., Ariz.), Tim Holden (D., Pa.), and Paul Kanjorski (D., Pa.).. Mr. DeWine began the call for a GAO investigation in April and has since been organizing and collecting support from colleagues. He said his actions were sparked by a series in The Blade that detailed a decades-long pattern of the U.S. government ...
Beryllium coatings with varying thicknesses and columnar grain sizes were deposited by low temperature magnetron sputtering and wet chemically etched to enhance diffuse absorption of light. After etching these coatings exhibited a matte black surface finish and low specular reflectance (below 2%) in the IR up to a critical wavelength dependent upon the original grain size of the coating. Extremely thick coatings (350 µm) with original grain sizes of 10 to 12 µm were produced which exhibited specular reflectances below 0.5% up to 50 µm wavelength and a Lambertian BRDF at 10.6 µm averaging 4.3x10-3 ster-1. Scanning electron micrographs are presented for etched and unetched beryllium coatings which showed the etching process produces roughness and porosity over several size scales simultaneously with the maximum size scale limited by the initial coating grain size and thickness. This technique for producing diffuse absorbing baffle materials has great versatility in choice of coating material and
With an atomic number of 4, beryllium has four electrons: two electron shells surround the atoms nucleus and two electrons in each shell. Beryllium is a rigid metal with an atomic mass of 9.0122. It...
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The extraction of beryllium has been carried out in the presence of butyric acid. Of the solvents tried, viz., ether, benzene, chloroform, amyl acetate, ethyl acetate and carbon tetrachloride, chloroform is found to be the best, ethyl acetate being the next. 30.7 mg of BeO in solution as chloride is raised to a pH of 9.3 to 9.5 to which 10-15 ml of butyric acid is added. Four extractions with chloroform extract 99% of beryllium. ...
Methods Quantitative area- and breathing-zone-based exposure measurements of airborne beryllium were made between 1953 and 2006 and used by plant personnel to estimate daily weighted average (DWA) exposure concentrations for sampled departments and operations. These DWA measurements were used to create a JEM with 18 exposure metrics, which was linked to the plant cohort consisting of 18 568 unique job, department and year combinations. The exposure metrics ranged from quantitative metrics (annual arithmetic/geometric average DWA exposures, maximum DWA and peak exposures) to descriptive qualitative metrics (chemical beryllium species and physical form) to qualitative assignment of exposure to other risk factors (yes/no). Twelve collapsed job titles with long-term consistent industrial hygiene samples were evaluated using regression analysis for time trends in DWA estimates. ...
On May 12, 2018, OSHA will begin to enforce a new rule on beryllium exposure in all forms, compounds, and mixtures in general, construction, and shipyard industries, prompting employers to take further responsibility to protect worker health from beryllium-related diseases.
Ending decades of denial and inaction, the federal government has issued a tough new exposure standard for people who work with the toxic metal beryllium.
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LORAIN -- A city councilwoman who fought for more than a year to ban a controversial substance within city limits said she now can rest easier. A representative from Brush Wellman Inc. signed a voluntary agreement with the city on Wednesday, stating that the companys bronze engineering plant in the Lorain would not produce, store or manufacture beryllium.. Beryllium, a compound used as an alloy with other metals in the defense, electronics and automotive industry, has been known to cause chronic and fatal lung disease if its dust is inhaled during its manufacturing process.. State and federal laws regulate the production of beryllium. But the compound earned a reputation locally at the former Brush Beryllium plant on West First Street in Lorain during the 1930s and 40s. Several workers there and residents living near the plant at the time became ill and died, according to a study completed in 1944.. City Councilwoman Kathy Tavenner, D-at large, had fought for the past 15 months to get Council ...
Beryllium copper springs are cold rolled and may be mill hardened before fabrication. Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity.
Products by element - Beryllium, include metal, alloy, compounds and fabrication products like sputtering targets etc. from ALB Materials Inc. - Page Total 1 Page 5 Records
This invention recognizes the hazards of beryllium and beryllium oxide in automotive applications and offers alternative material solutions. In particular, commercial electrochromic mirrors use beryllium comprising alloys for busbars and may also use beryllium oxide for the electronics used to power and control these mirrors. Further, this can be combined by reducing other known hazards such as mercury, cadmium, lead and antimony compounds.
QUEBEC CITY, QUEBEC--(Marketwire - March 31, 2010) - Nemaska Exploration Inc. («Nemaska» or «the Corporation») (TSX VENTURE:NMX) is pleased to announce that the most recent results from its current drill program on its lithium/beryllium (Whabouchi project, 100 % owned) continues to prove the high-grade, impressive width and continuity of the mineralized zone. Nemaska has received an additional 1,057 results from 15 holes. The latest results include 52.3 m at 1.85% Li2O, 165 ppm Be and 1579 ppm Rb and 22.8 m at 1.91 % Li2O, 130 ppm Be and 1503 ppm Rb.. «I am very pleased with the grade and width of our drill results to date which favourably compare to any other spodumene bearing pegmatite project currently in development around the world», commented Mr. Guy Bourassa, President and CEO. «The current drilling should be completed by mid-April, allowing us to finalize the resource calculation presently underway. I am also pleased to see that the Be and Rb grades remain constant throughout the ...
Beryllium dating is used to estimate the time a rock has been exposed on the surface of the Earth, as well as erosion and sedimentation rates.. Beryllium-10 is another cosmogenic nuclide. Like carbon-14, most of it is formed in the earths upper atmosphere. After formation, beryllium-10 binds to atmospheric dust particles or dissolves in atmospheric water vapor. It is transported to earth surface in rain so consequently it has a much shorter atmospheric residence time than carbon-14. It accumulates on the earths surface and depending upon the sedimentation regime in the local environment, it can be used to date surface accumulation rates, surface erosion rates, or for dating layers within ice cores. Its half-life is 1.39 million years.. Vanishingly small amounts of beryllium-10, carbon-14 and aluminum-26 are also created at the earths surface. The creation occurs within minerals the upper meter of rocks exposed directly to the sky. If rocks are undisturbed for millennia, differences in the ...
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette editorial urging exposure standards for all workers who could be exposed to beryllium in their jobs. (December 15, 1999) ...
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The report on Beryllium Oxide (BeO) Powder Market offers a complete analysis of the market. This was achieved with the help of the chronological data that was collected, the exhaustive qualitative insights, and the statistical data of the market. Thorough studies and researches were conducted and reliable methodologies were used to verify the data that was collected. Industrial experts were consulted and their opinions were taken into consideration while making studies of the market.. Primary researches were made which include surveys, opinions of seasoned analysts, and interviews. For collecting and verifying the data, the use of secondary researches was also made which includes reputable paid sources, industry body databases, entails, and trade journals. Both qualitative and quantitative assessments were made across different industrial aspects and market verticals.. Analysis of different trends that is prevailing in the market was made. The segmentation of the market was included. Studies of ...
Unfortunately no cure has been found yet; but treatment and management of chronic beryllium disease can slow down the progression of this disease.
Information on the respiratory infections beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and their symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment.
Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) can be caused when one is exposed to fumes, dust, powder containing beryllium and has an allergic reaction. Most people ...
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Lee Newman on Genetic susceptibility in granulomatous disorders: chronic beryllium disease and sarcoidosis, part of a collection of multimedia lectures.
