Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Blueberry Plant: Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Ribes: A plant genus of the family GROSSULARIACEAE. GAMMA-LINOLENIC ACID is obtained from the black currant oil of the seeds.Viburnum: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Lycium: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.Lonicera: A plant genus of the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glucosides.Vaccinium: A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE known for species with edible fruits.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Hippophae: A plant genus of the family ELAEAGNACEAE. Linoleic (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acids (18:3n-3) comprised about 70% of seed oil fatty acids. This is unrelated to 'artificial sea buckthorn oil'. This genus does not belong to the buckthorn family (RHAMNACEAE).Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Ellagic Acid: A fused four ring compound occurring free or combined in galls. Isolated from the kino of Eucalyptus maculata Hook and E. Hemipholia F. Muell. Activates Factor XII of the blood clotting system which also causes kinin release; used in research and as a dye.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Hydrolyzable Tannins: Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.Actinidia: A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.Myrtus: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. Members contain PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Elaeagnaceae: A plant family of the order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae class Magnoliopsida. The plants have a characteristic silvery or rusty-colored sheen, caused by tiny distinctive scales. Flowers have a tubular structure of four sepals. Root nodules host the Frankia (ACTINOMYCETES) nitrogen-fixing symbionts.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Crataegus: A genus in the family ROSACEAE of shrubs and small trees native to the North Temperate Zone. It is best known for a traditional medication for the heart.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.p-Chloromercuribenzoic Acid: An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Pimenta: A plant genus in the family MYRTACEAE, order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known for allspice from the dried berry of Pimenta diocia.Solanum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Panax: An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Oplopanax: A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It is the source of cirensenosides (triterpenoid saponins).Solanum nigrum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that contains steroidal glycosides.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Lecythidaceae: A plant family of the order Lecythidales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Physalis: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain physalin and withangulatin.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.DNA Shuffling: The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.Sambucus: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE known for elderberries.Eugenia: A genus in the family Myrtaceae sometimes known as "stoppers" in FOLK MEDICINE. Many species of the genus SYZYGIUM have synonymous names that begin with the Eugenia genus name.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.TartratesStilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Laurus: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Laurus nobilis L. leaves are known for use in SPICES, having a similar flavor as UMBELLULARIA.Capparis: A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains mabinlin, a sweet protein.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Dimethylnitrosamine: A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Taxus: Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Sporangia: A structure found in plants, fungi, and algae, that produces and contains spores.Mistletoe: Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Frozen FoodsGinsenosides: Dammarane type triterpene saponins based mainly on the aglycones, protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.AlaskaProtein O-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to free carboxyl groups of a protein molecule forming methyl esters. EC 2.1.1.-.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Baccharis: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.HydrocarbonsFood Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Gene Ontology: Sets of structured vocabularies used for describing and categorizing genes, and gene products by their molecular function, involvement in biological processes, and cellular location. These vocabularies and their associations to genes and gene products (Gene Ontology annotations) are generated and curated by the Gene Ontology Consortium.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Aldehyde-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze a reverse aldol condensation. A molecule containing a hydroxyl group and a carbonyl group is cleaved at a C-C bond to produce two smaller molecules (ALDEHYDES or KETONES). EC 4.1.2.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Slovenia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.FinlandAcyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.ChitinaseColor: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.HexosesMitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sugar AcidsStarch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lignans: A class of dibenzylbutane derivatives which occurs in higher plants and in fluids (bile, serum, urine, etc.) in man and other animals. These compounds, which have a potential anti-cancer role, can be synthesized in vitro by human fecal flora. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Lipoxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Shawn Allen Berry[edit]. Shawn Allen Berry (born February 12, 1975) claimed that Brewer and King were entirely responsible for ... Berry married Christie Marcontell by proxy.[18] Marcontell was Berry's girlfriend at the time of the murder. They have two ... Berry, Brewer and King were tried and convicted for Byrd's murder. Brewer and King received the death penalty, while Berry was ... Berry, TDCJ#00894758, is currently held at the Ramsey Unit in Rosharon, Texas,[6] and his parole eligibility date is June 7, ...
The fruit is a small orange-red berry 5-7 mm diameter that contains a few large whitish to brownish colored seeds that dry to a ... All parts of the plant are highly poisonous, including the red berries which may be attractive to children.[20] If ingested- ...
