1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation-reduction indicators. The general formula is 1,1'-di-R-4,4'-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine.
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for the reduction of NITRATES.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Flavoproteins that catalyze reversibly the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate. Many compounds can act as acceptors, but the only physiologically active acceptor is NAD. The enzymes are active in the fermentation of sugars and other compounds to carbon dioxide and are the key enzymes in obtaining energy when bacteria are grown on formate as the main carbon source. They have been purified from bovine blood. EC
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
A species of THIOCAPSA which is facultatively aerobic and chemotrophic and which can utilize thiosulfate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
An abnormal protein with unusual thermosolubility characteristics that is found in the urine of patients with MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
A malignant tumor of the bone which always arises in the medullary tissue, occurring more often in cylindrical bones. The tumor occurs usually before the age of 20, about twice as frequently in males as in females.
This discipline concerns the study of SEXUALITY, and the application of sexual knowledge such as sexual attitudes, psychology, and SEXUAL BEHAVIOR. Scope of application generally includes educational (SEX EDUCATION), clinical (SEX COUNSELING), and other settings.
A chronic, fungal, subcutaneous infection endemic in rural regions in South America and Central America. The causal organism is Lacazia labol.
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
A vital dye used as an indicator and biological stain. Various adverse effects have been observed in biological systems.
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
Devices used for influencing tooth position. Orthodontic appliances may be classified as fixed or removable, active or retaining, and intraoral or extraoral. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p19)
The planning, calculation, and creation of an apparatus for the purpose of correcting the placement or straightening of teeth.
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Pre-steady-state kinetics of the reactions of [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Chromatium vinosum with H2 and CO. (1/29)

Results are presented of the first rapid-mixing/rapid-freezing studies with a [NiFe]-hydrogenase. The enzyme from Chromatium vinosum was used. In particular the reactions of active enzyme with H2 and CO were monitored. The conversion from fully reduced, active hydrogenase (Nia-SR state) to the Nia-C* state was completed in less than 8 ms, a rate consistent with the H2-evolution activity of the enzyme. The reaction of CO with fully reduced enzyme was followed from 8 to 200 ms. The Nia-SR state did not react with CO. It was discovered, contrary to expectations, that the Nia-C* state did not react with CO when reactions were performed in the dark. When H2 was replaced by CO, a Nia-C* EPR signal appeared within 11 ms; this was also the case when H2 was replaced by Ar. With CO, however, the Nia-C* state decayed within 40 ms, due to the generation of the Nia-S.CO state (the EPR-silent state of the enzyme with bound CO). The Nia-C* state, induced after 11 ms by replacing H2 by CO in the dark, could be converted, in the frozen enzyme, into the EPR-detectable state with CO bound to nickel (Nia*.CO) by illumination at 30 K (evoking the Nia-L* state), followed by dark adaptation at 200 K. This can be explained by assuming that the Nia-C* state represents a formally trivalent state of nickel, which is unable to bind CO, whereas nickel in the Nia-L* and the Nia*.CO states is formally monovalent.  (+info)

Diphenylene iodonium as an inhibitor for the hydrogenase complex of Rhodobacter capsulatus. Evidence for two distinct electron donor sites. (2/29)

The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus synthesises a membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase encoded by the H2 uptake hydrogenase (hup)SLC structural operon. The hupS and hupL genes encode the small and large subunits of hydrogenase, respectively; hupC encodes a membrane electron carrier protein which may be considered as the third subunit of the uptake hydrogenase. In Wolinella succinogenes, the hydC gene, homologous to hupC, has been shown to encode a low potential cytochrome b which mediates electron transfer from H2 to the quinone pool of the bacterial membrane. In whole cells of R. capsulatus or intact membrane preparation of the wild type strain B10, methylene blue but not benzyl viologen can be used as acceptor of the electrons donated by H2 to hydrogenase; on the other hand, membranes of B10 treated with Triton X-100 or whole cells of a HupC- mutant exhibit both benzyl viologen and methylene blue reductase activities. We report the effect of diphenylene iodonium (Ph2I), a known inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I and of various monooxygenases on R. capsulatus hydrogenase activity. With H2 as electron donor, Ph2I inhibited partially the methylene blue reductase activity in an uncompetitive manner, and totally benzyl viologen reductase activity in a competitive manner. Furthermore, with benzyl viologen as electron acceptor, Ph2I increased dramatically the observed lagtime for dye reduction. These results suggest that two different sites exist on the electron donor side of the membrane-bound [NiFe] hydrogenase of R. capsulatus, both located on the small subunit. A low redox potential site which reduces benzyl viologen, binds Ph2I and could be located on the distal [Fe4S4] cluster. A higher redox potential site which can reduce methylene blue in vitro could be connected to the high potential [Fe3S4] cluster and freely accessible from the periplasm.  (+info)

