1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Benzyl compounds are organic substances that contain a benzyl group, which is a functional structure consisting of a carbon atom attached to a phenyl ring and a methylene group (-CH2-).
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC 1.2.1.2.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
A species of THIOCAPSA which is facultatively aerobic and chemotrophic and which can utilize thiosulfate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.

Pre-steady-state kinetics of the reactions of [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Chromatium vinosum with H2 and CO. (1/29)

Results are presented of the first rapid-mixing/rapid-freezing studies with a [NiFe]-hydrogenase. The enzyme from Chromatium vinosum was used. In particular the reactions of active enzyme with H2 and CO were monitored. The conversion from fully reduced, active hydrogenase (Nia-SR state) to the Nia-C* state was completed in less than 8 ms, a rate consistent with the H2-evolution activity of the enzyme. The reaction of CO with fully reduced enzyme was followed from 8 to 200 ms. The Nia-SR state did not react with CO. It was discovered, contrary to expectations, that the Nia-C* state did not react with CO when reactions were performed in the dark. When H2 was replaced by CO, a Nia-C* EPR signal appeared within 11 ms; this was also the case when H2 was replaced by Ar. With CO, however, the Nia-C* state decayed within 40 ms, due to the generation of the Nia-S.CO state (the EPR-silent state of the enzyme with bound CO). The Nia-C* state, induced after 11 ms by replacing H2 by CO in the dark, could be converted, in the frozen enzyme, into the EPR-detectable state with CO bound to nickel (Nia*.CO) by illumination at 30 K (evoking the Nia-L* state), followed by dark adaptation at 200 K. This can be explained by assuming that the Nia-C* state represents a formally trivalent state of nickel, which is unable to bind CO, whereas nickel in the Nia-L* and the Nia*.CO states is formally monovalent.  (+info)

Diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor for the hydrogenase complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus. Evidence for two distinct electron donor sites. (2/29)

The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus synthesises a membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase encoded by the H2 uptake hydrogenase (hup)SLC structural operon. The hupS and hupL genes encode the small and large subunits of hydrogenase, respectively; hupC encodes a membrane electron carrier protein which may be considered as the third subunit of the uptake hydrogenase. In Wolinella succinogenes, the hydC gene, homologous to hupC, has been shown to encode a low potential cytochrome b which mediates electron transfer from H2 to the quinone pool of the bacterial membrane. In whole cells of R. capsulatus or intact membrane preparation of the wild type strain B10, methylene blue but not benzyl viologen can be used as acceptor of the electrons donated by H2 to hydrogenase; on the other hand, membranes of B10 treated with Triton X-100 or whole cells of a HupC- mutant exhibit both benzyl viologen and methylene blue reductase activities. We report the effect of diphenylene iodonium (Ph2I), a known inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and of various monooxygenases on R. capsulatus hydrogenase activity. With H2 as electron donor, Ph2I inhibited partially the methylene blue reductase activity in an uncompetitive manner, and totally benzyl viologen reductase activity in a competitive manner. Furthermore, with benzyl viologen as electron acceptor, Ph2I increased dramatically the observed lagtime for dye reduction. These results suggest that two different sites exist on the electron donor side of the membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase of R. capsulatus, both located on the small subunit. A low redox potential site which reduces benzyl viologen, binds Ph2I and could be located on the distal [Fe4S4] cluster. A higher redox potential site which can reduce methylene blue in vitro could be connected to the high potential [Fe3S4] cluster and freely accessible from the periplasm.  (+info)

Nitrate reductase system in Staphylococcus aureus wild type and mutants. (3/29)

