A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS causing PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER, an influenza-like illness. Related serotypes include Toscana virus and Tehran virus.
A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into a series of (2'-5') linked oligoadenylates and pyrophosphate in the presence of double-stranded RNA. These oligonucleotides activate an endoribonuclease (RNase L) which cleaves single-stranded RNA. Interferons can act as inducers of these reactions. EC 2.7.7.-.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, having southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan. Its capital is Tripoli.
A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)
Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)
Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).
Manner or style of walking.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
Field of social science that is concerned with differences between human groups as related to health status and beliefs.
It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.
A generic name for film produced from wood pulp by the viscose process. It is a thin, transparent sheeting of regenerated cellulose, moisture-proof and sometimes dyed, and used chiefly as food wrapping or as bags for dialysis. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.
Public Law No: 111-5, enacted February 2009, makes supplemental appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, and State and local fiscal stabilization, for fiscal year ending September 30, 2009.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
... is the mother tongue of the Arabic-speaking population in Tunisia. It is also the second language of the Berber ... Gabsi, Z. (2003). An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (southern Tunisia) (Doctoral dissertation, Univ. of ... Play media During classical antiquity, Tunisia's population spoke Berber languages related to the Numidian language. However, ... Maamouri, M. (1983). Illiteracy in Tunisia. Language in Tunisia, 149-58. (in French) Miller, C. (2013). Du passeur individuel ...
Photos from Tunisia, and another recent one. Elaborate Berber brooches from Corbis. Victoria & Albert Museum "Penannular brooch ... Penannular brooches are part of traditional dress to the present day among Berber women in the Maghreb, usually worn in pairs ... Most of the women are identified as Berber. Local names for the brooches apparently include melia, melehfa, bzima, kitfiyya, ... and khellala in Arabic, and tabzimt, tizerzay, and tazersit in Berber. Such styles are believed to have been in use since pre- ...
... (Berber languages: Tiṭṭawin; Arabic: تطاوين‎) is a city in southern Tunisia. It is the capital of the Tataouine ... "Tunisia". Retrieved 20 July 2016. "Star Wars location spotting in Tunisia , LosApos". www.losapos.com. Retrieved 13 October ... The below-ground "cave dwellings" of the native Berber population, designed for coolness and protection, render the city and ... In Tataouine some people speak a Berber dialect. Star Wars: Tataouine's name became famous worldwide when George Lucas, who ...
... (Arabic: توزر‎ Tūzer; Berber language: ⵜⵓⵣⴻⵔ; romanized: Tūzer) is a city in southwest Tunisia. The city is located ... "Shop Berber". A satellite dish. A tower of a mosque, Tozeur, 1997 A local in traditional Berber clothing in the Medina, 2007 ... Tozeur has a football club who plays in the First Professional Federation of Football in Tunisia, the team is called LPS Tozeur ... Abu Yazid Makhlad ibn Kayrad (أبو يزيد مخلد بن كيراد), from the Berber Zenata tribe, nicknamed Sahib al-Himar (Arabic: صاحب ...
The Berber deer (Cervus elaphus subsp. Barbarus) lives in the cork oak forests of Tunisia. As a pyrophyte, this tree has a ... Natural and man-made occurrences exist in Africa on the Mediterranean coast of Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco and at altitudes up ... Mediterranean Woodland and Forest Ecoregion: Northern Africa: Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. World Wildlife Fund. 2017. ...
"Jugurtha" Encyclopedie Berbére Libyco-Berber alphabet of Tunisia "Numidia". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved 31 March 2020. ... in modern Berber languages. Numidia was a region of North Africa roughly within the boundaries of what is now western Tunisia ... Jugurtha or Jugurthen (Libyco-Berber Yugurten or Yugarten, c. 160 - 104 BC) was a king of Numidia. When the Numidian king ... The Numidian name Jugurtha matches the ancient naming traditions of Berber peoples and is likely analyzable as the Libyco- ...
... was an ancient Roman-Berber civitas in Tunisia. It has been tentatively identified with Medeli, a Roman era ...
... was an ancient Roman-Berber town in Qafşah, Tunisia. It is located at latitude 34°16'22.01", longitude 8°32'56" ... The town is in the Sahel region of Tunisia, but at the junction of the Oued ech Cheria and the Oued el Jemel Wadis, making it ... Explore Borj Gourbata in Tunisia. Pol Trousset, Thiges and civitas Tigensium (Publications of the French School of Rome, 1990) ... though Roman and Berber populations remains the majority till the 9th century when there were revolts in the area. Borj ...
The first people known to history in what is now Tunisia were Berber people of the Capsian culture related to the Numidians. ... "An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (Southern Tunisia)". 2003. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) " ... "Tunisia's bitter cyberwar". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 January 2011. Tunisia opposition fear Ennahda power grab, Ahram Online, 17 ... ISBN 0-415-02243-6. "The Language in Tunisia, Tunisia , TourismTunisia.com". www.tourismtunisia.com. Retrieved 2017-07-31. ...
... was an ancient Roman-Berber city and bishopric in Tunisia. It is now a Latin Catholic titular see. Ausana was important ... Catholic Church in Tunisia GCatholic v t e v t e. ...
Tunisia) Aurès Mountains (Algeria, Tunisia) Saharan Atlas (Algeria) The Anti-Atlas extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the ... The Atlas mountains are primarily inhabited by Berber populations. The terms for 'mountain' are adrar and adras in some Berber ... It is mainly inhabited by Berber people, who live in small villages and cultivate the high plains of the Ourika Valley. Near ... It covers parts of Algeria and Tunisia. The Aurès natural region is named after the range. Flora in the mountains include the ...
... or Vallis was an ancient Roman-Berber colonia in Carthage, Tunisia. The town is identified with ruins at Sidi Medien ...
... was located in what is modern Tunisia. It was home to a former titular see of the Roman Catholic Church. There are two ... Cufruta was an ancient Roman-Berber civitas in the province of Byzacena. It was also the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese. ...
The locale existed during late antiquity, and was situated in northern Tunisia. In antiquity, the town was also the seat of a ... Mattiana was a Roman-Berber civitas in the province of Africa Proconsularis. ...
... or Soussa (Arabic: سوسة‎, Sūsa; Berber: Susa) is a city in Tunisia, capital of the Sousse Governorate. Located 140 km ( ... Tunisia became a French protectorate in 1881. The French improved the town's harbor during the next two decades. Prior to the ... Sousse and Soussa are both French spellings of the Arabic name Sūsa, which may derive from Berber (cf., e.g., Morocco's Sous ... Sousse is the third largest city in Tunisia after Tunis and Sfax. Although Sousse is associated with olive oil manufacture and ...
The main Berber and Phoenician settlements centered in the Gulf of Tunis (Carthage, Utica, Tunisia) along the North African ... Morocco and Tunisia, in particular. During the rule of the Berber kingdom of Numidia, the region was somewhat unified as an ... currently Libya and Tunisia) Arab Maghreb Union Barbary Coast Berber people History of Algeria History of Libya History of ... and eastern Algeria and Tunisia. The Maghreb region was occasionally briefly unified, as under the Almohad Berber empire, ...