Goalkeeper Gil Merrick, full-back Arthur Atkins and winger Johnny Berry were ever-present in the 48-game season, and Cyril ... Bill Smith pulled one back after Johnny Berry's corner rebounded from a post.[9] In the remainder of the match, Birmingham ...
Berry[change , change source]. If the entire fruit is fleshy, except for maybe a thin skin, we call the fruit a berry. A berry ... Achene · Berry · Capsule · Caryopsis · Drupe · Follicle · Hesperidium · Legume · Loment · Nut · Pome · Samara · Schizocarp · ... false berries: blackberry, strawberry, raspberry: they are aggregate fruits (see below). The yew berry is not a fruit at all ... berry fruits: redcurrant, gooseberry, cranberry, blueberry Also, but not commonly known as berry fruits, are tomato, avocado, ...
Fruit: A shiny dark purple berry held in racemose clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. Pedicels without berries have ... Kang, S.S. & Woo, W.S. (1980). "Triterpenes from the berries of Phytolacca americana". J. Nat. Prod. 43 (4): 510-3. doi:10.1021 ... Pokeweed berries are reported to be a good food source for songbirds such as gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), northern ... The toxic extract of pokeweed berries can be processed to yield a red ink or dye.[31][32][33] ...
Beyerstein, Berry. "Why Bogus Therapies Seem to Work." CSI.Committee For Skeptical Inquiry, Sept. 1997. Web. 15 Apr. 2015. ...
Molina, G; Weiser, TG; Lipsitz, SR; Esquivel, MM; Uribe-Leitz, T; Azad, T; Shah, N; Semrau, K; Berry, WR; Gawande, AA; Haynes, ...
Berry, D.A. (7 August 2008). "The science of doping". Nature. 454 (7205): 692-3. doi:10.1038/454692a. PMID 18685682.. ( ... Donald Berry, writing in the journal Nature, has called attention to potential problems with the validity of ways in which many ... Berry argues] ...that individual labs need to verify these detection limits in larger groups that include known dopers and non- ...
Berry, John. "A Neo-Grotesque Heritage". Adobe Systems. Retrieved 15 October 2015.. ...
Berry, Libby. "Medill's Justice Problem". North by Northwestern spring 2018 Magazine. Retrieved 2018-11-17.. ...
Berry, Anne; Golumbic, Martin Charles; Lipshteyn, Marina (2007), "Recognizing chordal probe graphs and cycle-bicolorable graphs ...
LeMone, Priscilla; Burke, Karen; Dwyer, Trudy; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Moxham, Lorna; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Berry, Kamaree; Carville ...
Karl Berry. "TEX Live 2010 news" (PDF). TUGboat. Portland, Oregon, United States: TeX Users Group. 31 (2): 173. Retrieved 29 ... Today, it is maintained by Karl Berry, Akira Kakuto, Luigi Scarso and many other people.[13] ...
Berry, K.; C. Berry; K. Berry; C. Berry (1987). "A survey of some West Papuan phylum languages". Workpapers in Indonesian ...
"Mexico's berry bounty fuels trade dispute - U.S. consumers dismiss U.S. berry farmers' complaints as 'sour berries'". American ... Folta, Kevin M.; Kole, Chittaranjan (2011). Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Berries. CRC Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-1578087075. ... "Berries As Symbols and in Folklore" (PDF). Cornell Fruit. Retrieved 11 August 2015.. ... Folta, Kevin M.; Kole, Chittaranjan (2011). Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Berries. CRC Press. pp. 69-71. ISBN 978- ...
Berries or groats. Milling. Farina. Flour. Middlings. Semolina. Parboiling. Bulgur. As an ingredient. *Bread ...
Berries or groats. Milling. Farina. Flour. Middlings. Semolina. Parboiling. Bulgur. As an ingredient. *Bread ...
Berries of belladonna. Decoctions of hallucinogenic plants such as henbane, belladonna, mandrake, datura,[20] and other plants ...
McCullough, Bruce D.; Wilson, Berry (2002). "On the accuracy of statistical procedures in Microsoft Excel 2000 and Excel XP". ...
Subbarao, G. V.; Ito, O.; Berry, W. L.; Wheeler, R. M. (2003). "Sodium-A Functional Plant Nutrient". Critical Reviews in Plant ...
"Knott's Berry Farm". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 9 October 2010.. *^ Morano, Chris. "Montezooma's Revenge". Roller ... "Jaguar! (Knott's Berry Farm)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 9 October 2010.. *^ Marden, Duane. "Pony Express (Knott's ... Montezooma's Revenge is a steel shuttle roller coaster at Knott's Berry Farm in Buena Park, California. It opened on May 21, ... "Montezooma's Revenge (Knott's Berry Farm)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 9 October 2010.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation ...