In seven patients with chronic beryllium disease (Be) the Be lymphocyte transformation test was positive in 100%, independent of steroid therapy, and was reproducible. The Be macrophage migration inhibition test was only positive in four of seven patients (57%) not on steroids, and was not reproducible. In 72 potentially exposed healthy beryllium workers the lymphocyte transformation test was negative in all subjects. The macrophage test was positive in four of 78 and again the results were not reproducible. The workers with positive results showed no differences in age, type or duration of employment from those with negative results and showed no evidence of disease. In addition, the macrophage test was positive in two of 45 non-exposed control subjects. We also confirmed the above advantages of the lymphocyte transformation technique by using tuberculin antigen (PPD). The PPD lymphocyte transformation test gave positive results in approximately 60% of healthy beryllium workers, but the PPD ...
Inhalation of beryllium (Be) has been associated with 2 pulmonary syndromes, which are an acute chemical pneumonitis and a granulomatous lung disease known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD), or berylliosis. In acute beryllium disease, the metal acts as a direct chemical irritant, causing a nonspecific inflammatory reaction (acute chemical p...
Inhalation of beryllium (Be) has been associated with 2 pulmonary syndromes, which are an acute chemical pneumonitis and a granulomatous lung disease known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD), or berylliosis. In acute beryllium disease, the metal acts as a direct chemical irritant, causing a nonspecific inflammatory reaction (acute chemical p...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Gina M Clayton, Yang Wang, Frances Crawford, Andrey Novikov, Brian T Wimberly, Jeffrey S Kieft, Michael T Falta, Natalie A Bowerman, Philippa Marrack, Andrew P Fontenot, Shaodong Dai, John W Kappler].
Federal Register Volume 83, Number 88 (Monday, May 7, 2018)] [Rules and Regulations] [Pages 19936-19949] From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov] [FR Doc No: 2018-09306] ======================================================================= ----------------------------------------------------------------------- DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 [Docket No. OSHA-2018-0003] RIN 1218-AB76 Revising the Beryllium Standard for General Industry AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Direct final rule; request for comment. ----------------------------------------------------------------------- SUMMARY: On January 9, 2017, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued a final rule adopting a comprehensive general industry standard for exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. In this Direct Final Rule (DFR), OSHA is adopting a number of ...
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On December 12, 2017, Pennsylvanias Environmental Quality Board (EQB) unanimously approved a final-omitted rulemaking to substantially increase the Act 2 cleanup standards for beryllium, cadmium, and aldrin. The Act 2 cleanup standards are risk-based, meaning they are calculated according to the methods described in 25 Pa. Code Chapter 250 using the best-available toxicological data to be protective of human health under a variety of exposure scenarios. The standards must be periodically revised as newer and more accurate toxicological information becomes available, and the last such revision occurred in August 2016.. This currently proposed revision is intended to correct errors that were discovered in the 2016 cleanup standards for three substances: aldrin, beryllium, and cadmium. The original and corrected cleanup standards are presented in the table below.. ...
Beryllium is used mostly for military applications,[55] but there are other uses of beryllium, as well. In electronics, beryllium is used as a p-type dopant in some semiconductors,[56] and beryllium oxide is used as a high-strength electrical insulator and heat conductor.[57] Due to its light weight and other properties, beryllium is also used in mechanics when stiffness, light weight, and dimensional stability are required at wide temperature ranges.[58][59] Magnesium has many uses. It offers advantages over other materials such as aluminium, although this usage has fallen out of favor due to magnesiums flammability.[60] Magnesium is also often alloyed with aluminium or zinc to form materials with more desirable properties than any pure metal.[61] Magnesium has many other uses in industrial applications, such as having a role in the production of iron and steel, and the production of titanium.[62] Calcium also has many uses. One of its uses is as a reducing agent in the separation of other ...
A white powder; hexagonal; BeO. Used in the preparation of beryllium compounds and in ceramics and refractories. Melting point, 2,570 degrees C; and sp gr, 3.02. Bodies high in BeO have extremely high thermal conductivity (in the range of metals) and also possess high mechanical strength. Used in nuclear reactors because of its refractoriness, high thermal conductivity, and ability to act as a moderator for fast neutrons, reducing them to thermal speeds. Beryllia ceramics are used for electronic components and for crucibles for melting uranium and thorium. Syn: bromellite Source: Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms
Description: Alloy, or metallic composition which additionally contains at least one of the metals beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, or barium ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beryllium analyses by secondary ion mass spectrometry. AU - Hervig, Richard. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33846351986&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33846351986&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:33846351986. VL - 50. JO - Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. JF - Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. SN - 1529-6466. ER - ...
Page contains details about beryllium zinc oxide nanorods . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Compare Beryllium vs Silicon of the Periodic Table on all their Facts, Electronic Configuration, Chemical, Physical, Atomic properties. Our Periodic Element comparison tool allows you to compare Periodic Elements properties side by side for all 118 elements | SchoolMyKids Interactive Dynamic Periodic Table, Periodic Table Element Comparison tool, Element Property trends
Luciano Jacques Moraes; Beryllium minerals in Brazil. Economic Geology ; 28 (3): 289-292. doi: https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.28.3.289. Download citation file:. ...
Typically, we like to end the annual The Year in U.S. Occupational Health & Safety on an uplifting note. But this time around - to be honest - that was a hard sell. Take a quick look through the 2017 yearbook and youll quickly glean that worker health and safety is very much at risk under the new administration and from lawmakers in the states. From the attempted rollback of a new federal beryllium exposure standard to state efforts to weaken workers compensation systems, the view from 2017 does not seem terribly promising. On the other hand, the fight for workers rights has never… ...
To study the immunologic function of bursin, we analyzed the effects of anti-bursin monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the immunosuppression in ducks (Cherry Valley duck) by injecting various doses of the anti-bursin mAb into 13-d duck embryos. After hatch, cell-mediated immune activity and humoral responses were studied using lymphocyte proliferation test, tube agglutination test, and indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay to detect anti-Escherichia coli antibodies and antibodies to Riemerella anatipester, respectively. Simultaneously, relative weights (BW-adjusted) of bursa of Fabricius (BF), spleen, and thymus were determined. Additionally, the morphology of BF, spleen, and thymus was examined at various ages using conventional histology. Follicle morphology of BF was analyzed by image analysis. The results indicated that anti-bursin mAb markedly decreased duck lymphocyte proliferation, the antibody-producing ability to bacteria, as well as the relative BF weight. Moreover, the anti-bursin mAb ...
Some new tests have been introduced, unfortunately there are no published studies demonstating their validity. One test is called an immune tolerance test. It measures T cell proliferation after exposure to select Lyme antigens. There exist very few studies regarding such lymphocyte proliferation tests for diagnosing Lyme. Oddly, the background paper published by the manufacturer, describing the underpinnings of this technology, cites an old Wormser study in the foot notes. The Wormser study using somewhat different methods concluded the test was insensitive but specific ...
Today, Tuesday , May 17, 2016, the Rocky Flats Downwinders launched their health survey for people who reside downwind of Rocky Flats and may have health problems due to exposure to plutonium and other toxins released from Rocky Flats. See the following Denver Post article: http://www.thedenverchannel.com/lifestyle/health/residents-who-lived-near-rocky-flats-from-1952-and-1992-to-be-surveyed-about-health
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The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) proposes to amend its existing exposure limits for occupational exposure in general industry…
Researchers at International Business Machines Corp. have developed a new approach for simulating molecules on a quantum computer.. The breakthrough, outlined in a research paper to be published in the scientific journal Nature Thursday, uses a technique that could eventually allow quantum computers to solve difficult problems in chemistry and electro-magnetism that cannot be solved by even the most powerful supercomputers today.. In the experiments described in the paper, IBM researchers used a quantum computer to derive the lowest energy state of a molecule of beryllium hydride. Knowing the energy state of a molecule is a key to understanding chemical reactions.. In the case of beryllium hydride, a supercomputer can solve this problem, but the standard techniques for doing so cannot be used for large molecules because the number of variables exceeds the computational power of even these machines.. The IBM researchers created a new algorithm specifically designed to take advantage of the ...