Berber speakers are also present in some regions of Tunisia and Libya. The Berber-speaking Tuareg and other often-nomadic ... In 1956, Tunisia and Morocco won their independence from France. Ghana followed suit the next year (March 1957), becoming the ... From the name of an ancient tribe in Tunisia, the Afri (adjective: Afer). The name is still extant today as Ifira and Ifri-n- ... The same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe originally from Yafran ( ...
From the name of an ancient tribe in Tunisia, the Afri (adjective: Afer). The name is still extant today as Ifira and Ifri-n- ... The dominant modern hypothesis is that Africa stems from the Berber word ifri (plural ifran), meaning "cave", in reference to ... The name is from the Berber language ifri 'cave'. Troglodytism was frequent in northern Africa and still occurs today in ... Dellal in Greater Kabylia (Algeria). A Berber tribe was called Beni-Ifren in the Middle Ages and Ifurace was the name of a ...
A mosaic of her is found in the El Djem museum of Tunisia. A sanctuary found in Timgad (Thamugadi in Berber) features goddess ... she was possibly thought of as Berber, but this cannot be judged in the great majority of representations. This changed after ...
... was an ancient Roman-Berber civitas in the province of Africa Proconsularis. It flourished from 30 BCE to 640 CE. The ... town is identified as stone ruins near Carthage, Tunisia. Migirpa was also the seat of an ancient Christian diocese, an ...
It is tentatively identified with the stone ruins near Ras El Djebel, Tunisia. The town was also the seat of an ancient ... Cefala was a Roman-Berber civitas (town) in the province of Africa Proconsularis. ...
... cited under the most important Berber tribes of northwest Tunisia (in Arabic) Book: The Burnos (Berber man dress) in ... They are mainly located in northwest Tunisia. The majority of this tribe were in the colonial era of Tunisia (1881 - 1956) ... The Berber tribe Ouertan had considerable influence in the pre-Islamic era and lived together with the Romans. The word " ... The Ouertanis are one of the biggest Tunisian tribes of Amazigh Berber origins. Their history goes back to ancient times. ...
It is identified with stone ruins in the area of Srâa-Ouartane, Tunisia. The city of Vartana (also known as Vertara) was also ... Vartana (Vertare[n]sis) was a Roman-Berber town in Byzacena, Africa Proconsulare. ...
His grandfather was a Berber born in Tripoli, Libya and immigrated to Tunisia. Sami was born and grew up in Échirolles, a ... Bouajila's father emigrated from Tunisia to France in 1956, and worked as a building painter, a professionally recognized skill ...
What remained of Berber resistance in Tripolitania was crushed at the battle of al-Asabʿa on 23 March 1913. Al-Baruni and ... Italy sent Count Carlo Sforza to Tunisia to persuade the exiles to return. Al-Baruni was the first to be convinced, suggesting ... He was born to an influential Berber family that belonged to the Ibadi sect of Islam. His father, Abd Allah al-Baruni, was a ... Al-Baruni seems even to have been promised Berber autonomy. The Italians also asked him to write a monograph on the Jabal ...
... to settle in a small ancient Berber village just south of Tabarka, near the border between present Tunisia and Algeria. A few ... It was located in the present-day El Kalâa, near Chemtou in western Tunisia. It may have been the ancient town of Bulla Regia. ... Thuburnica was an ancient Roman-Berber city in the Maghreb. ... roughly modern Tunisia). The people of Thuburnica were members ...
... was a city in the Roman-Berber province of Byzacena in modern Tunisia. The exact location of the civitas is unknown. The ...
Its stone ruins are located in Henchir-Taus in the oasis of Kriz, Tunisia. The city was also the seat of an ancient diocese, ... Tigias was a Roman-Berber town in the province of Africa Proconsularis in Byzacena. ...
The town is identifiable with stone ruins at Bordj-Tamra, Tamera in modern Tunisia. Roman Tagarbala was also the seat of an ... Tagarbala was a Roman-Berber civitas of the province of Byzacena during late antiquity. It was a Roman Catholic diocese. ... Tamera, Tunisia National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Bethesda, MD, USA. Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae ...
... was an ancient Roman-Berber town and archaeological site in Bizerte Governorate, Tunisia. It was located at 37.165524n, ... 9.765536e, within the suburbs of Tinja, Tunisia. In antiquity, Gunela was a town in the province of Africa Proconsularis. ...
The first recorded history appears[when?] in the chronicles[where?] of North African (Berber) traders, who, from early Roman ... Islam had been introduced in the western Sudan by Muslim Berber traders from North Africa; it spread rapidly after the ...
The relations of Jews and Christians were fraught with tensions about the death of Jesus and the Christian perception of Jewish obstinacy in refusing to accept the only faith the Christians knew in the world. The pressure on Jews to accept Christianity was intense.[36] Recent years have seen a debate among historians on the nature of Jewish-Christian relations in medieval Europe. Traditionally, historians focused on the trials Jews had to endure in this period. Christian violence towards Jews was rife, as were ritual murder accusations, expulsions, and extortion. However, recently historians have begun to show evidence of other relationships between Jews and Christians, suggesting Jews were more embedded into Christian society than was previously thought. Jonathan Elukin is one historian who thinks in this vein, as elucidated in his book Living Together, Living Apart. He shows that during the Crusades, some Jews were hidden and protected from being attacked by Christians. Some Jews worked in ...
... a Muslim Berber dynasty.[173] During the 13th and 14th centuries, cavalry became an important factor in the area. This ... "had we possessed an American cavalry division with pack artillery in Tunisia and in Sicily, not a German would have escaped."[ ...
... women may adorn themselves with specialized jewelry and head-dresses similar to those worn by the Berber tribes of the Maghreb. ...
Morocco and Tunisia, who were already living in North Africa before the Jewish exodus from the Iberian Peninsula-and to a ... some of which were Sephardic communities that had come from Spain and Portugal-others were Arab and Berber Jews from Algeria, ... Tunisia, and Yemen. In general, these populations are shrinking due to low growth rates and high rates of emigration ( ...
Byzantine rule was ended by the Arabs, who invaded Tunisia from 647-648[51] and Morocco in 682 in the course of their drive to ... Seizing the opportunity, an Arab-led (but mostly Berber) army invaded in 711, and by 720 had conquered the southern and central ... At the end of the Umayyad period, less than 10% of the people in Iran, Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia and Spain were Muslim. Only ... In 670, the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi established the city of Kairouan (in Tunisia) and its Great Mosque also ...
Punic religion (Tunisia, Algeria, Libya). *Traditional Berber religion (Morocco (including Western Sahara), Algeria, Tunisia, ...
The Berber (Amazigh) original word for "ksar" used in North Africa by the Berber-speaking populations is aghrem (singular) or ... The word is part of place names across Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, - the region called the Maghreb; and is particularly ... "Berber castle", possibly loaned from Latin castrum. The term generally refers to a Berber fortified village. ... Ksar, plural ksour (Maghrebi Arabic: قصر qṣer, plural qṣur; Berber: aghrem or ighrem, plural: igherman) is the North African ...
Tunisia[edit]. Since 2012, Tunisia sees three days of celebration, with only 2 days as a national holiday (1st Eid and second ...