Wang, G. P.; Levine, B. L.; Binder, G. K.; Berry, C. C.; Malani, N.; McGarrity, G.; Tebas, P.; June, C. H.; Bushman, F. D. ( ...
Order †Cycadeoideales Berry 1920 [Bennettitales (Engler 1892) Schaffn.; Cycadeoideineae Němejc 1968; Williamsoniales Berry 1920 ...
Berry, Joanna (1985). "Blackout". Radio Times. Retrieved 1 March 2017.. ... A score of 2/5 was awarded by Joanna Berry of the Radio Times, who wrote that the film was an "average thriller" with "no real ...
Berry-bearing plants in the preserve include bog blueberry, crowberry, low-bush cranberry and cloudberry or salmonberry. ... "Wild Berries". Bering Land Bridge National Preserve. National Park Service. Retrieved 24 February 2013. "Lichens". Bering Land ...
The polysaccharides are the main components of Seabuckthorn berries, possessing immune stimulating, anti-cancer and anti- ... The berries of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are traditional medicinal foods that have been used by Tibetans and ... The berries of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) are traditional medicinal foods that have been used by Tibetans and ... Seabuckthorn berry polysaccharide protects against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice via anti-oxidative and ...
For Medical or food supplement, we all use Ningxia goji berry, as this is the origin source of goji berry to be used as ... RDHealthIngredients can offer new goji berry extract Lycium barbarum glycoconjugates LbGP. ... there are about Four Species of Goji Berry (Wolfberry) distributed in Ningxia, Qinghai, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang. ... Goji Berry Extract - Wolfberry. The Goji Berry (wolfberry, Lycium barbarum L.) grows on vines up to 20 feet (6 meters) high. ...
Red Berries All Winter The Sargent Cranberrybush Viburnum, Viburnum sargentii, is very similar to American Cranberrybush, but ... Red Berries All Winter The Sargent Cranberrybush Viburnum, Viburnum sargentii, is very similar to American Cranberrybush, but ...
Keywords: Goji berry, total phenol, antioxidant activity, mineral, fatty acid, ICP-AES, GC PDF Version ... K , Mg, Fe, P, Ca and Na contents of goji berry fruit were found as 13447.35 mg/Kg, 806.88 mg/Kg, 45.77 mg/Kg, 1103.30 mg/Kg, ... 7 . Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid composition and mineral contents of goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit. Back ... Its antioxidant activity value of goji berry fruit was determined as 20.78%. Goji fruit oil contained linoleic acid (60.77%), ...
The berry juice have been used on reddened iritated newborn skin. The essential oils are used to clear up skin acne. It is an ... The leaves and berries are macerating in alcohol to produce two different types of drinks, a red and white beverage. In the ... The berries are also used a pepper substitute. Used to impart flavor to meats like Mortadella and even American Bologna. In ... The purplish-black berries of the Greek Myrtle are known throughout the Middle East as mursins. Mursins are dried and ground ...
Red berries are prominent in autumn.. These plants are bare root, available to plant when dormant in winter, we supply from ...
Goji berries are usually found dried. They are shriveled red berries that look like red raisins. Goji berries are rich in anti ... Goji berries have been used for 6,000 years by herbalists in China, Tibet and India to: protect the liver, help eyesight, ... Goji berries (Lycium barbarum, wolfberry) grow on an evergreen shrub found in temperate and subtropical regions in China, ...
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Its berries are green when unripe and turn to black. All parts of this plant are toxic, but the berries are particularly ... It has soft red berries that have a hard green seed in the center. It is the seed, not the berry itself, that when ingested can ... Their hard bright red berries can cause severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and drowsiness when eaten. As few as three berries ... Even if not swallowed, chewing these scarlet berries can cause severe burning in the mouth and throat. Ingesting the berries ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Heart Berries. ... Immediately download the Heart Berries summary, chapter-by- ... Heart Berries Summary. Mailhot, Terese Marie Everything you need to understand or teach Heart Berries by Mailhot, Terese Marie ... Heart Berries Overview. Heart Berries is a poetic memoir by Terese Marie Mailhot. In a non-narrative fashion, it explores ... Heart Berries explores themes of mental illness, cultural identity, generational trauma, shame, and the power of storytelling. ...