Nitrate reductase system in Staphylococcus aureus wild type and mutants. (3/29)

Respiratory nitrate reductase with lactate as a hydrogen donor has been studied in cells and spheroplast preparations of wild type and heme-deficienct mutants of Staphylococcus aureus. The activity is rapidly induced when suspensions of aerobically grown cells are incubated without aeration in a complete medium with nitrate. In ruptured spheroplast preparations, the activity with lactate as the donor is located in the membrane fraction, whereas at least 50% of the activity assayed with reduced benzyl viologen is in the cytoplasm. The reductase is inhibited by azide and cyanide, and the lactate-linked system is also sensitive to oxamate, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide, dicoumarol, and p-chloromercuribenzoate. An inactive form of the reductase is apparently made during induction with tungstate; this can be activated by subsequent incubation with molybdate in the presence of chloramphenicol. Nitrate reductase activity with reduced benzyl viologen as the donor is induced in suspensions of heme-deficient mutants in the presence or absence of heme. The proportion of cytoplasmic activity is increased in the absence of heme. The staphylococcal nitrate reductase has many of the characteristics commonly associated with the respiratory enzyme in other organisms, but the apparent predominance of cytoplasmic activity is unusual.  (+info)

An autocatalytic step in the reaction cycle of hydrogenase from Thiocapsa roseopersicina can explain the special characteristics of the enzyme reaction. (4/29)

A moving front has been observed as a special pattern during the hydrogenase-catalyzed reaction of hydrogen uptake with benzyl viologen as electron acceptor in a thin-layer reaction chamber. Such fronts start spontaneously and at random times at different points of the reaction chamber; blue spheres are seen expanding at constant speed and amplitude. The number of observable starting points depends on the hydrogenase concentration. Fronts can be initiated by injecting either a small amount of completed reaction mixture or activated hydrogenase, but not by injecting a low concentration of reduced benzyl viologen. These characteristics are consistent with an autocatalytic reaction step in the enzyme reaction. The special characteristics of the hydrogen-uptake reaction in the bulk reaction (a long lag phase, and the enzyme concentration dependence of the lag phase) support the autocatalytic nature. We conclude that there is at least one autocatalytic reaction step in the hydrogenase-catalyzed reaction. The two possible autocatalytic schemes for hydrogenase are prion-type autocatalysis, in which two enzyme forms interact, and product-activation autocatalysis, where a reduced electron acceptor and an inactive enzyme form interact. The experimental results strongly support the occurrence of prion-type autocatalysis.  (+info)

Characterization of a thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. (5/29)


The respiratory molybdo-selenoprotein formate dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli have hydrogen: benzyl viologen oxidoreductase activity. (6/29)


Steroid transhydrogenase activity of 3-ketosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase from Nocardia corallina. (7/29)

3-Ketosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase from Nocardia corallina catalyzes transhydrogenation of 3-keto-4-ene-steroid to 3-keto-1,4-diene-steroid e.g., progesterone to 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione. The reaction proceeded linearly at first and then soon slowed down owing to equilibration. The turnover number of this reaction was of the same magnitude as that of the dehydrogenation of 3-keto-4-ene-steroid. The pH optimum was 8.4, which is lower than that of the dehydrogenase reaction. The enzyme has a wide specificity for hydrogen acceptor steroids. The Km' and Kmax' values for these steroids and the values of the corresponding 3-keto-4-ene-steroids were compared. Kinetic studies of the steroid transhydrogenase reaction demonstrated a typical ping-pong mechanism. The enzyme oxidized 1,2-tritiated progesterone and transferred the tritium atoms to the reaction product, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, and water. Transhydrogenation in D2O resulted in the incorporation of a deuterium atom into the C2-position of 4-androstene-3,17-dione. The results indicate that the enzyme catalyzes C1, C2-trans axial abstraction of hydrogen atoms from progesterone, transfer of the 1 alpha-hydrogen to the C1-position of 1,4-androstadiene-3, 17-dione and release of the 2 beta-hydrogen to water. Reaction schemes based on the experimental results are proposed. The enzyme also catalyzes the reduction of 3-keto-1,4-diene-steroids with reduced benzyl viologen.  (+info)

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts contain a homodimeric pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase that functions with FDX1. (8/29)


PRO-LINK® Odor Lock Urinal & Drain Treatment - Qt. | A bio-based and biodegradable replacement fluid treatment for the cartridges found in waterless urinals.