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SPEAKER INDEX CONTENTS INSERTS ACCEPTANCE 143 ACTION ON CLAIM 80 ACTION ON CLAIMS 18 ACTION ON CLIAM 48 ADDITIONAL CRITERIA 94 136 181 223 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 168 226 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION 81 ADMINISTRATIVE APPEALS PROCEDURE AND JUDICIAL REVIE 51 82 ADMINISTRATIVE COSTS NOT PAID FROM FUND 18 ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGE 127 215 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS 147 AMOUNT 108 195 APOLOGY 13 APPLICABILITY OF OTHER FEDERAL LAWS 164 APPLICABLE LAW 148 APPLICATION 102 110 126 189 197 213 APPLICATION OF SECTION 133 221 APPLICATION OF TITLE 107 194 APPLICATION TO EXISTING ASBESTOS TRUSTS 164 ARBITRARY OR CAPRICIOUS CONDUCT 108 195 ASBESTOS CLAIM 156 ASBESTOS COMPENSATION FUND 138 ASBESTOS TRUST 157 AUTHORITY 45 78 118 154 206 AUTHORITY OF BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD 106 192 AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS 14 45 77 AVAILABILITY OF THE FUND 14 AVERAGE ANNUAL EARNINGS 98 122 185 209 AWARD OF FEES 132 219 BAIRD 74 BERKLEY 254 BERYLLIUM INDUSTRY SITE 20 BERYLLIUM VENDOR 54 177 BIGGERT 21 BOARD ...
One of the first identified age-associated functional changes in immune response was decreased DTH responses. In fact the DTH response is an example of a T.h response mediated primarily through th-1-type cytokines although many events are required before proliferation, assessment of lymphocyte proliferation often has been used as an indicator of ...
Learn more about Berylliosis at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Berylliosis at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Includes alphabet are there any alternatives to plenty fish books, counting books, and books teaching concepts. If the internet settings are not set to medium level than the cookies will be blocked. The rinsing stage contaminates where to meet international singles in the usa the cleaning fluid with residual liquid and the cleaning fluid becomes more contaminated each time the cloth or sponge is rinsed. The commercial use of beryllium requires the use of appropriate dust control equipment and industrial controls at all times because of the toxicity of inhaled beryllium-containing dusts that can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease in some people called berylliosis. Exquisitely prepared breakfast, with vegan and gluten free options. Where to meet black singles in canada free to further validate these results, we treated the cells with laser microirradiation. Thomas married sarah browne born clarke in, at age 24 at marriage place. Split shot rig this is about as basic as you can get ...
We are looking to build at either Candelas or Leyden Rock. I am concerned regarding Rocky Flats and 470. Any thoughts on future resale in either area? Find answers to this and many other questions on Trulia Voices, a community for you to find and share local information. Get answers, and share your insights and experience.
Learn Novo Nordisks manufacturing facilities in Clayton & Durham, NC, including our filling and finishing facility (DFP) and our active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturing facility (DAPI).
This specification covers a copper beryllium alloy in the form of bars and rods. These products have been used typically for parts requiring a combination of high strength, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance and where thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and low magnetic susceptibility may be important, but usage is not limited to such applications. ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aims to summarize the current body of literature on the relationship between various toxic metals exposures (i.e., aluminum, antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a focus on potential sex differences in these associations. RECENT FINDINGS: Sex differences in ASD diagnosis and mutagenic effects of toxic exposures indicate that sex differences may play a major part in the causal relationship of any potential associations seen; however, we were only able to find three studies that reported on sex differences in observed associations with toxic metals exposure and ASD ...
Multi-element Calibration Standard 3, Matrix per Volume: 5% HNO3 per 125 mL, Concentration of Element: 10mg/mL Silver, 10mg/mL Aluminium, 10mg/mL Arsenic, 10mg/mL Barium, 10mg/mL Beryllium, 10mg/mL Bismuth, 10mg/mL Calcium, 10mg/mL Cadmium, 10mg/mL Cobalt, 10mg/mL Chromium, 10mg/mL Cesium, 10mg/mL Copper, 10mg/mL Iron, 10mg/mL Gallium, 10mg/mL Mercury, 10mg/mL Indium, 10mg/mL Potassium, 10mg/mL Lithium, 10mg/mL Magnesium, 10mg/mL Manganese, 10mg/mL Sodium, 10mg/mL Nickel, 10mg/mL Lead, 10mg/mL Rubidium, 10mg/mL Selenium, 10mg/mL Strontium, 10mg/mL Thallium, 10mg/mL Vanadium, 10mg/mL Uranium, and 10mg/mL Zinc. Mercury is supplied as a separate solution due to incompatibility with other elements.
Sodium chloride is heavily used, so even relatively minor applications can consume massive quantities. In oil and gas exploration, salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and increase the density of the drilling fluid to overcome high downwell gas pressures. Whenever a drill hits a salt formation, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and to minimize the dissolution within the salt stratum.[11] Salt is also used to increase the curing of concrete in cemented casings.[9]. In textiles and dyeing, salt is used as a brine rinse to separate organic contaminants, to promote salting out of dyestuff precipitates, and to blend with concentrated dyes to standardize them. One of its main roles is to provide the positive ion charge to promote the absorption of negatively charged ions of dyes.[9]. It is also used in processing aluminium, beryllium, copper, steel and vanadium. In the pulp and paper industry, salt is used to bleach ...
Sodium chloride is heavily used, so even relatively minor applications can consume massive quantities. In oil and gas exploration, salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and increase the density of the drilling fluid to overcome high downwell gas pressures. Whenever a drill hits a salt formation, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution in order to minimize the dissolution within the salt stratum.[8] Salt is also used to increase the curing of concrete in cemented casings.[9]. In textiles and dyeing, salt is used as a brine rinse to separate organic contaminants, to promote salting out of dyestuff precipitates, and to blend with concentrated dyes to standardize[clarification needed] them. One of its main roles is to provide the positive ion charge to promote the absorption of negatively charged ions of dyes.[9]. It is also used in processing aluminium, beryllium, copper, steel and vanadium. In the pulp and paper ...
And thats not all Trump has done in his first months in office to dismantle worker protections at the behest of big businesses. He has also delayed implementation of OSHAs newest chemical exposure limits - for silica dust and beryllium. These rules took decades to finalize and will save hundreds of lives a year once they are in effect. But every time they get delayed, workers are left in harms way for no good reason, increasing the chance theyll develop debilitating, often fatal diseases that will devastate their families. Not only is the fate of these rules unknown, new safeguards to address other hazards like heat stress, toxic chemicals, and workplace violence seem exceedingly unlikely from the Trump administration, putting even more lives in danger. Trump has proposed cutting the Department of Labors budget by 21 percent, making it practically impossible for OSHA to carry out its basic tasks like conducting inspections and citing employers for violating worker health and safety ...
Background: Dental technicians (DTs) are exposed to Beryllium (Be) and other substances capable of inducing lung disease. Heme oxygenase -1 (HO-1) play a protective antioxidant role in the lung. The guanine-thymidine (GT) n repeats in the HO-1 promoter determine HO-1 induction level. Short (GT) n repeats (n = ,25; S genotype) is considered as protective since HO-1 is induced more rapidly than in long (GT) n repeats (n = ≥25; L genotype).. Aims To evaluate the correlation of HO-1 polymorphisms to functional and exposure parameters in DTs and the protective role of HO-1 on Be Oxide (BeO) exposed A549 epithelial cells apoptosis.. Methods 65 DTs were followed-up for 2 years by questionnaires,induced sputum (IS) particles size distribution laser analysis (Dapi 2000 Donner Tech and Pulmonary Function Tests. HO-1 genotyping was done by PCR DNA sequencer (AB prism 310). A549 epithelial cell line was cultured with BeO and pretreated with Hemin and Znpp (for stimulation and inhibition of HO-1 ...
