Beryllium. An element with the atomic symbol Be, atomic number 4, and atomic weight 9.01218. Short exposure to this element can lead to a type of poisoning known as BERYLLIOSIS.
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhaled rare metal BERYLLIUM or its soluble salts which are used in a wide variety of industry including alloys, ceramics, radiographic equipment, and vacuum tubes. Berylliosis is characterized by an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airway leading to BRONCHIOLITIS; PULMONARY EDEMA; and pneumonia.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.
The branch of mathematics dealing with the purely logical properties of probability. Its theorems underlie most statistical methods. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

Mechanism of interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin (ADF/Cofilin) with actin filaments. (1/202)

We characterized the interaction of Acanthamoeba actophorin, a member of ADF/cofilin family, with filaments of amoeba and rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The affinity is about 10 times higher for muscle actin filaments (Kd = 0.5 microM) than amoeba actin filaments (Kd = 5 microM) even though the affinity for muscle and amoeba Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) is the same (Blanchoin, L., and Pollard, T. D. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 25106-25111). Actophorin binds slowly (k+ = 0.03 microM-1 s-1) to and dissociates from amoeba actin filaments in a simple bimolecular reaction, but binding to muscle actin filaments is cooperative. Actophorin severs filaments in a concentration-dependent fashion. Phosphate or BeF3 bound to ADP-actin filaments inhibit actophorin binding. Actophorin increases the rate of phosphate release from actin filaments more than 10-fold. The time course of the interaction of actophorin with filaments measured by quenching of the fluorescence of pyrenyl-actin or fluorescence anisotropy of rhodamine-actophorin is complicated, because severing, depolymerization, and repolymerization follows binding. The 50-fold higher affinity of actophorin for Mg-ADP-actin monomers (Kd = 0.1 microM) than ADP-actin filaments provides the thermodynamic basis for driving disassembly of filaments that have hydrolyzed ATP and dissociated gamma-phosphate.  (+info)

Exposure of cultured murine peritoneal macrophages to low concentrations of beryllium induces increases in intracellular calcium concentrations and stimulates DNA synthesis. (2/202)

Exposure of humans to beryllium dusts can induce a specific form of chronic pneumonitis that consists mainly of noncaseating granulomas in the lungs. Multiple studies have documented both genetic and immune components of chronic berylliosis. Much work has focused on T cells and their reactivity in berylliosis, but less work has focused on the end effector cells in granulomatous inflammation, macrophages. Because macrophages must become activated to form granulomas, and they become activated by responding to numerous immunomodulatory signals, we investigated the effects of beryllium (BeCl2) on a central signal transduction pathway in macrophages, increases in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). Exposure of cultured murine peritoneal macrophages to low, nontoxic concentrations induced successive spikes or oscillations in [Ca2+]i. Concentrations as low as 5 nM induced significant increases in [Ca2+]i. The source of the increased [Ca2+]i was exclusively extracellular in that increases in [Ca2+]i could be completely blocked by chelating extracellular Ca2+, were inhibited by the Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil, and exposure of macrophages to BeCl2 had no effect on IP3 concentrations. DNA synthesis, a Ca2+-sensitive function, was enhanced in dividing 1LN cells and induced de novo in quiescent macrophages. Furthermore, BeCl2 enhanced DNA synthesis in the absence of coexposure to the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. These data support the hypothesis that beryllium toxicity is in part the result of altered Ca2+ metabolism in mononuclear phagocytes consequent to reversible opening of plasma membrane channels.  (+info)

Identification of pathogenic T cells in patients with beryllium-induced lung disease. (3/202)

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is caused by beryllium exposure and is characterized by granulomatous inflammation with accumulation of CD4+ T cells in the lung. We analyzed TCR beta-chain and alpha-chain genes expressed by these CD4+ T cells. In the lungs of individual patients, as well as among four of five CBD patients studied, different oligoclonal expansions within the Vbeta3 subset were found to express homologous or even identical CDR3 amino acid sequences. These related expansions were specific for CBD patients, were compartmentalized to lung, and persisted at high frequency in patients with active disease. Limiting dilution cloning and analysis of coexpressed TCR alpha-chain genes confirmed that these TCRs were selectively expanded by a common Ag involving beryllium. Overall, homologous TCR beta- and alpha-chains showed identical V regions and invariant charged residues within the CDR3 but considerable variability in TCRJ usage. Remarkably, CBD patients expressing nearly identical TCRs did not share common HLA-DRB1 or DQ alleles. These results implicate particular CD4+ cells in the pathogenesis of CBD and provide insight into how beryllium is recognized in human disease.  (+info)

Partial IL-10 inhibition of the cell-mediated immune response in chronic beryllium disease. (4/202)

Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) provides a human disorder in which to study the delayed type IV hypersensitivity response to persistent Ag that leads to noncaseating pulmonary granuloma formation. We hypothesized that, in CBD, failure of IL-10 to modulate the beryllium-specific, cell-mediated immune response would result in persistent, maximal cytokine production and T lymphocyte proliferation, thus contributing to the development of granulomatous lung disease. To test this hypothesis, we used bronchoalveolar lavage cells from control and CBD subjects to evaluate the beryllium salt-specific production of endogenous IL-10 and the effects of exogenous human rIL-10 (rhIL-10) on HLA expression, on the production of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, and on T lymphocyte proliferation. Our data demonstrate that beryllium-stimulated bronchoalveolar lavage cells produce IL-10, and the neutralization of endogenous IL-10 does not increase significantly cytokine production, HLA expression, or T lymphocyte proliferation. Second, the addition of excess exogenous rhIL-10 partially inhibited the beryllium-stimulated production of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha; however, we measured no change in T lymphocyte proliferation or in the percentage of alveolar macrophages expressing HLA-DP. Interestingly, beryllium salts interfered with an IL-10-stimulated decrease in the percentage of alveolar macrophages expressing HLA-DR. We conclude that, in the CBD-derived, beryllium-stimulated cell-mediated immune response, low levels of endogenous IL-10 have no appreciable effect; exogenous rhIL-10 has a limited effect on cytokine production and no effect on T lymphocyte proliferation or HLA expression.  (+info)

Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant. (5/202)

Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization.  (+info)

Characterization of the hinges of the effector loop in the reaction pathway of the activation of ras-proteins. Kinetics of binding of beryllium trifluoride to V29G and I36G mutants of Ha-ras-p21. (6/202)

This work experimentally confirms the pathway of activation of Ha-ras-p21, which was calculated by the method of Targeted Molecular Dynamics (TMD) (Diaz JF, Wroblowski B, Schlitter J, Engelborghs Y, 1997a, Proteins Struct Funct Genet 28:434-451). The process can be studied experimentally by analyzing the binding of BeF3- to the GDP complex of the active fluorescent mutant Y32W (Diaz JF, Sillen A, Engelborghs Y, 1997b, J Biol Chem 227:23138-23143). Two mutants, V29G and 136G, have been constructed at both sides of the effector loop of the active fluorescent mutant. This was done to check the proposed reaction pathway and to provide further insight into the mechanism of the activation of ras proteins. Both mutations accelerate the conformational isomerization with two orders of magnitude, demonstrating convincingly the role of these residues as hinges of the effector loop in one or more of the transitions of the conformational change. These results provide experimental support to the pathway calculated by TMD analysis.  (+info)

Aluminum fluoride inhibition of cabbage phospholipase D by a phosphate-mimicking mechanism. (7/202)

Aluminum fluoride (AlF(4)(-)) inhibited phospholipase D (PLD) purified from cabbage in both PIP(2)-dependent and PIP(2)-independent assays, consistent with its previously observed effect on mammalian PLD. The possibility that AlF(4)(-) may exert this effect through its known phosphate-mimicking property was examined. Inorganic phosphate, as well as two phosphate analogs, beryllium fluoride and orthovanadate, also inhibited cabbage PLD. Enzyme kinetic studies confirmed that PLD followed Hill kinetics, characteristic for allosteric enzymes, with an apparent Hill coefficient (n(app)) of 3.8, indicating positive cooperativity among multiple substrate-binding sites and suggesting possible functional oligomerization of the enzyme. AlF(4)(-) modification of PLD kinetics was consistent with a competitive mode of enzyme inhibition. It is therefore proposed that AlF(4)(-), and other phosphate analogs, inhibits plant PLD by competing with a substrate phosphate group for a substrate-binding site, thereby preventing the formation of an enzyme-phosphatidyl intermediate. This may be a conserved feature of PLD superfamily enzymes.  (+info)