Respiratory nitrate reductase with lactate as a hydrogen donor has been studied in cells and spheroplast preparations of wild type and heme-deficienct mutants of Staphylococcus aureus. The activity is rapidly induced when suspensions of aerobically grown cells are incubated without aeration in a complete medium with nitrate. In ruptured spheroplast preparations, the activity with lactate as the donor is located in the membrane fraction, whereas at least 50% of the activity assayed with reduced benzyl viologen is in the cytoplasm. The reductase is inhibited by azide and cyanide, and the lactate-linked system is also sensitive to oxamate, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide, dicoumarol, and p-chloromercuribenzoate. An inactive form of the reductase is apparently made during induction with tungstate; this can be activated by subsequent incubation with molybdate in the presence of chloramphenicol. Nitrate reductase activity with reduced benzyl viologen as the donor is induced in suspensions of heme-deficient mutants in the presence or absence of heme. The proportion of cytoplasmic activity is increased in the absence of heme. The staphylococcal nitrate reductase has many of the characteristics commonly associated with the respiratory enzyme in other organisms, but the apparent predominance of cytoplasmic activity is unusual.  (+info)

An autocatalytic step in the reaction cycle of hydrogenase from Thiocapsa roseopersicina can explain the special characteristics of the enzyme reaction. (4/29)

A moving front has been observed as a special pattern during the hydrogenase-catalyzed reaction of hydrogen uptake with benzyl viologen as electron acceptor in a thin-layer reaction chamber. Such fronts start spontaneously and at random times at different points of the reaction chamber; blue spheres are seen expanding at constant speed and amplitude. The number of observable starting points depends on the hydrogenase concentration. Fronts can be initiated by injecting either a small amount of completed reaction mixture or activated hydrogenase, but not by injecting a low concentration of reduced benzyl viologen. These characteristics are consistent with an autocatalytic reaction step in the enzyme reaction. The special characteristics of the hydrogen-uptake reaction in the bulk reaction (a long lag phase, and the enzyme concentration dependence of the lag phase) support the autocatalytic nature. We conclude that there is at least one autocatalytic reaction step in the hydrogenase-catalyzed reaction. The two possible autocatalytic schemes for hydrogenase are prion-type autocatalysis, in which two enzyme forms interact, and product-activation autocatalysis, where a reduced electron acceptor and an inactive enzyme form interact. The experimental results strongly support the occurrence of prion-type autocatalysis.  (+info)

Characterization of a thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. (5/29)

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The respiratory molybdo-selenoprotein formate dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli have hydrogen: benzyl viologen oxidoreductase activity. (6/29)

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Steroid transhydrogenase activity of 3-ketosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase from Nocardia corallina. (7/29)

3-Ketosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase from Nocardia corallina catalyzes transhydrogenation of 3-keto-4-ene-steroid to 3-keto-1,4-diene-steroid e.g., progesterone to 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione. The reaction proceeded linearly at first and then soon slowed down owing to equilibration. The turnover number of this reaction was of the same magnitude as that of the dehydrogenation of 3-keto-4-ene-steroid. The pH optimum was 8.4, which is lower than that of the dehydrogenase reaction. The enzyme has a wide specificity for hydrogen acceptor steroids. The Km' and Kmax' values for these steroids and the values of the corresponding 3-keto-4-ene-steroids were compared. Kinetic studies of the steroid transhydrogenase reaction demonstrated a typical ping-pong mechanism. The enzyme oxidized 1,2-tritiated progesterone and transferred the tritium atoms to the reaction product, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, and water. Transhydrogenation in D2O resulted in the incorporation of a deuterium atom into the C2-position of 4-androstene-3,17-dione. The results indicate that the enzyme catalyzes C1, C2-trans axial abstraction of hydrogen atoms from progesterone, transfer of the 1 alpha-hydrogen to the C1-position of 1,4-androstadiene-3, 17-dione and release of the 2 beta-hydrogen to water. Reaction schemes based on the experimental results are proposed. The enzyme also catalyzes the reduction of 3-keto-1,4-diene-steroids with reduced benzyl viologen.  (+info)

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts contain a homodimeric pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase that functions with FDX1. (8/29)

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Benzyl viologen is a type of chemical compound that belongs to the class of viologens, which are derivatives of the parent compound methylviologen. The chemical name for benzyl viologen is N,N'-diphenyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride.

