A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
Benzyl compounds are organic substances that contain a benzyl group, which is a functional structure consisting of a carbon atom attached to a phenyl ring and a methylene group (-CH2-).
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Benzaldehydes are aromatic organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring connected to a formyl group (-CHO), which is the simplest and most representative compound being benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO).
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).
A widely used industrial solvent.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.2); at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC 3.1.3.1). EC 3.1.3.41.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.

Oxidative polymerization of ribonuclease A by lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Role of veratryl alcohol in polymer oxidation. (1/308)

The mechanism of lignin peroxidase (LiP) was examined using bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase) as a polymeric lignin model substrate. SDS/PAGE analysis demonstrates that an RNase dimer is the major product of the LiP-catalyzed oxidation of this protein. Fluorescence spectroscopy and amino acid analyses indicate that RNase dimer formation is due to the LiP-catalyzed oxidation of Tyr residues to Tyr radicals, followed by intermolecular radical coupling. The LiP-catalyzed polymerization of RNase in strictly dependent on the presence of veratryl alcohol (VA). In the presence of 100 microM H2O2, relatively low concentrations of RNase and VA, together but not individually, can protect LiP from H2O2 inactivation. The presence of RNase strongly inhibits VA oxidation to veratraldehyde by LiP; whereas the presence of VA does not inhibit RNase oxidation by LiP. Stopped-flow and rapid-scan spectroscopy demonstrate that the reduction of LiP compound I (LiPI) to the native enzyme by RNase occurs via two single-electron steps. At pH 3.0, the reduction of LiPI by RNase obeys second-order kinetics with a rate constant of 4.7 x 10(4) M-1.s-1, compared to the second-order VA oxidation rate constant of 3.7 x 10(5) M-1.s-1. The reduction of LiP compound II (LiPII) by RNase also follows second-order kinetics with a rate constant of 1.1 x 10(4) M-1.s-1, compared to the first-order rate constant for LiPII reduction by VA. When the reductions of LiPI and LiPIi are conducted in the presence of both VA and RNase, the rate constants are essentially identical to those obtained with VA alone. These results suggest that VA is oxidized by LiP to its cation radical which, while still in its binding site, oxidizes RNase.  (+info)

Growth of Azospirillum irakense KBC1 on the aryl beta-glucoside salicin requires either salA or salB. (2/308)

The rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azospirillum irakense KBC1 is able to grow on pectin and beta-glucosides such as cellobiose, arbutin, and salicin. Two adjacent genes, salA and salB, conferring beta-glucosidase activity to Escherichia coli, have been identified in a cosmid library of A. irakense DNA. The SalA and SalB enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed aryl beta-glucosides. A Delta(salA-salB) A. irakense mutant was not able to grow on salicin but could still utilize arbutin, cellobiose, and glucose for growth. This mutant could be complemented by either salA or salB, suggesting functional redundancy of these genes in salicin utilization. In contrast to this functional homology, the SalA and SalB proteins, members of family 3 of the glycosyl hydrolases, show a low degree of amino acid similarity. Unlike SalA, the SalB protein exhibits an atypical truncated C-terminal region. We propose that SalA and SalB are representatives of the AB and AB' subfamilies, respectively, in glycosyl hydrolase family 3. This is the first genetic implication of this beta-glucosidase family in the utilization of beta-glucosides for microbial growth.  (+info)

Catabolite control of Escherichia coli regulatory protein BglG activity by antagonistically acting phosphorylations. (3/308)

In bacteria various sugars are taken up and concomitantly phosphorylated by sugar-specific enzymes II (EII) of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The phosphoryl groups are donated by the phosphocarrier protein HPr. BglG, the positively acting regulatory protein of the Escherichia coli bgl (beta-glucoside utilization) operon, is known to be negatively regulated by reversible phosphorylation catalyzed by the membrane spanning beta-glucoside-specific EIIBgl. Here we present evidence that in addition BglG must be phosphorylated by HPr at a distinct site to gain activity. Our data suggest that this second, shortcut route of phosphorylation is used to monitor the state of the various PTS sugar availabilities in order to hierarchically tune expression of the bgl operon in a physiologically meaningful way. Thus, the PTS may represent a highly integrated signal transduction network in carbon catabolite control.  (+info)

In vitro studies on the initial reactions of anaerobic ethylbenzene mineralization. (4/308)

Anaerobic mineralization of ethylbenzene by the denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 was recently shown to be initiated by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to 1-phenylethanol. 1-Phenylethanol is converted to benzoate (benzoyl coenzyme A) via acetophenone as transient intermediate. We developed in vitro assays to examine ethylbenzene dehydrogenase and 1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase activities in cell extracts of this strain. With p-benzoquinone as the electron acceptor, cell extracts of Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 catalyzed ethylbenzene oxidation at a specific rate of 10 nmol min(-1) [mg of protein](-1) and an apparent K(m) for ethylbenzene of approximately 60 microM. The membrane-associated ethylbenzene dehydrogenase activity was found to oxidize 4-fluoroethylbenzene and propylbenzene but was unable to transform 4-chloro-ethylbenzene, the ethyltoluenes, and styrene. Enzymatic ethylbenzene oxidation was stereospecific, with (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol being the only enantiomer detected by chiral high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. Moreover, cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol but not of (R)-(+)-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. When cell extracts were dialyzed, (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol oxidation occurred only in the presence of NAD(+), suggesting that NAD(+) is the physiological electron acceptor of 1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase. Both ethylbenzene dehydrogenase and 1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase activities were present in Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 cells that were grown anaerobically on ethylbenzene, 1-phenylethanol, and acetophenone, but these activities were absent in benzoate-grown cells.  (+info)

Protective effect of FR168888, a new Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, on ischemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmia and myocardial infarction in rats: in comparison with other cardioprotective compounds. (5/308)

We have studied the effects of FR168888 (5-hydroxymethyl-3-(pyrrol-1-yl)benzoylguanidine methanesulfonate), a new Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, on ischemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmia and myocardial infarction in anesthetized rats and compared them with those of other cardioprotective compounds. FR168888 had a potent inhibitory effect on Na+/H+ exchange of rat lymphocytes acidified with Na+-propionate with a Ki value of 6.4 nM. Pretreatment with FR168888 (0.032-0.32 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced or completely abolished the ventricular fibrillation (VF) induced by reperfusion after 5 min of regional ischemia, while lidocaine, a class I antiarrhythmic agent, showed less effect against VF as compared with FR168888. The size of myocardial infarction induced by 60-min ischemia and 60-min reperfusion was attenuated by FR168888 dose-dependently (1.0-10 mg/kg, i.v.), and ventricular tachycardia and VF were significantly reduced during the ischemic period. In contrast, propranolol and diltiazem did not show such protective effects on myocardial infarct size. In addition, FR168888 did not change hemodynamic parameters in rats. These results indicate that FR168888 has a strong inhibitory effect on Na+/H+ exchange and that treatment with FR168888 can protect the heart from arrhythmia and myocardial cell death in ischemic and reperfused situations.  (+info)

Veratryl alcohol-mediated oxidation of isoeugenyl acetate by lignin peroxidase. (6/308)