Oxidation of glycolate to 2 CO, and 3 H, (AGO = +36 kJ/mol glycolate) by the proton-reducing, glycolate-fermenting partner bacterium of a syntrophic coculture (strain FlGlyM) depends on a low hydrogen partial pressure (pH). The first reaction, glycolate oxidation to glyoxylate ( E O f = -92 mV) with protons as electron acceptors (Eo = -414 mV), is in equilibrium only at a pH2 of 1 pPa which cannot be maintained by the syntrophic partner bacterium Methanospirillurn hungatei; energy therefore needs to be spent to drive this reaction. Glycolate dehydrogenase activity (0.3-0.96 U . mg protein-) was detected which reduced various artificial electron acceptors such as benzyl viologen, methylene blue, dichloroindophenol, K,[Fe(CN),], and water-soluble quinones.,br /,Fractionation of crude cell extract of the glycolate-fermenting bacterium revealed that glycolate dchydrogcnase, hydrogenase, and proton-translocating ATPase were membrane-bound. Menaquinones wcre found as potential electron camers. ...
benzyl (2S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoate,hydrochloride 2462-34-2 NMR spectrum, benzyl (2S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoate,hydrochloride H-NMR spectral analysis, benzyl (2S)-2-amino-3-methylbutanoate,hydrochloride C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
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The most active analogues were identified at the greatest concentration of even with having an additional benzyl ring to its parent compound T837
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Benzyl 5-bromoamyl ether. CAS Number: 1014-93-3. Catalog Number: AA0004C3. MDL Number: MFCD02258456. Molecular Formula: C12H17BrO. Molecular Weight: 257.1668. AA Blocks.
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benzyl 3-aminopropanoate,4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid 27019-47-2 NMR spectrum, benzyl 3-aminopropanoate,4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, benzyl 3-aminopropanoate,4-methylbenzenesulfonic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
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TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 structure and MS characterization of a library according to the present invention, the preparation of which is showed in Scheme 5 above. compound M.W number R6 R7 R.sup.8 m n M.W calc. Obsvd. 1 L-hydroxy L-Benzyl Z# 4 5 649.87 653.3 benzyl 2 L-hydroxy L-Benzyl Z 5 4 649.87 653.3 benzyl 3 L-Benzyl D-hydroxy Z 4 5 649.87 653.2 benzyl 4 L-Benzyl D-hydroxy Z 5 4 649.87 653.3 benzyl 5 D-hydroxy L-Benzyl Z 4 5 649.87 653.2 benzyl 6 D-hydroxy L-Benzyl Z 5 4 649.87 653.2 benzyl 7 D-Benzyl L-hydroxy Z 4 5 649.87 653.3 benzyl 8 D-Benzyl L-hydroxy Z 5 4 649.87 653.2 benzyl 9 L-hydroxy D-Benzyl Z 4 5 649.87 653.2* benzyl 10 L-hydroxy D-Benzyl Z 5 4 649.87 653.3 benzyl 11 L-hydroxy L-hydroxy Z 6 6 707.94 711.79 benzyl benzyl 12 D-hydroxy D-hydroxy Z 6 6 707.94 711.85 benzyl benzyl 13 L-hydroxy D-hydroxy Z 6 6 707.94 711.91 benzyl benzyl 14 D-hydroxy L-hydroxy Z 6 6 707.94 711.43 benzyl benzyl 15 L-hydroxy L-Benzyl Z 6 6 691.94 694.8 benzyl 16 D-hydroxy D-Benzyl Z 6 6 691.94 693.41 ...
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The zinc flavoprotein (FAD) from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus cannot utilize NAD+, cytochrome c, methylene blue or dimethylnaphthoquinone as acceptors. In vitro it is active with artificial electron acceptors such as 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, but the physiological acceptor is not yet known ...
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2-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzyl](methyl)amino]ethanol - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
(1) I am acquiring 1mg of IGF-1 LR3 for research and comes premixed with either 1ml Acetic Acid (AA) or Benzyl Alcohol (BA). (This is the full 1mg mixed in 1ml). The company says that it is better mixed with BA. Though from reading several posts Acedic Acid seems to pop up everywhere. Any views on this. (2) Is it possible to add more Benyl Alcohol or Acetic Acid (depending on what it comes in) to make measuring the stuff easier or will this ruin it. I have seen places where you get 2ml of
Bis[benzyl N-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl-ene)hydrazinecarbodithio-ato-κN,S]nickel(II) N,N-dimethyl-formamide disolvate.: In the title compound, [Ni(C(17)H(14)N(3)S(2
This proposal will describe how specific enzymes control the transfer of reactive electrons and the activation of molecular oxygen, while minimizing oxidative d...
