Benzylamine Oxidase: An aspect of monoamine oxidase, EC Catalyzes the oxidation of benzylamine to form benzaldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.SemicarbazidesAmine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Clorgyline: An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE.Phenethylamines: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Miller Fisher Syndrome: A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Picolinic AcidsPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.

Methylamine and benzylamine induced hypophagia in mice: modulation by semicarbazide-sensitive benzylamine oxidase inhibitors and aODN towards Kv1.1 channels. (1/18)

1. In starved mice, the anorectic activity of methylamine (MET) and benzylamine (BZ), both substrates of semicarbazide-sensitive benzylamine oxidases (Bz-SSAO), was compared with that of the potassium channel blocking agents charybdotoxin (ChTX), tetraethylammonium (TEA), gliquidone (GLI), ammonium chloride (NH(4)(+)) and of the anoressants amphetamine (AMPH) and nicotine (NIC). After i.c.v. administration, an approximate ranking order of potency was: ChTX> or =AMPH>NIC=TEA> or =GLI> or =MET>BZ>NH(4)(+). 2. Clorgyline (2.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) or deprenyl (10 mg kg(-1) i.p.) potentiated the anorectic effect of i.c.v.-administered BZ, NIC and AMPH. The effect of TEA was increased only by deprenyl, while MET, NH(4)(+), ChTX and GLI were not affected by either of the inhibitors. 3. The Bz-SSAO inhibitors alpha-aminoguanidine (50 mg kg(-1) i.p.), B24 (100 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and MDL 72274 (2.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) potentiated the effect of i.p., but not of i.c.v.-administered MET. 4. Antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides (aODN) to Kv1.1 potassium channels abolished the effect of BZ and TEA, but was ineffective in reducing the activity of MET and other compounds. 5. These results suggest that MET is endowed with peculiar hypophagic effects at dosage levels that are not able to affect gross behaviour in mice. The effect of MET, differently from BZ, seems unrelated to an increase in the central release of monoaminergic mediators, as well as to a Kv1.1 blocking activity. Through a reduction of the endogenous breakdown of MET, Bz-SSAO inhibitors enhance the central pharmacological activity of this amine.  (+info)

Active-sitve titration of pig plasma benzylamine oxidase with phenylhydrazine. (2/18)

Pig plasma benzylamine oxidase is a protein containing cupric copper and pyridoxal phosphate. The pyridoxal phosphate is stably linked to the enzyme. Discrepancies in the numbers of active sites per molecule of enzyme are reported in the literature. This paper shows that the fully active pure enzyme contains 3 mol of pyridoxal phosphate per mol, whereas enzymes with a lower specific activity are shown by titration with phenylhydrazine to have a lower pyrdoxal phosphate content.  (+info)

The action of plasma amine oxidase on beta-haloamines. Evidence for proton abstraction in the oxidative reaction. (3/18)

The action of plasma amine oxidase upon beta-Br-ethylamine beta-Cl-ethylamine, beta-OH-phenylethylamine, and beta-Cl-phenylethylamine was examined. Beta-Br-ethylamine is a substrate and irreversible inactivator of the enzyme. The enzyme becomes covalently labeled by the inactivator. Approximately 2 mol of inactivator are incorporated per mol of enzyme (MW 170,000). The reduced enzyme is not inactivated. The enzyme catalyzes the elimination of HCl from beta-Cl-phenylethylamine to produce phenylacetaldehyde. The rate of the elimination reaction is comparable to the normal oxidative reaction. We conclude that the occurrence of this elimination reaction establishes the ability of the enzyme to catalyze proton abstraction from C-1 of the substrate and that proton abstraction occurs during the catalytic oxidation normally catalyzed by plasma amine oxidase. Beta-Cl-ethylamine is only oxidized to corresponding aldehyde. Beta-OH-phenylethylamine is neither oxidized, nor does elimination occur. It is a competitive inhibitor in the oxidation of benzylamine and in the elimination of HCl from beta-Cl-phenylethylamine.  (+info)

Kinetic isotope effects on the catalytic activity of pig-plasma benzylamine oxidase. (4/18)

1. Isotope effects on the catalytic activity of benzylamine oxidase at pH 7 and 9 have been studied by steady-state and transient-state kinetics methods, using [alpha,alpha-2H]benzylamine as the substrate. 2. Replacement of the alpha-hydrogen atoms in benzylamine by deuterium has no significant effect on substrate-binding to benzylamine oxidase, neither does it affect the rate of reoxidation of the reduced form of the enzyme. Conversion of the primarily formed enzyme-substrate complex into the reduced enzyme species, however, exhibits an isotope effect of about 3. 3. The data obtained are consistent with a mechanism in which reduction of benzylamine oxidase takes place by a rapid pre-equilibration between enzyme and substrate to form an amine-pyridoxal Schiff-base, which is then tautomerized by a comparatively slow prototropic shift to an amino aldehyde-pyridoxamine Schiff-base from which there is a rapid hydrolytic release of the aldehyde product corresponding to the amine substrate. Proton abstraction from the alpha-carbon of the amine moiety in the primary Schiff-base appears to be at least partially rate-limiting for the tautomerization step, and hence for the entire process of enzyme reduction.  (+info)