The mechanism of the veratryl alcohol (VA)-mediated oxidation of isoeugenyl acetate (IEA) by lignin peroxidase, and the subsequent spontaneous Calpha-Cbeta cleavage of IEA to vanillyl acetate were studied. IEA oxidation only occurred in the presence of VA. It probably did not bind to lignin peroxidase as evidenced by an unaffected Km for VA in the presence of IEA, and by the fact that a 10-fold molar excess of the unreactive IEA counterpart, eugenyl acetate, did not affect the IEA oxidation rate. IEA was very efficient in recycling VA. Up to 34 mol of IEA were oxidized per mol VA. Formation of the predominant VA oxidation product, veratraldehyde, was postponed until IEA was almost completely oxidized. Together these findings suggest that IEA was oxidized by VA.+ rather than directly by lignin peroxidase. Thus, VA functioned as a redox mediator during IEA oxidation which is remarkable considering the high calculated ionization potential of 8.81 eV. Regardless of the presence of O2, approximately 2 mol of IEA were consumed per mol H2O2, which indicated that IEA was enzymatically oxidized by one electron to the putative radical cation (IEA.+). After formation of IEA.+, a series of O2-dependent chemical reactions were responsible for Calpha-Cbeta cleavage to the major oxidation product vanillyl acetate, as evidenced by the observation that an N2 atmosphere did not inhibit IEA oxidation, but almost completely inhibited vanillyl acetate formation. GC-MS analyses revealed that under an air atmosphere 1-(4'-acetoxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone, 1-(4'-acetoxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-1-hydroxy-2-propanone, and 1-(4'-acetoxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-1-propanone were also formed. Formation of the latter two was diminished under an N2 atmosphere.  (+info)

(Z)-3-hexenyl and trans-linalool 3,7-oxide beta-primeverosides isolated as aroma precursors from leaves of a green tea cultivar. (7/308)

6-O-beta-D-Xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosides (beta-primeverosides) of (Z)-3-hexenol and trans-linalool 3,7-oxide were newly isolated from fresh leaves of a tea cultivar (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Yabukita). In addition, the already identified beta-primeverosides of benzyl alcohol, methyl salicylate, and trans-linalool 3,6-oxide from an oolong tea cultivar were isolated from the Yabukita cultivar. It was confirmed that all aglycones of the linalool oxide glycosides isolated here were of the optically active S-form by chiral GC after enzymatic hydrolysis with glycosidase.  (+info)

Combined effects of dissociable and undissociable local anesthetics upon ATP-induced firefly bioluminescence. (8/308)

Combined effects of two drugs present simultaneously are usually expressed as summation, synergism or potentiation, and antagonism. When the sum of the effects of each drug present separately equals the combined effect of the two drugs present simultaneously, the action is called additive or summation. However, the expected value of the sum of each effect of drugs present alone has not been well defined. In this report, the thearetical value of the expected sum of each effect of two inhibitors is given and a graphical method is presented to visualize summation, synergism, and antagonism. The inhibitory effects of a dissociable local anesthetic, tetracaine, and an undissociable local anesthetic, benzyl alcohol, upon a soluble firefly luminescent system were analyzed according to the above theory. The results clearly indicate that the action of these two classes of local anesthetics is pure additive or summation.  (+info)

Benzyl alcohol is a aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic, mildly unpleasant odor. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent and as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals. In medicine, it is used as a local anesthetic and antimicrobial agent. It can be found in some personal care products, such as cosmetics, shampoos, and sunscreens, as well as in topical medications and intravenous medications.

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant odor and is used as a solvent and preservative in cosmetics, medications, and other products. Benzyl alcohol can also be found as a natural component of some essential oils, fruits, and teas.

Benzyl alcohol is not typically considered a "drug" or a medication, but it may have various pharmacological effects when used in certain medical contexts. For example, it has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as a preservative in injectable medications to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It can also be used as a local anesthetic or analgesic in some topical creams and ointments.

It's important to note that benzyl alcohol can be harmful or fatal to infants and young children, especially when it is used in high concentrations or when it is introduced into the body through intravenous (IV) routes. Therefore, it should be used with caution in these populations and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Benzyl compounds are organic chemical compounds that contain a benzyl group, which is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom attached to a CH3 group (methyl group) and an aromatic ring, usually a phenyl group. The benzyl group can be represented as -CH2-C6H5.

Benzyl compounds have various applications in different fields such as pharmaceuticals, flavors, fragrances, dyes, and polymers. In pharmaceuticals, benzyl compounds are used as active ingredients or intermediates in the synthesis of drugs. For example, benzylpenicillin is a widely used antibiotic that contains a benzyl group.

Benzyl alcohol, benzyl chloride, and benzyl acetate are some common examples of benzyl compounds with various industrial applications. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent, preservative, and intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals. Benzyl chloride is an important chemical used in the production of resins, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Benzyl acetate is used as a flavoring agent and fragrance in food and cosmetic products.

It's worth noting that benzyl compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin, depending on their chemical properties and concentrations. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used under appropriate safety measures.

'Alcohol drinking' refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the active ingredient. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant that can cause euphoria, disinhibition, and sedation when consumed in small to moderate amounts. However, excessive drinking can lead to alcohol intoxication, with symptoms ranging from slurred speech and impaired coordination to coma and death.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The breakdown of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, a toxic compound that can cause damage to various organs in the body. Chronic alcohol drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and increased risk of cancer.

Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, where a standard drink contains about 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. However, it's important to note that there are no safe levels of alcohol consumption, and any level of drinking carries some risk to health.

Benzaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CHO. It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde, and it consists of a benzene ring attached to a formyl group. Benzaldehyde is a colorless liquid with a characteristic almond-like odor.

Benzaldehyde occurs naturally in various plants, including bitter almonds, cherries, peaches, and apricots. It is used in many industrial applications, such as in the production of perfumes, flavorings, and dyes. In addition, benzaldehyde has been used in medical research for its potential therapeutic effects, such as its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.

However, it is important to note that benzaldehyde can be toxic in high concentrations and may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Therefore, it should be handled with care and used in accordance with appropriate safety guidelines.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mandelic Acids" is not a recognized medical term or concept in dermatology or medicine. Mandelic acid, however, is a type of chemical compound used in skincare products for various purposes such as exfoliation and reducing hyperpigmentation. It is an aromatic hydroxyacetic acid derived from mandelic almonds. If you have any questions about skincare ingredients or treatments, I'd be happy to help clarify those for you!

Toluene is not a medical condition or disease, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. Medically, toluene can be relevant as a substance of abuse due to its intoxicating effects when inhaled or sniffed. It is a colorless liquid with a distinctive sweet aroma, and it is a common solvent found in many products such as paint thinners, adhesives, and rubber cement.

In the context of medical toxicology, toluene exposure can lead to various health issues, including neurological damage, cognitive impairment, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, and hearing and vision problems. Chronic exposure to toluene can also cause significant harm to the developing fetus during pregnancy, leading to developmental delays, behavioral problems, and physical abnormalities.

Aldehyde oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids using NAD+ or FAD as cofactors. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been identified in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals.