In the Middle Ages, Berry became the centre of the Duchy of Berry. It is also known for an illuminated manuscript produced in ... The city Bourges functioned as the capital of Berry. Berry is notable as the birthplace of several kings and other members of ... Low Berry). The Berry region now consists of the départements of Cher, Indre and parts of Creuse. ... Berry is a region located in the center of France. It was a province of France until départements replaced the provinces on 4 ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Berry Head.. *. Evans, D. "The History Of The Berry Head Fortifications". Torbay Council ... Berry Head is the location for the Berry Head Lighthouse and a VOR/DME beacon used for air traffic control. ... Lying to the east of the town of Brixham, it is a national nature reserve[1] and a local nature reserve.[2][3] Berry Head To ... Caves at Berry Head are home to the endangered greater horseshoe bat. A small herd of North Devon cattle has been introduced to ...
Berry recipes include Mario Batalis favorite blackberry pie and an incredible mixed-berry dutch baby. Plus more recipes with ... Mixed Berry Hobo Packs with Grilled Pound Cake Berries grilled in a foil pack are delicious with everything from ice cream to ... Mixed Berry Snack Bars This berry filling is tart and fruity, and superbly balanced by the crisp, buttery shortbread crust. ... Summer Berries with Cumin Meringues and Crème Fraîche This recipe combines antioxidant-packed summer berries with an easy-to- ...
PRWEB UK) 31 July 2014 -- Acai berries have long been used in traditional medicine by Amazonian tribesmen for centuries, and ... Each capsule provides a high dose of 2000mg pure Acai Berry that has been extract from premium grade Acai berries to support ... Acai berries have long been used in traditional medicine by Amazonian tribesmen for centuries, and now scientific research has ... Acai Berry extract has proven to aid recovery of cardiovascular function following heart attacks. Vitamin Planets AcaiPure ...
This recipe is especially for teens on a gluten-free diet, who must avoid foods that contain gluten, a type of protein found in many foods.
That is what happens after you chew the magic berry. Sour temporarily tastes sweet. The small red berry called miracle fruit, ... The berries start to lose their potency as soon as they are picked, but cooling them slows down the deterioration. The berries ... That is what happens after you chew the magic berry. Sour temporarily tastes sweet. The small red berry called miracle fruit, ... As advertised, the berry made them taste like candy.. A slice of out-of-season Granny Smith apple seemed to me like a sweet ...
... check out these ten lesser-known berries that are just as delicious and healthy as their mainstream counterparts. ... Acai Berry: Acai berries are often touted as a superfood because of their high antioxidant content. They are also a good source ... Aronia Berry: Native to North America, these sweet and sour berries are an excellent source of Vitamin C and antioxidant ... These bright orange berries primarily grow in Europe, China and Canada. You can add these tart berries to smoothie bowls and ...
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Set the berry roots into the medium. Cover the berries with a clear, plastic dome. Some kits come with the dome while others ... You can grow berries hydroponically, though the specifics of each type of berry will vary slightly in aspects such as the ... Make sure the berries get appropriate lighting. The appropriate lighting will vary based on the berries. For example, ... Place the plant roots in microbial solution, wrap the plant in clear plastic wrap and then place the berries in the fridge for ...
Compounds found in various berries and possibly in walnuts may slow down natural aging processes in the brain, new research ... Berries May Slow Mental Decline From Aging. Study Shows Blueberries, Strawberries, and Acai Berries Are Good for Your Brains ... The Benefits of Berries. In the new study involving mouse brain tissue, Poulose says he and his colleague investigated cells ... These findings are the first to show these effects of berries.". Poulose says the study provides more reason to eat foods rich ...
Halle Berry explains the weird combination of factors that made everyone think she was pregnant (shes not) *Jacob Shamsian, ... Halle Berry officially confirms her new relationship with a sweet photo *Anjelica Oswald, INSIDER ... Halle Berry says her historic Oscar win didnt have the impact she hoped for. *Amanda Luz Henning Santiago ... An Italian Company Is Claiming That It Doesnt Need Halle Berrys Permission To Use Her In Its Ads. *Amber Ryland, Radar Online ...
... has his hair cut by barber Brian Berry at Strictly Skillz Barbershop in Pine Hills, on Saturday, October 9, 2010. Recent raids ... Tommie Lynum, 14, has his hair cut by barber Brian Berry at Strictly Skillz Barbershop in Pine Hills, on Saturday, October 9, ... Tommie Lynum, 14, has his hair cut by barber Brian Berry at Strictly Skillz Barbershop in Pine Hills, on Saturday, October 9, ... Tommie Lynum, 14, has his hair cut by barber Brian Berry at Strictly Skillz Barbershop in Pine Hills, on Saturday, October 9, ...