碳陽離子中帶有電荷的碳原子為六價態(sixtet),即外層電子只有六顆,而非符合八隅體的八顆。因此碳陽離子反應性高,以轉變成有八顆電子的碳原子。其軌域為sp2混成軌域跟一個空的p軌域,而非sp3杂化,其中一個帶有正電。分子模型為平面三角形。簡單的例子如CH3+ 。而碳正離子常作為親電體,像氫氧離子、鹵素離子的結合對象。 碳正離子通常會進行重組反應,以反應常數超過109 /秒的速度從較不穩定的結構轉變到較穩定的結構。此現象讓許多化合物的合成過程變得複雜。例如:將3-戊醇跟HCl水溶液共熱產生3-戊基碳正離子,會因重組反應產生3-戊基跟2-戊基的混和物。再跟氯離子進行反應得到的產物會有約1/3的3-氯戊烷跟2/3的2-氯戊烷。 碳正離子能藉由與相鄰的碳-碳雙鍵共振來達到穩定。像是烯丙基陽離子(allyl cation)跟苯基陽離子(benzyl ...
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US EPA PC Code ); (US EPA PC Code ); 069175 (US EPA PC Code Text ); 68391-01-5 (CAS number); 68391015 (CAS number without hyphens); 769175 (US EPA PC Code Text ); Alkyl* dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride *(67%C12, 25%C14, 7%C16, 1%C18); Alkyl*dimethylbenzylammoniumchloride*67%C1225%C147%C161%C18; Maquat LC12S-50%; N-alkyl (67% C12, 25% C14, 7% C16, 1% C18) dimethyl benzyl ammonium ...
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Hi, i have trouble with benzyl acetate when creating accords. The smell is pretty strong and unpleasant ( like acetone ) for me and overcharge the remaining components even at 1%. Maybe it needs more weeks of aging or any blender ?
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Synonyms for autocatalytic in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for autocatalytic. 2 words related to autocatalysis: catalysis, contact action. What are synonyms for autocatalytic?
Occupational exposure to benzyl chloride may occur during its manufacture and during its use in the production of benzyl phthalates, benzyl alcohol, quaternary ammonium salts, pharmaceuticals and benzyl esters; but no data were available on levels of exposure.. No data were available to assess the mutagenicity or teratogenicity of this compound to man.. No case report or epidemiological study involving exposure to benzyl chloride alone was available to the Working Group. Six cases of respiratory cancer have been reported among benzoyl chloride manufacturing workers in two small plants, who were also potentially exposed to benzyl chloride. The cases occurred in relatively young workers, three of whom were nonsmokers. ...
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Benzyl Acetate Market - Asia Pacific is anticipated to be the fastest growing market for benzyl acetate in the next six years; main reason for this is the growing demand for benzyl acetate from emergent countries such as China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand
In synthesizing complex molecules, protected functional groups must be deblocked. Benzyl and carbobenzyloxy groups attached to oxygen or
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... benzyl-viologen-dependent arsenate reductase activity was greater in cells grown with arsenate/sulfate than in cells grown with ...
... (EC, respiratory nitrate reductase, benzyl viologen-nitrate reductase) is an enzyme with ...
... viologens MeSH D03.383.725.762.925.100 - benzyl viologen MeSH D03.383.725.791 - pyridones MeSH D03.383.725.791.100 - bemegride ...
Common derivatives are methyl (see paraquat), long chain alkyl, and benzyl. Viologens, in their dicationic form, typically ... Viologens are organic compounds with the formula (C5H4NR)2n+. In some viologens, the pyridyl groups are further modified. The ... Viologens are used in the negative electrolytes of some experimental flow batteries. Viologens have been modified to optimize ... biphenyl viologen 2 in scheme 2 can be reduced by sodium amalgam in DMF to the neutral viologen 3. The resonance structures of ...
Typically, selective cleavage of a PMB ether in the presence of a benzyl ether uses strong stoichiometric oxidants such as 2,3- ... While [Ru(bipy)3]2+ proved to be a competent catalyst for intramolecular cyclizations using methyl viologen, it could not be ... A very common protecting group for the hydroxyl functional group is the para-methoxy benzyl (PMB) ether. This protecting group ... Conversely, electron-rich styrenes were found to react via a radical-cation mechanism, utilizing methyl viologen or molecular ...