The oxidation reaction catalyzed by aldehyde oxidoreductases involves the transfer of electrons from the aldehyde substrate to the cofactor, resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid and reduced NAD+ or FAD. The enzymes are classified into several families based on their sequence similarity and cofactor specificity.

One of the most well-known members of this family is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones as part of the alcohol metabolism pathway. Another important member is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which further oxidizes the aldehydes generated by ADH to carboxylic acids, thereby preventing the accumulation of toxic aldehydes in the body.

Deficiencies in ALDH enzymes have been linked to several human diseases, including alcoholism and certain types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of aldehyde oxidoreductases is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Benzyl viologen is a type of chemical compound that belongs to the class of viologens, which are derivatives of the parent compound methylviologen. The chemical name for benzyl viologen is N,N'-diphenyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride.

Viologens are reduced forms of heterocyclic aromatic amines that can undergo reversible reduction and oxidation reactions. In their reduced form, they act as strong reducing agents, while in their oxidized form, they act as strong oxidizing agents. Benzyl viologen is commonly used as an electron carrier or mediator in various chemical and biological systems, such as redox reactions, photochemical processes, and bioelectrochemical devices like fuel cells and biosensors.

The compound consists of two benzyl groups attached to the nitrogen atoms of a bipyridinium cation, which is then complexed with chloride ions. The reduction potential of benzyl viologen is around -0.45 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), making it a useful electron carrier in various applications where an easily reducible and oxidizable compound is required.

It's worth noting that while benzyl viologen has potential uses in scientific research, it may also have toxic effects on living organisms, so appropriate safety precautions should be taken when handling this chemical.

'Acinetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. They are known for their ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels, as well as their resistance to many antibiotics.

Some species of Acinetobacter can cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or have been exposed to medical devices such as ventilators or catheters. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and meningitis.

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most common species associated with human infection and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it a significant public health concern. Infections caused by Acinetobacter can be difficult to treat and may require the use of last-resort antibiotics.

Preventing the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings is important and includes practices such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and contact precautions for patients with known or suspected infection.

Pharmaceutical preservatives are substances that are added to medications, pharmaceutical products, or biological specimens to prevent degradation, contamination, or spoilage caused by microbial growth, chemical reactions, or environmental factors. These preservatives help extend the shelf life and ensure the stability, safety, and efficacy of the pharmaceutical formulation during storage and use.

Commonly used pharmaceutical preservatives include:

1. Antimicrobials: These are further classified into antifungals (e.g., benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, thimerosal), antibacterials (e.g., parabens, phenol, benzyl alcohol), and antivirals (e.g., phenolic compounds). They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
2. Antioxidants: These substances prevent or slow down oxidation reactions that can degrade pharmaceutical products. Examples include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherols (vitamin E), sulfites, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
3. Chelating agents: These bind to metal ions that can catalyze degradation reactions in pharmaceutical products. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an example of a chelating agent used in pharmaceuticals.

The choice of preservative depends on the type of formulation, route of administration, and desired shelf life. The concentration of the preservative should be optimized to maintain product stability while minimizing potential toxicity or adverse effects. It is essential to conduct thorough safety and compatibility studies before incorporating any preservative into a pharmaceutical formulation.

4-Nitrophenylphosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate, producing 4-nitrophenol and phosphate. This enzyme is commonly used in laboratory assays to measure enzyme activity or to determine the presence of certain metals, such as aluminum and lead, which can inhibit its activity. The hydrolysis reaction results in the formation of yellow 4-nitrophenol, which can be easily measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 405 nm. The activity of 4-nitrophenylphosphatase is often used as an indicator of the functional status of certain organelles, such as lysosomes, in biological systems.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

Benzoates are the salts and esters of benzoic acid. They are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals to prevent the growth of microorganisms. The chemical formula for benzoic acid is C6H5COOH, and when it is combined with a base (like sodium or potassium), it forms a benzoate salt (e.g., sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate). When benzoic acid reacts with an alcohol, it forms a benzoate ester (e.g., methyl benzoate or ethyl benzoate).

Benzoates are generally considered safe for use in food and cosmetics in small quantities. However, some people may have allergies or sensitivities to benzoates, which can cause reactions such as hives, itching, or asthma symptoms. In addition, there is ongoing research into the potential health effects of consuming high levels of benzoates over time, particularly in relation to gut health and the development of certain diseases.

In a medical context, benzoates may also be used as a treatment for certain conditions. For example, sodium benzoate is sometimes given to people with elevated levels of ammonia in their blood (hyperammonemia) to help reduce those levels and prevent brain damage. This is because benzoates can bind with excess ammonia in the body and convert it into a form that can be excreted in urine.

"Pseudomonas putida" is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in soil and water environments. It is a non-pathogenic, opportunistic microorganism that is known for its versatile metabolism and ability to degrade various organic compounds. This bacterium has been widely studied for its potential applications in bioremediation and industrial biotechnology due to its ability to break down pollutants such as toluene, xylene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also known for its resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics, making it a valuable tool in the study of bacterial survival mechanisms and potential applications in bioremediation and waste treatment.

Xylenes are aromatic hydrocarbons that are often used as solvents in the industrial field. They are composed of two benzene rings with methyl side groups (-CH3) and can be found as a mixture of isomers: ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, and para-xylene.

In a medical context, xylenes may be relevant due to their potential for exposure in occupational settings or through environmental contamination. Short-term exposure to high levels of xylenes can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, as well as symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and nausea. Long-term exposure has been linked to neurological effects, including memory impairment, hearing loss, and changes in behavior and mood.

It is worth noting that xylenes are not typically considered a direct medical diagnosis, but rather a potential exposure hazard or environmental contaminant that may have health impacts.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Membrane fluidity, in the context of cell biology, refers to the ability of the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the cell membrane to change its structure and organization in response to various factors. The membrane is not a static structure but rather a dynamic one, with its lipids constantly moving and changing position.

Membrane fluidity is determined by the fatty acid composition of the phospholipids that make up the bilayer. Lipids with unsaturated fatty acids have kinks in their hydrocarbon chains, which prevent them from packing closely together and increase membrane fluidity. In contrast, lipids with saturated fatty acids can pack closely together, reducing membrane fluidity.

Membrane fluidity is important for various cellular processes, including the movement of proteins within the membrane, the fusion of vesicles with the membrane during exocytosis and endocytosis, and the ability of the membrane to respond to changes in temperature and other environmental factors. Abnormalities in membrane fluidity have been linked to various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Hexobarbital is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called barbiturates. It is primarily used as a short-acting sedative and hypnotic agent, which means it can help induce sleep and reduce anxiety. Hexobarbital works by depressing the central nervous system, slowing down brain activity and causing relaxation and drowsiness.

It's important to note that hexobarbital is not commonly used in modern medical practice due to the availability of safer and more effective alternatives. Additionally, barbiturates like hexobarbital have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and their use is associated with several risks, including respiratory depression, overdose, and death, particularly when taken in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or opioids.

Benzoic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H5COOH. It is a colorless crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. Benzoic acid occurs naturally in various plants and serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemical compounds.