... Centre for Education and Research on Ageing, Concord Hospital and Sydney University, Australia ...
... Publication Briefs Dr. Kristin Berrys publication briefs summarize significant research articles and reports of ... Berry, Kristin H.; Yee, Julie L.; Lyren, Lisa L.; Mack, Jeremy S Attribution: Western Ecological Research Center, Ecosystems ... Berry, K.H., Lyren, L.M., Mack, J.S., Brand, L.A., and Wood, D.A., 2016, Desert tortoise annotated bibliography, 1991-2015: U.S ... Berry, Kristin H.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Mack, Jeremy S.; Brand, L. Arriana; Wood, Dustin A. Attribution: Western Ecological Research ...
... Make a yogurt parfait a little extra special by drizzling on raspberry jam and adding a sprinkle of orange peel. ... Melt sugar-free raspberry jam or preserves; drizzle over berries. Sprinkle with orange peel. ...
  • What's more, blueberries, strawberries, and acai berries may help the aging brain in a crucial but previously unrecognized way, according to a study presented at the National Meeting of the American Chemical Society in Boston. (
  • Blueberries and strawberries were part of this analysis because they are the most-eaten berries in the United States," explained Cassidy. (
  • Summer fruits such as peaches, nectarines, strawberries, and blueberries are nearing the end of their peak growing season, and we're already longing for that fresh blueberry compote or dense and hearty blueberry scone dotted with berries from the farmers' market. (
  • Or they could breed more disease-resistant berries, decreasing the significant amount of spraying that cultivated strawberries currently need to thrive and thus enhancing the berry's healthful qualities. (
  • Women who ate the most blueberries and strawberries were 32% less likely to have a heart attack, compared to women who ate berries once a month or less. (
  • Many a parent has warned their children not to eat wild berries because they might be poisonous, which only intensifies the frisson of illicitness. (
  • Most edible wild berries grow on bushes. (
  • Most wild berries will look like the domestic bush, so if you're familiar with blueberry bushes, you can probably identify a wild one. (
  • Check with your doctor about small children eating wild berries, and read through your field guide to see if there are any warnings. (
  • I've spoken at length with Visscher by email, both for this column and for a book I'm writing that focuses in part on food laws that prohibit sustainable food practices like picking wild berries. (
  • Focusing specifically on strawberry and blueberry consumption, a similar association was observed in that women who consumed more than three servings a week of these berries had a significant 34% reduced risk for MI compared with women who consumed less. (
  • It was very very sweet but that helped us keep to small servings and enjoy the berry goodness for about a week. (
  • Eating three or more servings of red and blue berries a week may help reduce a woman's risk of heart attack, a new study suggests. (
  • Enjoy these berries in juice or smoothies, or try them dried and mixed with granola. (
  • Any canning book will tell you how to turn potent little berries into jam, but most have nothing to say about canning raspberry, blueberry or blackberry juice. (
  • You can find instructions for canning berry syrup or grape juice , but information is slim on making juice from berries. (
  • Slightly sweetened berry juice over ice with a sprig of mint is exactly what your body wants on a hot day. (
  • I'm several batches into berry juice-making now, and it's amazingly easy. (
  • Be careful, because berry juice stains. (
  • Most berries are naturally acidic, but when canning concentrates from softer fruits like plums, I add a teaspoon of lemon or lime juice per cup, just to be safe. (
  • Berries have been an important part of culinary traditions - from preserving berries to pressing them for juice - that stretch across many cultures and date back centuries. (
  • Since there are few actual clinical studies on goji berries or juice, the best practice when you're pregnant is to avoid any substances that might present harmful effects. (
  • For juice lovers that know the more, the merrier, we've squeezed this orange and double berry masterpiece. (
  • Use the back of a spoon or spatula to mash the berries into the mesh until all the juice has been pressed out. (
  • Toss all the berries in a bowl, with sugar and orange juice, gently toss. (
  • The fruit and/or juice of the berry has been suggested to be a good weight-loss supplement. (
  • You will want to make sure that you are buying acai berry capsules that are primarily the fruit pulp and juice rather than filler or other additional items and you should check how many mg of actual fruit you are getting in each dose. (
  • According to, a case study described on the website documents at least one case where a woman presented with increased bleeding during menstruation after beginning a goji-based supplement program that included the consumption of three to four glasses of goji berry juice a day. (
  • It's lovely as a topping for scones and biscuits at brunch or dolloped on fresh berries for dessert, as in the recipe here. (