... was born into a rich, pagan, Berber (Roman African),[4] Carthage family sometime during the early third century. His ... present-day Tunisia). Died. September 14, 258 AD. Carthage. (present-day Tunisia). ... was bishop of Carthage and a notable Early Christian writer of Berber descent,[3] many of whose Latin works are extant. He was ...
China's first contact with the Jewish people came as a result of the development of the Silk Road, an ancient trade route linking China with the Middle East and Europe that was created during the Han Dynasty in 206 BCE and incorporated existing trade routes that were established 200 years earlier by the Persian Achaemenid Empire.[5] The first wave of Jews to China traveled from West Asia over the Silk Road and by sea via India during the Tang dynasty (618 - 907 CE). They consisted of Babylonian and Persian Jews (modern day Iraq and Iran) who traveled along the Silk Road and received the Tang Emperor's blessing to reside in Kaifeng.[4] They eventually formed a distinct Kaifeng Jewish Community during the Song Dynasty where many eventually became prominent government officials, doctors, rabbis, and businessmen. They eventually assimilated into Chinese culture, learned the language, and began to intermarry with the Han populace.[2] Other Western scholars speculate that the first wave of Jewish ...
Latvia was occupied by the Germans during the first weeks of the German-Soviet war in July 1941. It became part of the new Reichskommissariat "Ostland", officially designated as "Generalbezirk Lettland". Otto-Heinrich Drechsler was appointed its commissioner general, with headquarters in Riga, the seat of the Reich Commissioner for Ostland, Hinrich Lohse. At the end of July 1941 the Germans replaced the military with a civil administration. One of its first acts was the promulgation of a series of anti-Jewish ordinances. A subordinate civil administration composed of local collaborationist elements was also established, to which Latvian general councillors were appointed. Their nominal head was Oskars Dankers, a former Latvian army general. In mid-June 1941, on the eve of Hitler's attack on the Soviet Union, 14,000 citizens of Latvia, including several thousand Jews, were deported by the Soviet authorities to Siberia and other parts of Soviet Asia as politically undesirable elements. During the ...
In 1828, the Russo-Persian War came to an end and Eastern Armenia (currently the Republic of Armenia) was annexed to the Russian Empire with the Treaty of Turkmenchai. Polish and Iranian Jews began arriving, as well as Sabbatarians (Subbotniki, Russian peasants who were banished to the outskirts of Imperial Russia during the reign of Catherine II. They were Judaizing Christians and mostly converted to mainstream Judaism or assimilated). Since 1840 they started creating Ashkenazi and Mizrahi communities respectively in Yerevan.[6] Up to 1924, the Sephardic synagogue, Shiek Mordechai, was a leading institution among the Jewish community.[3] According to the 1897 Russian Empire Census, there were some 415 people in Alexandropol (Gyumri)[14] and 204 in Erivan (Yerevan)[15] whose native language was "Jewish" and significantly smaller numbers elsewhere 6 in Vagharshapat,[16] 15 in Novo-Bayazet.[17] The number of self-reported Jewish-speakers was the following in other Armenian-populated areas of the ...
November 29 - Beji Caid Essebsi, Tunisian politician, 5th President and 18th Prime Minister of Tunisia (d. 2019) ... Berber calendar. 2876. British Regnal year. 16 Geo. 5 - 17 Geo. 5. ...
It was likely that the earliest Jews arrived in the "Low Countries", present-day Belgium and the Netherlands, during the Roman conquest early in the common era. Little is known about these early settlers, other than the fact that they were not very numerous. For some time, the Jewish presence consisted of, at most, small isolated communities and scattered families. Reliable documentary evidence dates only from the 1100s; for several centuries, the record reflects that the Jews were persecuted and expelled on a regular basis. Early sources from the 11th and 12th centuries mention official debates or disputations between Christians and Jews, in which attempts were made to convince the Jews of the truth of Christianity and to try to convert them. A few references to them are in existence which distinctly mention them as present in the other provinces at an earlier date, especially after their expulsion from France in 1321 and the persecutions in Hainaut and the Rhine provinces. The first Jews in ...
Tunisia. *Uganda. *Western Sahara. *Zambia. *Zimbabwe. Ethnic and regional cuisines. *Arab. *Berber ...
North African Sephardim and Berber Jews were often looked down upon by Ashkenazim as second-class citizens during the first ...
The early medieval period was a time of flourishing Jewish culture. Jewish and Christian life evolved in 'diametrically opposite directions' during the final centuries of Roman empire. Jewish life became autonomous, decentralized, community-centered. Christian life became a hierarchical system under the supreme authority of the Pope and the Roman Emperor.[24]. Jewish life can be characterized as democratic. Rabbis in the Talmud interpreted Deut. 29:9, "your heads, your tribes, your elders, and your officers, even all the men of Israel" and "Although I have appointed for you heads, elders, and officers, you are all equal before me" (Tanhuma) to stress political shared power. Shared power entailed responsibilities: "you are all responsible for one another. If there be only one righteous man among you, you will all profit from his merits, and not you alone, but the entire world...But if one of you sins, the whole generation will suffer."[25]. In the Early Middle Ages persecution of Jews also ...
Anan ben David (Hebrew: ענן בן דוד‎, c. 715 - 795 or 811?) is widely considered to be a major founder of the Karaite movement. His followers were called Ananites; they did not believe the Rabbinical oral law was divinely inspired. According to a 12th-century Rabbanite account, in approximately 760, Shelomoh ben Ḥisdai II, the Exilarch in Babylon died, and two brothers among his nearest kin, 'Anan ben David (whose name according to the Rabbanite account was 'Anan ben Shafaṭ, but was called "ben David" due to his Davidic lineage) and Ḥananyah were next in order of succession. Eventually Ḥananyah was elected by the rabbis of the Babylonian Jewish colleges (the Geonim) and by the notables of the chief Jewish congregations, and the choice was confirmed by the Caliph of Baghdad. A schism may have occurred, with 'Anan ben David being proclaimed exilarch by his followers.[26] However, not all scholars agree that this event occurred. Leon Nemoy[27] notes, "Natronai, scarcely ninety ...
... , broadly defined to include the western portion of the Maghreb (Western Sahara, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia), ... In Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso, the nomadic Tuareg speak the Tuareg language, a Berber language. ... along with Arab-Berber Maghrebi people; Cape Verde is an island country in the Atlantic Ocean; and Saint Helena, Ascension and ...
During the early 1600s,[14] about sixty French families were established in Acadia. They developed friendly relations with the peoples of the Wabanaki Confederacy (particularly the regional Mi'kmaq), learning their hunting and fishing techniques developed for local conditions. The Acadians lived mainly in the coastal regions of the Bay of Fundy; they reclaimed farming land from the sea through building dikes to control water and drain certain wetlands. Living in a contested borderland region between French Canada (modern Quebec) and the British territories on New England and the coast, the Acadians often became entangled in the conflict between the powers. Their competition in Europe played out in North America as well. Over a period of seventy-four years, six wars took place in Acadia and Nova Scotia, in which the Wabanaki Confederacy and some Acadians fought to keep the British from taking over the region (See the four French and Indian Wars as well as Father Rale's War and Father Le Loutre's ...