43:173-176), benzyl viologen (Emde, et al., 1990, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:2771-2776), and neutral red (NR) (Girbal, et al ... Reduced benzyl viologen was prepared as described previously (Lissolo, et al., 1984, J. Biol. Chem. 259:11725-11729). The ... 43B:2083-2086) discovered that including redox dyes with low Δ E0′ values (e.g., MV, benzyl viologen and NR) in bacterial ... 142:75-84). The oxidation and reduction of benzyl viologen and NR were spectrophotometrically measured at 578 nm and 540 nm, ...
benzyl viologen. 1,1-dibenzyl-4,4-bipyridinium. berberine. an alkaloid*. bergaptol. 4-hydroxy-7H-furo[3,2-g][1]benzopyran-7- ...
what is the dipole moment of benzyl viologen (2Cl) and his radical cation? by Shihab (7/7/2004) ...
Benzyl viologen was used as the artificial electron donor. Clear bands in all samples indicate the ability of MR-1 and SR-21 to ... Reduction of fumarate, TMAO, and DMSO by SR-21 was tested by using benzyl viologen as an artificial electron donor (22). Cell ... Bands of enzyme activity were visualized with reduced benzyl viologen (22) followed by the addition of fumarate (10 mM), TMAO ( ...
Benzyl viologen-mediated counteraction of diquat and paraquat phytotoxicities. Plant Physiol. 76, 125-130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
Benzyl Viologen. 5g. 1. S6F. H. Copper(II) Perchlorate Hexahydrate, 98+%. 100g. 2. S6F. H. ...
Most commonly, low-potential artificial redox-active viologen dyes such as methyl viologen (MV) and benzyl viologen (BV) have ... mM benzyl viologen (BV) and 1. mM 2,3,5,-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and continuous flushing with highly pure hydrogen ... Hydrogen oxidation activity can be assayed for all three hydrogenases using benzyl viologen (BV; Eo′ = -360. mV) as an ... Efficient electron transfer from hydrogen to benzyl viologen by the [NiFe]-hydrogenases of Escherichia coli is dependent on the ...
leuco benzyl viologen.fwdarw.benzyl viologen diaminobenzidine.fwdarw.colored oxidation products o-toluidine.fwdarw.colored ... pyruvate + NADH dehydrogen- 2. NADH + benzyl viologen .fwdarw. NAD + dye ase 3. 3-hydroxy 1. 3-hydroxybutyrate + NAD .fwdarw. ... lactate phenazine NAD benzyl-violo- dehydrogen- methosulfate gen dye ase 3. 3-hydroxy pyocyanine NAD formazan butyrate dehydro ...
Common derivatives are methyl (see paraquat), long chain alkyl, and benzyl. Viologens, in their dicationic form, typically ... Viologens are organic compounds with the formula (C5H4NR)2n+. In some viologens, the pyridyl groups are further modified. The ... Viologens are used in the negative electrolytes of some experimental flow batteries. Viologens have been modified to optimize ... biphenyl viologen 2 in scheme 2 can be reduced by sodium amalgam in DMF to the neutral viologen 3. The resonance structures of ...
Benzyl Viologen by Damien Hirst. Benzyl Viologen by Damien Hirst. Exhibitions. * Spring Goes Pop ...
... or 1 mM benzyl viologen (BV; ε578 = 9.2 mM−1 cm−1) at 25°C with hydrogen or formate (10 mM) as the electron donor, respectively ... dehydrogenase activities were routinely assayed by photometric measurement of the reduction at 578 nm of 1 mM methyl viologen ( ...
POR assay and competition with benzyl viologen. (A) Competitive inhibition of POR activity (benzyl viologen reduction) in H. ...
benzyl viologen 8.7mg --, 2.1mM. * phenylsafranine 2.6mg --, 0.81mM. * indigo-carmine 4.6mg --, 0.99mM ...
Nitrate Reductase Induction System Nitrogen Budget Paracoccus Denitrificans Benzyl Viologen These keywords were added by ...
... the now cytoplasmically localised TorA retained full enzymatic activity with the artificial electron donor benzyl viologen. ...
... small intestinal permeability assay based on riboflavin and lactulose detected by bis-boronic acid appended benzyl viologens. ...
trimethylamine N-oxide + reduced benzyl viologen + H2O = trimethylamine + oxidized benzyl viologen. -. -. ...
... and the benzyl viologen oxidation kinetics (benzyl viologen oxidation results in a lower absorbance) was recorded by a ... Wild-type cells were able to oxidize benzyl viologen using sodium nitrite as the terminal acceptor (Table 3). The nitrite ... Nitrite reductase activity.Benzyl viologen-linked reductase assays were carried out with sonicated cell extracts in a 1-ml ... Nitrite reductase activity was expressed as μmol benzyl viologen oxidized min−1 mg−1. ...