In medical terms, benzoic acid and its salts (sodium benzoate, potassium benzoate) are used as preservatives in food, beverages, and cosmetics to prevent bacterial growth. They work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria, particularly gram-positive bacteria, through the disruption of their energy production processes.

Additionally, sodium benzoate is sometimes used as a treatment for hyperammonemia, a condition characterized by high levels of ammonia in the blood. In this case, sodium benzoate acts as a detoxifying agent by binding to excess ammonia and converting it into a more easily excreted compound called hippuric acid.

It is important to note that benzoic acid and its salts can cause allergic reactions or skin irritation in some individuals, particularly those with pre-existing sensitivities or conditions. As with any medication or chemical substance, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Phenylethyl Alcohol is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound with the formula C8H10O. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used as a fragrance ingredient in cosmetics and personal care products due to its rose-like odor.

In a medical context, Phenylethyl Alcohol may be mentioned in relation to its potential antimicrobial properties or as a component of certain pharmaceutical preparations. However, it is not a medication or treatment on its own. It is important to note that while Phenylethyl Alcohol has been studied for its potential health benefits, more research is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

Aldehydes are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and a double bonded oxygen atom, also known as a formyl or aldehyde group. The general chemical structure of an aldehyde is R-CHO, where R represents a hydrocarbon chain.

Aldehydes are important in biochemistry and medicine as they are involved in various metabolic processes and are found in many biological molecules. For example, glucose is converted to pyruvate through a series of reactions that involve aldehyde intermediates. Additionally, some aldehydes have been identified as toxicants or environmental pollutants, such as formaldehyde, which is a known carcinogen and respiratory irritant.

Formaldehyde is also commonly used in medical and laboratory settings for its disinfectant properties and as a fixative for tissue samples. However, exposure to high levels of formaldehyde can be harmful to human health, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling aldehydes in medical and laboratory settings.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' is a species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, such as in soil and water. It is a non-motile, oxidase-negative organism that can form biofilms and has the ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels.

While 'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' itself is generally considered to be a low-virulence bacterium, it is closely related to other species within the genus 'Acinetobacter' that are known to cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients or those with underlying medical conditions. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and wound infections.

It is important to note that the identification of 'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' can be challenging due to its tendency to form mixed cultures with other 'Acinetobacter' species, as well as its ability to undergo genetic changes that can make it difficult to distinguish from other members of the genus. Accurate identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are critical for appropriate treatment and infection control measures.

Chloroform is a volatile, clear, and nonflammable liquid with a mild, sweet, and aromatic odor. Its chemical formula is CHCl3, consisting of one carbon atom, one hydrogen atom, and three chlorine atoms. Chloroform is a trihalomethane, which means it contains three halogens (chlorine) in its molecular structure.

In the medical field, chloroform has been historically used as an inhaled general anesthetic agent due to its ability to produce unconsciousness and insensibility to pain quickly. However, its use as a surgical anesthetic has largely been abandoned because of several safety concerns, including its potential to cause cardiac arrhythmias, liver and kidney damage, and a condition called "chloroform hepatopathy" with prolonged or repeated exposure.

Currently, chloroform is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine but may still be encountered in laboratory settings for various research purposes. It's also possible to find traces of chloroform in drinking water due to its formation during the disinfection process using chlorine-based compounds.

Catechols are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to it in the ortho position. The term "catechol" is often used interchangeably with "ortho-dihydroxybenzene." Catechols are important in biology because they are produced through the metabolism of certain amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, and are involved in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters and hormones. They also have antioxidant properties and can act as reducing agents. In chemistry, catechols can undergo various reactions, such as oxidation and polymerization, to form other classes of compounds.

Diphenylhexatriene (DPH) is a fluorescent chemical compound that is often used in research and scientific studies as a probe to investigate the properties and behavior of lipid membranes in cells. It is particularly useful for studying the mobility and orientation of lipids within membranes, as well as the fluidity and microviscosity of the membrane environment.

When DPH is incorporated into a lipid membrane, it can emit fluorescence when excited with light at a specific wavelength. The intensity and polarization of the emitted fluorescence can provide information about the motion and orientation of the DPH molecules, which in turn can reveal details about the physical properties of the membrane.

It's worth noting that while DPH is a valuable tool for studying lipid membranes, it is not typically used as a medical diagnostic or therapeutic agent.