Viologens are reduced forms of heterocyclic aromatic amines that can undergo reversible reduction and oxidation reactions. In their reduced form, they act as strong reducing agents, while in their oxidized form, they act as strong oxidizing agents. Benzyl viologen is commonly used as an electron carrier or mediator in various chemical and biological systems, such as redox reactions, photochemical processes, and bioelectrochemical devices like fuel cells and biosensors.

The compound consists of two benzyl groups attached to the nitrogen atoms of a bipyridinium cation, which is then complexed with chloride ions. The reduction potential of benzyl viologen is around -0.45 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), making it a useful electron carrier in various applications where an easily reducible and oxidizable compound is required.

It's worth noting that while benzyl viologen has potential uses in scientific research, it may also have toxic effects on living organisms, so appropriate safety precautions should be taken when handling this chemical.

Benzyl alcohol is a aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic, mildly unpleasant odor. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent and as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals. In medicine, it is used as a local anesthetic and antimicrobial agent. It can be found in some personal care products, such as cosmetics, shampoos, and sunscreens, as well as in topical medications and intravenous medications.

Benzyl compounds are organic chemical compounds that contain a benzyl group, which is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom attached to a CH3 group (methyl group) and an aromatic ring, usually a phenyl group. The benzyl group can be represented as -CH2-C6H5.

Benzyl compounds have various applications in different fields such as pharmaceuticals, flavors, fragrances, dyes, and polymers. In pharmaceuticals, benzyl compounds are used as active ingredients or intermediates in the synthesis of drugs. For example, benzylpenicillin is a widely used antibiotic that contains a benzyl group.

Benzyl alcohol, benzyl chloride, and benzyl acetate are some common examples of benzyl compounds with various industrial applications. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent, preservative, and intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals. Benzyl chloride is an important chemical used in the production of resins, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Benzyl acetate is used as a flavoring agent and fragrance in food and cosmetic products.

It's worth noting that benzyl compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin, depending on their chemical properties and concentrations. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used under appropriate safety measures.

Hydrogenase is not a medical term per se, but a biochemical term. It is used to describe an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion between molecular hydrogen (H2) and protons (H+) or vice versa. These enzymes are found in certain bacteria, algae, and archaea, and they play a crucial role in their energy metabolism, particularly in processes like hydrogen production and consumption.

While not directly related to medical terminology, understanding the function of hydrogenase can be important in fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, and environmental science, which can have implications for human health in areas like infectious diseases, biofuels, and waste management.

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant odor and is used as a solvent and preservative in cosmetics, medications, and other products. Benzyl alcohol can also be found as a natural component of some essential oils, fruits, and teas.

Benzyl alcohol is not typically considered a "drug" or a medication, but it may have various pharmacological effects when used in certain medical contexts. For example, it has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as a preservative in injectable medications to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It can also be used as a local anesthetic or analgesic in some topical creams and ointments.

It's important to note that benzyl alcohol can be harmful or fatal to infants and young children, especially when it is used in high concentrations or when it is introduced into the body through intravenous (IV) routes. Therefore, it should be used with caution in these populations and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Viologens, also known as methylviologen dyes or paraquat salts, are a group of chemical compounds that have the general structure of bis(dimethylpyridinium). They are widely used in research as electron acceptors and in commercial applications such as herbicides. Viologens can undergo redox reactions, which make them useful for studies involving electron transfer. However, they can also be toxic to living organisms, including humans, due to their ability to generate reactive oxygen species that damage cells.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Formates" is not a recognized term in medical terminology. It is possible that you may be referring to "formic acid" or "formate," which are terms used in chemistry and biochemistry. Formic acid is a colorless, pungent, and corrosive liquid with the chemical formula HCOOH. Its salts are called formates.