Enzyme assays.Hydrogenase uptake activities of cells and membrane fractions were determined by using benzyl viologen (28). The ...
Reduced methyl and benzyl viologens support low rates of H2 evolution by the hydrogenase. The K, for reduced methyl viologen is ... reduced methyl viologen. The hydrogenase will catalyze a low rate of exchange in the reaction between D2 and H20 to form both ...
... benzyl-viologen-dependent arsenate reductase activity was greater in cells grown with arsenate/sulfate than in cells grown with ...
This due to benzyl viologen must crossed cell membranes of the bacterium prior to react with the enzymes. ...
It reduces a number of electron carriers, including benzyl viologen, menadione and 2,6-dichloroindophenol, but rubredoxin is ...
... and move along the chain to eventually bind at the viologen trap, opening possibilities for catalytic writing on single polymer ... and 1H NMR experiments reveal that the motor-functionalized macrocycles can bind and thread different variants of viologen ... 1 complexes of Zn2a and Zn2b with benzyl viologen bis(hexafluorophosphate) V13 and cyclohexylmethyl viologen bis( ... Small molecular weight viologens of the type V12-V14 bind rapidly inside the cavity of porphyrin cage compounds, such as H21 ...
The general formula is 1,1-di-R-4,4-bipyridinium chloride, where R = methyl, ethyl, benzyl or, betaine. ... The bipyridilium compounds Methyl Viologen and Benzyl Viologen (MV and BV) are widely used biochemically in the study of… (More ... Viologens. Known as: Viologens [Chemical/Ingredient] A group of dipyridinium chloride derivatives that are used as oxidation- ... A study of the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli to reduced and oxidized benzyl viologen and methyl ...
... benzyl]--bipyridinium dichloride (BPQ·2Cl) on top of a reductively conducting film of tungsten trioxide. The resulting bilayer ... A new composite electrochromic material has been prepared by electropolymerizing N,N′-bis[p-(trimethoxysilyl)benzyl]-4,4′- ... Preparation and characterization of tungsten trioxide/dibenzyl viologen polymer bilayer electrochromic films N. Leventis and Y ... Preparation and characterization of tungsten trioxide/dibenzyl viologen polymer bilayer electrochromic films ...
... and the titration proceeded overnight without intervention but with 2 μM of the mediator benzyl viologen present to ensure ...
The respiratory molybdo-selenoprotein formate dehydrogenases of Escherichia coli have hydrogen: benzyl viologen oxidoreductase ...
Other suitable viologens include ethyl-viologen, isopropyl viologen and benzyl viologen.. Optionally, the process may be ... The promoter may be a water-soluble compound of the bipyridyl series, especially a viologen such as methyl-viologen or a salt ... Denaturation of 40 μl DNA (20 μg/ml) in 25 mM KPO4, pH 6.0, 1 mM methyl viologen was completed in 1 to 2 minutes. ... 7. A process as claimed in claim 6, wherein said promoter is methyl viologen or a salt thereof, or is a multivalent inorganic ...
  • The viologen paraquat (R = methyl), is a widely used herbicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the alkylating agent is a small alkyl halide, such as methyl chloride or methyl bromide, the viologen salt is often water-soluble. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common derivatives are methyl (see paraquat), long chain alkyl, and benzyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduced methyl and benzyl viologens support low rates of H2 evolution by the hydrogenase. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The K, for reduced methyl viologen is 11 pM. (oregonstate.edu)
  • H2 is a potent inhibitor of H2 evolution: the inhibition is noncompetitive vs. reduced methyl viologen. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Oxidative stress causes ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase solubilization from the thylakoid membranes in methyl viologen-treated plants. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Multiwalled carbon nanotube polyelectrolytes (MWNT-PEs) were synthesized through a diazonium and an addition reaction with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP), followed by another addition reaction with either methyl iodide (CH 3 I) or N -methyl- N ′-benzyl bromide bipyridinium (VBenBr) to produce MWNT-P4VPMe or MWNT-P4VPBenV polyelectrolytes, respectively. (springerprofessional.de)
  • Strand break induction was also measured after treatment with four radical generating chemicals (hydrogen peroxide, bleomycin, mitomycin C and methyl viologen) using the FADU technique. (courtfield.tk)
  • Transgenic T1 and T2 progeny plants were exposed to different oxidative stresses including Methyl viologen (MV) and drought and found to have an increased resistance to oxidative damage. (bvsalud.org)
  • Other viologens have been commercialized because they can change color reversibly many times through reduction and oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A) Competitive inhibition of POR activity (benzyl viologen reduction) in H. pylori extracts as a function of NTZ concentration was monitored spectrophotometrically at 546 nm. (asm.org)