Stopped-flow spectrophotometric characterization of enzymic reaction intermediates in the anaerobic reduction of pig-plasma benzylamine oxidase by amine substrates. (5/18)

Reduction of benzylamine oxidase by p-methoxybenzylamine under anaerobic conditions leads to biphasic absorbance changes at 470 nm. These reflect the intermediate formation of an enzyme substrate complex with spectral properties different from those of native enzyme and fully reduced enzyme. The spectrally modified enzyme-substrate complex exhibits a broad difference absorption band centered around 360 nm. The transient accumulation of this intermediate during reaction can be conveniently followed by stopped-flow techniques at wavelengths between 320 and 360 nm, where contributions from the subsequent reduction of the enzymic 470-nm chromophore are of minor significance. 2. Analogous intermediates exhibiting similar absorption spectra seem to be formed on reduction of the enzyme by benzylamine and other amine substrates which were tested. Substitution of benzylamine as the reducing substrate by [alpha, alpha-2H]benzylamine results in a decreased accumulation of the spectrally modified intermediate. This indicates that its formation is preceded by deprotonation of the alpha-carbon of the amine substrate. 3. Circular dichroism spectra of benzylamine oxidase exhibit a positive band at 360 nm, lending support to the previous conclusion that benzylamine oxidase is a pyridoxal enzyme. Formation of the spectrally modified enzyme-substrate complex then most likely reflects the prototropic shift converting an amine-pyridoxal Schiff-base obtained by rapid pre-equilibration between enzyme and substrate into an aldehyde-pyridoxamine Schiff-base.  (+info)

Long-term high copper intake: effects on indexes of copper status, antioxidant status, and immune function in young men. (6/18)

BACKGROUND: Short-term high copper intake does not appear to affect indexes of copper status or functions related to copper status, but the effects of long-term high copper intake are unknown. OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted in men to determine the effect of long-term high copper intake on indexes of copper status, oxidant damage, and immune function. DESIGN: Nine men were confined to a metabolic research unit (MRU) for 18 d and were fed a 3-d rotating menu providing an average of 1.6 mg Cu/d. The men continued the study under free-living conditions for 129 d and supplemented their usual diets with 7 mg Cu/d. The men then returned to the MRU for 18 d of the same diet as during the first period, except that copper intake was 7.8 mg/d. Plasma copper, ceruloplasmin activity, ceruloplasmin protein, plasma malondialdehyde, benzylamine oxidase activity, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, hair copper, urinary copper, and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were measured during each MRU period. RESULTS: Ceruloplasmin activity, benzylamine oxidase, and superoxide dismutase were significantly higher at the end of the second MRU period than at the end of the first. Urinary copper excretion, hair copper concentrations, and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were significantly higher during the second MRU period than during the first. Polymorphonuclear cell count, the percentage of white blood cells, lymphocyte count, and interleukin 2R were affected by copper supplementation. Antibody titer for the Beijing strain of influenza virus was significantly lower in supplemented subjects after immunization than in unsupplemented control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Under highly controlled conditions, long-term high copper intake results in increases in some indexes of copper status, alters an index of oxidant stress, and affects several indexes of immune function. The physiologic implications of these changes are unknown.  (+info)

The kinetics of reoxidation of reduced benzylamine oxidase. (7/18)

1. The mechanism of reoxidation of reduced benzylamine oxidase has been investigated at different pH between 6 and 10 by steady-state and transient-state kinetic methods. 2. The reoxidation process involves minimally a second-order interaction between reduced enzyme and oxygen leading to the formation of a spectrally modified enzyme intermediate, and a subsequent first-order step converting this intermediate into free enzyme. The variation with pH of rate constants according to such a reaction scheme is reported. 3. Under aerobic conditions the oxygen-independent reaction represents the main rate-limiting step in the catalytic process at alkaline pH. At neutral or acid pH the interaction between reduced enzyme and oxygen becomes mainly rate-limiting, indicating that the concentration of oxygen may be a critical factor controlling enzyme activity under physiological conditions. 4. The spectrally modified intermediate formed during the reoxidation process exhibits a difference-absorption band centered around 290 nm in comparison to free enzyme, and an additional difference-absorption band at 470 nm in comparison to reduced enzyme. These data indicate that formation of the intermediate, besides leading to a reappearance of the 470-nm absorption band disappearing on reduction of the enzyme, results in a spectral perturbation of one or several aromatic amino-acid residues in the protein. This perturbation could possibly reflect a conformational change of the enzymes.  (+info)