Lecture GuideCHM 110General Chemistry, CHM 110You will be responsible for learning the names and symbols of the following elements. Al Aluminum Sb Antimony Ar Argon As Arsenic Ba Barium Be Beryllium Bi Bismuth B Boron Br Bromine Cd Cadmium Cs Cesium Ca...
About 80 percent of the e-waste produced in developed countries (North America and Europe on the top of the list) is not disposed of in situ, but shipped, most of the time illegally, to developing countries on cargo ships, where it is illegally disposed. … The southeastern town of Guiyu, China is a major e-wastebasket. CNN reported that Guiyu workers burn or process tech gear with hydrochloric acid to recover valuable metals like copper and steel. The process releases toxic heavy metals like lead, beryllium and cadmium into the environment. Hydrocarbon ashes have also polluted the air, water and soil. ...
The ITER Hot Cell Complex supports the operation, maintenance and decommissioning of the ITER Tokamak. The complex consists of three buildings: the Hot Cell Building, the Radwaste and the Personnel Access Control Buildings. Together they provide a secure environment for the processing, repair or refurbishment, testing, and disposal of ITER components that have become activated by neutron exposure. Although no radioactive products are produced by the fusion reaction itself, energetic neutrons interacting with the walls of the vacuum vessel will activate these materials over time. Also, materials can become contaminated by beryllium and tungsten dust, and tritium. Heavy refurbishment operations within the Hot Cell Facility will be performed by remote handling systems capable of handling components up to the size of a school bus. The Hot Cell Facility will also house remote handling equipment for simulation and rehearsal of operations. In addition, the Hot Cell Facility will perform the removal of
The sabotage of science is now a routine part of American politics. The same corporate strategy of bombarding the courts and regulatory agencies with a barrage of dubious scientific information has been tried on innumerable occasions -- and it has nearly always worked, at least for a time. Tobacco. Asbestos. Lead. Vinyl chloride. Chromium. Formaldehyde. Arsenic. Atrazine. Benzene. Beryllium. Mercury. Vioxx. And on and on. In battles over regulating these and many other dangerous substances, money has bought science, and then science -- or, more precisely, artificially exaggerated uncertainty about scientific findings -- has greatly delayed action to protect public and worker safety. And in many cases, people have died. Tobacco companies perfected the ruse, which was later copycatted by other polluting or health-endangering industries. One tobacco executive was even dumb enough to write it down in 1969. Doubt is our product, reads the infamous memo, since it is the best means of competing with ...
Scientists have discovered the existence of a type of particle thats never previously been observed, which demonstrates unprecedented chemical stability for its kind.. Its big news for chemists and physicists - but the achievement isnt just exciting for theoretical scientists, because, if researchers can figure out how to make it in the lab, it could also enable new kinds of consumer products, such as aluminium-ion batteries.. The new discovery is the modelling of whats called a tri-anion particle, so-called because they contain three more electrons than protons.. While these have been found before, theyve always been atomically unstable in the gas phase due to their surplus of electrons - that is, until now.. Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University used computer modelling to show that stable tri-anions are in fact possible - at least hypothetically - as long as youve got the right molecular ratios of the elements boron and beryllium paired with the chemical compound ...
"04 Beryllium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. "41 Niobium". Elements.vanderkrogt.net. Retrieved 2008-09-12. " ... ISBN 0-8306-3018-X. Wöhler, Friedrich (1828). "Ueber das Beryllium und Yttrium". Annalen der Physik. 89 (8): 577-582. Bibcode: ...
In some quantitative studies of beryllium, boron and mercury minerals, there are no new minerals during the Great Oxidation ... Cycles of melting concentrated rare elements such as lithium, beryllium, boron, niobium, tantalum and uranium to the point ... Grew, E. S.; Hazen, R. M. (15 May 2014). "Beryllium mineral evolution". American Mineralogist. 99 (5-6): 999-1021. Bibcode: ... beryllium, and the clay minerals. These reveal information about different processes; for example, uranium and thorium are heat ...
BERYLLIUM TETRAFLUORIDE ION tetrafluoridoberyllate(2-) CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Beryllium tetrafluoride". ... The alpha particles from the radium cause neutrons to be emitted from the beryllium. It is precipitated from a radium chloride ... InChI InChI=1S/Be.4FH/h;4*1H/q+2;;;;/p-4 CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Beryllium tetrafluoride". pubchem.ncbi.nlm. ... The barium tetrafluoroberyllate is very insoluble and can be used for gravimetric analysis of beryllium. H2BeF4 is an acid that ...
Brisson, Michael J.; Ekechukwu, Amy A. (2009). Beryllium: Environmental Analysis and Monitoring. Royal Society of Chemistry. ...
Beryllium Copper Lewis Brass & Company , Copper Alloy Data Cast copper alloy C83600 (Ounce Metal) substech.com Industrial ...
In 1990, Materion Beryllium & Composites re-introduced the material into the commercial marketplace as a powder-sintered ... Lockalloy is an alloy that consists of 62% beryllium and 38% aluminum. It was used as a structural metal in the aerospace ... "Development of Aluminum Beryllium for Structural Applications" (PDF). Materion. Retrieved May 9, 2018. Cameron, Kevin (August 5 ... Beryllium its Metallurgy and Properties. University of California Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0520005419.. ...
Others such as lanthanide pemoline salts such as pemoline cerium can be prepared; pemoline beryllium would presumably be toxic ...
Becker, H.; Bothe, W. (1932). "Die in Bor und Beryllium erregten ?-Strahlen" [G-rays excited in boron and beryllium]. ...
The Experimental Beryllium Oxide Reactor (EBOR) was a 10MWt helium cooled beryllium moderated nuclear reactor at Idaho National ... 2] EXPERIMENTAL BERYLLIUM OXIDE REACTOR PROGRAM. Quarterly Progress Report for the Period, January 1 through March 31, 1962] ... In December 1960 the project was authorized to construct a 10-Mw test reactor to determine the characteristics of the Beryllium ... 1] Moore, W.C. THE EXPERIMENTAL BERYLLIUM OXIDE REACTOR. MARITIME GAS-COOLED REACTOR PROGRAM. United States: N. p., 1961. Web. ...
doi:10.1016/S1387-3806(02)00689-9. A.V. Popov (2006). "Search for Rydberg matter: Beryllium, magnesium and calcium". ... beryllium, magnesium and calcium. It has been suggested to be a material that diffuse interstellar bands may arise from. ...
Beryllium - Friedrich Wöhler, A.A.B. Bussy (1828). Electromagnetic induction was discovered by Michael Faraday in England in ...
Alternatives include brass, phosphor bronze, and beryllium copper. The base electrode metal is often coated with another inert ...
For operational reactors, secondary sources are used; most often a combination of antimony with beryllium. Antimony becomes ... beryllium-9). The primary sources described above have to be used with fresh reactor cores. ... activated in the reactor and produces high-energy gamma photons, which produce photoneutrons from beryllium. Uranium-235 ...
Beryllium granuloma List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: ...
He was the discoverer of both chromium and beryllium. Vauquelin was born at Saint-André-d'Hébertot in Normandy, France, the son ... In 1798 Vauquelin discovered beryllium oxide by extracting it from an emerald (a beryl variety); Klaproth isolated the element ... beryllium in 1798 in beryl and chromium in 1797 in a red lead ore from Siberia. He also managed to get liquid ammonia at ...