... (also known as α-Cresol) is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH. The benzyl group is often ... Benzyl alcohol is toxic to neonates and is associated with the gasping syndrome. "Benzyl alcohol". Archived from the original ... Sensitization to benzyl alcohol occurs very rarely, mainly in patients with stasis dermatitis. Benzyl alcohol is not considered ... Benzyl esters also occur naturally. Benzyl alcohol is produced industrially from toluene via benzyl chloride, which is ...
... (EC 2.3.1.196, benzoyl-CoA:benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase, benzoyl-CoA:benzyl alcohol/ ... benzyl alcohol O-benzoyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction benzoyl-CoA + benzyl alcohol ⇌ {\ ... Benzyl+alcohol+O-benzoyltransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ( ... benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase, benzoyl-coenzyme A:phenylethanol benzoyltransferase) is an enzyme with systematic name ...
It is prepared by treating benzyl chloride with base. Friedrich Brühne; Elaine Wright (2007). "Benzyl Alcohol". Ullmann's ... It is classified as an ether derived from benzyl alcohol. A colorless, nearly odorless oil, the compound's main use is as a ...
It is rapidly hydrolyzed to benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol is subsequently metabolized to benzoic acid. The ... generated from sodium and benzyl alcohol) as catalyst: Knowles CO (1991). "22.4.2 Benzyl Benzoate". In Hayes WJ, Laws ER (eds ... It is the ester of benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid. It forms either a viscous liquid or solid flakes and has a weak, sweet- ... Benzyl benzoate is produced industrially by the reaction of sodium benzoate with benzyl chloride in the presence of a base, or ...
Another example of a SKIE is the oxidation of benzyl alcohols by dimethyldioxirane where three transition states for different ... Angelis YS, Hatzakis NS, Smonou I, Orfanopoulos M (2006). "Oxidation of benzyl alcohols by dimethyldioxirane. The question of ... By NMR spectroscopy, it is therefore easy to detect whether the alcohol in wine was fermented from glucose, or from illicitly ... Another example of tunneling contribution to proton transfer in enzymatic reactions is the reaction carried out by alcohol ...
... preparation containing benzyl alcohol derivative, polysorbate 80 and propylene glycol should be used in ... "The Gasping Syndrome and Benzyl Alcohol Poisoning". New England Journal of Medicine. 307 (22): 1384-1388. doi:10.1056/ ...
... contain 15 mg benzyl alcohol per 1 mL as a preservative. Premature infants who have been given large amounts of benzyl alcohol ... Gershanik J, Boecler B, Ensley H, McCloskey S, George W (November 1982). "The gasping syndrome and benzyl alcohol poisoning". ...
Benzyl alcohol is used as well. Activators increase the penetration rate; for dichloromethane water is suitable, other choices ...
Alcohol 12 was protected by a benzyl group. The acetonide protecting group was removed from the ketone. Ketone 14 was converted ... The primary alcohol was protected as a silyl ether and the secondary alcohol was activated as a triflate (11). Heating this ... Subsequent reduction using sodium borohydride produced alcohol 51 . Reaction of this alcohol with the Ojima lactam 52 and a ... In the next step, the aldehyde was protected as a dimethyl acetal, and the ester was reduced to give primary alcohol 18. The ...
Benzyl is most commonly abbreviated Bn. For example, benzyl alcohol can be represented as BnOH. Less common abbreviations are ... In IUPAC nomenclature, the prefix benzyl refers to a C6H5CH2 substituent, for example benzyl chloride or benzyl benzoate. ... Treatment of alcohol with a strong base such as powdered potassium hydroxide or sodium hydride and benzyl halide (BnCl or BnBr ... Benzyl is commonly used in organic synthesis as a robust protecting group for alcohols and carboxylic acids. ...
As a preservative, the injectable solution contains benzyl alcohol. Toxicity from propylene glycol has been reported in the ... They should also not drive, operate machinery, or use alcohol within this period. Drug and alcohol dependence - The risk of ... benzyl alcohol as preservative. Lorazepam injectable solution is administered either by deep intramuscular injection or by ... It is the classic way in which acute alcohol intoxication may affect a person. Benzodiazepines should not be administered to ...
Benzyl trichloroacetimidate is easily accessible from benzyl alcohol and trichloroacetonitrile. Benzyl trichloroacetimidate is ... 1993). "A useful application of benzyl trichloroacetimidate for the benzylation of alcohols". Tetrahedron. 49 (8): 1619-1624. ... For example, alcohols give O-alkyltrichloroacetimidates under basic catalysis in a direct and reversible addition, which can be ... Schaefer, Fred C.; Peters, Grace A. (1961). "Base-Catalyzed Reaction of Nitriles with Alcohols. A Convenient Route to Imidates ...
... death and other symptoms resulting from benzyl alcohol poisoning. The symptoms caused by benzyl alcohol explosure include ... Benzyl alcohol Carl R. Baum (2008), "Examples of mass exposures involving the pediatric population", in Jerrold B. Leikin; ... 1982), "The gasping syndrome and benzyl alcohol poisoning", N Engl J Med, 307 (22): 1384-8, doi:10.1056/nejm198211253072206, ... "Neonatal Deaths Associated With Use Of Benzyl Alcohol -- United States". CDC. (Poisons). ...
In Australia, Cēpacol lozenges contain cetylpyridinium chloride and benzyl alcohol. Cepacaine lozenges contains lignocaine and ...
Benzyl alcohol and benzyl chloride and virtually all benzyl derivatives are readily oxidized to benzoic acid. Benzoic acid is ... 3, p. 337 Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel Bindu Nair (2001). "Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, ... Reduction to benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol is possible using DIBAL-H, LiAlH4 or sodium borohydride. Decarboxylation to ... "Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol using in Situ Generated Hydrogen Peroxide". Organic Process Research & Development. 18 (11): 1455- ...
Formulations of amiodarone that contain benzyl alcohol should not be given to neonates, because the benzyl alcohol may cause ... Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (June 1982). "Neonatal deaths associated with use of benzyl alcohol--United States". MMWR. ...
Benzyl alcohol can be formed from benzaldehyde by means of hydrogenation. Reaction of benzaldehyde with anhydrous sodium ... Numerous other methods have been developed, such as the partial oxidation of benzyl alcohol, alkali hydrolysis of benzal ... one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to the benzyl alcohol and another molecule is simultaneously oxidized to benzoic acid. ... "The benzaldehyde oxidation paradox explained by the interception of peroxy radical by benzyl alcohol" (PDF). Nature ...
"New oxidase from Bjerkandera arthroconidial anamorph that oxidizes both phenolic and nonphenolic benzyl alcohols". Biochimica ... that form long-chain unbranched primary alkenes and alcohols, and in the low-pressure polymerization of ethene and propene. ...
"Structure-Reactivity Studies and Catalytic Effects in the Photosolvolysis of Methoxy-Substituted Benzyl Alcohols". J. Chem. Soc ... Additionally, the addition of an o-hydroxy group enables the release of alcohols, phenols and carboxylic acids due to the ... Barltrop and Schofield first demonstrated the use of a benzyl-based PPG, structural variations have focused on substitution to ... Zhao, H.; Sterner, E. S.; Coughlin, E. B.; Theato, P. (28 February 2012). "Nitrobenzyl Alcohol Derivatives: Opportunities in ...
It is formed by the condensation of benzyl alcohol and acetic acid. Similar to most other esters, it possesses a sweet and ... It is collected and used by the bees as an intra-specific pheromone; In apiculture benzyl acetate is used as a bait to collect ... "Benzyl acetate". The Good Scents Company. Schiestl, F.P. & Roubik, D.W. (2004). "Odor Compound Detection in Male Euglossine ... Natural sources of benzyl acetate include varieties of flowers like jasmine (Jasminum), and fruits like pear, apple, etc. " ...
The ketone is then reduced with sodium borohydride yielding a benzyl alcohol. Condensation with 4-hydroxycoumarin under HCl ... She had no history of liver disease or alcohol or illicit substance abuse. Initial physical examination was remarkable only for ...
It contains 2% benzyl alcohol, so it is less painful than ethanol. However it does cause hemolysis and kidney failure in large ... The alcohol does need some time to denature proteins of the endothelium and activate the coagulation system to cause a blood ... polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - These are permanent agents. They are tiny balls 50-1200 um in size. The particles are not meant to ... Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer, soluted in Dimethyl-Sulfoxide (DMSO) under the trade name Onyx. Depending on the desired ...