Theoretical studies of metal-phosphate interactions: interaction of Li+, Na+, K+, Be++, Mg++, and Ca++ with H2PO4- and (CH3O)2PO2-: implications for nucleic acid solvation. (8/202)

Model phosphate-metal solvation complexes have been studied by ab-initio self-consistent-field techniques. The complexes studied include (RO)2PO2-(R = H or CH3) with Li+, Na+, K+, Be++, Mg++, Ca++, H2O, and Cl-. The geometries of the complexes were chosen to approximate reasonable model solvation complexes for phosphate groups in a nucleic acid environment. Calculated energies of formation vary as Be++ greater than Mg++ greater than Ca++ greater than Li+ greater than Na+ greater than K+ for all isostructural complexes, consistent with experimental binding trends. These results suggest that site binding of this type can successfully account for the relative specificities of ion binding in polynucleotides and other phosphate-containing molecules.  (+info)

Beryllium is a chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a steel-gray, hard, brittle alkaline earth metal that is difficult to fabricate because of its high reactivity and toxicity. Beryllium is primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys, such as beryllium copper, and as a moderator and reflector in nuclear reactors due to its ability to efficiently slow down neutrons.

In the medical field, beryllium is most well-known for its potential to cause a chronic allergic lung disease called berylliosis. This condition can occur after prolonged exposure to beryllium-containing dusts or fumes, and can lead to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can cause scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, leading to respiratory failure.

Healthcare professionals should take appropriate precautions when handling beryllium-containing materials, including using protective equipment and following proper disposal procedures to minimize exposure.

Berylliosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the lungs and, less commonly, other organs. It is caused by exposure to beryllium, a lightweight, strong metal used in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, and nuclear energy. The disease can be categorized into two types: acute and chronic.

Acute berylliosis is a rare form of the disease that occurs after high levels of exposure to beryllium, usually through inhalation. Symptoms typically develop within a few weeks to months after exposure and include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Acute berylliosis can be severe and may require hospitalization.

Chronic berylliosis, also known as beryllium sensitization or beryllium disease, is a more common form of the disease that occurs after long-term exposure to low levels of beryllium. It is characterized by the development of an immune response to beryllium, resulting in chronic inflammation and scarring of the lung tissue. Symptoms may not appear for several years after exposure and can include cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, weight loss, and joint pain.

Diagnosis of berylliosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray or CT scan, pulmonary function tests, and blood tests to detect the presence of beryllium sensitization. Treatment may include corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive medications to manage inflammation and scarring in the lungs. Avoiding further exposure to beryllium is essential to prevent disease progression.

HLA-DP beta-chains are proteins that are encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene in humans. HLA, or Human Leukocyte Antigens, are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells that play an important role in the body's immune system. They help the body recognize and distinguish between its own cells and foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

HLA-DP beta-chains are one part of the HLA-DP complex, which is a type of MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecules present pieces of proteins from outside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The HLA-DP complex is composed of an alpha and beta chain, and the beta-chain is encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene.

Variations in the HLA-DPB1 gene can affect an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. Additionally, HLA-DP beta-chains can be used as markers for tissue typing in organ transplantation to help match donors and recipients and reduce the risk of rejection.

HLA-DP antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. The HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-DP antigens are composed of two polypeptide chains, alpha and beta, which are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in the human genome. These antigens are expressed on the surface of various cells, including B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages.

HLA-DP antigens present peptides to CD4+ T cells, which then become activated and help coordinate the immune response. The HLA-DP antigens have a wide range of peptide specificity, meaning they can bind and present a diverse array of peptides to the immune system.

Variation in HLA genes is common, and differences in these genes can affect an individual's susceptibility or resistance to various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the role of HLA-DP antigens in the immune response is important for developing new therapies and treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

Occupational air pollutants refer to harmful substances present in the air in workplaces or occupational settings. These pollutants can include dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, or mists that are produced by industrial processes, chemical reactions, or other sources. Examples of occupational air pollutants include:

1. Respirable crystalline silica: A common mineral found in sand, stone, and concrete that can cause lung disease and cancer when inhaled in high concentrations.
2. Asbestos: A naturally occurring mineral fiber that was widely used in construction materials and industrial applications until the 1970s. Exposure to asbestos fibers can cause lung diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
3. Welding fumes: Fumes generated during welding processes can contain harmful metals such as manganese, chromium, and nickel that can cause neurological damage and respiratory problems.
4. Isocyanates: Chemicals used in the production of foam insulation, spray-on coatings, and other industrial applications that can cause asthma and other respiratory symptoms.
5. Coal dust: Fine particles generated during coal mining, transportation, and handling that can cause lung disease and other health problems.
6. Diesel exhaust: Emissions from diesel engines that contain harmful particulates and gases that can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems.

Occupational air pollutants are regulated by various government agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, to protect workers from exposure and minimize health risks.

Aluminum compounds refer to chemical substances that are formed by the combination of aluminum with other elements. Aluminum is a naturally occurring metallic element, and it can combine with various non-metallic elements to form compounds with unique properties and uses. Some common aluminum compounds include:

1. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3): Also known as alumina, this compound is formed when aluminum combines with oxygen. It is a white, odorless powder that is highly resistant to heat and corrosion. Aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications, including ceramics, abrasives, and refractories.
2. Aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with sulfuric acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water. Aluminum sulfate is used as a flocculant in water treatment, as well as in the manufacture of paper and textiles.
3. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with chlorine. It is a white or yellowish-white solid that is highly deliquescent, meaning it readily absorbs moisture from the air. Aluminum chloride is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions, as well as in the production of various industrial chemicals.
4. Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with hydroxide ions. It is a white, powdery substance that is amphoteric, meaning it can react with both acids and bases. Aluminum hydroxide is used as an antacid and as a fire retardant.
5. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when zinc oxide is combined with aluminum hydroxide. It is a white, powdery substance that is used as a filler in rubber and plastics, as well as in the manufacture of paints and coatings.

It's important to note that some aluminum compounds have been linked to health concerns, particularly when they are inhaled or ingested in large quantities. For example, aluminum chloride has been shown to be toxic to animals at high doses, while aluminum hydroxide has been associated with neurological disorders in some studies. However, the risks associated with exposure to these compounds are generally low, and they are considered safe for most industrial and consumer uses when used as directed.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "metallurgy" is not a term that has a medical definition. Metallurgy is a branch of materials science that deals with the properties, physical and chemical behavior, and production of metals. It involves studying the techniques and processes used to isolate, alloy, and fabricate various types of metal products. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Radioactive pollutants are defined as any harmful radioactive substances that are discharged into the environment and pose risks to human health and the ecosystem. These pollutants can be in the form of gases, liquids, or solids and can contaminate air, water, and soil. They originate from various sources such as nuclear power plants, medical facilities, industrial operations, and military activities.

Radioactive pollutants emit ionizing radiation, which can cause damage to living cells and DNA, leading to genetic mutations, cancer, and other health problems. Exposure to high levels of radioactivity can result in acute radiation sickness, including symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever. Long-term exposure to low levels of radiation can increase the risk of developing cancer and other diseases over time.