Properties of cupric ions in benzylamine oxidase from pig plasma as studied by magnetic-resonance and kinetic methods. (8/18)

Benzylamine oxidase from pig plasma has been studied by a variety of chemical and physical techniques. 1. Analytical ultracentrifugation, gel electrophoresis and isoelectric-focusing studies suggest that the enzyme is composed of two subunits with closely similar primary structures. 2. E.s.r. and n.m.r. measurements show that the enzyme contains two well-separated (greater than 0.6 nm) Cu2+ ions at chemically distinct sites. Each Cu2+ ion is coordinated by two water molecules, one 'axial' and the other 'equatorial'. Both water molecules undergo fast exchange (10(5)--10(8) s-1) with solvent and are deprotonated in the pH range 8--9, but only the equatorial water molecule is displaced by the inhibitors N3- and CN-. 3. Kinetic and e.s.r. measurements show that azide and cyanide compete against O2 binding and also make the two Cu2+ sites identical. It is concluded that Cu2+ must participate in the re-oxidation of reduced enzyme by molecular O2.  (+info)

  • A highly purified preparation of lysyl oxidase was obtained from pig aortas. (
  • F.L.H. Stassen , Properties of Highly-Purified Lysyl-Oxidase from Embryonic Chick Cartilage , Biochim. (
  • J.J. Shieh, R. Tamaye and K.T. Yasunobu , A Purification Procedure for the Isolation of Homogeneous Preparation of Bovine Aorta Amine Oxidase and a Study of its Lysyl-Oxidase Activity , Biochim. (
  • H.M. Kagan, K.A. Sullivan, T.A. Olsson, III and A.L. Cronlund , Purification and Properties of Four Species of Lysyl Oxidase from Bovine Aorta , Biochem. (
  • F. Buffoni, G. Ignesti and M. Lodovici , Purification and Substrate Specificity of Lysyl Oxidase from Pig Aorta , Ital. (
  • In the case of lysyl oxidase, this is the first step in the cross-linking of collagen and elastin, and leads to their great strength. (
  • Purification of high yields of catalytically active lysyl oxidase directly from E. coli cell culture," S.E. Herwald, F.T. Greenaway, and K.M. Lopez, Prot. (
  • There are disclosed various compounds of the formula below, ##STR1## where n, X and R.sub.1 through R.sub.4 are as defined in the specification, which are useful for alleviating various memory dysfunctions characterized by a cholinergic deficit such as Alzheimer's disease.Compounds of this invention also inhibit monoamine oxidase and/or act at central .alpha. (
  • The early MAOIs inhibit monoamine oxidase irreversibly, meaning they permanently deactivate it and the enzyme cannot function until it has been replaced by the body, which can take about two weeks. (
  • The info represent M H202 created from 0C18 h (incubation at RT) and so are shown as the Mean S.E.M, 2C18 h was determined utilizing a one-way ANOVA accompanied by a Tukey post hoc check * MAO-B activity - Time-dependent benzaldehyde item formation from 3-mM benzylamine in the existence or lack of MAO-B, and in the current presence of 3-mM benzylamine + 100 M of deprenyl. (
  • Open up in another window Shape 3 A. Deprenyl inhibitory results on MAO-B. The info represent item formation (M benzylamine) created at 24 h (incubation at RT) in the existence or lack of deprenyl (82 C 1000 nM) and so are shown as the Mean S.E.M, deprenyl was determined utilizing a one-way ANOVA accompanied by a Tukey post hoc check. (
  • Primary Amine Oxidase (PrAO) has been recognised as a therapeutic target for amelioration of inflammatory, vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Coproporphyrinogen oxidase, protoporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase activities in iron-overloaded and ethanol-treated rats. (
  • The activities of coproporphyrinogen oxidase, protoporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase in liver homogenates of iron-overloaded and acutely or chronically ethanol-treated rats were assayed by high performance liquid chromatographic methods. (
  • Decreased coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity was found in chronically carbonyliron-fed rats while the activities of protoporphyrinogen oxidase and ferrochelatase remained unchanged. (
  • Biochemical, functional and structural characterization of Akbu-LAAO: A novel snake venom L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis," M.-Z. Sun, C. Guo, Y Tian, D. Chen, F.T. Greenaway, S. Liu, Biochimie 92, 343-349 (2010). (
  • Characterization of maize polyamine oxidase. (
  • Characterization of a Putrescine Transaminase From Pseudomonas putida and its Application to the Synthesis of Benzylamine Derivatives. (
  • It has been shown, that some benzo[c]-phenanthridine and diisoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Chelidonium majus L. and Macleaya (Bocconia) cordata and M. microcarpa (berberine, sanguinarine, chelidonine) and of drugs ("Ukrain" and "Sanguirythrine") inhibited the enzyme activity of acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocyte and monoamine oxidase from the rat liver. (