Peligot's salt can oxidize benzyl alcohol, a reaction which can be catalyzed by acid. A related salt, pyridinium chlorochromate ... Özgün, B.; Pek, A. (1991). "Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of benzyl alcohol by potassium chlorochromate". Reaction ...
There is a formulation with benzyl alcohol, which is toxic to babies; other formulations should be used. Sargramostim has not ...
Newer generic formulations contain sodium metabisulfite or benzyl alcohol as antimicrobial agents. Propofol emulsion is an ... The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 40 (6): 428-437. doi:10.3109/00952990.2014.933840. PMID 25083822. S2CID ...
Another isomer of cresol is called Benzyl alcohol, or alpha-cresol (α-cresol). Benzyl alcohol has a hydroxy group inside a ...
... solutions often contain preservatives such as benzalkonium chloride and benzyl alcohol. Preservative-free products ...
An early method for production of benzoyl chloride involved chlorination of benzyl alcohol. It reacts with water to produce ... It reacts with alcohols to give the corresponding esters. Similarly, it reacts with amines to give the amide. It undergoes the ...
For example, benzaldehyde decomposes into benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol, the Cannizzaro reaction. In the autumn of 1855, ... Cannizzaro, S. (1853). "Ueber den der Benzoësäure entsprechenden Alkohol" [On the alcohol corresponding to benzoic acid]. ... aldehydes are decomposed by an alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide into a mixture of the corresponding acid and alcohol. ...
... (veratryl alcohol) is an organic compound related to veratrole and also to benzyl alcohol. It can be obtained ... Veratrole alcohol is the raw material for the synthesis of cyclotriveratrylene which is used in host-guest chemistry. It is a ... Zapanta, L. S.; Tien, M. (1997). "The roles of veratryl alcohol and oxalate in fungal lignin degradation". Journal of ... Primary alcohols, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
Benzyl alcohol (also known as α-Cresol) is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH. The benzyl group is often ... Benzyl alcohol is toxic to neonates and is associated with the gasping syndrome. "Benzyl alcohol". Archived from the original ... Sensitization to benzyl alcohol occurs very rarely, mainly in patients with stasis dermatitis. Benzyl alcohol is not considered ... Benzyl esters also occur naturally. Benzyl alcohol is produced industrially from toluene via benzyl chloride, which is ...
Benzyl Alcohol Topical: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Avoid getting benzyl alcohol lotion in your eyes.. If benzyl alcohol lotion gets in your eyes, flush them with water right away ... Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not ... Before using benzyl alcohol lotion,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to benzyl alcohol, any other ...
Benzyl alcohol is a natural constituent of several essential oils, including ylang ylang, jasmine and styrax. ... Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol that occurs naturally in some essential oils, fruits and teas. ...
Best results were obtained using benzyl alcohol as the hydrogen donor, although biorenewable alcohols such as furfuryl alcohol ... Benzyl alcohol. Recent Literature. A transition-metal- and catalyst-free hydrogenation of a wide range of aryl halides is ... One equivalent of benzaldehyde affords an equal yield as that of 0.5 equiv of benzyl alcohol. The kinetic study reveals that ... the corresponding E-alkenes in very good yields using alcohols as the hydrogen source. ...
Ivy-Dry CreamWhat is the most important information I should know about benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical?Follow all ... Top of the pagebenzyl alcohol and zinc acetate (topical)Pronunciation: BEN zil AL ka holBrand: Ivy Dry Super, ... What is benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical?. Benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical (for the skin) is a combination ... What should I avoid while using benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical?. Do not get this medicine in your eyes. If contact ...
benzyl alcohol 99% Purity from Gentaur Genprice. Reagents in Stock for Immediate Shipment. ...
While nickel-based electrodes have been studied as electrocatalysts for benzyl alcohol oxidation (BAO), the role of impurities ... Electrochemical oxidation of biomass can convert simple organic substrates, such as methanol and benzyl alcohol, into value- ... 476g) Probing the Performance and Mechanism of Nickel Iron Oxyhydroxides for Electrocatalytic Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation in ... support this conclusion and revealed that the rate-determining step is the adsorption of the deprotonated benzyl alcohol ...
The following pages link to Benzyl alcohol: Displayed 1 item. View (previous 20 , next 20) (20 , 50 , 100 , 250 , 500) ...
This transformation provides a direct synthetic approach to 2-sulfonyl benzyl alcohol derivatives, which could be rapidly ... A three-component reaction of arynes, sodium sulfinates, and aldehydes toward 2-sulfonyl benzyl alcohol derivatives† ... A three-component reaction of arynes, sodium sulfinates, and aldehydes toward 2-sulfonyl benzyl alcohol derivatives Y. Hu, Y. ... This transformation provides a direct synthetic approach to 2-sulfonyl benzyl alcohol derivatives, which could be rapidly ...
Scheme 1: Benzyl alcohol oxidative dehydrogenation under standard conditions. Scheme 1: Benzyl alcohol oxidative ... Benzyl alcohol oxidation is a model reaction generally used to test the catalytic activity of gold-based materials [27-31]. In ... Benzyl alcohol oxidation. Catalytic evaluation was carried out following a previously reported procedure [21]. In a two-neck ... Figure 6: Monitoring over time of benzyl alcohol oxidative reaction with Au25(SG)18@ZrO2 calcined at 300 °C for 4 hours under ...
You are currently browsing archived data. To access current data and further guidance, click here. ...
Benzyl alcohol acts as a preservative agent by inhibiting the development of microorganisms in cosmetic and hair products. ... BENZYL ALCOHOL [BENZYL ALCOHOL]. Benzyl alcohol acts as a preservative agent by inhibiting the development of microorganisms in ...
100-51-6 202-859-9 Benzyl alcohol Benzyl alcohol
BENZYL ALCOHOL AR. Catalogue No: ASIC 064500500. Item Type: Consumables. Item Unit: 500 ml ... BENZYL ALCOHOL AR. Catalogue No: ASIC 064500500. Item Type: Consumables. Item Unit: 500 ml ... Be the first to review "BENZYL ALCOHOL AR" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * ...
A detailed list of the drug patents containing Benzyl Alcohol, along with the patent title, company, treatments and dosage ... Drugs that contain Benzyl Alcohol. 1. Ulesfia patents expiration Share with your colleague Get e-mail alerts for changes to ...
Benzyl Alcohol has also found use in many gelled solvent cleaning techniques. Chemical: C6H5CH2OH Sizes: 250 ml , 500 ml , 1 ... An aromatic alcohol solvent of high solvent power and high boiling point. High polarity and low toxicity make it desirable for ... Benzyl Alcohol has also found use in many gelled solvent cleaning techniques. ... Benzyl Alcohol has also found use in many gelled solvent cleaning techniques. ...
Jual Benzyl Alcohol Jual Benzyl Alcohol. Benzyl Alcohol adalah Senyawa kimia organik jenis aromatik alkohol dengan rumus kimia ...
The Science Behind Benzyl Alcohols Benefits On a molecular level, benzyl alcohol provides a range of benefits for ... Benzyl alcohol, also known as Phenylmethanol, is a versatile ingredient with a fascinating origin story. Boasting unique ... Benefits of Benzyl Alcohol for Skin. Benzyl alcohol has been shown to have positive effects on skin health, such as reducing ... The Science Behind Benzyl Alcohols Benefits. On a molecular level, benzyl alcohol provides a range of benefits for hair and ...
Find information on Benzyl Alcohol (Ulesfia) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing ... "Benzyl Alcohol." Daviss Drug Guide, 18th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2023. Pediatrics Central, peds.unboundmedicine.com/ ... pedscentral/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/109565/all/benzyl_alcohol. Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Benzyl alcohol. Daviss ... Vallerand, A. H., Sanoski, C. A., & Quiring, C. (2023). Benzyl alcohol. In Daviss Drug Guide (18th ed.). F.A. Davis Company. ...
All chemicals are for R&D use only. Controlled products will be followed China law and buyers country regulation ...