Formate is the anion (negatively charged ion) of formic acid, with the chemical formula HCOO-. Formate can be found in various biological systems and is involved in several metabolic processes. If you could provide more context or clarify your question, I would be happy to help further.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Nitrate reductases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-). This process is an essential part of the nitrogen cycle, where nitrate serves as a terminal electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration for many bacteria and archaea. In plants, this enzyme plays a crucial role in nitrogen assimilation by reducing nitrate to ammonium (NH4+), which can then be incorporated into organic compounds. Nitrate reductases require various cofactors, such as molybdenum, heme, and/or FAD, for their activity. There are three main types of nitrate reductases: membrane-bound (which use menaquinol as an electron donor), cytoplasmic (which use NADH or NADPH as an electron donor), and assimilatory (which also use NADH or NADPH as an electron donor).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydrogen" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant chemical element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass.

In a medical context, hydrogen can be discussed in terms of molecular hydrogen (H2) which has been studied for potential therapeutic benefits. Some research explores its use as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, but more studies are needed to confirm these effects and understand the mechanisms behind them.

Formate dehydrogenases (FDH) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of formic acid (formate) to carbon dioxide and hydrogen or to carbon dioxide and water, depending on the type of FDH. The reaction is as follows:

Formic acid + Coenzyme Q (or NAD+) -> Carbon dioxide + H2 (or H2O) + Reduced coenzyme Q (or NADH)

FDHs are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. They play a crucial role in the metabolism of many microorganisms that use formate as an electron donor for energy conservation or as a carbon source for growth. In addition to their biological significance, FDHs have attracted much interest as biocatalysts for various industrial applications, such as the production of hydrogen, reduction of CO2, and detoxification of formic acid in animal feed.

FDHs can be classified into two main types based on their cofactor specificity: NAD-dependent FDHs and quinone-dependent FDHs. NAD-dependent FDHs use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as a cofactor, while quinone-dependent FDHs use menaquinone or ubiquinone as a cofactor. Both types of FDHs have a similar reaction mechanism that involves the transfer of a hydride ion from formate to the cofactor and the release of carbon dioxide.

FDHs are composed of two subunits: a small subunit containing one or two [4Fe-4S] clusters and a large subunit containing a molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and one or two [2Fe-2S] clusters. Moco is a complex prosthetic group that consists of a pterin ring, a dithiolene group, and a molybdenum atom coordinated to three ligands: a sulfur atom from the dithiolene group, a terminal oxygen atom from a mononucleotide, and a serine residue. The molybdenum center can adopt different oxidation states (+4, +5, or +6) during the catalytic cycle, allowing for the transfer of electrons and the activation of formate.

FDHs have various applications in biotechnology and industry, such as the production of hydrogen gas, the removal of nitrate from wastewater, and the synthesis of fine chemicals. The high selectivity and efficiency of FDHs make them attractive catalysts for these processes, which require mild reaction conditions and low energy inputs. However, the stability and activity of FDHs are often limited by their sensitivity to oxygen and other inhibitors, which can affect their performance in industrial settings. Therefore, efforts have been made to improve the properties of FDHs through protein engineering, genetic modification, and immobilization techniques.

The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) is a series of complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane that are involved in the process of cellular respiration. It is the final pathway for electrons derived from the oxidation of nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids to be transferred to molecular oxygen. This transfer of electrons drives the generation of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

The electron transport chain consists of four complexes (I-IV) and two mobile electron carriers (ubiquinone and cytochrome c). Electrons from NADH and FADH2 are transferred to Complex I and Complex II respectively, which then pass them along to ubiquinone. Ubiquinone then transfers the electrons to Complex III, which passes them on to cytochrome c. Finally, cytochrome c transfers the electrons to Complex IV, where they combine with oxygen and protons to form water.