... , as a beryllium-containing mineral, has some uses. Industrially, natural specimens have the potential to be an ore ... of beryllium. It is one of the reagents that can be used in the manufacture of artificial emeralds. As an additive, bromellite ...
Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian P. (August 2009). "The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health". Indian Journal of ...
... is routinely used to screen for beryllium allergy in asymptomatic workers exposed to beryllium dust (Mroz, et al., 1991) ( ... The LTT for beryllium is now accepted as the gold standard for diagnosing berylliosis. MELISA differs from standard LTTs in ... Newman L. Significance of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test. Environ Health Perspect 1996; 104(Suppl 5): 953- ...
Takeda, Yoichi; Tajitsu, Akito (2014). "Spectroscopic study on the beryllium abundances of red giant stars". Publications of ...
Production totaled 690 tons of high-grade ore with 11.2% beryllium oxide and 184 tons of lower-grade ore with 5.5% beryllium ... This produced 23 tons of ore containing 11% beryllium oxide. However, full-scale beryllium mining did not begin until 1950. Ore ... The Harding Pegmatite Mine is a former adit mine that extracted lithium, tantalum, and beryllium from a Precambrian pegmatite ...
Examples include welding materials normally impossible to join via liquid fusion, such as zirconium and beryllium; materials ... Typical materials that are welded include titanium, beryllium, and zirconium. In many military aircraft diffusion bonding will ...
Some versions had some of the zinc replaced with beryllium. In the 1940s it was largely replaced by the second-generation ...
Such metals are beryllium, chromium, magnesium, titanium, and some aluminium alloys. Fluxes for high-temperature soldering ...
The most effective moderating nuclei are hydrogen, deuterium, beryllium and carbon. Hence hydrogenous materials including oil, ... This is called 'reflection'. Good reflectors include hydrogen, beryllium, carbon, lead, uranium, water, polyethylene, concrete ...
Beryllium derivatives and reagents are often prepared by alkylation of beryllium chloride. Examples of known organoberyllium ... Bis(cyclopentadienyl)beryllium or beryllocene (Cp2Be), with a molecular dipole moment of 2.2 D, is so-called slipped 5η/1η ... Organoberyllium chemistry is limited due to the cost and toxicity of beryllium. Further down this group calcium is nontoxic and ... Di-cyclopentadienyl-beryllium". Chemische Berichte. 92 (2): 482. doi:10.1002/cber.19590920233. Nugent, KW; Beattie, JK; Hambley ...
Items coated with beryllium oxide dust "were covered in plastic and buried out in the woods", where some were unearthed by ... Some of the Curtiss-Wright waste was contaminated with toxic beryllium oxide. Penn State had acquired the reactor license, and ... At this site, a Curtiss-Wright division manufactured Curon foam for furniture and household products and used beryllium oxide ... The locations of some sites, which included radioactive waste, beryllium oxide, and other toxic compounds, were not recorded. A ...
An example is beryllium to boron, with electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p1. The 2s electrons shield the higher-energy 2p ... For example, the value decreases from beryllium ( 4Be : 9.3 eV) to boron ( 5B : 8.3 eV), and from nitrogen ( 7N : 14.5 eV) to ... and it is easier to remove the 2p electron from boron than to remove a 2s electron from beryllium, resulting in lower ...
Dattani, Nikesh S.; Le Roy, Robert J. (2015). "Beryllium monohydride (BeH): Where we are now, after 86 years of spectroscopy". ...
If the pegmatite fluid is rich in beryllium, crystals of beryl or chrysoberyl could form. Beryl has a high ratio of beryllium ... Chromium is most common in mafic and ultramafic rocks in which beryllium is extremely rare. Beryllium becomes concentrated in ... However, beryllium and chromium do not tend to occur in the same types of rock. ... The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4. The name chrysoberyl is derived from ...
The Yermakovsky mine is one of the largest beryllium mines in Russia. The mine is located in Buryatia. The mine has reserves ... amounting to 1.4 million tonnes of ore grading 1% beryllium. "Mining and Metallurgical Holding". metropolgroup.ru. 2012. ...
Beryllium nitrate, also known as beryllium dinitrate, is an ionic beryllium salt of nitric acid with the chemical formula Be( ... Beryllium nitrate is a toxic chemical, like all other beryllium compounds. It is also an irritant in small doses. When burned, ... Beryllium nitrate can be prepared by reacting beryllium hydroxide in nitric acid. s "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards # ... Walsh, Kenneth (2009). Beryllium chemistry and processing. ASM International. pp. 121-122. ISBN 978-0-87170-721-5. Retrieved 3 ...
Beryllium enters the air as dust from burning coal and oil.[3] Eventually, the dust settles in the land and water. Beryllium ... In the soil, most beryllium remains bound to the soil.. In Sewage Sludge. Beryllium may also enter the environment if it is in ... Beryllium can be harmful if it is inhaled, depending on how much beryllium one inhales and how long the exposure lasts. "If ... This condition resembles pneumonia and is called acute beryllium disease."[6]. Individuals who are sensitive to beryllium can ...
Beryllium nitride, also called triberyllium nitride, is the chemical compound with the molecular formula Be3N2 and a molar mass ... Beryllium nitride is obtained from the reaction of beryllium metal with nitrogen at temperatures between 700 and 1400 degrees ... Beryllium nitride is used to produce the isotope carbon-14 and in the manufacturing process of refractory ceramics and nuclear ... Beryllium nitride, also called triberyllium nitride, is the chemical compound with the molecular formula Be3N2 and a molar mass ...
Beryllium is safe in solid form, but when it is manufactured or machined, a toxic dust is created that can cause an often-fatal ... The order to GAO to study the hazards of beryllium, a metal used by the Department of Defense and the Department of Energy ... The Blade series showed that over the past five decades, the U.S. government and the beryllium industry risked the lives of ... "Because of the concerns that have been raised, we request that GAO provide information on the evolution of beryllium as a ...
Wednesday it is notifying nearly 2,000 current and former employees and visitors that they may have been exposed to beryllium ... Beryllium is purified for use in nuclear weapons; also used in bike frames, golf clubs. * Inhalation of powdered beryllium can ... Inhalation of powdered beryllium can result in chronic beryllium disease, which can impair lung function in people who are ... Beryllium is hazardous only when its fine, particulate form is inhaled, he said. It was found on surfaces, not in the air, he ...
Beryllium Exposure Limit. Medical experts say some people get chronic beryllium disease at exposure levels well below the ... Beryllium has a deep history at Hanford, from its part in capping nuclear fuel rods prior to 1987, when the last reactor closed ... It would be nice if we could say, Yes, we know that there was a beryllium project back in the 1970s or 80s, and thats where ... Beryllium dust appears to be the cockroach of safety hazards. Wipe samples have found it in areas far more varied than ...
The heat treatment of corundum involving lattice diffusion of beryllium (Be) at temperatures over 1800°C has become a major ... Beryllium Diffusion of Ruby and Sapphire. Peer Reviewed Article. John L. Emmett, Kenneth Scarratt, Shane F. McClure, Thomas ... Over the past two years, the heat treatment of corundum involving lattice diffusion of beryllium (Be) at temperatures over 1800 ...
... the federal government has issued a tough new exposure standard for people who work with the toxic metal beryllium. ... For many years, beryllium was strategically so important that the government and the beryllium industry fought hard against a ... Beryllium disease slowly damages the lungs and leaves some victims unable to breathe without the aid of an oxygen tank. ... Because of berylliums remarkable properties - it is lighter than aluminum but stiffer than steel - the metal is highly valued ...