Radioactive pollutants can also have negative impacts on the environment, contaminating soil and water and reducing biodiversity in affected areas. They can persist in the environment for long periods, making it difficult to clean up and remediate contaminated sites. Therefore, proper management and regulation of radioactive materials are essential to prevent their release into the environment and protect public health and the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Probability Theory" is actually a branch of mathematics, not medicine. It provides a formal framework for quantifying and reasoning about uncertainty. It involves concepts such as random variables, probability distributions, expected values, and statistical inferences. While it is widely used in many scientific fields, including medical research, it is not a medical term itself.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

... azide, BeN6 is known and beryllium phosphide, Be3P2 has a similar structure to Be3N2. A number of beryllium borides ... Solutions of beryllium salts, such as beryllium sulfate and beryllium nitrate, are acidic because of hydrolysis of the [Be(H2O) ... A beryllium atom has the electronic configuration [He] 2s2. The predominant oxidation state of beryllium is +2; the beryllium ... Beryllium hydroxide created using either the sinter or melt method is then converted into beryllium fluoride or beryllium ...
... reacts slowly with water but is rapidly hydrolysed by acid such as hydrogen chloride to form beryllium ... Beryllium hydride (systematically named poly[beryllane(2)] and beryllium dihydride) is an inorganic compound with the chemical ... beryllium does not react with hydrogen. Instead, BeH2 is prepared from preformed beryllium(II) compounds. It was first ... However, with dimethylamine, HN(CH3)2 it forms a trimeric beryllium diamide, [Be(N(CH3)2)2]3, and hydrogen. Greenwood, Norman N ...
2 induces conversion to basic beryllium nitrate, which adopts a structure akin to that for basic berylium acetate. Unlike the ... Beryllium nitrate is an inorganic compound with the idealized chemical formula Be(NO3)2. The formula suggests a salt, but, as ... forms upon treatment of beryllium chloride with dinitrogen tetroxide: BeCl2 + 3 N2O4 → Be(NO3)2(N2O4) + 2 NOCl Upon heating, ... Beryllium compounds, Nitrates, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
Basic beryllium carbonate is a mixed salt, which can be prepared by the reaction of beryllium sulfate and ammonium carbonate, ... Beryllium carbonate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula BeCO3. There are three forms reported, anhydrous, ... "Beryllium carbonate". NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0054". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ... No formations of purely beryllium carbonate are known to occur naturally. The only Be-rich carbonate mineral currently known is ...
... (10Be) is a radioactive isotope of beryllium. It is formed in the Earth's atmosphere mainly by cosmic ray ... Beryllium-10 has a half-life of 1.39 × 106 years, and decays by beta decay to stable boron-10 with a maximum energy of 556.2 ... As the precipitation quickly becomes more alkaline, beryllium drops out of solution. Cosmogenic 10Be thereby accumulates at the ... 10Be Because beryllium tends to exist in solutions below about pH 5.5 (and rainwater above many industrialized areas can have a ...
... is an inorganic compound, a salt of beryllium metal and oxalic acid with the chemical formula C 2BeO 4. It ... The compound is used to prepare ultra-pure beryllium oxide by thermal decomposition. The action of oxalic acid on beryllium ... "BERYLLIUM OXALATE". chemicalbook.com. Retrieved 15 June 2021. "beryllium,oxalate". chemsrc.com. Retrieved 15 June 2021. ... Moore, Raymond E. (1960). Purification of Beryllium Compounds: A Literature Survey. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. p. 6. ...
In beryllium monohydride, beryllium has a valency of one, and hydrogen has a valency of one. BeH has only 5 electrons and is ... Beryllium monohydride (BeH) is an example of a molecule with a half-bond order according to molecular orbital theory. It is a ... Thomas J. Tague Jr., Lester Andrews (1993). "Reactions of beryllium atoms with hydrogen. Matrix infrared spectra of novel ... Dattani, Nikesh S. (2015). "Beryllium monohydride (BeH): Where we are now, after 86 years of spectroscopy". Journal of ...
ISBN 978-0-309-10128-8. IARC Monograph "Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds" National Pollutant Inventory: Beryllium and ... Beryllium compounds are highly toxic. The increased toxicity of beryllium in the presence of fluoride has been noted as early ... Gaseous beryllium fluoride adopts a linear structure, with a Be-F distance of 143 pm. BeF2 reaches a vapor pressure of 10 Pa at ... Thus, ADP and beryllium fluoride together tend to bind to ATP sites and inhibit protein action, making it possible to ...
CH4 Beryllium iodide reacts with fluorine giving beryllium fluoride and fluorides of iodine, with chlorine giving beryllium ... Beryllium iodide can be used in the preparation of high-purity beryllium by the decomposition of the compound on a hot tungsten ... Beryllium iodide can be prepared by reacting beryllium metal with elemental iodine at temperatures of 500 °C to 700 °C: Be + I2 ... BeI2 Beryllium iodide is also formed when beryllium carbide reacts with hydrogen iodide in the gas phase: Be2C + 4 HI → 2 BeI2 ...
... is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Be(BH4)2. Beryllium borohydride is formed by the ... Beryllium is 6-coordinate and adopts a distorted trigonal prismatic geometry. The purest beryllium hydride is obtained by the ... It can also be formed by the reaction of beryllium chloride and lithium borohydride in a sealed tube at 120 °C: BeCl2 + 2LiBH4 ... ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8. Marynick, Dennis S.; Lipscomb, William N. (1 April 1972). "Crystal structure of beryllium borohydride ...
It takes two forms: Acute beryllium poisoning, usually as a result of exposure to soluble beryllium salts Chronic beryllium ... Beryllium poisoning is poisoning by the toxic effects of beryllium, or more usually its compounds. ... Beryllium, Toxic effects of metals, Articles with short description, Short description with empty Wikidata description, All set ... disease (CBD) or berylliosis, usually as a result of long-term exposure to beryllium oxide usually caused by inhalation. This ...
... can be prepared by calcining (roasting) beryllium carbonate, dehydrating beryllium hydroxide, or igniting ... Beryllium Oxide MSDS from American Beryllia IARC Monograph "Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds" International Chemical Safety ... Sintered beryllium oxide is a very stable ceramic. Beryllium oxide is used in rocket engines[citation needed] and as a ... "Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007 ...
"Noble gas bound beryllium chromate and beryllium hydrogen phosphate: a comparison with noble gas bound beryllium oxide". RSC ... Beryllium chromate is claimed to be obtained from the reaction of beryllium hydroxide and chromium trioxide: Be(OH)2 + CrO3 → ... H2O The reaction of potassium chromate and beryllium sulfate is claimed to produce beryllium hydroxide: BeSO4 + 2K2CrO4 + H2O ... Beryllium chromate is a hypothetical inorganic compound, with the chemical formula of BeCrO4.[citation needed] It is predicted ...
"Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds" IPCS Health & Safety Guide 44 IPCS Environmental Health Criteria 106: Beryllium IPCS CICAD ... Beryllium sulfate may be prepared by treating an aqueous solution of many beryllium salts with sulfuric acid, followed by ... The existence of the tetrahedral [Be(OH2)4]2+ ion in aqueous solutions of beryllium nitrate and beryllium chloride has been ... A mixture of beryllium and radium sulfate was used as the neutron source in the discovery of nuclear fission. Weast, Robert C ...
Copper and compounds fact sheet Copper beryllium and nickel beryllium datasheets Copper beryllium and nickel beryllium WIRE ... Beryllium copper (BeCu), also known as copper beryllium (CuBe), beryllium bronze, and spring copper, is a copper alloy with 0.5 ... Copper beryllium alloy containing less than 2.5% beryllium (in copper) is not designated as a carcinogen. Beryllium copper is a ... High-strength beryllium copper alloys contain as much as 2.7% beryllium (cast), or 1.6-2% beryllium with about 0.3% cobalt ( ...
... , Be(N3)2, is an inorganic compound. It is a beryllium salt of hydrazoic acid HN3. Beryllium azide has been ... Wiberg, E.; Horst, M. (1954). "Beryllium azide, Be(N3)2". Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B. 9: 502. NIOSH Pocket Guide to ... 2 CH4 IR and Raman spectra suggest that beryllium azide consists of infinite chains, with tetrahedrally coordinated Be2+ ions ... "Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of beryllium azide and two derivatives". Main Group Metal Chemistry. 22 (6): 357- ...
... (BeTe) is a chemical compound of beryllium and tellurium. It is a crystalline solid with the lattice ... Beryllium compounds, Tellurides, II-VI semiconductors, Zincblende crystal structure, All stub articles, Inorganic compound ...
... is prepared by heating the elements beryllium and carbon at elevated temperatures (above 950°C). It also may ... Beryllium carbide, or Be2C, is a metal carbide. Similar to diamond, it is a very hard compound. It is used in nuclear reactors ... 0054". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "Beryllium Carbide". American Elements. Retrieved 25 June ... be prepared by reduction of beryllium oxide with carbon at a temperature above 1,500°C: 2BeO + 3C → Be2C + 2CO Beryllium ...