The Almohad Caliphate (Berber languages: Imweḥḥden, from Arabic الموحدون al-Muwaḥḥidun, "the Monotheists" or "the Unifiers") ... The Fatimid Caliphate was an Isma'ili Shi'i caliphate, originally based in Tunisia, that extended its rule across the ... The Almohads first established a Berber state in Tinmel in the Atlas Mountains in roughly 1120.[40] The Almohads succeeded in ... the Berber Almohad Caliphate in Morocco (1121-1269) and the Fula Sokoto Caliphate in present-day northern Nigeria (1804-1903). ...
The Ethiopian Beta Israel community in Israel today comprises more than 121,000 people.[1] This is a little more than 1 percent of the Israeli population.[119] Most of this population are the descendants and the immigrants who came to Israel during Operation Moses (1984) and Operation Solomon (1991).[120] Civil war and famine in Ethiopia prompted the Israeli government to mount these dramatic rescue operations. The rescues were within the context of Israel's national mission to gather Diaspora Jews and bring them to the Jewish homeland. Some immigration has continued up until the present day. Today 81,000 Ethiopian Israelis were born in Ethiopia, while 38,500 or 32% of the community are native born Israelis.[13] Over time, the Ethiopian Jews in Israel moved out of the government owned mobile home camps which they initially lived in and settled in various cities and towns throughout Israel, with the encouragement of the Israeli authorities who grant new immigrants generous government loans or ...
Berber-Cushitic-Egyptian).[39] ...
"Christian Persecution in Tunisia , Open Doors USA". Open Doors USA. Retrieved 30 June 2017.. ... Arguably, many more Maghrebi Christians of Arab or Berber descent live in France than in North Africa, due to the exodus of the ... There are tiny communities of Roman Catholics in Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, and Morocco due to colonial rule - French rule for ... The North African Christians of Berber or Arab descent mostly converted during the modern era or under and after French ...
... identify as Berber even though many Algerians have Berber origins. The Factbook explains that of the approximately 15% who ... It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in the north, Tunisia in the northeast, Libya in the east, Niger in the southeast, ... Official languages are Arabic and Berber. French is widely spoken too.. Population[change , change source]. Algeria's ... After many people protested, like in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, the government stopped the state of emergency on 24 February ...
The first mention of a party associated with a synagogue bar mitzvah was in the 13th century, so throwing some sort of party is traditional and frequently seen as necessary.[16] Bar mitzvah festivities typically include a joyous seudat mitzvah, a celebratory meal with family, friends, and members of the community, the Bar Mitzvah boy delivering on this occasion a learned discourse or oration at the table before the invited guests, who offer him presents, while the rabbi or teacher gives him his blessing, accompanying it at times with an address.[9] Others may celebrate in different ways such as taking the bar or bat mitzvah on a special trip or organizing some special event in the celebrant's honor. In many communities, the celebrant is given a certificate. According to the Orthodox view, the bar mitzvah boy is so happy to be commanded to do mitzvoth and earn reward in the next world for his efforts, that he throws a party and has a festive meal.[dubious - discuss] In some times and places, ...
... , American Berbers or Amazigh Americans, are Americans of Berber (or Amazigh) descent. Although the majority of ... only 1,327 people declared Berber ancestry in the 2000 US Census. People of Berber origin in United States have created several ... the population of the Maghreb (in the North Africa) is of Arabized Berber descent, ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Berber_Americans&oldid=957467149" ...
... used to write Berber languages) that are neither influenced by Latin or Western writing system.[3] ...
For nearly 250 years, Berber kings of the House of Masinissa ruled in Numidia, which included much of Tunisia, and later in ... One such Berber king married the daughter of Cleopatra of Egypt. He and his son, the last two Berber kings (reigns: 25 BC-40 AD ... The inscription indicates a complex city administration, with the Berber title GLD (cognate to modern Berber Agellid, king or ... For the geography of Tunisia and other background, see History of Tunisia. For reference sources, see the footnoted sections ...
... Machiavelli, David Hume, the pictures of the ... download an outline of the shilha berber vernacular of douiret southern Are to be an study in Java, various selection in Java ... How to account to an Amazon Pickup Location? The download an outline of the shilha berber vernacular of of the dramaturg is ... From the engineers of the wrong Hadoop Starter Kit download an outline of the shilha berber vernacular of douiret was in Udemy ...
"Tunisia". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 15 October 2012. "Q&A: The Berbers". BBC News. 12 March 2004. Retrieved 19 January 2013 ... Maghrebis Arabs Arabized Berber Banu Hilal Banu Sulaym Beni Hassan North Africa Maghreb Kouloughlis Berber Jews The CIA World ... identify as Berber even though many Algerians have Berber origins. The Factbook explains that of the approximately 15% who ... The Arab-Berber identity came into being as a direct result of the Arab conquest of North Africa, and the intermarriage between ...
Berber kings of Roman-era Tunisia. Workers and Socialist Party. List of heritage sites in Simonstown. Baháí Faith in Uganda. ... Berber kings of Roman-era Tunisia. Afrocentrism. Fernand Sabaye. Cameroon line. Health in Uganda. LGBT rights in the Sahrawi ... Human trafficking in Tunisia. Boin Tano Forest Reserve. Water privatisation in Ghana. Abrahams Commission. ... History of early Tunisia. Protests in South Africa. Yaqob. List of heritage sites in George and Mossel Bay ...
International relations of Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. * Berber/Amazigh movements. Selected publications. *Civil Resistance ... Tunisia ill-prepared to tackle homegrown threat as jihadi tide turns. *Tunisias Islamist party Ennahda accepts defeat in ... Dr Willis studies the politics, modern history and international relations of the central Maghreb states (Algeria, Tunisia and ... Politics and Power in the Maghreb: Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco from Independence to the Arab Spring (2012) ...
etymology: three possibilities exist for the derivation of the name; originally a Berber settlement (earliest reference 4th ... Green Tunisia Party [Abdelkader ZITOUNI]. Heart of Tunisia (Qalb Tounes). Irada Movement. Long Live Tunisia (Tahya Tounes) [ ... Tunisia also held legislative elections on schedule in October 2019. SAIEDs term, as well as that of Tunisias 217-member ... Ansar al-Sharia in Tunisia (AAS-T): aim(s): expand its influence in Tunisia and, ultimately, replace the Tunisian Government ...
Berber_Tunisia_Chen. -0.01046510. Saharawi. -0.01045269. Mozabite. -0.01038683. Berber_MAR_ERR. -0.01035996. Tunisian_Berber_ ...
Tunisia, and Libya. The geographic entity North Africa has no single accepted definition. It has been regarded by some as ... Tunisia), Leptis Minor, and Hadrumetum, the largest city on the east coast of Tunisia. From Neapolis (Nābul, or Nabeul) a road ... Khārijite Berber resistance to Arab rule. *The Maghrib under Muslim dynasties in the 8th-11th centuries*The Rustamid state of ... covering southern Tunisia and governed from Hadrumetum; and the northern part of Tunisia, which retained the name Africa and ...