Beryllium is a rigid metal with an atomic mass of 9.0122. It... ... beryllium has four electrons: two electron shells surround the ... Metals such as copper, iron, aluminum and nickel are often alloyed with beryllium to give them extra strength. The metals are ... With an atomic number of 4, beryllium has four electrons: two electron shells surround the atoms nucleus and two electrons in ... Nicholas Louis Vauquelin discovered beryllium in 1797. Friedrich Wohler and A.A. Bussy isolated it independently in 1828. ...
Beryllium is a naturally occurring metal found in beryl and bertrandite ores. Beryllium and beryllium-containing alloys and ... 2) Chronic beryllium disease in a dental laboratory technician. (3) Chronic beryllium disease among dental technicians in ... 1) OSHA Safety and Health Topic: Beryllium. (2) Preventing Adverse Health Effects From Exposure to Beryllium in Dental ... 1) An Official ATS Statement: Diagnosis and Management of Beryllium Sensitivity and Chronic Beryllium Disease (2014). ...
This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Beryllium in Kilograms by the following End-Use Segments: Telecom Infrastructure ... Beryllium Metal. Beryllium Oxide. Applications by Beryllium Forms. Beryllium Metal. Beryllium Alloys. Beryllium Oxide (BeO). ... Beryllium Price Trends. Table 2. Average Prices of Contained Beryllium in Beryllium-Copper Master Alloy in the US (2006-2014) ( ... Minerals Comprising Beryllium. The Discovery and Evolution of Beryllium. Substitutes. Forms of Beryllium - Alloyed, Oxide and ...
To see a rotating video of (almost) any of the samples of Beryllium from The Elements, click it below. Links will open in a new ...
Printer-friendly version of the Patient Education Sheet on Beryllium Toxicity. ... Beryllium sensitization. The body develops hypersensitivity to beryllium.. No symptoms, but the body identifies beryllium as ... What Is Beryllium?. Beryllium is a mineral found in nature. It is extracted from mineral deposits and used for many commercial ... How Can Beryllium Affect My Health?. Exposure to beryllium can affect the lungs and/or skin. However, not everyone will develop ...
Beryllium sulfate may be prepared by treating an aqueous solution of any beryllium salt with sulfuric acid, followed by ... "Beryllium compounds (as Be)". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for ... Beryllium sulfate normally encountered as the tetrahydrate, [Be(H2O)4]SO4 is a white crystalline solid. It was first isolated ... A mixture of beryllium and radium sulfate was used as the neutron source in the discovery of nuclear fission. ...
Overview Beryllium is the lightest member of the alkaline earth [1] metals family. These metals make up Group 2 (IIA) of the ... BERYLLIUM (REVISED) Note: This article, originally published in 1998, was updated in 2006 for the eBook edition. ... Beryllium ores are first converted to beryllium oxide (BeO) or beryllium hydroxide (Be(OH)2). These compounds are then ... beryllium, and bertrandite, Be4(OH)2Si2O7, 15 percent (wt.) beryllium. The world resources of beryllium are estimated at ...
... of all people occupationally-exposed to beryllium in air become sensitive to beryllium and may develop chronic beryllium ... Beryllium has been found in at least 535 of the 1,613 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection ... Lung damage has been observed in people exposed to high levels of beryllium in the air. About 1-15% ... People working or living near beryllium industries have the greatest potential for exposure to beryllium. ...
Beryllium is one of the lightest metals, with unique mechanical, physical, and nuclear properties that allow major applications ... Recent chronic beryllium disease in residents surrounding a beryllium facility. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;177:1012-7. ... Cutaneous effects of beryllium. Chapter 9 pp 113-117. In: Rossman MD, Preuss OP, Powers MB, editors. Beryllium biomedical and ... History of beryllium, Chapter 2 in 58. In: Rossman MD, Preuss OP, Powers MB, editors. Beryllium biomedical and environmental ...
Toxicological profile for Beryllium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
... has role epitope (CHEBI:53000) beryllium atom (CHEBI:30501) is a alkaline earth metal atom (CHEBI: ... beryllium atom (CHEBI:30501) has role adjuvant (CHEBI:60809) beryllium atom (CHEBI:30501) has role carcinogenic agent (CHEBI: ... CHEBI:30501 - beryllium atom. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Draft NIOSH Alert, Preventing Chronic Beryllium Disease and Beryllium Sensitization; 02/01/08pdf icon [PDF - 6,146 KB] ... NIOSH has an ongoing program of research on beryllium-related health effects. One of the major goals of this research is to ... NIOSH Alert: Preventing Sensitization and Disease from Beryllium Exposure; 2/1/11pdf icon [PDF - 21,661 KB] ... prevent sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) by developing a better understanding of the exposure factors and work ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
beryllium (Be): Be chemical element, the lightest member of the alkaline-earth metals of Group 2 (IIa) of the periodic table, ... along with basic beryllium acetate, Be4O(C2H3O2)6, are used as a starting material for synthesis of beryllium salts. Beryllium ... The extraction of beryllium is complicated by the fact that beryllium is a minor constituent in most ores (5 percent by mass ... beryllium - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The chemical element beryllium is the lightest of the alkaline earth metals ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Other names: Beryllium sulfide * Permanent link for this species. Use this link for bookmarking this species for future ...
Periodic Table of the Elements: BerylliumAtomic Number:4Atomic Symbol:Be BerylliumAtomic Weight:9.01218ElectronConfiguration:2 ·
Element Beryllium (Be), Group 2, Atomic Number 4, s-block, Mass 9.012. Sources, facts, uses, scarcity (SRI), podcasts, ... Beryllium is relatively transparent to X-rays so ultra-thin beryllium foil is finding use in X-ray lithography. Beryllium is ... Beryllium has but a single isotope, beryllium-9 which is not radioactive but beryllium-10, which cosmic rays produce in the ... Beryllium and its compounds are toxic and carcinogenic. If beryllium dust or fumes are inhaled, it can lead to an incurable ...
The element beryllium (Be, atomic number 4) is a Group 2 alkaline earth \[…\] ... aerospace and atomic energy workers by exposing them to beryllium. President Bill Clinton asks Congress to enact legislation to ... The element beryllium (Be, atomic number 4) is a Group 2 alkaline earth metal, the lightest of the family that includes ... July 15, 1999: Hey, Sorry About the Beryllium Poisoning. __. 1999: __After five decades of denial, the U.S. government owns up ...
Beryllium is sometimes used in neutron sources, in which the beryllium is mixed with an alpha emitter such as 210Po, 226Ra, 239 ... Commentary: Beryllium exposure and Chronic Beryllium Disease. Lancet 2004, 415-16.. *Kelleher, P.C., J.W. Martyny, M.M. Mroz, L ... Beryllium-copper alloys (containing about two percent beryllium) are strong, hard, wear-resistant, and good conductors of heat ... Beryllium metal did not become readily available until 1957. Currently, the chief method of production is by reducing beryllium ...
... Information. Hanford Site beryllium-related forms list, Beryllium Training Programs, and Beryllium Warning ... Beryllium Facilities & Areas. Lists of current and past Beryllium Controlled Facilities and their managers on the Hanford Site. ... BERYLLIUM PROGRAM AT HANFORD. Beryllium is a lightweight, durable metal that has wide spread industrial applications. The use ... Beryllium Program Points of Contact. Key contacts among the Contractors, DOE, Organized Labor, and the Beryllium Awareness ...
Beryllium, Urine. 5595-4. 808542. Beryllium, Urine. ng/ml. 5595-4. 808540. Beryllium, Urine. 5595-4. 808545. Beryllium, Urine. ...