The transfer of electrons through the ETC is accompanied by the pumping of protons from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, creating a proton gradient. The flow of protons back across the inner membrane through ATP synthase drives the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Overall, the electron transport chain is a crucial process for generating energy in the form of ATP in the cell, and it plays a key role in many metabolic pathways.

Hydroxylamines are organic compounds that contain a hydroxy group (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2) in their structure. More specifically, they have the functional group R-N-OH, where R represents a carbon-containing radical. Hydroxylamines can be considered as derivatives of ammonia (NH3), where one hydrogen atom is replaced by a hydroxy group.

These compounds are important in organic chemistry and biochemistry due to their ability to act as reducing agents, nitrogen donors, and intermediates in various chemical reactions. They can be found in some natural substances and are also synthesized for use in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other industrial applications.

Examples of hydroxylamines include:

* Hydroxylamine (NH2OH) itself, which is a colorless liquid at room temperature with an odor similar to ammonia.
* N-Methylhydroxylamine (CH3NHOH), which is a solid that can be used as a reducing agent and a nucleophile in organic synthesis.
* Phenylhydroxylamine (C6H5NHOH), which is a solid used as an intermediate in the production of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals.

It's important to note that hydroxylamines can be unstable and potentially hazardous, so they should be handled with care during laboratory work or industrial processes.

Thiocapsa roseopersicina is not a medical term, but rather a scientific name for a type of purple sulfur bacterium. These bacteria are commonly found in environments with high sulfur content and low oxygen levels, such as in sediments or at the bottom of bodies of water. They are capable of photosynthesis and use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as an electron donor, producing elemental sulfur and sulfate as byproducts.

While Thiocapsa roseopersicina is not directly related to human health or medicine, understanding the behavior and metabolism of these bacteria can provide insights into the broader functioning of microbial communities and their impact on the environment.

Nitrates are chemical compounds that consist of a nitrogen atom bonded to three oxygen atoms (NO3-). In the context of medical science, nitrates are often discussed in relation to their use as medications or their presence in food and water.

As medications, nitrates are commonly used to treat angina (chest pain) caused by coronary artery disease. Nitrates work by relaxing and widening blood vessels, which improves blood flow and reduces the workload on the heart. Some examples of nitrate medications include nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, and isosorbide mononitrate.

In food and water, nitrates are naturally occurring compounds that can be found in a variety of vegetables, such as spinach, beets, and lettuce. They can also be present in fertilizers and industrial waste, which can contaminate groundwater and surface water sources. While nitrates themselves are not harmful, they can be converted into potentially harmful compounds called nitrites under certain conditions, particularly in the digestive system of young children or in the presence of bacteria such as those found in unpasteurized foods. Excessive levels of nitrites can react with hemoglobin in the blood to form methemoglobin, which cannot transport oxygen effectively and can lead to a condition called methemoglobinemia.

Paraquat is a highly toxic herbicide that is used for controlling weeds and grasses in agricultural settings. It is a non-selective contact weed killer, meaning it kills any green plant it comes into contact with. Paraquat is a fast-acting chemical that causes rapid desiccation of plant tissues upon contact.

In a medical context, paraquat is classified as a toxicological emergency and can cause severe poisoning in humans if ingested, inhaled, or comes into contact with the skin or eyes. Paraquat poisoning can lead to multiple organ failure, including the lungs, kidneys, and liver, and can be fatal in severe cases. There is no specific antidote for paraquat poisoning, and treatment typically focuses on supportive care and managing symptoms.

It's important to note that paraquat is highly regulated and its use is restricted to licensed professionals due to its high toxicity. Proper protective equipment, including gloves, goggles, and respiratory protection, should be used when handling paraquat to minimize the risk of exposure.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

A spheroplast is a type of cell structure that is used in some scientific research and studies. It is created through the process of removing the cell wall from certain types of cells, such as bacteria or yeast, while leaving the cell membrane intact. This results in a round, spherical shape, hence the name "spheroplast."