... , Be3N2, is a nitride of beryllium. It can be prepared from the elements at high temperature (1100-1500 °C); ... unlike beryllium azide or BeN6, it decomposes in vacuum into beryllium and nitrogen. It is readily hydrolysed forming beryllium ... Beryllium nitride is prepared by heating beryllium metal powder with dry nitrogen in an oxygen-free atmosphere in temperatures ... Beryllium nitride reacts with mineral acids producing ammonia and the corresponding salts of the acids: Be3N2 + 6 HCl → 3 BeCl2 ...
... two helium-4 nuclei may collide and fuse into a single beryllium-8 nucleus. Beryllium-8 has an extremely short half-life (8.19× ... Beryllium-8 is unbound with respect to alpha emission by 92 keV; it is a resonance having a width of 6 eV. The nucleus of ... As beryllium-8 is unbound by only 92 keV, it is theorized that very small changes in nuclear potential and the fine tuning of ... Beryllium-8 (8Be, Be-8) is a radionuclide with 4 neutrons and 4 protons. It is an unbound resonance and nominally an isotope of ...
This has the same structure as zinc hydroxide, Zn(OH)2, with tetrahedral beryllium centers. Beryllium hydroxide is difficult to ... For example, with sulfuric acid, H2SO4, beryllium sulfate is formed: Be(OH)2 + H2SO4 → BeSO4 + 2 H2O Beryllium hydroxide ... Beryllium hydroxide, Be(OH)2, is an amphoteric hydroxide, dissolving in both acids and alkalis. Industrially, it is produced as ... The natural pure beryllium hydroxide is rare (in form of the mineral behoite, orthorhombic) or very rare (clinobehoite, ...
... powders can be prepared by the reaction of sulfur and beryllium in a hydrogen atmosphere by heating the ... The crystal structures of beryllium oxide and beryllium sulfide]. Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (in German). 119U (1): ... Beryllium sulfide (BeS) is an ionic compound from the sulfide group with the formula BeS. It is a white solid with a sphalerite ... Beryllium Sulfide, BeS". Analytical Chemistry. 28 (5): 915. doi:10.1021/ac60113a045. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "# ...
BeBr2 Beryllium bromide is also formed when treating beryllium oxide with hydrobromic acid: BeO + 2 HBr → BeBr2 + H2O It ... Beryllium bromide is the chemical compound with the formula BeBr2. It is very hygroscopic and dissolves well in water. The ... Beryllium compounds are toxic if inhaled or ingested. Perry, Dale L.; Phillips, Sidney L. (1995), Handbook of Inorganic ... It can be prepared by reacting beryllium metal with elemental bromine at temperatures of 500 °C to 700 °C: Be + Br2 → ...
Berylliosis is associated with exposure to beryllium in the beryllium mining, aerospace and manufacturing industries. Chronic ... Exposure to beryllium is associated with an increased risk for cancer [cite]. Granuloma List of cutaneous conditions James, ... Beryllium granulomas is a skin condition caused by granulomatous inflammation of the skin which may follow accident laceration ... Because of this, beryllium associated granulomas are occasionally responsive to steroids and other immunosuppressants [cite]. ...
... is used as a raw material for the electrolysis of beryllium, and as a catalyst for Friedel-Crafts reactions ... Its properties are similar to those of aluminium chloride, due to beryllium's diagonal relationship with aluminium. Beryllium ... Beryllium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula BeCl2. It is a colourless, hygroscopic solid that dissolves well ... Beryllium chloride dissolves to give tetrahedral [Be(OH2)4]2+ ion in aqueous solutions as confirmed by vibrational spectroscopy ...
... , Beryllium, Lists of isotopes by element, Pages that use a deprecated format of the chem tags). ... Beryllium (4Be) has 11 known isotopes and 3 known isomers, but only one of these isotopes (9 Be ) is stable and a primordial ... Beryllium is prevented from having a stable isotope with 4 protons and 6 neutrons by the very large mismatch in neutron-proton ... Other possible beryllium isotopes have even more severe mismatches in neutron and proton number, and thus are even less stable ...
... is useful to extract and purify beryllium rich fractions for many purposes. Basic beryllium acetate single crystals can easily ... Basic beryllium acetate has a tetrahedral Be4O6+ core with acetates (CH3CO2−) spanning each of the pairs of Be2+ centres. It ... Basic beryllium acetate is the chemical compound with the formula Be4O(O2CCH3)6. This compound adopts a distinctive structure, ... It can be prepared by treating basic beryllium carbonate with hot acetic acid. 2 Be2CO3(OH)2 + 6 AcOH → Be4O(AcO)6 + 5 H2O + 2 ...
Report on Carcinogens, Thirteenth Edition Beryllium and Beryllium Compounds Lang, Leslie (June-July 1994). "Beryllium: A ... Acute beryllium disease was first reported in Europe in 1933 and in the United States in 1943. OSHA Beryllium Health Effects ... Acute beryllium poisoning is acute chemical pneumonitis resulting from the toxic effect of beryllium in its elemental form or ... Beryllium dust or powder can irritate the eyes. Acute beryllium poisoning is an occupational disease. Relevant occupations are ...
This page provides supplementary chemical data on beryllium oxide. Beryllium Oxide MSDS from American Beryllia This box: view ...
Collantine, Keith (8 February 2007). "Banned! - Beryllium". F1 Fanatic. Retrieved 11 July 2011. "www.itv-f1.com/news_article. ... use of beryllium alloys in chassis or engine construction banned. Fully-automatic transmissions and launch control are also ...
Beryllium azide, BeN6 is known and beryllium phosphide, Be3P2 has a similar structure to Be3N2. A number of beryllium borides ... Solutions of beryllium salts, such as beryllium sulfate and beryllium nitrate, are acidic because of hydrolysis of the [Be(H2O) ... A beryllium atom has the electronic configuration [He] 2s2. The predominant oxidation state of beryllium is +2; the beryllium ... Beryllium hydroxide created using either the sinter or melt method is then converted into beryllium fluoride or beryllium ...
Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique mechanical and thermal properties that make it ideal for use in many applications ... Production of beryllium oxide began in the late 1950s.. Four NIOSH Divisions have beryllium-related projects:. beryllium- ... Beryllium and beryllium-containing alloys and compounds have been produced commercially in the US since the 1940s. ... Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique mechanical and thermal properties that make it ideal for use in many applications ...
... of all people occupationally-exposed to beryllium in air become sensitive to beryllium and may develop chronic beryllium ... Beryllium has been found in at least 535 of the 1,613 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection ... Lung damage has been observed in people exposed to high levels of beryllium in the air. About 1-15% ... People working or living near beryllium industries have the greatest potential for exposure to beryllium. ...
Toxicological profile for Beryllium. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
Beryllium has phenomenal heat-flow characteristics. It cools off very quickly. So take that idea, and now mix beryllium with ... But the up-side is that if beryllium winds up in the nuclear fuel cycle, itll increase global beryllium demand by an order of ... Beryllium prices are not on a tear…yet. But I am very bullish about the long-term prospects for this "minor metal." The Daily ... Beryllium demand might receive a significant bump over the next few years, if a developmental nuclear energy technology takes ...
Beryllium and tungsten deposits of the Iron Mountain district Sierra and Socorro counties New Mexico, with a section on the ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Beryllium. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Beryllium results for Western Carriage ... Beryllium. Western Carriage Estates. Beryllium is a toxic metal that is both naturally occurring and released into the ... The EWG Health Guideline of 1 ppb for beryllium was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment ... The legal limit for beryllium, established in 1992, was based on a toxicity study in laboratory animals published in 1970. This ...
Beryllium Disease among Workers in a Spacecraft- Manufacturing Plant -- California From 1977 to 1981, three cases of beryllium ... of beryllium metal and melting of beryllium-containing alloys, the manufacturing of electronic devices, and the handling of ... He worked with beryllium metal and alloys from 1960 through the mid-1970s at three different plants of this company, two of ... Acute beryllium disease in the form of chemical pneumonitis was first reported in Europe in 1933 (1) and in the United States ...
Acute beryllium disease can progress to chronic beryllium disease.. *The distinguishing feature of acute beryllium disease is ... Beryllium is one of the heaviest metals known.. *Pure beryllium is a naturally occurring hard, grayish material obtained from ... Today, acute beryllium disease is a rare occurrence in the workplace.. *Chronic beryllium disease predominantly affects the ... Who is at risk of exposure to beryllium? *Identify who is at risk of exposure to beryllium in the home ...
Atomic Reference Data for Electronic Structure Calculations, Beryllium * Atomic Reference Data for Electronic Structure ...