  • To incorporate cloudberries into your diet, blend them with plain yogurt or add them to a jam or jelly recipe made with berries," says Smith. (
  • Berries & Chicken Pasta Salad is no exception, and it is the perfect salad to take to a pot luck gathering or family party, not only because the recipe makes enough for a crowd, but also because it goes well with almost everything served at outdoor parties: grilled meats, poultry, and seafood, as well as pulled pork or cold sandwiches. (
  • The recipe proved to be fairly simple, the hardest part was squishing the berries through a sieve. (
  • Acai Berry extract has proven to aid recovery of cardiovascular function following heart attacks. (
  • Vitamin Planet's AcaiPure provides a high strength dose of pure Acai Berry extract to support cardiovascular health. (
  • New research has found that Acai Berry extracts have a cardio-protective effect. (
  • The study conducted by leading researchers at the Federal University in Rio de Janeiro looked into the physiological benefits of Acai berry extracts on heart health. (
  • It was found that if Acai berry extract supplements were given to the test subjects, there was a greater than four-fold increase in the maximum running distance (1). (
  • This shows that with supplementation of Acai berry extract, the deleterious effects of heart attacks can be reversed and to some extent restore cardiovascular function. (
  • The cardio-protective effects of Acai berry extracts also extend to heath benefits on the circulatory system as it helps to improve systolic blood pressure. (
  • Previous scientific studies have established that Acai berry extracts helped to reduce serum cholesterol levels in subjects with a hypercholesterolemic diet. (
  • This established that Acai berry extracts reduce the chances of heart attacks by lowering blood cholesterol levels and now this research has shown it to aid recovery following heart attacks too," says Vitamin Planets Senior Nutritionist, David Abersythe (2). (
  • Vitamin Planet supply a concentrated, high purity Acai Berry Extract, AcaiPure. (
  • Each capsule provides a high dose of 2000mg pure Acai Berry that has been extract from premium grade Acai berries to support cardiovascular supplements. (
  • It is available to purchase online at (3). (
  • A strong scientific profile has been built up which highlights the importance of Acai berry extract supplementation in protecting against heart disease and also in preventing cardiovascular impairment following a myocardial infarction. (
  • Acai berry is popular due to the antioxidant levels but is no where equal to the levels inside maqui berry . (
  • Acai Berry - Does It Really Work? (
  • Although acai berry is a nutritious food, it is the hype that is wrongly making it a magic fruit. (
  • Acai Berry,What Is the Verdict! (
  • Until recently nobody heard about Acai Berry. (
  • This berry has come to fame few years ago when one of very popular chat shows in America claimed that Acai berry can help in reducing weight. (
  • This has led to enormous publicity for Acai Berry and suddenly this unknown berry cultivated in the swamps of Latin America is the most popular Berry in the word. (
  • For the local population in Brazilian jungle and Amazon delta Acai berry is a very useful fruit, it is major source of protein, a popular beverage can also made from it and is a good source of income for the local farmers. (
  • 100 g of dry powder of acai berry has 535 calories, Carbohydrate is the biggest proportion followed by fat and then protein. (
  • As we know there are thousands of people worldwide who started buying the Acai berry capsules as way of reducing weight. (
  • We can have an initial impression of the effectiveness of Acai berry by simply starting a global survey of all those who consumed it. (
  • I will encourage all those who took Acai berry as part of diet formula to contact our website( ) and tell us their feed back.This is one quick way of knowing the truth about Acai berry.Going back to the question of the article, I think that the jury still out and we have to wait a little bit longer to get the truth. (
  • Because it has become so popular for all these benefits, acai berry comes in a variety of forms, allowing a consumer who wants to give these berries a try for either free radical destruction or for weight loss a multitude of choices of how they will consume them. (
  • You should consider your lifestyle and how often you will be able to eat or drink the acai berry supplement before you decide which form will work the best for you out of the many possibilities. (
  • If you don't want to have to taste the fruit or consume the calories of a certain food, however, you can also purchase it as an acai berry capsule, or pill, where all the acai fruit's power is concentrated into an easy-to-swallow form. (
  • There are several brands of acai berry capsules on the market and you should make sure to check how many times per day you should take the tablets to get the most weight-loss and antioxidant benefits from your supplements. (
  • The advice is based on the findings of a major new study looking at the effects of foods rich in the compound flavonoid, such as berries and apples, on body weight. (