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Grape Seed Oil is pressed/extracted from seed of grapes, usually from wine grapes. Grape seed oil is light in viscocity, non-greasy, mildly astringent and has excellent emollient properties. Grapeseed oil is non-hydrogenated, high smoke point of approximately 216 °C (421 °F), and 0 trans fat. Grapeseed oil has been used in home remedies and medical purposes for centuries. Contains a high ratio of Vitamin E (about twice as much as olive oil), polyphenols, flavonoids, and many essential fatty acids including: Linoleic, Oleic, Stearic, Palmitic, Myristic and Lauric. Linoleic acid strengthens cell membranes and improves overall quality of you skin. The antioxidant characteristic has been known to help prevent pores from clogging, not only preventing acne breakouts but helping existing ones. Astringent properties have been used in skin tightening and toning. Some studies suggest that consuming grapeseed oil regularly may reduce the development of certain types of cancers, and help with liver damage ...
LTD.- we are famous manufacturer and exporter of Benzyl Alcohol from Gujarat, India. We are providing best quality products at ... Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the formula CHCHOH. The benzyl group is often abbreviated Bn, thus benzyl alcohol ... Other Products in Benzyl alcohol category. Meta Phenoxy Benzyl Alcohol. CAS No : 13826352. Other Names : MPBA. Usage : Api ... Benzyl alcohol is a colorless liquid with a mild pleasant aromatic odor. It is a useful solvent due to its polarity, low ...
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Benzyl Alcohol Alias:Benzoyl alcohol,Benzenecarbinol,Benzenemethanol,Phenylcarbinol,Phenylmethanol,Phenylmethyl alcohol C... ... Benzyl Alcohol is the antiseptic which keeps the Steroid Powder solution sterile. Product name: ... Benzyl Alcohol is the antiseptic which keeps the Steroid Powder solution sterile.. Product name: Benzyl Alcohol. Alias:Benzoyl ... Alcohol is an antibacterial disinfectant and is used as such in many industries. As aforementioned Benzyl Alcohol ensures the ...
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  • Also the other related benzyl derivatives (benzaldehyde, benzoic acid and the benzoate salts) were negative when tested in in vitro Ames tests with or without metabolic activation. (europa.eu)
  • Each 1ml contains: testosterone enanthate 300 mg/ml peanut oil 70% ethyl oleate 30% benzyl alcohol benzyl benzoate. (parametriqwatches.com)
  • Glycol 300″ Vtska "Benzyl alcohol" Vtska "Benzyl benzoate" Resultat. (parametriqwatches.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol is produced industrially from toluene via benzyl chloride, which is hydrolyzed: C6H5CH2Cl + H2O → C6H5CH2OH + HCl Another route entails hydrogenation of benzaldehyde, a by-product of the oxidation of toluene to benzoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • For laboratory use, Grignard reaction of phenylmagnesium bromide (C6H5MgBr) with formaldehyde and the Cannizzaro reaction of benzaldehyde also give benzyl alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some caution is necessary if a high percent of Benzyl alcohol is used as benzaldehyde arises from benzyl alcohol when used as preservative in an injectable formulation solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • One equivalent of benzaldehyde affords an equal yield as that of 0.5 equiv of benzyl alcohol. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • In contrast to most gold nanoclusters which have to be completely defunctionalized for maximum catalytic activity, the partially defunctionalized Au 25 (SG) 18 @ZrO 2 catalyst, thermally treated at 300 °C, exhibits full conversion of benzyl alcohol within 15 h under atmospheric pressure with 94% selectivity towards benzaldehyde. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol (BnOH) oxidation to benzaldehyde (PhCHO) is a pivotal industrial reaction. (uniroma3.it)
  • Your doctor will prescribe a specific amount of benzyl alcohol lotion based on your hair length. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Disproportionation of benzyl alcohol has been identified as the source of toluene formation in the solvent free oxidation of benzyl alcohol using supported gold palladium catalysts. (southwales.ac.uk)
  • Benzyl alcohol, also known as Phenylmethanol , is a versatile ingredient with a fascinating origin story. (abyssianhaircare.com)
  • This is an example of a Ritter reaction: C6H5CH2OH + NCCHCH2 → C6H5CH2N(H)C(O)CHCH2 Benzyl alcohol is used as a general solvent for inks, waxes, shellacs, paints, lacquers, and epoxy resin coatings. (wikipedia.org)
  • An aromatic alcohol solvent of high solvent power and high boiling point. (museumservicescorporation.com)
  • Benzyl Alcohol has also found use in many gelled solvent cleaning techniques. (museumservicescorporation.com)
  • In the pharmaceutical industry, benzyl alcohol D7 is used as a solvent in the production of various medications, including local anesthetics and antiparasitic agents. (clearsynth.com)
  • In the cosmetics industry, benzyl alcohol D7 is used as a fragrance ingredient and solvent in various personal care products, such as lotions, creams, and shampoos. (clearsynth.com)
  • Benzyl Alcohol (BA):A fairly potent solvent, whose main function for our purposes is keeping a solution bacteriostatic. (numeibiotech.com)
  • Benzyl Alcohol is often the primary solvent and sometime the only solvent in a steroid given formula. (numeibiotech.com)
  • Intravenous formulation of amiodarone hydrochloride with polysorbate 80 as a detergent and benzyl alcohol as a co-solvent is used in medical practice. (kyobobook.co.kr)
  • Best results were obtained using benzyl alcohol as the hydrogen donor, although biorenewable alcohols such as furfuryl alcohol could also be applied. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Perchloroethylene (127184) concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to 0.46mg/CuM, compared with the OSHA standard of 670mg/Cu M. Furfuryl-alcohol (98000) concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to 7.84mg/CuM, compared with the OSHA standard of 200mg/CuM. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzyl esters also occur naturally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like most alcohols, it reacts with carboxylic acids to form esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic synthesis, benzyl esters are popular protecting groups because they can be removed by mild hydrogenolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also used as an intermediate for the production of benzyl esters, which are used in the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. (clearsynth.com)
  • SCIENTIFIC OPINIONFlavouring Group Evaluation 54, Revision 1 (FGE.54Rev1) (2009):Consideration of benzyl derivatives evaluated by JECFA (57th meeting)structurally related to benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoicacids and related esters evaluated by EFSA in FGE.20Rev1 (2009) 1Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes,Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF). (europa.eu)
  • Analysis of bulk samples revealed the presence of methylene - chloride (75092), toluene (108883), isopropanol (67630), methyl-ethyl-ketone (78933), methyl-isobutyl- ketone (108101), xylene (1330207), butyl-cellosolve (111762), molecular weight 120 aromatics and diacetone-alcohol (123422). (cdc.gov)
  • Benzyl alcohol is a colorless liquid with a mild pleasant aromatic odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol, sold under the brand name Ulesfia, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2009, as a 5% solution for the treatment of head lice in people 6 months of age and older. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA has approved benzyl alcohol lotion, 5% ( Ulesfia Lotion - Sciele) for treatment of head lice in patients ≥6 months old. (medicalletter.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol (also known as α-Cresol) is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol that occurs naturally in some essential oils, fruits and teas. (lush.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the formula CHCHOH. (griffithoverseaspvtltd.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol is toxic to neonates and is associated with the gasping syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol has moderate solubility in water (4 g/100 mL) and is miscible in alcohols and diethyl ether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the benzyl alcohol in Innohep can affect a fetus a preservative-free product should be used in pregnant women if possible. (rxlist.com)
  • This transformation provides a direct synthetic approach to 2-sulfonyl benzyl alcohol derivatives, which could be rapidly converted to diverse arylsulfur compounds via the transformation of the corresponding hydroxyl groups. (rsc.org)