Tunisia lies immediately to the south of Italy and Malta. Libya borders Tunisia to the south-east, whilst Algeria lies to the ... www.tunisia-tourism.org], officially known as the Tunisian Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية التونسية‎ al-Jumhūriyyah at-Tūnisiyyah ... Berber Lamb - Lamb cooked with potatoes, carrots in a clay pot.. * Merguez - small spicy sausages. ... Tunisia lies immediately to the south of Italy and Malta. Libya borders Tunisia to the south-east, whilst Algeria lies to the ...
Ethnic groups in Tunisia , Ethnic groups in Western Sahara , Kabyle people , Berber dynasties , Berber , Islamic history , ... Today most Berber-speaking people live in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.[4][5] ... Numidia (202 BC - 46 BC) was an ancient Berber kingdom in present-day Algeria and part of Tunisia (North Africa) that later ... There are also smaller Berber populations in Libya and Tunisia, though exact statistics are unavailable [3] and very small ...
Country : Algeria, Egypt, Libia, Morocoo, Tunisia Vernacular name : sedjra tenshama, sgaa, medeb (Arabic), lebalig, lehbaliya ... Vernacular name : sedjra tenshama, sgaa, medeb (Arabic), lebalig ; lehbaliya (Berber) Reference B6 Nord ...
Tunisias extraordinary flavors reflect the countrys Mediterranean, Arab, Turkish, French, and Berber cultural influences.. ...
... the population absorbed Berber converts, although the proportion of Berber genetic contribution to the Libyan Jews is not known ... The Jewish populations of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia likely had later origins than the Libyan Jews had; they were subject to ... the Berber converts, and the possible sources of immigrants between the 5th and 15th centuries CE. A few facts appear to be ... Libyan Jews engaged in cultural interactions with Berber tribes that lasted through the 6th century CE (4). During this time, ...
Tunisian Berbers organised modest gatherings in Berber villages and Tunis.. It is often said that Tunisia is a civilisation of ... Despite the celebrations, however, Tunisia s Berber community expressed concern over the absence of official recognition of ... Activists seek recognition of Amazigh culture in Tunisia. Berbers are mainly found in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya.. ... Freedoms and Culture in Tunisia. We had some celebrations in the Berber village of Tamezret in the south that were organised by ...
Gabsi, Z. (2003). An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (Southern Tunisia). PhD Thesis, Western Sydney ... "Tunisia". United States Department of State. Retrieved 19 December 2020.. *^ "Jews of Tunisia". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. ... "Tunisia profile". BBC News. 1 November 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2020.. *^ "Tunisia Celebrates Independence Day". AllAfrica.com. ... Tunisia,[a] officially the Republic of Tunisia,[b][19] is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is bordered by ...
Figure 1. Haplogroup frequencies for different Berber and Arab populations for (a) mitochondrial DNA (data from Coudray et al ... 2011) Mitochondrial DNA and Y‐chromosome microstructure in Tunisia. Journal of Human Genetics 5692 (10): 734-741. ... No genetic differences have been found between Arab and Berber groups.. *The Arab expansion had an important cultural and ... 2009) The Berber and the Berbers. In: Becoming Eloquent, pp. 123-146. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ...
LRRK2 Gly2019Ser penetrance in Arab-Berber patients from Tunisia: a case-control genetic study. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7:591-4. [ ... In an Arab-Berber sample with the p.Gly2019Ser pathogenic variant, the symptoms of parkinsonism manifest in fewer than 20% of ... LRRK2 parkinsonism in Tunisia and Norway: a comparative analysis of disease penetrance. Neurology. 2014;83:568-9. [PMC free ... The lifetime penetrance in the Tunisian Arab-Berber population in which p.Gly2019Ser is most frequent is 45% [Hulihan et al ...
N.T. Tunisia, Berber 14 17.2 18.2. F* (xK) Austria, Tirol 3 15.2 19.2 20.2. N.T. Caucasian Y-Filer databases 7 15.2 16.2 17.2 ... "Mauri" is the name the Romans gave to a berber tribe of the nowdays Algeria. Nothing to see with the State of Mauritania. I ... What if I told u that the Arabs knew the cushtic peoples of the Northeast Africa i.e. Somalis, Beja, Afars as berber? The ... FJ460561 (Tunisia : from Italy) : T195C T16126C G16176A. EU742161 (Ashkenazi) : C4735A A4917G T9335C G11362A A11928G C12092T ...
This is a trip report previously published on Slow Travel for a trip to Tunisia in Spring 2012, just after the Jasmine ... The architecture is very different to the rest of Tunisia, with old Berber villages built on the top of the hills. ... Douiret - one of the less visited Berber hill villages The original Berber villages in the area around Tataouine were hill top ... We discounted Algeria, Egypt and Libya which left Morocco or Tunisia. Of the two, Tunisia seemed to have the most to offer to ...
Vernacular name : talh; sayal ; hares (Arabic), tamat, tadjdjart, abzac, abser; tihi (Berber) gommier de Tunisia (local French) ...
a b Gabsi, Z. (2003). An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (southern Tunisia) (Doctoral dissertation, Univ. ... Maamouri, M. (1983). Illiteracy in Tunisia. Language in Tunisia, 149-58. *^ a b (in French) Miller, C. (2013). Du passeur ... See also: History of Tunisia. Beginnings of the language[edit]. Linguistic situation of Ancient Tunisia[edit]. See also: ... During classical antiquity, Tunisias population spoke Berber languages related to the Numidian language.[24] However, the ...
2008). LRRK2 Gly2019Ser penetrance in Arab-Berber patients from Tunisia: a case-control genetic study. Lancet Neurol. 7, 591- ...
Tunis (Tunisia). 2.3 [3]. Berber (Morocco). 1.4 [3]. Rimaibe (Burkina Faso). 1.1 ...
Ḥafṣid dynasty (Berber dynasty). Ḥafṣid dynasty, Amazigh (Berber) dynasty of the 13th-16th century in Ifrīqiyyah (Tunisia and ...
... communication and transportation and the Doing Business in Tunisia rankings ... Comprehensive listing of the demographics of Tunisia including economy, people, geography, ... Arabic (official, one of the languages of commerce), French (commerce), Berber (Tamazight). Religions:. Muslim (official; Sunni ... Alliance for Tunisia (a coalition of Tunisias Call [Beji Caid ESSEBSI], Republican Party [Maya JRIBI and Najib CHBBI], ...
Before I went to Tunisia I didn t know how to tell a Berber from an Arab. I knew the Berbers were in North Africa first and ... DOUZ, Tunisia The sand gets in your teeth. This is not the sand you know. Not the rim of pulverized granules of silicon and ... He liked my Tunisia photos, said they were a nice break. I understand. The real thing was even better. I think Marc would ... But I wouldn t have been able to tell on sight what was Berber and what was Arab. So let me help you out and give you an ...
North African Berbers are people of mixed Arab and Berber origin. They live in communities across the North African Maghreb ... region, which includes the countries of Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Libya. Test Examples. Relevant Ethnicities. ...
North African Berbers are people of mixed Arab and Berber origin. They live in communities across the North African Maghreb ... region, which includes the countries of Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Libya. Test Examples. Relevant Ethnicities. ...
LRRK2 Gly2019Ser penetrance in Arab-Berber patients from Tunisia: a case-control genetic study ... Peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected from individuals within an Arab-Berber population, screened for the LRRK2(G2019S) ...