Master alloys containing beryllium are added to aluminum magnesium melts at low levels to reduce magnesium losses. ... Metal; Nonferrous Metal; Aluminum Alloy; Beryllium Alloy. Material Notes: With the use of master alloys containing special ... Small beryllium additions also improve surface quality of DC billet as well as impart improved mechanical properties to premium ... Master alloys containing beryllium are added to aluminum magnesium melts at low levels to reduce magnesium losses. ...
This specification covers a beryllium in the form of bars, rods, tubing, and machined shapes from vacuum hot pressed powder. ... Beryllium Bars, Rods, Tubing, and Shapes Instrument Grade AMS7907 This specification covers a beryllium in the form of bars, ...
Beryllium. Find out what is in your tap water ... EWGs Tap Water Database Beryllium results for La Jara Water ... Beryllium. La Jara Water Users Association. Beryllium is a toxic metal that is both naturally occurring and released into the ... The EWG Health Guideline of 1 ppb for beryllium was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment ... The legal limit for beryllium, established in 1992, was based on a toxicity study in laboratory animals published in 1970. This ...
Beryllium Bars Be bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term contracts ... Beryllium. 4 Be 9.012182000 Beryllium See more Beryllium products. Beryllium (atomic symbol: Be, atomic number: 4) is a Block S ... Besides beryllium bars, beryllium coins and beryllium Ingots may be purchased by funds, currency reserves, exchange-traded ... The beryllium atom has a radius of 112 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 153 pm. Beryllium is a relatively rare element in the ...
The dangers arise when beryllium-containing materials are processed in a way that releases airborne beryllium dust, fume, mist ... Beryllium is an extremely useful material, light as aluminum but strong as steel. It is found in a wide range of products, from ... Our proposal would lower the eight-hour permissible exposure limit for beryllium from 2.0 micrograms per cubic meter of air to ... The proposed rule would not cover some workers exposed to trace amounts of beryllium in raw materials, such as those employed ...
Beryllium Manufacturers. NAICS 331410.020100 , Industry Reports. Data applied from 12 establishments. Beryllium Manufacturers ... Beryllium Manufacturers Valuation Report Buy Now Bizminers Valuation reports provide the most comprehensive and in-depth ... Beryllium Manufacturers Market Report Buy Now The Market Report supports regional, small business, and entrepreneurial industry ... Beryllium Manufacturers Company Report Buy Now Understand a companys strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges in ...
This WebElements periodic table page contains properties of free atoms for the element beryllium ... The ionisation energies of beryllium are given below.. Ionisation energies of beryllium. Ionisation energy number. Enthalpy / ... The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral beryllium is [He].2s2 and the term symbol is 1S0. ... Beryllium - 4Be Your user agent does not support the HTML5 Audio element. 🔊 ...
... exposure to beryllium - a substance known to cause cancer - has been pushed back. Again.This time to May 20. ... to the toxic metal beryllium.. Beryllium is a is a strong, lightweight metal used in the aerospace, electronics, energy, ... Long Awaited Beryllium Rule Pushed Back Again. The effective date of a long-awaited rule that would reduce workers exposure to ... The effective date of a long-awaited rule that would reduce workers exposure to beryllium - a substance known to cause cancer ...
There had been some hyped about beryllium-diffused blue sapphire and this article will discuss what the experts say and think ... Beryllium-Diffused Blue Sapphire. Beryllium diffusion typically brightens the color of ruby or sapphire, making a stone more ... The beryllium-diffused blue sapphires can be identified with the same high-tech techniques already in use to detect beryllium- ... Beryllium is diffused throughout the entire body of the sapphire, which requires extensive heat-treatment with beryllium, on ...
Rosa Maldonado, 56, was gone; shed died a victim of the horrid chronic beryllium disease, on May 7, 2003, four months before ... since the last blowout hearing about the dangers of beryllium at the southside maker of ceramics and components that are used ...
For example, exposure to beryllium, in addition to lung cancer, also causes incurable chronic beryllium disease. ... the pulmonary and systemic granulomatous disease caused by exposure to beryllium by inhalation ...
Berylium - Freeware by Ray Larabie Download free fonts. Thousands of true type fonts and dingbats for PC and Mac. 2000 Ray ... type foundry typodermic was updated in 2004 berylium-bold font berylium-italic font berylium bold italic font berylium font ... Tags: berylium bold italic 2000 ray larabie this font is freeware read attached text file for details info updates visit www ... Tags: berylium 2000 ray larabie this font is freeware read attached text file for details info updates visit www larabiefonts ...
Chemistry: Be2SiO4, Beryllium silicate. *Class: Silicates *Subclass: Nesosilicates *Group: Phenakite. *Uses: sometimes cut as a ... Phenakite is a rare beryllium mineral, but it is found so frequently with precious gemstones that its availablity is not in ... This is a single crystal of phenakite, a beryllium silicate mineral. It is roughly hexagonal in shape, with roof shaped edges. ...
Beryllium-containing gyroscope module.. Source: eBay seller parker282828. Contributor: Theodore Gray. Acquired: 15 June, 2004. ...
Beryllium raw material.. Description supplied by the source:. This piece of beryllium was originally purchased about 25 years ... like all beryllium, mind-bogglingly light to hold- our brains are not used to hefting a piece of beryllium and associating that ... and fabrication of beryllium. This sample certainly shows some of the difficulties in dealing with pure beryllium- from the ...
OSHA Beryllium Rule Maintains "Ancillary" Protections for Construction and Shipyard Industries. A final rule published in the ... An OSHA press release indicates that the agency plans to propose a new rule that would "amend the beryllium standards for ... "OSHA finds that other OSHA standards do not duplicate the requirements of the ancillary provisions in the beryllium standards ... from the demonstrated significant risks of material impairment of health resulting from exposure to beryllium and beryllium ...
... en route to the 2-coordinate beryllium amide, [SiNDippBe]. Lithium or sodium reduction of [SiNDippBe] in benzene, provides the ... Beryllium-centred C-H activation of benzene K. G. Pearce, M. S. Hill and M. F. Mahon, Chem. Commun., 2023, 59, 1453 DOI: ... en route to the 2-coordinate beryllium amide, [SiNDippBe]. Lithium or sodium reduction of [SiNDippBe] in benzene, provides the ...
This is a complete x-ray tube with a chromium target and three beryllium windows (used because beryllium is largely transparent ...
Ed Pegg got these little lumps of pure beryllium from Tom Salow.. I chose this sample to represent its element in my ...
  • Our proposal would lower the eight-hour permissible exposure limit for beryllium from 2.0 micrograms per cubic meter of air to 0.2 micrograms per cubic meter - a 90% reduction. (osha.gov)
  • The final rule reduces the permissible exposure limit from 2.0 micrograms per cubic meter of air to 0.2 micrograms of beryllium per cubic meter of air over an eight-hour period. (manufacturing.net)
  • The rule does not affect requirements to comply with OSHA's permissible exposure limit of 0.2 µg/m3 and short-term exposure limit of 2 µg/m3 for beryllium. (aiha.org)
  • It should be stressed that due to the nature of the operations, we believed it to be unlikely we would find any measurable airborne beryllium over the California PEL (permissible exposure limit) of 0.2 micrograms of beryllium per cubic meter of air (alevel that has been demonstrated to be effective in presenting health effects). (ohsonline.com)
  • In 1948, the U.S. government, through the now-defunct Atomic Energy Commission, established the permissible exposure limit for beryllium at 2.0 micrograms per cubic meter of air. (allgov.com)
  • With that in mind, OSHA seeks in the new rule to reduce the permissible exposure limit for beryllium to 0.2 micrograms per cubic meter of air averaged over eight hours. (foley.com)
  • The metal oxidizes in bulk (beyond the passivation layer) when heated above 500 °C (932 °F), and burns brilliantly when heated to about 2,500 °C (4,530 °F). The commercial use of beryllium requires the use of appropriate dust control equipment and industrial controls at all times because of the toxicity of inhaled beryllium-containing dusts that can cause a chronic life-threatening allergic disease in some people called berylliosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Workers exposed to beryllium are at risk for developing acute beryllium disease and sensitized people are at risk for developing chronic beryllium disease. (cdc.gov)
  • People with chronic beryllium disease develop lesions (masses) in the lungs that can lead to scarring. (cdc.gov)
  • Editorial Note: Chronic berylliosis is a pulmonary and systemic granulomatous disease caused by exposure to beryllium. (cdc.gov)
  • Ingestion of beryllium is associated with high rates of chronic beryllium disease. (cdc.gov)
  • People who have chronic beryllium disease should be considered infectious. (cdc.gov)