  • Finally, it is concluded: "This evidence of safety is supported by the fact that the intake of benzyl derivatives as natural components of traditional foods is greater than their intake as intentionally added flavouring substances" (FEMA 2005). (europa.eu)
  • Conclusion on genotoxicity A total of 12 benzyl derivatives in the group have been tested for genotoxicity. (europa.eu)
  • In view of the mainly negative results in the assays in vitro and the uniformly negative results in well-recognised assays in vivo, the Committee concluded that the group of benzyl derivatives is not genotoxic in vivo. (europa.eu)
  • The PdOx/CeO2-NR catalyst permitted the aerobic oxidation of various benzyl alcohol derivatives with good conversion, and high selectivity towards the corresponding aldehydes. (uniroma3.it)
  • The benzyl group is often abbreviated "Bn" (not to be confused with "Bz" which is used for benzoyl), thus benzyl alcohol is denoted as BnOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • The benzyl group is often abbreviated 'Bn', thus benzyl alcohol is denoted as BnOH. (griffithoverseaspvtltd.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol lotion should only be used on the hair and scalp. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Apply benzyl alcohol lotion to dry hair and scalp area. (medlineplus.gov)
  • On a molecular level, benzyl alcohol provides a range of benefits for hair and scalp health. (abyssianhaircare.com)
  • Electrochemical oxidation of biomass can convert simple organic substrates, such as methanol and benzyl alcohol, into value-added products in a green and sustainable fashion. (aiche.org)
  • Anmol Chemicals is the pioneer manufacturers of Benzyl Alcohol, Pharmaceutical Excipients Fragrance Food & Flavor chemicals in India. (benzylalcohol.net)
  • Labeling- Where Benzyl Alcohol is intended for use in the manufacture of injectable dosage forms, it is so labeled. (benzylalcohol.net)
  • Understanding the benefits and risks of benzyl alcohol is crucial for responsible formulation and consumer awareness. (abyssianhaircare.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol is used effectively for treating lice infestations as the active ingredient in lotion shampoo with 5% benzyl alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol is an ingredient used in the manufacture of soaps, topical creams, skin lotions, shampoos, and facial cleansers and is popular due to its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acidity - Neutralize 50 mL of alcohol containing 1 mL of phenolphthalein TS with 0.10 N sodium hydroxide. (benzylalcohol.net)
  • Dissolve 10 mL of Benzyl Alcohol in 10 mL of the neutralized alcohol, and titrate with 0.10 N sodium hydroxide to the first appearance of a pink color that persists for not less than 30 seconds: not more than 1.0 mL is consumed. (benzylalcohol.net)
  • 2023. https://peds.unboundmedicine.com/pedscentral/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/109565/all/benzyl_alcohol. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A transition-metal- and catalyst-free hydrogenation of a wide range of aryl halides is promoted by bases using either aldehydes or alcohols as hydrogen source. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children 6 months of age and older. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication must be used a second time to kill the lice that may hatch from these eggs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Topical benzyl alcohol comes as a lotion to apply to the scalp and hair. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The second treatment of benzyl alcohol lotion must be applied about one week after the first one. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sometimes a third treatment of benzyl alcohol lotion may be necessary. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Use benzyl alcohol lotion exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If benzyl alcohol lotion gets in your eyes, flush them with water right away. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to benzyl alcohol, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in benzyl alcohol lotion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while using benzyl alcohol lotion, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Benzyl-alcohol air concentrations were less than 0.01mg/CuM. (cdc.gov)
  • A Replicative DNA Synthesis assay using male Fischer 344 rats given a single dose of 0, 300 or 600 mg/kg bw benzyl alcohol by gavage was negative at all doses tested (Uno et al. (europa.eu)
  • 1994). A Replicative DNA Synthesis assay using male B6C3F1 male mice given a single dose of 0, 400 or 800 mg/kg bw benzyl alcohol by gavage was negative at all doses tested (Miyagawa et al. (europa.eu)
  • Benzyl alcohol acts as a preservative agent by inhibiting the development of microorganisms in cosmetic and hair products. (loreal.com)
  • When used mindfully, benzyl alcohol can play a valuable role in hair care products, helping to maintain their quality, safety, and effectiveness. (abyssianhaircare.com)
  • You should not use this medicine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol has low acute toxicity with an LD50 of 1.2 g/kg in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the Information on Physics, Chemistry, Applications, Uses and Technology on Manufacture of Benzyl Alcohol is in these pages. (benzylalcohol.net)
  • Contrary to some misconceptions, benzyl alcohol does not release formaldehyde. (abyssianhaircare.com)
  • INCI/chemical name: Benzyl Alcohol (and) Methylchloroisothiazolinone/Methylisothiazolinone (Active ingredients without auxiliaries. (ashland.com)
  • Each vial of bacteriostatic water for injection contains 231 mg of benzyl alcohol (see section 4-4). (who.int)
  • Benzyl alcohol is used as a bacteriostatic preservative at low concentration in intravenous medications, cosmetics, and topical drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol topical is no longer available in the United States. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are currently using benzyl alcohol topical, you should call your doctor to discuss switching to another treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What is the most important information I should know about benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical? (uofmhealth.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical (for the skin) is a combination medicine used to treat itching, rash, oozing, or other skin irritation caused by insect bites or by coming into contact with poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac. (uofmhealth.org)
  • What should I discuss with my health care provider before using benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical? (uofmhealth.org)
  • How should I use benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical? (uofmhealth.org)
  • An overdose of benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical is not expected to be dangerous. (uofmhealth.org)
  • What should I avoid while using benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical? (uofmhealth.org)
  • What are the possible side effects of benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical? (uofmhealth.org)
  • What other drugs will affect benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate topical? (uofmhealth.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol is used as a bacteriostatic preservative at low concentration in intravenous medications, cosmetics and topical drugs.BA is the antiseptic which keeps the steroid solution sterile. (numeibiotech.com)
  • Sensitization to benzyl alcohol occurs very rarely, mainly in patients with stasis dermatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Au 25 (SG) 18 (SG - glutathione) clusters deposited on ZrO 2 nanoparticles have been used as a catalyst for benzyl alcohol oxidation. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol sustanon organon ronnie tober - Cenzo Pharma Anavar 50mg 60 Oxandrolone tablets, benzyl alcohol sustanon organon ronnie tober. (parametriqwatches.com)
  • Your pharmacist can provide more information about benzyl alcohol and zinc acetate. (uofmhealth.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol is produced naturally by many plants and is commonly found in fruits and teas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA has approved benzyl alcohol for use in cosmetics, recognizing its safety when used responsibly. (abyssianhaircare.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol D7 has a molecular formula of C7D7H8O and a molecular weight of 108.19 g/mol. (clearsynth.com)
  • Parallel density functional theory computational studies support this conclusion and revealed that the rate-determining step is the adsorption of the deprotonated benzyl alcohol species and that bridge-like oxygens at edge-sites are more preferred. (aiche.org)