Punic religion (Tunisia, Algeria, Libya). *Traditional Berber religion (Morocco (including Western Sahara), Algeria, Tunisia, ...
  • Maghrebis Arabs Arabized Berber Banu Hilal Banu Sulaym Beni Hassan North Africa Maghreb Kouloughlis Berber Jews The CIA World Factbook states that about 15% of Algerians, a minority, identify as Berber even though many Algerians have Berber origins. (wikipedia.org)
  • North Africa , region of Africa comprising the modern countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. (britannica.com)
  • covering 163,610 km 2 (63,170 sq mi), Tunisia is the smallest country in North Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • no correlation between genetics and ethnic groups has been described, pointing to a lack of genetic differentiation between Berber and Arab groups in North Africa. (els.net)
  • National anthem of Tunisia Tunisia is the smallest country in North Africa. (britannica.com)
  • Those in North Africa are described as the Berber/Moors of North Africa while those in Spain are described as the ancient Iberians (Ibero-Maurisians). (africaresource.com)
  • Dr. Guermazi is of Turkish background, and was born in Tunisia (North Africa) where the Muslim and Jewish populations have had a long and peaceful history. (bu.edu)
  • 1) Human traces in North Africa go back to more than 40,000 years B.C.E. But our knowledge of them is limited to a specific area: the region of Gafsa in west-central Tunisia, with ramifications toward the high plains between Constantine and Sétif in Algeria, and areas of the Sahara and ancient Cyrenaica-modern Libya. (ucpress.edu)
  • The Berber are the indigenous inhabitants of North Africa (west of the Nile) and have existed in Africa since at least 3000 BC. (howafrica.com)
  • It's Moroccan-style tea, and the same combination is served all over North Africa - from Tunisia to Mauritania. (wrkf.org)
  • Chinese green tea first arrived in North Africa in 1854 when British ships en route to Baltic ports were forced to dock in Tangier, Morocco because of the Crimean War. (wrkf.org)
  • Starting with the Punic Wars, Berbers are, however, mentioned in surviving works of classical Greek and Roman authors and these sources provide some details in the descriptions of Berber events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arab-Berbers are people of mixed Arab and Berber origin, most of whom speak a variant of Maghrebi Arabic as their native language, although about 16 to 25 million speak various Berber languages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many Arab-Berbers identify primarily as Arab and secondarily as Berber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arabized Berbers form the core and vast majority of the native populations of Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia, and about one-third of the population of Mauritania. (wikipedia.org)
  • From early antiquity, Tunisia was inhabited by the indigenous Berbers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Berbers are mainly found in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. (middle-east-online.com)
  • Berbers used to make up a large part of Tunisia s population but their culture is rarely recognised in the country and their presence is shrinking. (middle-east-online.com)
  • The variations on the name probably derive from an original Berber denomination, as up to today the Berbers call themselves Imazighen or Amazigh, meaning "free man. (ucpress.edu)
  • The Maghreb, a Berber term for the northwest African region west of the Nile, was populated by as early as 10,000 BC by Berbers, a largely agricultural and hunting community with a distinct language. (democracyweb.org)
  • Carthage's Punic Wars with Rome gave the Berbers an opportunity to earn independence, resulting in Berber kingdoms, the largest of which was Numidia. (africa.com)
  • Libya borders Tunisia to the south-east, whilst Algeria lies to the west. (wikitravel.org)
  • We discounted Algeria, Egypt and Libya which left Morocco or Tunisia. (sloweurope.com)
  • Tunisia shares borders with Algeria and Libya. (britannica.com)
  • The Sloughi is indigenous to the North African countries of Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, and Morocco, and has a long association with the region's Berber nomads. (dogzone.com)
  • Algeria's borders are surrounded by Tunisia in the northeast, Libya to the east, Niger to the southeast, Morocco to the west, Western Sahara, Mauritania, and Mali to the southwest and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. (africa.com)
  • However, the bulk of the population of northwestern Africa remained Berber or Roman Africans at least until the 14th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through its introduction of a national family planning program (the first in Africa) and by raising the legal age of marriage, Tunisia rapidly reduced its total fertility rate from about 7 children per woman in 1960 to 2 today. (cia.gov)
  • The people of the region were described as " barbarians " by the Romans in Roman Africa, [ citation needed ] and in the Iberian peninsula where Berber camps were subjected to repeated attacks of the Romans. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The Romans applied the name Africa (of Phoenician origin) to their first province in the northern part of Tunisia, as well as to the entire area north of the Sahara and also to the entire continent. (britannica.com)
  • Tunisia, at the northernmost bulge of Africa, thrusts out toward Sicily to mark the division between the eastern and western Mediterranean Sea. (infoplease.com)
  • Africa or Ifri or Afer [ 6 ] is name of Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania ( Berber Tribe of Yafran ) [ 7 ] . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Later Roman Africa, which really encompassed northern Morocco, coastal Algeria, and Tunisia and Tripolitania, became a major social and economic pillar of the Imperium. (gnxp.com)
  • One of the dominant tree species that characterizes this ecoregion, the Berber thuya , is an endemic Tertiary relict, whose living relatives are now found in South Africa and Australia. (wordnik.com)
  • Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Answer The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra � "land of the Afri" (plural, or "Afer" singular) � for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day Tunisia. (answers.com)
  • of Tunisia,[19] (Arabic: الجمهورية التونسية‎ al-Jumhūrīya at-Tūnisīya) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres (64,000 square miles). (theinfolist.com)
  • in addition, Banu Hilal and Sulaym Arab tribes originating in the Arabian Peninsula invaded the region and intermarried with the local rural mainly Berber populations, and were a major factor in the linguistic, cultural and ethnic Arabization of the Maghreb. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Various population genetics studies along with historians such as Gabriel Camps and Charles-André Julien lend support to the idea that the bulk of the gene pool of modern Maghrebis, irrespective of linguistic group, is derived from the Berber populations of the pre-Islamic period. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haplogroup frequencies for different Berber and Arab populations for (a) mitochondrial DNA (data from Coudray et al . (els.net)
  • Knowledge of the Berber peoples gets more precise during the period of Roman colonization, when Roman historians record several traditions concerning the autochthonous populations. (ucpress.edu)
  • For comparaison these frequencies are even higher in North African populations: In some Berber and Arab groups from Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, they reach values between 20 and 33% (Chaabani et al. (stormfront.org)
  • However, the most important event was the Arab conquest that begun during the 7th century, when North-African autochthonous Berber populations were converted to Islam and since then Arabic has became official language employed in the region. (plos.org)
  • Nomadism is one of the factors that have contributed to the geographic isolation of these Berber populations, which became slightly different in their dialect languages and cultures. (plos.org)
  • Therefore, the North African population represents a mosaic of peoples at different levels: the spoken language, the culture and even the social organization that shows in the split observed between the urban regions representatives of the elite (Romanized and Arabicized populations, for example) and the Berber populations living in the rural areas. (plos.org)
  • Maghrebi Arabic preserves a significant Berber, Latin and possibly Neo-Punic substratum which makes them both quite distinct and largely mutually unintelligible to other varieties of Arabic spoken outside Maghreb. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modern English term, Berber, is probably borrowed from Italian or Arabic, but the deeper etymology of this word is not certain. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In all likelihood, the Arabs also borrowed the word Barbar (Berber) from the Latin barbari to describe the non-Latin-speaking peoples of the region at the time of the Arab conquest, and it has been used in modern times to describe the non-Arabic-speaking population called Berbères by the French and known generally as the Berber s (although their term for themselves, Amazigh, has grown in usage). (britannica.com)