  • Reduction-controlled viologen in bisolvent as an environmentally stable n-type dopant for carbon nanotubes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The reduction potential of benzyl viologen: an important reference compound for oxidant/radical redox couples. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The calculated rate of nitrate entry at the concentration typically used for the assay of nitrate reductase (EC activity was about 0.1% of that required to support the observed rate of nitrate reduction by reduced Benzyl Viologen. (biochemj.org)
  • The photocatalytic function of three-dimensional porphyrin monolayer-protected gold clusters (MFCs) with different chain lengths has been examined in photocatalytic reduction of hexyl viologen (HV 2+ ) by 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH) in comparison with that of the reference porphyrin compound without metal clusters. (elsevier.com)
  • Results A feoB mutant has reduced hydrogenase activity in both minimal and rich medium All three [NiFe]-hydrogenases in E. coli catalyze the hydrogen-dependent HDAC inhibitors in clinical trials reduction of the artificial redox dye benzyl viologen (BV) [3, 14]. (hifpathway.com)
  • The present nanohybrids were further utilized to reduce hexyl-viologen dication (HV2+) and a sacrificial electron donor, 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide, in an electron-pooling experiment, offering additional proof for the occurrence of photoinduced charge-separation and potential utilization of these materials in light-energy harvesting applications. (wichita.edu)
  • Ukrainian forex brokers Brandt, U. Regulation of the fdhF gene encoding the selenopolypeptide for benzyl viologen-linked formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli. (retzepti.ru)
  • Viologens have highly reversible redox reactions, and are relatively inexpensive among redox-active organic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viologens have been modified to optimize their performance in such batteries, e.g. by incorporating them into redox-active polymers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viologen-based redox-active ionic liquid crystals forming columnar phases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have successfully constructed hydrogen-bonded supramolecular assemblies based on a diprotonated saddle-distorted porphyrin (H 4 DPP 2+ ) and redox-active molecules bearing a carboxylate group, such as a Ru II polypyridyl complex (Ru II COO - ) that can act as an electron donor and a benzyl viologen derivative (BV 2+ COO - ) that can act as an electron acceptor. (elsevier.com)
  • As bipyridinium derivatives, the viologens are related to 4,4'-bipyridyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new composite electrochromic material has been prepared by electropolymerizing N , N ′-bis[ p -(trimethoxysilyl)benzyl]- 4,4′ -bipyridinium dichloride (BPQ 2+ ·2Cl - ) on top of a reductively conducting film of tungsten trioxide. (rsc.org)
  • In each case, the now cytoplasmically localised TorA retained full enzymatic activity with the artificial electron donor benzyl viologen. (nih.gov)
  • Enzymatic assays with the artificial electron acceptor benzyl viologen showed no activity for hydrogenases in cells grown without hydrogen whereas activity was found in cells grown in presence of hydrogen. (epfl.ch)
  • Glycolate dehydrogenase activity (0.3-0.96 U . mg protein-') was detected which reduced various artificial electron acceptors such as benzyl viologen, methylene blue, dichloroindophenol, K,[Fe(CN),], and water-soluble quinones. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Viologens are organic compounds with the formula (C5H4NR)2n+. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basic nitrogen centers in these compounds are alkylated to give viologens: (C5H4N)2 + 2 RX → [(C5H4NR)2]2+(X−)2 The alkylation is a form of quaternization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter feature indicates that the motor systems can find the open end of a polymer chain, thread on it, and move along the chain to eventually bind at the viologen trap, opening possibilities for catalytic writing on single polymer chains via chemical routes. (nature.com)
  • POR assay and competition with benzyl viologen. (asm.org)
  • Complementation assay The benzyl viologen assay was performed as prior reported [10]. (baxkyardgardener.com)
  • In any risk of strain, Cys-tRNASec restores the experience of the selenoprotein C FDHH, turning cellular material to crimson within the benzyl viologen assay. (baxkyardgardener.com)
  • Body 1 Benzyl viologen assay of SepCysS variations Figure 2 Traditional western blot evaluation of SepCysS variations Desk 1 Actions of SepCysS variations in numbering can be used below) with a Schiff bottom using the -amino group (Fig. 3). (baxkyardgardener.com)
  • V]+ The radical cations are blue for 4,4'-viologens and green for 2,2'-derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bipolaron di-octyl bis(4-pyridyl)biphenyl viologen 2 in scheme 2 can be reduced by sodium amalgam in DMF to the neutral viologen 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 L of right away culture were spotted at the center of each well and produced under anaerobic condition for 24C28 hours at 37 C. Then 0.5 ml of 1% top agar with 1 mg/mL benzyl viologen, 0.25 M sodium formate, and 25 mM KH2PO4, was added on top of each well, and the purple color was developed under anaerobic condition for 1 hour. (baxkyardgardener.com)