  • In beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease, a susceptible person develops a cell-mediated, delayed hypersensitivity reaction after beryllium exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Both individual susceptibility and exposure circumstances are important in developing chronic beryllium disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute and chronic beryllium disease results from the same physiologic mechanism. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute beryllium disease can progress to chronic beryllium disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Chronic beryllium disease predominantly affects the lungs and skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease have certain manifestations that are similar. (cdc.gov)
  • Pulmonary function tests and a chest radiograph can be used to distinguish a patient with sarcoidosis from one with chronic beryllium disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Most patients with chronic beryllium disease require steroid therapy for less than one year. (cdc.gov)
  • We estimate that, each year, it could prevent almost 100 deaths and 50 illnesses, including cases of the debilitating, incurable illness known as chronic beryllium disease. (osha.gov)
  • In fact, to date, the Department of Labor has paid more than $500 million in compensation to nearly 2,500 former or current nuclear weapons workers who developed chronic beryllium disease after being exposed to beryllium. (osha.gov)
  • When ground, sanded or cut, the metal's dust can cause an incurable, and often fatal, lung disease - Chronic Beryllium Disease. (manufacturing.net)
  • she'd died a victim of the horrid chronic beryllium disease, on May 7, 2003, four months before Sunnyside neighbors, environmentalists, Pima County bureaucrats and a few politicians gathered to address the long-delayed revisions to Brush's air-quality permit. (cpeo.org)
  • For example, exposure to beryllium, in addition to lung cancer, also causes incurable chronic beryllium disease. (europa.eu)
  • Our company is demonstrating that new cases of chronic beryllium disease can be successfully prevented in the primary manufacturing industries where there had been a risk. (ohsonline.com)
  • OSHA states that if inhaled or touched, beryllium is highly toxic and poses an increased risk of chronic beryllium disease or lung cancer. (foley.com)
  • Your doctor starts with your medical history, occupational background, and medical examinations when making diagnosis of beryllium disease specifically chronic beryllium disease or CBD. (chronicberylliumdisease.com)
  • Acute and chronic beryllium disease are caused by inhalation of dust or fumes from beryllium compounds and products. (msdmanuals.com)
  • chronic beryllium disease is characterized by the formation of granulomas especially in the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Chronic beryllium disease continues to occur in industries that use beryllium and beryllium alloy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 1. MacMurdo MG, Mroz MM, Culver DA, Dweik RA, Maier LA . Chronic Beryllium Disease: Update on a Moving Target. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Beryllium and beryllium-containing alloys and compounds have been produced commercially in the US since the 1940s. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus revoking all of the ancillary provisions and leaving only the PEL and STEL would be inconsistent with OSHA's statutory mandate to protect workers from the demonstrated significant risks of material impairment of health resulting from exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. (aiha.org)
  • Compounds of beryllium are very poisonous. (mineralseducationcoalition.org)
  • Go to OSHA's web site at https://www.osha.gov/berylliumrule/index.html to learn about the final rule in place to protect workers from Beryllium exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Outdated exposure limits do not adequately protect workers from beryllium exposure," said Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health Dr. David Michaels. (manufacturing.net)
  • When added as an alloying element to aluminium, copper (notably the alloy beryllium copper), iron, or nickel, beryllium improves many physical properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, tools and components made of beryllium copper alloys are strong and hard and do not create sparks when they strike a steel surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beryllium Copper jingles have a complex sonority that is a warm balance between lushness and zing. (blackswamp.com)
  • Made of beryllium copper that is Factory Mutual approved, these nonmagnetic, corrosion-resistant inhibit sparking. (mcmaster.com)
  • Never sharpen or grind beryllium copper. (mcmaster.com)
  • Use our Quick Search below to source beryllium copper spring clips and spring steel spring clips from our wide selection of options. (seastrom-mfg.com)
  • The Global Info Research report includes an overview of the development of the Beryllium Alloy Products industry chain, the market status of Aerospace (Beryllium Copper Products, Beryllium Aluminum Products), Automotive (Beryllium Copper Products, Beryllium Aluminum Products), and key enterprises in developed and developing market, and analysed the cutting-edge technology, patent, hot applications and market trends of Beryllium Alloy Products. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • Beryllium Copper Products, Beryllium Aluminum Products). (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • From 1977 to 1981, three cases of beryllium disease (berylliosis) among workers in a large spacecraft-manufacturing plant in California, were reported to the Beryllium Case Registry (BCR) of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). (cdc.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified beryllium as carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on various studies and information, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified beryllium as carcinogenic. (foley.com)
  • The most important diagnostic test is the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) . (chronicberylliumdisease.com)
  • The proliferation of T cells from the lungs or blood when exposed to beryllium in vitro forms the basis of the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test [BeLPT] test, which is used clinically to identify immune sensitization to beryllium. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Beryllium is the fourth element in the periodic table. (ohsonline.com)
  • The new rule represents an example of how NIOSH research on beryllium has had a real impact in the workplace to reduce exposures and disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings of NIOSH research contributed to a rule that will lower exposures and reduce disease related to beryllium in workplace across the country. (cdc.gov)
  • Most significant exposures to beryllium are in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • The majority of worker exposures to beryllium today occur in operations such as foundry and smelting operations, machining, beryllium oxide ceramics and composites manufacturing, and dental lab work. (osha.gov)
  • The DOL stated in a release that recent scientific evidence shows low-level exposures to beryllium can cause serious lung disease. (manufacturing.net)
  • The new limits will reduce exposures and protect the lives and lungs of thousands if beryllium-exposed workers. (manufacturing.net)
  • An OSHA press release indicates that the agency plans to propose a new rule that would "amend the beryllium standards for construction and shipyards by more appropriately tailoring the requirements of the standards to the exposures in these industries. (aiha.org)
  • Also, at this downstream beryllium oxide user, in addition to a low potential for airborne beryllium, most operations already required controls, such as dust masks, to protect the product or ventilation to prevent workplace exposures to metallizing pastes. (ohsonline.com)
  • The risk of progression from beryllium exposure to beryllium sensitization is multifactorial, including the dose of exposures, duration of exposures, and genetic factors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • According to NASA, when the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is launched into space later this year, it will carry 18 gold-plated hexagonal mirrors made of beryllium. (earth.com)
  • We are proposing to dramatically lower the amount of beryllium allowed in the air that workers breathe. (osha.gov)
  • During a standard run when treating a large number of samples, a certain number of those stones remained light blue because of the inherent chemical composition and the amount of beryllium that entered the lattice. (ganoksin.com)
  • If you work with beryllium, it is important to follow all safety guidelines and wear protective equipment. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important to follow all National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) safety guidelines and regulations and wear personal protective equipment if you work with beryllium. (cdc.gov)
  • It is noteworthy that the nation's primary beryllium product manufacturer, Materion, and the United Steelworkers union, which represents many of those who work with beryllium, agreed that greater protections were needed. (osha.gov)