Spheroplasts are often used in research because they allow scientists to study the properties and functions of the cell membrane more easily, without the interference of the rigid cell wall. They can also be used to introduce foreign DNA or other molecules into the cell, as the absence of a cell wall makes it easier for these substances to enter.

It is important to note that spheroplasts are not naturally occurring structures and must be created in a laboratory setting through specialized techniques.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Molybdenum" is not a medical term. It is an element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42 on the periodic table. Molybdenum is used in various industries, including medicine, for example in the production of surgical instruments and some prosthetics due to its strength and resistance to corrosion. However, it is not a term used to describe a medical condition or bodily process. If you have any questions related to elements and their uses in medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

Aldehyde oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids using NAD+ or FAD as cofactors. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been identified in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals.

The oxidation reaction catalyzed by aldehyde oxidoreductases involves the transfer of electrons from the aldehyde substrate to the cofactor, resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid and reduced NAD+ or FAD. The enzymes are classified into several families based on their sequence similarity and cofactor specificity.

One of the most well-known members of this family is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones as part of the alcohol metabolism pathway. Another important member is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which further oxidizes the aldehydes generated by ADH to carboxylic acids, thereby preventing the accumulation of toxic aldehydes in the body.

Deficiencies in ALDH enzymes have been linked to several human diseases, including alcoholism and certain types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of aldehyde oxidoreductases is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

In a medical context, nitrites are typically referred to as organic compounds that contain a functional group with the formula R-N=O, where R represents an alkyl or aryl group. They are commonly used in medicine as vasodilators, which means they widen and relax blood vessels, improving blood flow and lowering blood pressure.

One example of a nitrite used medically is amyl nitrite, which was previously used to treat angina pectoris, a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. However, its use has largely been replaced by other medications due to safety concerns and the availability of more effective treatments.

It's worth noting that inorganic nitrites, such as sodium nitrite, are also used in medicine for various purposes, including as a preservative in food and as a medication to treat cyanide poisoning. However, these compounds have different chemical properties and uses than organic nitrites.

NADP (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate) is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role as an electron carrier in various redox reactions in the human body. It exists in two forms: NADP+, which functions as an oxidizing agent and accepts electrons, and NADPH, which serves as a reducing agent and donates electrons.

NADPH is particularly important in anabolic processes, such as lipid and nucleotide synthesis, where it provides the necessary reducing equivalents to drive these reactions forward. It also plays a critical role in maintaining the cellular redox balance by participating in antioxidant defense mechanisms that neutralize harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS).