  • It would be unwise to take this study as advice to only eat berries or apples, as a balanced diet containing a wide variety of fruits and vegetables remains important for overall health. (
  • Picking berries (or tomatoes or apples, beans, peppers, or any other fruit or vegetable) does no harm to the flora upon which the food grows. (
  • Researchers found that those men and women who ate the most anthocyanins--types of flavonoids, antioxidant components that are found in foods such as berries and apples--were 22% less likely to develop Parkinson's. (
  • Even berries that produce are mild symptoms can cause death if eaten in large enough quantities. (
  • Their hard bright red berries can cause severe nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and drowsiness when eaten. (
  • Jasmine blooms give off a pleasant fragrance but its berries can be fatal when eaten. (
  • However the health of the brain of the rats that had eaten berries showed some improvement. (
  • Goji berries are usually dried, eaten raw or cooked. (
  • Scientists are trying to determine which bioactive ingredients are responsible for berry benefits. (
  • Healthy foods like polyphenol-rich berries and high quality edible proteins are in demand in today's functional food marketplace, but it can be difficult to formulate convenient food products with physiologically-relevant amounts of these ingredients and still maintain product quality. (
  • Layers of angel food cake soak up the juices of fresh and cooked berries to create a rich, moist, no-bake dessert. (
  • Of course, nothing beats fresh, but if you do need to pick up berries on Thursday and bake a pie on Saturday, this might help. (
  • Over the past decade, multiple research findings have supported the health benefits of berries, showing that they have a profound impact on chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease , diabetes and age-related mental decline. (
  • Researchers report in the journal Annals of Neurology that women who ate berries more frequently over a period of years showed slower decline in brain functions such as memory and attention when they got older than women who ate them less often. (
  • Their findings confirmed that women who ate berries at least once a week were able to slow down their cognitive decline by about 1.5 to 2.5 years. (
  • Although some home remedies include elderberry and it's often made into preserves and wines, the unripe berries contain toxic compounds that can cause stomach irritation. (
  • Aug. 23, 2010 -- Compounds found in various berries and possibly in walnuts may slow down natural aging processes in the brain , new research indicates. (
  • Scientists say they have found evidence that compounds in the berries and maybe walnuts activate the brain 's natural "housekeeper" mechanism that cleans up and recycles toxic proteins, which have been linked to age-related mental decline and memory loss . (
  • Acai berries contain healthy fats and low amounts of sugar, as well as many trace minerals and plant compounds, including anthocyanins. (
  • Researchers from Finland's National Institute for Health and Welfare studied the bioavailability of berry compounds and found that polyphenols are the most likely compounds responsible for heart health benefits. (
  • These compounds appear to be at the root of the protective effects of berries. (
  • These findings give scientists a clue that after berries are consumed, some compounds are absorbed into body tissues, rather than being excreted by the body. (
  • Berry compounds work on multiple mechanisms in the body. (
  • While scientists continue to learn more about how berry compounds work in humans, Seeram said there are some facts you can take to the bank. (
  • Berries are rich in bioactive compounds like anthocyanins and show promise for mitigating the effects of high fat diet on the brain and behavior. (
  • Berries were the most commonly consumed sources of these substances in the U.S. diet, and they are one of the best sources of these powerful bioactive compounds," said study lead author Aedin Cassidy. (
  • Hydroponics, or the art of growing plants with water and without soil, is not only a healthy method of growing tasty berries, but it is also an efficient method for growing in a limited space. (
  • Juicing the berries provides a unique beverage that is extremely healthy. (
  • Berries are healthy. (
  • Greet the day with the simple goodness of Kellogg's Special K Red Berries Cereal - a deliciously crafted, wholesome cereal that makes you smile with each healthy spoonful. (
  • The findings don't confirm that eating berries can prevent dementia associated with aging, or slow down Alzheimer's, but they suggest that the fruits may play a part in keeping brains healthy. (
  • This effect persisted even after the scientists accounted for the fact that berry-eaters might also have other brain-healthy habits or characteristics, such as having more education and engaging in intellectually satisfying pursuits such as learning new languages or maintaining a rich network of social connections. (
  • These nutrients give berries their brilliant colors and may help protect against cancer , inflammation, and heart disease . (