  • Enzymatic assays had been completed at 25C in 1-ml cuvettes within a improved Cary-14 spectrophotometer built with an OLIS data acquisition program (ONLINE Device Co., Bogart, GA). PFOR was assayed under anaerobic circumstances with 100 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.4), 10 mM sodium pyruvate, 5 mM benzyl viologen (BV) ( = 9.2 mM?1 cm?1 at 546 nm), 0.18 mM CoA, and 1 mM MgCl2. (achemmic.com)
  • The activity of the these compound was the most probably due to presence of hydroxyl group at third position of aniline ring in 6c, benzyl group in 3d and two alkyl groups at third and fifth position of aniline ring in 6a along with benzyl group attached to nitrogen of sulfonamide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a paper concerning trialkyl ammonium substituted benzyl-2-boronic acids, a generic formula for N-benzyl-2-boronic acid derivatives of para-substituted pyridines was given, where the substituent was specified as an R-group (i.e., alkyl) (Takeuchi et al. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Benzyl-2- and benzyl-4-boronic acid substituents on the pyridine nitrogens in substituted porphyrins were also described (Arimori et al. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Intense Chiroptical Switching in a Dicationic Helicene-Like Derivative: Exploration of a Viologen-Type Redox Manifold of a Non-Racemic Helquat. (uochb.cz)
  • Colorless to Neutral Color Electrochromic Devices Based on Asymmetric Viologens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The reversible color change between blue-colored and colorless viologen (catalyzed by the [email protected] 2 ase bio-nanocomposites) suggested that they may be developed as nano-biosensors for molecular H 2 . (springerprofessional.de)
  • It had been postulated that bulk around the quaternary nitrogen produced by the benzyl group might provide sufficient lipid solubility for absorption. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Subsequently, investigators described a dye with a pyridine ring in the structure, substituted on the nitrogen with a benzyl-2-boronic acid group (Takeuchi et al, 1996 Bull Chem Soc (Jpn) 69:2613-2618). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The name viologen alludes to violet, one color it can exhibit, and the radical cation (C5H4NR)2+ is colored intensely blue. (wikipedia.org)
  • [0003] Investigators have made fluorophores with N-benzyl-2-boronic acid pyridinium groups attached to a porphyrin ring (Arimori, S. et al. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Highly Negative Homotropic Allosteric Binding of Viologens in a Double-cavity Porphyrin Journal of the American Chemical Society. (jove.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12553818 The synthesis of a double-cavity porphyrin with interesting allosteric binding properties toward viologens (N,N'-disubstituted 4,4'-bipyridines) is described. (jove.com)
  • The porphyrin host forms very strong 1:2 complexes with viologens, displaying a negative allosteric behavior. (jove.com)
  • Photochromic hybrid containing in situ-generated benzyl viologen and novel trinuclear [Bi3Cl14]5-: improved photoresponsive behavior by the π···π interactions and size effect of inorganic oligomer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sparfloxacin-Metal Complexes as Urease Inhibitors: Their Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial, and Antienzymatic Evaluation - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • Two different acetaldehyde-oxidizing activities were found: a benzyl viologen-reducing enzyme forming acetate, and a NAD+-reducing enzyme forming acetyl-CoA. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • 报告摘要 : Diaphorase (DI) is an enzyme capable of transferring electrons between NAD(P)H and chemical electron mediators such as benzyl viologen (BV). (cas.cn)
  • Various viologens have been used to control the doping of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) via direct redox reactions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The widely used herbicide paraquat is a viologen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have designed another potentially pharmacologically useful compound - GC-24 (4), a second-generation thyromimetic molecule that differs from GC-1 (3) in the 3' position of the second aromatic ring, where a benzyl group substitutes the isopropyl group (Figure 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Meanwhile, benzyl group has great influences on the adsorption of ZEA, which can significantly increase the adsorbance of ZEA on adsorbents. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The latter macrocycle has a cavity, which can selectively thread and bind viologen guest molecules including polymeric ones. (nature.com)
  • When in the body, these viologens interfere with electron transport chain, often causing cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viologens are used in the negative electrolytes of some experimental flow batteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cucurbit[7]uril: a very effective host for viologens and their cation radicals. (semanticscholar.org)