In addition, NADP is involved in various metabolic pathways, including the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis. Overall, NADP and its reduced form, NADPH, are essential molecules for maintaining proper cellular function and energy homeostasis.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Common derivatives are methyl (see paraquat), long chain alkyl, and benzyl. Viologens, in their dicationic form, typically ... Viologens are organic compounds with the formula (C5H4NR)2n+. In some viologens, the pyridyl groups are further modified. ... Viologens are used in the negative electrolytes of some experimental flow batteries. Viologens have been modified to optimize ... biphenyl viologen 2 in scheme 2 can be reduced by sodium amalgam in DMF to the neutral viologen 3. The resonance structures of ...
... benzyl-viologen-dependent arsenate reductase activity was greater in cells grown with arsenate/sulfate than in cells grown with ...
... (EC 1.9.6.1, respiratory nitrate reductase, benzyl viologen-nitrate reductase) is an enzyme with ...
... viologens MeSH D03.383.725.762.925.100 - benzyl viologen MeSH D03.383.725.791 - pyridones MeSH D03.383.725.791.100 - bemegride ...
Typically, selective cleavage of a PMB ether in the presence of a benzyl ether uses strong stoichiometric oxidants such as 2,3- ... While [Ru(bipy)3]2+ proved to be a competent catalyst for intramolecular cyclizations using methyl viologen, it could not be ... A very common protecting group for the hydroxyl functional group is the para-methoxy benzyl (PMB) ether. This protecting group ... Conversely, electron-rich styrenes were found to react via a radical-cation mechanism, utilizing methyl viologen or molecular ...
Common derivatives are methyl (see paraquat), long chain alkyl, and benzyl. Viologens, in their dicationic form, typically ... Viologens are organic compounds with the formula (C5H4NR)2n+. In some viologens, the pyridyl groups are further modified. ... Viologens are used in the negative electrolytes of some experimental flow batteries. Viologens have been modified to optimize ... biphenyl viologen 2 in scheme 2 can be reduced by sodium amalgam in DMF to the neutral viologen 3. The resonance structures of ...
1,1-dibenzyl-4,4-bipyridinium dichloride,benzyl viologen,benzylviologen chloride,benzyl viologen dichloride,n,n-dibenzyl- ... benzyl viologen,benzylviologen chloride,benzyl viologen dichloride,n,n-dibenzyl-gamma,gamma-dipyridylium dichloride,1,1-bis ... 1-benzyl-4-1-benzylpyridin-1-ium-4-yl pyridin-1-ium dichloride CID PubChem: 14195 Nom IUPAC: 1-benzyl-4-(1-benzylpyridine-1-ium ... 1-benzyl-4-1-benzylpyridin-1-ium-4-yl pyridin-1-ium dichloride. ...
A charge-transfer host system composed of a chiral 1,1-bi-2-naphthol cluster and benzylviologen. Imai, Y.; Kamon, K.; Kinuta, ... Formation of chiral charge-transfer complex with axially chiral 1,1-bi-naphtol and viologen derivatives. Imai, Y.; Kinuta, T ... Charge-Transfer Host Complex with Channel-like Cavity Using Disubstituted-1,1′-bi-2-naphthol and Benzylviologen. Kinuta, T.; ... Solid-state thermochromism observed in charge-transfer complex composed of binaphthol and viologen. Kinuta, T.; Sato, T.; ...
Here, we show that Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) Hcp has nitric oxide reductase activity with benzyl viologen as ...
Thesis: Mesoporous POM/Ag2S/CdS Heterostructures for Photocatalytic Oxidation of Benzyl-Alcohols). B.Sc. in Materials Science ... This bromoplumbate exhibits a narrower optical band gap relative to the congeneric one-dimensional viologen bromoplumbates. ... Synthesis of fused oxazolocoumarins has been achieved from the one‐pot tandem reactions of o‐hydroxynitrocoumarins with benzyl ... Synthesis of Fused Oxazolocoumarins from o-Hydroxynitrocoumarins and Benzyl Alcohol Under Gold Nanoparticles or FeCl3 Catalysis ...
Exploration of a Viologen-Type Redox Manifold of a Non-Racemic Helquat; J. Am. Chem. Soc.; 2014 136 10826-10829 ... and sunlight photolysis of benzyl- and tert-butyl-substituted octamethyltitanocene dihydrosulfides; J. Organomet. Chem.; 2014 ... Stochastic Resonance in Electron Transfer Oscillations of Extended Viologen; J. Phys. Chem. C; 2014 118 9066-9072 ...
Soft agar containing 0.75% agar, 1 mg/ml benzyl viologen, 0.25 M sodium formate, and 25 mM KH2PO4 was laid over the culture. ... Colonies with active FDHH reduced benzyl viologen, which develops a deep blue color. ...