  • According to Paul Milbury, Ph.D., assistant professor at Tufts University, it is becoming clear that berry anthocyanins can penetrate the blood brain barrier in rodents and can also be found in the brain and eye tissues of pigs after blueberry feeding. (
  • After you boil the raspberrys for the first time do you leave the water in with it as you mash the berries or do you strain the water off before you mash the berries? (
  • These findings are the first to show these effects of berries. (
  • In one study, people 68 and older who were already having thinking problems seemed sharper after eating freeze-dried blueberry powder, equivalent to a cup of berries, daily for 16 weeks. (
  • Berries do warrant the hype that they get," says Barbara Shukitt-Hale, PhD, a USDA staff scientist with the Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University. (
  • Berries boost a process called neurogenesis, or making new neurons, Shukitt-Hale explains. (
  • The research team led by Shukitt-Hale, however, does not advocate any particular type of berry as benefiting the brain the most. (
  • Shukitt-Hale said, "Berries vary in their nutrient mixes and may have different brain effects, but that`s not certain yet. (
  • Christine Kern of Schnecksville picks red rasberries at the George Schmidt Berry Farm in Heidelberg Township on Sunday, July 6, 2014.Co-owner George Schmidt says his farm is at the end of the strawberry season, but now is shifting to blue berries and rasberries. (
  • The sea grape is not a grape but produces clusters of white berries that cascade down just like grapes. (
  • In general, avoid white berries. (
  • These bushes produce berries that are attractive to b. (
  • WERC's Dr. Kristin Berry leads studies on the cause of diseases in populations of Agassiz's Desert Tortoise across the Mojave and western Sonoran deserts in southern California. (
  • however, as the species is restricted to the east coast of the United States, a red-berried tree in California is not likely to be a dogwood. (
  • Guest Editors Navindra Seeram and Britt Burton-Freeman introduce the themed issue on work presented at the Seventh Biennial Berry Health Benefits Symposium, held in California, US. (
  • Bonnie Berry is the Director of the Social Problems Research Group in Gig Harbour, Washington, and was formerly university faculty at the University of Miami, University of California at Los Angeles, University of Washington, Indiana University, and Pacific Lutheran University. (
  • She and her colleagues focused their attention on berries because rodent studies showed that the key compound in berries, a flavonoid called anthocyanidin, could seep through the blood and into brain tissues - specifically concentrating in the hippocampus, which is responsible for learning and memory. (
  • The marionberry, a hybrid from Marion County, Ore., is a happy marriage of the red raspberry and the blackberry, producing a velvety, intensely flavorful berry that resembles the long variety of blackberry in shape, with a reddish-purple hue. (
  • The most common berry in the U.S. is the blackberry. (
  • We gently crushed the berry between our molars, releasing a slightly sweet nectar, and swished it around to coat our tongues, then spit the seed out. (
  • In a bowl, gently mix the berries with the brandy and 2 tablespoons of sugar. (
  • Eating jasmine berries can result in difficulty in breathing, sore or irritated nose and throat, sneezing, headache, dizziness and nausea. (
  • Some people report symptoms just from the plant's fragrance and eating the berries has been known to cause death. (
  • The member berries, which are small purple berries that utter nostalgic phrases, initially relax Randy, but he is shocked when they begin to reminisce about topics including the Reagan Era, when there were fewer Mexicans around, and when gay marriage was not legal, so he stops eating them. (
  • Researchers can't prove that eating berries caused the drop in risk, and they say more study is needed. (
  • Tests on mice have revealed that eating berries may be good for mental health although scientists have said that it is too early to put these applications towards humans. (
  • Men are likely to have the same benefit from eating berries, but this study only included women, said Cassidy, who is head of the department of nutrition at Norwich Medical School at the University of East Anglia in England. (
  • Identifying wild plants and berries is a fun pastime for hikers, berry growers, science lovers, and people who love to eat berries. (
  • So it was with some degree of surprise that Visscher found himself confronted last month by a trio of county park police officers and handed a $50 ticket for "destroying/interfering with plants to wit: berries. (
  • The mechanisms by which Acai berries have this effect is through to be through its potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (
  • It is formulated with an Alpine Berry Complex™, a potent blend of wild strawberry sprouts with natural moisturizing factors known to survive in the harsh Alpine region, and antioxidant-rich blackberries to deliver intense hydration and radiance, while helping protect skin against environmental factors. (