Beryllium hydride reacts slowly with water but is rapidly hydrolysed by acid such as hydrogen chloride to form beryllium ... Beryllium hydride (systematically named poly[beryllane(2)] and beryllium dihydride) is an inorganic compound with the chemical ... beryllium does not react with hydrogen. Instead, BeH2 is prepared from preformed beryllium(II) compounds. It was first ... Beryllium hydride reacts with trimethylamine, N(CH3)3 to form a dimeric adduct, with bridging hydrides. However, with ...
Occupational Exposure to Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds. The proposed rule was published in the Federal Register on August ... regulating occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. OSHA accepted comments concerning the proposed rule ... OSHA-H005C-2006-0870-0353] RIN 1218-AB76 Occupational Exposure to Beryllium AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health ... a proposed rule to amend its existing exposure limits for occupational exposure in general industry to beryllium and beryllium ...
Beryllium oxide definition is - a white amorphous compound BeO having high thermal conductivity and high electrical resistance ... Resources for beryllium oxide. Time Traveler: Explore other words from the year beryllium oxide first appeared Time Traveler! ... Comments on beryllium oxide. What made you want to look up beryllium oxide? Please tell us where you read or heard it ( ... Post the Definition of beryllium oxide to Facebook Share the Definition of beryllium oxide on Twitter ...
Define beryllium oxide: A dielectric ceramic material used in laser capillary tubes because of its high electrical resistivity ... beryllium oxide. A dielectric ceramic material used in laser capillary tubes because of its high electrical resistivity and ...
  • Medical experts say some people get chronic beryllium disease at exposure levels well below the federal safety limits used at nuclear cleanup sites. (propublica.org)
  • Dr. Lisa Maier, head of the occupational and environmental sciences division at National Jewish Health , in Denver, conducted research with colleagues in which chronic beryllium exposure at the eight-hour limit set by DOE -- 0.2 micrograms of beryllium dust per cubic meter of air: roughly a pencil tip in a box 80 feet tall and the size of a football field -- was not protective of many people. (propublica.org)
  • Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) appeared to be waning 30 yrs ago 1 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Unfortunately beryllium is very poisonous, manifesting as chronic beryllium lung disease , which causes premature mortality in one third 1 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • OSHA's new beryllium rule is designed to prevent chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer in workers by limiting their exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. (cbia.com)
  • Beryllium is a toxic element and listed as a Class A EPA carcinogen because exposure can cause chronic beryllium disease, an often-fatal lung disease. (wagnerreese.com)
  • OSHA estimates that the new rule may have the ability to save 90 lives from beryllium-related diseases and prevent 46 new cases of chronic beryllium disease each year as well as provide net benefits of about $560.9 million, annually. (wagnerreese.com)
  • Individuals with beryllium sensitization are at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD), and even lung cancer. (wagnerreese.com)
  • Although chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clearly an immune-mediated granulomatous reaction to beryllium, acute beryllium disease (ABD) is commonly considered an irritative chemical phenomenon related to high exposures. (nih.gov)
  • Deficient and dysfunctional regulatory T cells in the lungs of chronic beryllium disease subjects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Beryllium-ferritin: lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage apoptosis in chronic beryllium disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, beryllium is considered to be the most toxic non-radioactive element, a class A carcinogen, and the cause oflife-threatening chronic beryllium disease. (massey.ac.nz)
  • Beryllium nitrate is a toxic chemical, like all other beryllium compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The standard applies to occupational exposure to beryllium in all forms, compounds, and mixtures in general industry except for those specifically exempted. (isri.org)
  • Beryllium compounds can also get on the skin, contaminate clothing or food, and be ingested. (isri.org)
  • On May 12, 2018, OSHA will begin to enforce a new rule on beryllium exposure in all forms, compounds, and mixtures in general, construction, and shipyard industries, prompting employers to take further responsibility to protect worker health from beryllium-related diseases. (wagnerreese.com)
  • On May 12, 2018, OSHA will begin to enforce the final rule on occupational exposure to beryllium in all forms, compounds, and mixtures in general, construction, and shipyard industries. (wagnerreese.com)
  • Special Hazards of Combustion Products: Toxic beryllium oxide fume may form in fire. (noaa.gov)
  • Most people are exposed to low levels of beryllium in air, food, and water. (sourcewatch.org)
  • [5] People can be exposed to higher levels of beryllium if they work mining, processing, or otherwise working with beryllium. (sourcewatch.org)
  • People living near these industries or near hazardous waste sites may also be exposed to high levels of beryllium. (sourcewatch.org)
  • [2] Additionally, beryllium ores are used in specialty ceramics for electrical and high-technology applications and beryllium alloys are used in automobiles, computers, sports equipment (golf clubs and bicycle frames), and dental bridges. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Solid beryllium metal and beryllium alloys are benign, however its dust is highly toxic. (radiopaedia.org)
  • This condition resembles pneumonia and is called acute beryllium disease. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, ToxFAQs for Beryllium , Accessed August 28, 2010. (sourcewatch.org)
  • We're starting to find that some people are genetically at increased risk for beryllium sensitization and disease. (propublica.org)
  • There are several aspects of beryllium disease that could account for this phenomenon. (ersjournals.com)
  • In addition to current and former beryllium workers, community residents living near beryllium processing plants have been shown to be a risk for beryllium disease, both as a result of beryllium taken into the home on workers' clothes (para-occupational) and due to contamination of the ambient air. (ersjournals.com)
  • In a recent issue of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 17 , eight cases of newly diagnosed and recognised beryllium disease were reported in individuals who lived within 1 mile of a beryllium processing plant. (ersjournals.com)
  • These reports suggest that beryllium disease is certainly much more frequent than suspected and involves populations that were not previously thought to be at risk or were thought to be at extremely low risk for the disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • The continuing presence and lifetime risk for the development of beryllium disease raises the question as to whether medical screening is useful. (ersjournals.com)
  • There is no question that BeLPT can detect beryllium disease before it becomes manifest. (ersjournals.com)
  • A previous study suggests that one-third of individuals identified with only a hypersensitivity reaction to beryllium may develop granulomatous lung disease within 5 yrs 18 . (ersjournals.com)
  • The late 1950s' report by Seeler 20 , which summarised the beryllium case registry experience with treatment, strongly suggested that corticosteroids were only effective if used early in the disease. (ersjournals.com)
  • Beryllium primarily exerts its deleterious effects on the lungs, producing beryllium lung disease, which has been recognized as a clinical entity since 1943 2 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Introduction to beryllium: uses, regulatory history, and disease. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Any dramatic, unexplained weight loss should be considered as possible first indication of beryllium disease. (noaa.gov)
  • Researchers at the Centers for Disease Controls (CDC) say it may take months or years after exposure to beryllium to appear and that CBD will continue to progress even after a worker has been removed from an exposed worksite. (wagnerreese.com)
  • A reconsideration of acute Beryllium disease. (nih.gov)
  • 10 microg/m(3), lower than usually described.Contrary to common understanding, these cases suggest that ABD and CBD represent a continuum of disease, and both involve hypersensitivity reactions to beryllium.Differences in disease presentation and progression are likely influenced by the solubility of the beryllium compound involved. (nih.gov)
  • Contrary to common understanding, these cases suggest that ABD and CBD represent a continuum of disease, and both involve hypersensitivity reactions to beryllium. (nih.gov)
  • Differences in disease presentation and progression are likely influenced by the solubility of the beryllium compound involved. (nih.gov)