Benzyl Viologen Preferred Term Term UI T004608. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1975). ... Benzyl Viologen Preferred Concept UI. M0002388. Registry Number. 13096-46-3. Scope Note. 1,1-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4- ... Benzyl Viologen. Tree Number(s). D03.383.725.762.925.100. Unique ID. D001594. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh ... Benzyl Compounds (1972-1974). Pyridinium Compounds (1970-1974). Public MeSH Note. 91; was see under PYRIDINIUM COMPOUNDS 1975- ...
Benzyl Viologen Preferred Term Term UI T004608. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1975). ... Benzyl Viologen Preferred Concept UI. M0002388. Registry Number. 13096-46-3. Scope Note. 1,1-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4- ... Benzyl Viologen. Tree Number(s). D03.383.725.762.925.100. Unique ID. D001594. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh ... Benzyl Compounds (1972-1974). Pyridinium Compounds (1970-1974). Public MeSH Note. 91; was see under PYRIDINIUM COMPOUNDS 1975- ...
Benzyl Viologen - Preferred Concept UI. M0002388. Scope note. 1,1-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation- ... Benzyl Compounds (1972-1974). Pyridinium Compounds (1970-1974). Public MeSH Note:. 91; was see under PYRIDINIUM COMPOUNDS 1975- ...
Benzyl Alcohol N0000007562 Benzyl Alcohols N0000006158 benzyl benzoate N0000007563 Benzyl Compounds N0000167227 Benzyl Viologen ... N0000007026 vinorelbine N0000171574 vinpocetine N0000166378 Vinyl Chloride N0000008194 Vinyl Compounds N0000167226 Viologens ... N0000005977 Benzphetamine N0000006407 benzquinamide N0000007558 Benztropine N0000167053 Benzydamine N0000179050 benzyl acetate ...
... which is further improved by following n-doping with benzyl viologen additive. Moreover, the miscibility is also improved by ...
Enzymatic assays with the artificial electron acceptor benzyl viologen showed no activity for hydrogenases in cells grown ... Enzymatic assays with the artificial electron acceptor benzyl viologen showed no activity for hydrogenases in cells grown ...
This study examined the effect of several redox mediators (neutral red, methyl viologen, safranin O, tannic acid) as ... Although Bauchop (1967) demonstrated that the related dye benzyl viologen decreased methanogenesis by mixed ruminal microbes in ... Effect of the redox dyes methyl viologen (0.5 mM), neutral red (1 mM) and safranin O (1 mM) on fermentation end product ... The following redox mediators were used in their oxidized form: methyl viologen (MV, Acros, 98% dye content); neutral red (NR, ...
Benzyl T004608Benzyl Viologen T004608Viologen, Benzyl T004609Benzylamine Oxidase T004609Oxidase, Benzylamine T004610Amine ... Benzyl T004604Benzyl Alcohols T004605Phenylcarbinols T004606Phenylmethanols T004607Benzyl Compounds T004607Compounds, ...
The second isoenzyme (hydrogenase 2) apparently contributes the greater part of the membrane-bound hydrogen:benzyl viologen ...
Nam J, Jung Y, Joe J, Jang W. Dual stimuli-responsive viologen-containing poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) and its multi-modal ... pH Responsive Poly(benzyl ether) Dendron-conjugated PiPrOx. Dendrimers are regularly branched macromolecules that exhibit ... A viologen-containing thermo-responsive PiPrOx (Figure 6, PiPrOx-V) was synthesized by treating the active terminal of living ... Along with the color change, the Tcp of PiPrOx-V was also changed by the redox state change of the viologen unit. Because Pi ...
Benzyl Alcohol Benzyl Alcohols Benzyl Compounds Benzyl Viologen Benzylamine Oxidase Benzylamines Benzylammonium Compounds ...
p-Methyl benzyl alcohol. Methyl biphenyl (mixed isomers). Methyl bromide. 2-Methyl-2-butenenitrile ...
  • This study examined the effect of several redox mediators (neutral red, methyl viologen, safranin O, tannic acid) as alternative electron carriers for mixed ruminal bacteria during the fermentation of biomass (ground switchgrass not subjected to other pretreatments) and their potential to enhance elongation of end-products to medium-chain VFAs with no additional run-time. (springeropen.com)
  • Poly(benzyl ether) dendrimers with peripheral benzoic acid moieties show high solubility in an aqueous medium with a neutral pH, although the benzyl ether building blocks have a hydrophobic nature. (sigmaaldrich.com)