  • Tunisian Arabic , or simply Tunisian , is a set of dialects of Maghrebi Arabic spoken in Tunisia . (wikipedia.org)
  • listen ) , [6] "Tunisian" [7] or Derja "everyday language" to distinguish it from Modern Standard Arabic , the official language of Tunisia. (wikipedia.org)
  • [8] Multilingualism within Tunisia and in the Tunisian diaspora makes it common for Tunisians to code-switch , mixing Tunisian with French, English, Standard Arabic or other languages in daily speech. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of Darija's cognates are shared with standard Arabic, but it also significantly borrows from Berber (Tamazight) substrates, [15] as well as extensively from French, the language of the historical colonial occupier of the Maghreb . (wikipedia.org)
  • Darija is spoken and, to various extents, mutually understood in the Maghreb countries, especially Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, but it is unintelligible to speakers of other Arabic dialects, mainly for those in Egypt and the Arabian Peninsula. (wikipedia.org)
  • French comes in handy in Morocco and Tunisia but mastering a few phrases in Arabic can make everyday interactions a whole lot easier and a whole lot more fun. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Arabic: الجزائر, al-Jazā'ir, Berber: Dzayer) is known officially as the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria. (africa.com)
  • The arabic letter qaf is spelled like g in Tunisia at least. (wordreference.com)
  • Dr Willis studies the politics, modern history and international relations of the central Maghreb states (Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Morocco's Arab rulers ceded power to a joint Berber-Arab tribal confederation that dominated the Maghreb. (democracyweb.org)
  • According to Leo Africanus , "Amazigh" meant "free men," though this has been disputed, because there is no root of M-Z-Gh meaning "free" in modern Berber. (thefullwiki.org)
  • From the caves of Matmata to the delicious couscous to the colourful carpets found in southern Tunisia, Amazigh culture has made significant contributions to Tunisia s own and the country s history. (middle-east-online.com)
  • Other North African countries have official celebrations of the Amazigh new year, said Esseket Mohsen, a member of the Tamaguit Association for Amazigh Rights, Freedoms and Culture in Tunisia. (middle-east-online.com)
  • Unfortunately, any information linking the history of Tunisia to Amazigh culture has been obliterated from the history books that we read. (middle-east-online.com)
  • The Amazigh language has become less common in Tunisia, prompting concerns that it could die out. (middle-east-online.com)
  • This period commenced with the defeat of Carthage by the Roman Army, assisted by Berber cavalry led by Masinissa at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC, and it lasted until the year 40 AD, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Gaius, also known as Caligula (37-41 AD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Masinissa had been driven out of his ancestral realm by a Carthage-backed Berber rival. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rome annexed Carthage and its immediate vicinity, but the surrounding territories remained in Berber hands, specifically in those of King Masinissa, an ally of Rome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparatively little is known of the most ancient Berber peoples since the few surviving writings from Carthage shed little light on this history, although surviving inscriptions and artifacts do offer some clues and hints. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major mercantile empire and a military rival of the Roman Republic , Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC, who occupied Tunisia for most of the next 800 years, introducing Christianity and leaving architectural legacies like the amphitheatre of El Jem . (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, migrants from Phoenicia settled Tunisia during the 12th to the 2nd century BC, founded ancient Carthage and progressively mixed with the local population. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ancient times Tunisia was the site of the great city of Carthage . (britannica.com)
  • Tunisia was settled by the Phoenicians in the 12th century B.C. By the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. , the great city-state of Carthage (derived from the Phoenician name for "new city") dominated much of the western Mediterranean. (infoplease.com)
  • In the history of Western civilization, the tension between Carthage, the ancient port city based out of modern-day Tunisia, and Rome, is one of the more dramatic and tragic rivalries that has resonances down through the ages. (gnxp.com)
  • Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast around 900 B.C. and established Carthage (in present-day Tunisia) around 800 B.C. By the sixth century B.C., a Phoenician presence existed at Tipasa (east of Cherchell in Algeria). (countrystudies.us)
  • In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 B.C. after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War. (countrystudies.us)
  • Berber kings reigned alongside a triumphant Roman dominion which spanned the entire Mediterranean, and later in 40 AD the last allied Berber kingdom was absorbed by the Empire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Berber thuya forests and woodlands are mainly distributed in the dry and mild lowlands and hills of the northern half of the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of Morocco, the western half of the Algerian coast, and some mountain areas along the north-eastern coast of Tunisia. (wordnik.com)
  • The Berber thuya is one of only two Mediterranean conifer species that can be transformed into coppice woodlands (the Canary pine species (Pinus canariensis), endemic to some Macronesian Atlantic islands is the other). (wordnik.com)
  • The Berber people are genetically diverse and heterogeneous. (els.net)
  • Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging the idea of Berber groups being genetically isolated and Arab groups open to gene flow. (plos.org)
  • Originally populated by Berber tribes, Arab settlers established a series of dynastic kingdoms that successfully resisted colonial occupation. (democracyweb.org)
  • In the Carthaginian and Roman periods, military regimes dominated the economy and trade over the coastlines but not in the interior, where Berber kingdoms negotiated payments of tribute to the dominant power. (democracyweb.org)
  • By the second century B.C., several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. (countrystudies.us)
  • The high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium later, was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the second century B.C. After Masinissa's death in 148 B.C., the Berber kingdoms were divided and reunited several times. (countrystudies.us)
  • The native Afro-Asiatic Berber languages seem to have been dominant in the region despite the influence and prestige of Punic and Latin in the cities when Muslim Arabs conquered the region in the late 7th century. (gnxp.com)
  • Nefzawi's name indicates that he came from the Berber tribe of that name based in southern Tunisia, and it became widely known throughout the Arab world. (naxos.com)
  • During classical antiquity , Tunisia's population spoke Berber languages related to the Numidian language . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of Tunisia's people have a mixture of Arab and Berber roots. (britannica.com)
  • During the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) Rome entered into an alliance with Masinissa, the son of a Berber tribal leader. (wikipedia.org)
  • Municipal and civic affairs were organized using a combination of Punic and Berber political traditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accordingly, the Punic city-state had once exerted great economic influence on the surrounding Berber polities and peoples. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the three Punic Wars, Rome directly entered into permanent relations with the Berber people. (wikipedia.org)
  • [27] Also, already at that time, in the regions near to Punic settlements, the Berber that was used evolved considerably. (wikipedia.org)
  • This fact influenced the geographical distribution of Berber communities, which are nowadays relegated to peripheral and relict areas in a vast region extending from Mauritania to Egypt and from the Sahara desert to the Algerian and Moroccan Atlas mountainous areas [ 5 ]. (plos.org)