  • EPA determined that the carcinogenicity of ingested beryllium cannot be determined because there is not enough information to understand the toxicity for this route of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The legal limit for beryllium, established in 1992, was based on a toxicity study in laboratory animals published in 1970. (ewg.org)
  • With our analytical ability, we were able to detect as little as 0.007 micrograms of beryllium on a sample and collected over a cubic meter of air on all of the samples. (ohsonline.com)
  • Symptoms of acute beryllium disease include irritation of the lungs, nose, and throat, as well as trouble breathing and tiredness. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute beryllium disease in the form of chemical pneumonitis was first reported in Europe in 1933 (1) and in the United States in 1943 (2). (cdc.gov)
  • The distinguishing feature of acute beryllium disease is the presence of granulomas. (cdc.gov)
  • Today, acute beryllium disease is a rare occurrence in the workplace. (cdc.gov)
  • Acute beryllium disease is a chemical pneumonitis causing diffuse parenchymal inflammatory infiltrates and nonspecific intra-alveolar edema. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Acute beryllium disease is now rare because most industries have reduced exposure levels. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In theory, therefore, if you exposed hot beryllium alloy fuel rods to air, they wouldn't melt down on you. (businessinsider.com)
  • According to our (Global Info Research) latest study, the global Beryllium Alloy Products market size was valued at USD 1393.2 million in 2022 and is forecast to a readjusted size of USD 1871.5 million by 2029 with a CAGR of 4.3% during review period. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • The market for beryllium alloy products is steadily expanding, driven by their extensive applications in high-tech industries. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • In the future, beryllium alloy products are poised to benefit from technological advancements and growing industry demands, particularly in the fields of new energy technologies and high-speed communication, leading to further market expansion. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • Regionally, the report analyzes the Beryllium Alloy Products markets in key regions. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • Asia-Pacific, particularly China, leads the global Beryllium Alloy Products market, with robust domestic demand, supportive policies, and a strong manufacturing base. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • The report presents comprehensive understanding of the Beryllium Alloy Products market. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • The report analysis market dynamics, trends, challenges, and opportunities within the Beryllium Alloy Products industry. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • This analysis helps in understanding the key drivers and challenges influencing the Beryllium Alloy Products market. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • Regional Analysis: The report involves examining the Beryllium Alloy Products market at a regional or national level. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • Market Projections: Report covers the gathered data and analysis to make future projections and forecasts for the Beryllium Alloy Products market. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • Company Analysis: Report covers individual Beryllium Alloy Products manufacturers, suppliers, and other relevant industry players. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • Consumer Analysis: Report covers data on consumer behaviour, preferences, and attitudes towards Beryllium Alloy Products This may involve surveys, interviews, and analysis of consumer reviews and feedback from different by Application (Aerospace, Automotive). (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • Technology Analysis: Report covers specific technologies relevant to Beryllium Alloy Products. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • It assesses the current state, advancements, and potential future developments in Beryllium Alloy Products areas. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • Competitive Landscape: By analyzing individual companies, suppliers, and consumers, the report present insights into the competitive landscape of the Beryllium Alloy Products market. (reportsandmarkets.com)
  • Production of beryllium oxide began in the late 1950s. (cdc.gov)
  • In ceramic form, beryllium oxide (BeO) conducts heat but not electricity and has the highest thermal conductivity of commercially available ceramics. (ohsonline.com)
  • Beryllium oxide can be used safely. (ohsonline.com)
  • This microelectronics facility was not processing the beryllium oxide circuit board material in ways that was likely to cause beryllium oxide to be released. (ohsonline.com)
  • Manuf of beryllium and beryllium oxide. (drugfuture.com)
  • Naturally occurring beryllium, save for slight contamination by the cosmogenic radioisotopes, is isotopically pure beryllium-9, which has a nuclear spin of 3/2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure beryllium is a naturally occurring hard, grayish material obtained from mineral rocks bertrandite and beryl. (cdc.gov)
  • This sample certainly shows some of the difficulties in dealing with pure beryllium- from the internal surface texture, it is pretty clear that the stuff is ridiculously brittle. (theodoregray.com)
  • Ed Pegg got these little lumps of pure beryllium from Tom Salow. (theodoregray.com)
  • A final rule published in the Federal Register on September 30 maintains "ancillary" protections for workers in OSHA's beryllium standard for the construction and shipyard industries. (aiha.org)
  • In an op-ed in RealClearHealth, Public Citizen harshly criticized a Trump administration proposal to eliminate the "ancillary provisions" of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's beryllium rule that would have extended specific new protections to construction and shipyard workers, including exposure assessments, personal protective equipment, medical surveillance and protected work areas. (citizen.org)
  • The alterations to OSHA's beryllium rule provisions, listed in the proposed rule stage in the Fall 2018 regulatory agenda, now join a similar entry concerning beryllium in the construction and shipyard sectors . (safetyandhealthmagazine.com)
  • Once the new requirements are in full effect, OSHA estimates the change will save the lives of 94 workers annually from beryllium-related diseases as well as prevent 46 new cases of beryllium-related disease. (manufacturing.net)
  • OSHA finds that other OSHA standards do not duplicate the requirements of the ancillary provisions in the beryllium standards for construction and shipyards in their entirety," the rule reads. (aiha.org)
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has proposed lowering the safe exposure level for beryllium, a potentially harmful metal, for the first time since the Truman administration. (allgov.com)
  • OSHA first proposed lowering the beryllium workplace standard in 1975 but efforts to do so were beaten back over the years by industry resistance, technical debates and political stalling," The New York Times reported. (allgov.com)
  • The change came as a result of the lone beryllium producer, Materion , and the United Steelworkers submitting a proposal to OSHA. (allgov.com)
  • On March 1, 2017, the United States Department of Labor proposed another delay to the effective date of Occupational Safety and Health Administration's ("OSHA") new beryllium rule . (foley.com)
  • OSHA originally published the beryllium rule on January 9, 2017, with an effective date of March 10, 2017. (foley.com)
  • 4. Changing policy - Reaping the benefits of 30 years of our research and advocacy when the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issued a new federal standard limiting workers' exposure to the toxic metal beryllium - a measure that will save lives. (cdc.gov)
  • Washington - Changes to provisions in OSHA's beryllium rule for general industry have moved to the final rule stage, according to the Department of Labor's Spring 2019 regulatory agenda . (safetyandhealthmagazine.com)
  • Breathing in beryllium can lead to lung disease and lung cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • There are blood tests that measure whether you have been exposed to beryllium and might be at risk of developing beryllium lung disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The BCR, established at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1952 to collect data and to study the clinical course, treatment, and complications of beryllium disease (4), was maintained by the Pulmonary Unit of the Massachusetts General Hospital through 1977. (cdc.gov)
  • Some individuals have a genetic susceptibility to beryllium sensitization or disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Skin contact with ultrafine beryllium particles may cause disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The period between initial beryllium exposure and detectable disease can be less than one year. (cdc.gov)
  • Since then, it has tried to lower the limit after research showed beryllium at the old limit can cause a deadly form of lung disease. (allgov.com)
  • The agency estimates the metal causes nearly 250 new cases of beryllium lung disease each year. (allgov.com)
  • CBD is an occupational lung disease caused by extended exposure to beryllium. (chronicberylliumdisease.com)
  • Beryllium can damage lungs, bones and the digestive system. (ewg.org)