  • Beryllium-specific CD4+ T cells in blood as a biomarker of disease progression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • While OSHA has said the general-industry rule has been the topic of "extensive settlement talks" with several parties, except for certain provisions requiring changing rooms and showers and some engineering controls, all aspects of the beryllium rule for general industry will be enforced beginning May 11, 2018. (isri.org)
  • In January 2017, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) began to address exposure to beryllium in all industries and has since been assisting employers with identifying harmful exposure levels in support of replacing a 40-year-old permissible exposure limit (PEL) for the strong, toxic metal. (wagnerreese.com)
  • About 62,000 workers are exposed to beryllium in their workplaces, including approximately 11,500 construction and shipyard workers who may conduct abrasive blasting operations using slags that contain trace amounts of beryllium. (cbia.com)
  • Individuals who are sensitive to beryllium can develop an inflammatory reaction in the respiratory system. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Employers must establish and maintain a regulated area if employees are, or can reasonably be expected to be, exposed to airborne beryllium at levels above the listed TWA PEL or STEL in that work area. (isri.org)
  • B) TWA and quarterly DWA airborne beryllium exposures in patient's departments during this time period. (nih.gov)
  • Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses and blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests revealed lymphocytic alveolitis and cellular immune recognition of beryllium. (nih.gov)
  • These studies will lead to specific applications such as the detection of beryllium in the environment, protocols to remediate its contamination, and therapies for individuals exposed to its toxicity. (massey.ac.nz)
  • Around 10 yrs later, an immunological test (the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT)) was initially used in cross-sectional studies and later in the surveillance and screening of current and former beryllium workers 6 - 8 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Metals such as copper, iron, aluminum and nickel are often alloyed with beryllium to give them extra strength. (reference.com)
  • Beryllium enters the air as dust from burning coal and oil. (sourcewatch.org)
  • According to Hanford data submitted to HSS, employees who've been sensitized or have CBD include not only the trade workers tearing down old plutonium processing buildings but also administrative employees whose work is largely confined to desks -- a testament to the mobility of beryllium dust. (propublica.org)
  • Beryllium dust appears to be the cockroach of safety hazards. (propublica.org)
  • Because beryllium dust travels so readily, declaring a facility clean based on records indicating the absence of prior beryllium work -- a practice the HSS inspectors were informed of and noted in their letters -- is potentially dangerous in the absence of rigorous new testing. (propublica.org)
  • If it does then the employer must determine if dust, fumes, or mists are being created in the processing of the beryllium scrap. (isri.org)
  • After formation, beryllium-10 binds to atmospheric dust particles or dissolves in atmospheric water vapor. (arizona.edu)
  • Assuming the monitored employees are representative of the work force, the numbers imply that between 42 percent and 100 percent of Hanford workers have been exposed to beryllium. (propublica.org)
  • Steve Bertness, a DOE industrial hygienist at Hanford who specializes in beryllium, argued that the calculation unfairly extrapolated from a sample of workers to the entire Hanford population. (propublica.org)
  • Workers are primarily exposed to beryllium by breathing in dusts, fumes, or mists containing beryllium. (isri.org)
  • At that time, employers will have further obligations to protect worker health from beryllium-related diseases and the workers' rights attorneys at Wagner Reese will be holding those who are not following the new rule accountable. (wagnerreese.com)
  • and train workers on beryllium hazards. (wagnerreese.com)
  • It's estimated by the National Institutes for Health that around 62,000 workers are exposed to beryllium on the job each year. (wagnerreese.com)
  • Workers who have inhaled or are in contact with beryllium can be impacted by an immune response that results in the body becoming sensitized to the toxin. (wagnerreese.com)
  • If your workplace has exposed you to harmful limits of beryllium, the work injury attorneys at Wagner Reese are here to support your workers' compensation claim and get you back to good health. (wagnerreese.com)
  • Given reported new cases of ABD and projected increased demand for beryllium, we aimed to reevaluate the patho physiologic associations between ABD and CBD using two cases identified from a survey of beryllium production facility workers. (nih.gov)
  • Within weeks after exposure to beryllium fluoride began, two workers had systemic illness characterized by dermal and respiratory symptoms and precipitous declines in pulmonary function. (nih.gov)
  • To investigate the effects of short-term exposure of beryllium on the human immune system, the proportion of T-lymphocytes such as CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD95, and NK cells, andthe proportion of B cells and TNFα level in peripheral blood and immunoglobulins in the serum of 43 exposed workers and 34 healthy control subjects were studied. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The working duration of exposed workers was less than 3 months and the mean ambient beryllium level was 3.4 μg/m(3), 112.3 μg/m(3), and 2.3 μg/m(3) in molding (furnace), deforming (grinding), and sorting processes, respectively (cited from Kim et al. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The number of T lymphocytes and the amount of immunoglobulins in the beryllium-exposed workers and control subjects were not significantly different, except for the total number of lymphocytes and CD95 (APO1/FAS). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Reduces the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for beryllium to 0.2 micrograms per cubic meter of air, averaged over eight hours. (cbia.com)
  • Beryllium nitride is obtained from the reaction of beryllium metal with nitrogen at temperatures between 700 and 1400 degrees Celsius. (reference.com)
  • Beryllium is a rigid metal with an atomic mass of 9.0122. (reference.com)
  • Beryllium is a naturally-occurring element in the alkaline earth metal group with the atomic number 4, and atomic weight of 9.0122. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Beryllium has been implicated as a precipitant in metal fume fever , but this is contentious 5 . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The present Supplement Volume Beryllium A 3 continues and completes the description of the physical properties of the element, begun in Supplement Volume A 2, 1991, and also treats the electrochemical behavior of the metal. (ebay.com.au)
  • By performing quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, we investigate the equation of states, electrical and optical properties of the expanded beryllium at densities two to one-hundred lower than the normal solid density, and temperatures ranging from 5000 to 30000 K. With decreasing the density of Be, the optical response evolves from the one characteristic of a simple metal to the one of an atomic fluid. (mysciencework.com)
  • Beryllium is a crucial metal in the automotive, aviation, nuclear and consumer industries. (massey.ac.nz)
  • Employers must assess employee exposures to beryllium. (isri.org)
  • However, in 1982, an immunological test performed on lymphocytes recovered from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid demonstrated a marked increased in the number of beryllium-sensitive cells in the lung compared to the blood, strongly suggesting that CBD was a hypersensitivity to beryllium 2 . (ersjournals.com)
  • This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Beryllium in Kilograms by the following End-Use Segments: Telecom Infrastructure/Computing, Electric Equipment & Consumer Appliances, Automotive Electronics, Aerospace & Defense, Industrial Components, and Others. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Beryllium is also a probably human carcinogen, as long term exposure can increase the risk of developing lung cancer. (sourcewatch.org)
  • External exposure to beryllium was measured by atomic absorption spectrometer as recommended by the NIOSH analytical method 7300. (semanticscholar.org)
  • What is the electron configuration of beryllium? (reference.com)
  • With an atomic number of 4, beryllium has four electrons: two electron shells surround the atom's nucleus and two electrons in each shell. (reference.com)
  • Scanning electron micrographs are presented for etched and unetched beryllium coatings which showed the etching process produces roughness and porosity over several size scales simultaneously with the maximum size scale limited by the initial coating grain size and thickness. (byu.edu)
  • Beryllium is used in nuclear weapons and reactors, aircraft and space vehicle structures, instruments, x-ray machines, and mirrors. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Beryllium nitride is used to produce the isotope carbon-14 and in the manufacturing process of refractory ceramics and nuclear reactors. (reference.com)
  • Beryllium has a deep history at Hanford, from its part in capping nuclear fuel rods prior to 1987, when the last reactor closed, to its former use in non-sparking tools, which still turn up at the site. (propublica.org)