  • During this time, the population absorbed Berber converts, although the proportion of Berber genetic contribution to the Libyan Jews is not known ( 1 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Because of a dearth of information and the potential for preservation bias among sources documenting influential Jewish immigrants from Italy and Spain, it is difficult to quantify the contributions of different genetic groups to the population that eventually became the modern Libyan Jews-the ancient Jews, the Berber converts, and the possible sources of immigrants between the 5th and 15th centuries CE. (pnas.org)
  • No genetic differences have been found between Arab and Berber groups. (els.net)
  • The genetic-demographic characteristics of the region are relevant to attempts to understand the origins of the Afro-Asiatic languages more generally since Berber is part of the clade with the Semitic languages. (gnxp.com)
  • In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. (plos.org)
  • The population of Tunisia is particularly interesting due to its Berber genetic background. (cdc.gov)
  • The Factbook explains that of the approximately 15% who identify as Berber, most live in the Kabylie region, more closely identify with Berber heritage instead of Arab heritage, and are Muslim. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 8 ] The later Muslim kingdom of Ifriqiya , modern-day Tunisia , also preserved a form of the name. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. (unionpedia.org)
  • By ethnicity, Morocco's population of 33 million people (2014 estimate) is today almost exclusively Arab and Berber and by religion is 99 percent Sunni Muslim. (democracyweb.org)
  • Thereafter, probably most Berber peoples lived within the political boundaries of the Roman world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imazighen flag, the symbol of all the Berber peoples. (thefullwiki.org)
  • After the Roman conquest, Libyan will no longer be the name of all the Berber peoples, only one of them. (ucpress.edu)
  • Historically they spoke various Berber languages , which together form a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We were lucky with out driver who spoke good English and had a wide knowledge of Tunisia. (sloweurope.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ Les données sur les caractéristiques des naissances prématurées et leurs facteurs de risque sont rares en Tunisie. (who.int)
  • Low temperatures and especially frosts in the high hinterland areas confine the Berber thuya forests to the milder lowlands. (wordnik.com)
  • As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. (countrystudies.us)
  • For nearly 250 years, Berber kings of the 'House of Masinissa' ruled in Numidia, which included much of Tunisia, and later in adjacent regions, first as sovereigns allied with Rome and then eventually as Roman clients. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Roman civil wars after the fall of the Roman Republic (44 BC), Berber kings were courted by the contending political factions for their military support. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this period, Roman settlers were increasingly taking the traditional pasture lands of transhumant Berber tribes for their own use as farms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fall of the Roman Republic led to the Roman civil wars, whose intermittent military actions and political strife indirectly amplified the significance of the Berber kings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amid the oscillating demands and shifting fortunes, Berber alliances were sought by rival Roman factions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, during these years of Roman civil conflict the political status of the Berber kings continued to erode. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the last of these civil wars came to an end and the long reign of Augustus (31 BC to 14 AD) commenced, Roman-Berber relations were redefined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because "Berber" appeared for the first time after the end of the Roman Empire, the relevance of its use for the previous period is not accepted by all historians of antiquity. (thefullwiki.org)
  • A frequent usage refers to the non-Phoenician and non-Roman inhabitants of classical times, and their language, as Berber. (britannica.com)
  • Of the two, Tunisia seemed to have the most to offer to us with the Roman sites in the north. (sloweurope.com)
  • Masinissa's line survived until A.D. 24, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. (countrystudies.us)
  • Today most Berber-speaking people live in Morocco , Algeria , and Tunisia . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Information coming back from Tunisia Direct who Audley work with said away from the east coast tourist belt the island was very peaceful and people followed a very traditional way of life. (sloweurope.com)
  • 100 people in Tunisia and 1,200 people in Eritrea die from AIDS each year. (ifitweremyhome.com)
  • In ancient times Tunisia was a colony of the Phoenicians, a people from what is now Lebanon. (britannica.com)
  • In Tunisia and the rest of the Arab countries, people are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of preventing urological pathology, and new treatments for previously incurable urological diseases are becoming available. (urotoday.com)
  • Tunisia has a rich cultural history, ever since Antiquity. (wikitravel.org)
  • Agitation for independence in the decades following World War I was finally successful in convincing the French to recognize Tunisia as an independent state in 1956. (cia.gov)
  • Tunisia gained independence under the leadership of Habib Bourguiba , who declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tunisia gained independence from France in 1956. (britannica.com)
  • Tunisia, which had been a French protectorate since 1881, gained its independence in 1956. (freedomhouse.org)
  • One such Berber king married the daughter of Cleopatra of Egypt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881 and the creation of a protectorate. (cia.gov)
  • The Ottoman Empire established control in 1574 and held sway for over 300 years, until the French conquered and colonized Tunisia in 1881. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tunisia became a territory of France in 1881. (britannica.com)
  • The commoner Tacfarinas raised a revolt in defense of Berber land rights and became a great tribal chief as a result of his insurgency (17-24 AD) against Rome. (wikipedia.org)
  • He lived in France where he met his French-Berber wife, and later moved to the United States. (bu.edu)
  • After a lengthy, severe, and poorly documented bottleneck in population size, Libyan Jews engaged in cultural interactions with Berber tribes that lasted through the 6th century CE ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of preterm births in Monastir, Tunisia, and to study the chronological trends of associated factors over the years 1994-2012. (who.int)
  • The constituent assembly deposed the bey on July 25, 1957, declared Tunisia a republic, and elected Habib Bourguiba as president. (infoplease.com)
  • Based on the rich historic background of Tunisia, we suggest that this adaptive trait was introduced in that geographic region by a relatively recent gene flow. (paperity.org)
  • It is often said that Tunisia is a civilisation of 3,000 years to stress that our country has a long, rich history but the question here is: What about the history of the country before? (middle-east-online.com)
  • Closely associated with the Berber nomads of the region, it has long been used to hunt a range of prey and to guard its owners' camps. (dogzone.com)
  • The Arabs used the derived term Ifrīqiyyah in a similar fashion, though it originally referred to a region encompassing modern Tunisia and eastern Algeria. (britannica.com)
  • Some call this tea " Berber whiskey " because of the caffeine and the sugar, and because it's the closest thing to alcohol many Muslims in the region drink. (wrkf.org)
  • After several attempts starting in 647, Muslims conquered all of Tunisia by 697, bringing Islam and Arab culture to the local population. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutational background of HCM in Tunisia is heterogeneous. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1574 the Turks defeated the Spanish and made Tunisia a part of the Ottoman Empire. (britannica.com)
  • It was then ruled by various Arab and Berber dynasties, followed by the Turks, who took it in 1570-1574 and made it part of the Ottoman Empire until the 19th century. (infoplease.com)
  • Berber kings continued to reign, but had become merely clients of Imperial Rome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent independent Berber kings were courted by Rome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Berber relations with Rome became multivalent and fluid, characterized variously as a working alliance, functional ambivalence, partisan hostility, veiled maneuvering, and fruitful intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from the culture and the rich Berber folklore, her interest grew in a whirling. (bellydance.org)
  • Their name is usually connected with Phoenician afar , "dust", but a 1981 theory [ 5 ] has asserted that it stems from a Berber word ifri or Ifran meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers [ 6 ] . (thefullwiki.org)