  • Together, they have created a historic opportunity to protect the lives and lungs of thousands of beryllium-exposed workers. (osha.gov)
  • Beryllium is one of the heaviest metals known. (cdc.gov)
  • Metals (beryllium and zirconium), min- node resection from 1991 to 2001. (cdc.gov)
  • Beryllium is a lightweight metal that is found naturally in rocks, coal, soil, and volcanic dust. (cdc.gov)
  • The dangers arise when beryllium-containing materials are processed in a way that releases airborne beryllium dust, fume, mist or other forms. (osha.gov)
  • This is a complete x-ray tube with a chromium target and three beryllium windows (used because beryllium is largely transparent to x-rays). (theodoregray.com)
  • Anything over that level, employers must take steps to reduce the airborne concentration of beryllium. (manufacturing.net)
  • Thick film metallization operations have a potential for generating measurable airborne beryllium. (ohsonline.com)
  • Maintenance personnel were also evaluated based on the potential to generate airborne beryllium particulate during maintenance on equipment and other non-routine tasks. (ohsonline.com)
  • This operation and many others we're in the process of characterizing are typical of downstream users: They use beryllium products but don't create measurable airborne beryllium particulate. (ohsonline.com)
  • Beryllium is a toxic metal that is both naturally occurring and released into the environment from industrial pollution and incineration. (ewg.org)
  • to the toxic metal beryllium. (manufacturing.net)
  • Master alloys containing beryllium are added to aluminum magnesium melts at low levels to reduce magnesium losses. (matweb.com)
  • Small beryllium additions also improve surface quality of DC billet as well as impart improved mechanical properties to premium quality aluminum casting. (matweb.com)
  • Beryllium is an extremely useful material, light as aluminum but strong as steel. (osha.gov)
  • This region is the source of a rare metal called beryllium that is one-third the weight of aluminum but six times stronger than steel. (earth.com)
  • All three patients were machinists who had worked with beryllium metal from the late 1950s to the mid-1970s, fabricating special parts for missile guidance systems. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to beryllium can also cause something called beryllium sensitization, an immune response that can lead to more serious health problems if the person keeps being exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Skin contact with beryllium may cause an allergic response or lead to beryllium sensitization. (cdc.gov)
  • If you think you are exposed to beryllium, ask your doctor or nurse about getting this blood test for beryllium sensitization. (cdc.gov)
  • A positive result will indicate that you have beryllium exposure and sensitization and may require additional tests for a more accurate diagnosis. (chronicberylliumdisease.com)
  • Beryllium is a naturally occurring metal found in several minerals. (cdc.gov)
  • Most beryllium around Spor Mountain is found within minerals such as bertrandite and beryl that formed 25 million years ago in lava. (earth.com)
  • Other beryllium-bearing minerals include chrysoberyl, gadolinite and herderite. (mineralseducationcoalition.org)
  • In structural applications, the combination of high flexural rigidity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity and low density (1.85 times that of water) make beryllium metal a desirable aerospace material for aircraft components, missiles, spacecraft, and satellites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beryllium is a lightweight metal with unique mechanical and thermal properties that make it ideal for use in many applications and industries including defense, aerospace, telecommunications, automotive electronics, and medical specialties. (cdc.gov)
  • Because it is lightweight and strong, beryllium has many uses in the electronics, aerospace, and defense industries. (cdc.gov)
  • The effective date of a long-awaited rule that would reduce workers' exposure to beryllium - a substance known to cause cancer - has been pushed back. (manufacturing.net)
  • The proposed extension of the effective date will not affect the compliance dates of the beryllium rule. (manufacturing.net)
  • But employers subject to the beryllium rule should keep in mind that the proposed extension will not immediately affect compliance dates. (foley.com)
  • 2019 Outlook of Beryllium Market in China provides Comprehensive Overview along with in-depth analysis of value chain. (emailwire.com)
  • EMAILWIRE.COM , April 15, 2019 ) Beryllium sector is one of the high potential industries in China with strong business growth opportunities for existing and new players. (emailwire.com)
  • Gemstones high in beryllium include beryl (aquamarine, emerald, red beryl) and chrysoberyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cutaneous granulomas result from beryllium inhalation only. (cdc.gov)
  • This nuclear reaction is: 9 4Be + n → 2 4 2He + 2 n Neutrons are liberated when beryllium nuclei are struck by energetic alpha particles producing the nuclear reaction 9 4Be + 4 2He → 12 6C + n where 4 2He is an alpha particle and 12 6C is a carbon-12 nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, natural beryllium bombarded either by alphas or gammas from a suitable radioisotope is a key component of most radioisotope-powered nuclear reaction neutron sources for the laboratory production of free neutrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beryllium demand might receive a significant bump over the next few years, if a developmental nuclear energy technology takes hold. (businessinsider.com)
  • How long will it take to get the beryllium idea running in the nuclear field? (businessinsider.com)
  • But the up-side is that if beryllium winds up in the nuclear fuel cycle, it'll increase global beryllium demand by an order of magnitude. (businessinsider.com)
  • Market value of Beryllium market in 2018 is assessed and is forecast annually to 2025 in the reference case scenario. (emailwire.com)
  • Beryllium has a large scattering cross section for high-energy neutrons, about 6 barns for energies above approximately 10 keV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, for high-energy neutrons, beryllium is a neutron multiplier, releasing more neutrons than it absorbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beryllium also releases neutrons under bombardment by gamma rays. (wikipedia.org)
  • If one has an disk-shaped alpha source about the size of the flat head of a thumbtack, and this is directed at a 1-inch diameter sphere of beryllium from a distance of 0mm (meaning contact), with the source directly above the beryllium, is there a specific direction in which the neutrons will be emitted? (chemicalforums.com)
  • Phenakite is a rare beryllium mineral, but it is found so frequently with precious gemstones that its availablity is not in proportion to its rarity. (galleries.com)
  • Some people are genetically sensitive to the harmful effects of beryllium. (cdc.gov)
  • Today we are taking a long-overdue step toward protecting workers from harmful exposure to beryllium, a widely-used material that can cause devastating lung diseases. (osha.gov)
  • The release of highly toxic beryllium in sludge (BCS) produced by physico-chemical treatment of beryllium-containing wastewater from Be smelting production has become a growing concern with the widespread use of Be in the defense industry. (bvsalud.org)
  • We have known for decades that the allowable exposure levels for beryllium are inadequate. (osha.gov)
  • However, as the research of Dr. John Emmett and others has shown, a blue sapphire with a concentration of titanium higher than the combined concentration of magnesium that is inherent in the stone and the beryllium that is introduced may remain blue after beryllium diffusion,' said Christopher Smith, director of identification services at the GIA Gem Trade Laboratory in New York City. (ganoksin.com)
  • Records of the company's air sampling for beryllium indicated that, from 1963 to 1973, 14%-44% of samples* taken at the machine shops exceeded the present standard for exposure to beryllium. (cdc.gov)
  • At the time, we were already hard at work on a beryllium standard. (osha.gov)
  • As time passed, another option includes inadvertent contamination,' which could occur if blue sapphires were heated using standard techniques in the same furnaces used for beryllium diffusion, without changing the internal components. (ganoksin.com)
  • When beryllium diffusion was first introduced to the market in 2001, uncertainty about disclosure created a controversy that led to a sharp drop in prices for the diffused stones. (ganoksin.com)
  • The issue has caused a storm of controversy among dealers in Bangkok, some of whom were badly burned when the original controversy over beryllium-diffused sapphire erupted in 2001. (ganoksin.com)
  • Meet the Neighbors A developer has big plans for land near Brush Wellman's southside factory By CHRIS LIMBERIS Tucson Weekly March 10, 2005 It had been three years--and at least one well-documented death of a Brush Wellman worker--since the last blowout hearing about the dangers of beryllium at the southside maker of ceramics and components that are used in electronics. (cpeo.org)
  • See the Beryllium Worker Protection Model sidebar on page 36. (ohsonline.com)
  • Using beryllium doesn't necessarily mean worker exposure to beryllium. (ohsonline.com)