A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
Benzyl compounds are organic substances that contain a benzyl group, which is a functional structure consisting of a carbon atom attached to a phenyl ring and a methylene group (-CH2-).
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Benzaldehydes are aromatic organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring connected to a formyl group (-CHO), which is the simplest and most representative compound being benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO).
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).
A widely used industrial solvent.
Oxidoreductases that are specific for ALDEHYDES.
1,1'-Bis(phenylmethyl)4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride. Oxidation-reduction indicator.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC; at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC EC
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Patient health knowledge related to medications including what is being used and why as well as instructions and precautions.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.
Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Maryland" is not a recognized medical term with a specific definition in the medical field. It refers to a state in the United States. If you have any questions about a medical condition or treatment, I would be happy to try and help answer those!

Modulation of host cell membrane fluidity: a novel mechanism for preventing bacterial adhesion. (1/106)

Adhesion of bacterial enteropathogens to host mucosal surfaces is a critical primary step in the pathogenesis of diarrheal disease. We investigated the effects of altering the physical properties of eukaryotic cells on bacterial adhesion with the use of a series of three structurally dissimilar membrane fluidizers and several Escherichia coli as test strains. Lipid fluidity of the cell plasma membrane was measured by steady-state fluorescence anisotropy employing the probe 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3, 5-hexatriene. There was a dose-dependent and reversible inhibition of bacterial adhesion with increasing membrane fluidity. Time course experiments indicated that increasing membrane fluidity during the early stages of bacterial adhesion was essential for inhibition of attachment. None of the fluidizers affected the viability of either eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that changes in plasma membrane physical properties of epithelial cells can prevent microbial adhesion. This also suggests that altering the membrane properties of host cells could form a basis for novel strategies to prevent bacterial adhesion during infection in vivo.  (+info)

Protective effect of FR168888, a new Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, on ischemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmia and myocardial infarction in rats: in comparison with other cardioprotective compounds. (2/106)

We have studied the effects of FR168888 (5-hydroxymethyl-3-(pyrrol-1-yl)benzoylguanidine methanesulfonate), a new Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor, on ischemia and reperfusion-induced arrhythmia and myocardial infarction in anesthetized rats and compared them with those of other cardioprotective compounds. FR168888 had a potent inhibitory effect on Na+/H+ exchange of rat lymphocytes acidified with Na+-propionate with a Ki value of 6.4 nM. Pretreatment with FR168888 (0.032-0.32 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced or completely abolished the ventricular fibrillation (VF) induced by reperfusion after 5 min of regional ischemia, while lidocaine, a class I antiarrhythmic agent, showed less effect against VF as compared with FR168888. The size of myocardial infarction induced by 60-min ischemia and 60-min reperfusion was attenuated by FR168888 dose-dependently (1.0-10 mg/kg, i.v.), and ventricular tachycardia and VF were significantly reduced during the ischemic period. In contrast, propranolol and diltiazem did not show such protective effects on myocardial infarct size. In addition, FR168888 did not change hemodynamic parameters in rats. These results indicate that FR168888 has a strong inhibitory effect on Na+/H+ exchange and that treatment with FR168888 can protect the heart from arrhythmia and myocardial cell death in ischemic and reperfused situations.  (+info)

Cold shock in Bacillus subtilis: different effects of benzyl alcohol and ethanol on the membrane organisation and cell adaptation. (3/106)

A temperature shift-down of Bacillus subtilis from 40 to 20 degrees C induces an 80 min growth lag. Benzyl alcohol reduced this period to 51 min, whereas ethanol prolonged it up to 102 min. The effect of the two alcohols on the membrane state was investigated by measuring the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and analysing the lifetime distribution of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) and its polar derivative, TMA-DPH. As followed from the fluorescence anisotropy, the two alcohols exerted similar (fluidizing) effects on the cytoplasmic membranes of B. subtilis. However, benzyl alcohol significantly shortened the main DPH lifetime component and widened its distribution, while ethanol had no effect. The benzyl alcohol activity was interpreted in terms of an increased membrane hydration due to disordering of the membrane structure. Such an effect imitates the cold shock induced synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in B. subtilis. The fatty acid analysis revealed that ethanol hindered this adaptive synthesis of fatty acids. At the same time, its effect on the membrane state (membrane order) was very low and could not substitute the physiological response as was the case with benzyl alcohol. It can thus be concluded that the adaptation of the membrane physical state contributes significantly to the cold shock response of B. subtilis.  (+info)

Cloning and expression of ntnD, encoding a novel NAD(P)(+)-independent 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain TW3. (4/106)

Pseudomonas sp. strain TW3 is able to metabolize 4-nitrotoluene to 4-nitrobenzoate and toluene to benzoate aerobically via a route analogous to the upper pathway of the TOL plasmids. We report the cloning and characterization of a benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ntnD) which encodes the enzyme for the catabolism of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol to 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and benzaldehyde, respectively. The gene is located downstream of the previously reported ntn gene cluster. NtnD bears no similarity to the analogous TOL plasmid XylB (benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase) protein either in its biochemistry, being NAD(P)(+) independent and requiring assay via dye-linked electron transfer, or in its deduced amino acid sequence. It does, however, have significant similarity in its amino acid sequence to other NAD(P)(+)-independent alcohol dehydrogenases and contains signature patterns characteristic of type III flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent alcohol oxidases. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that ntnD is transcribed during growth on 4-nitrotoluene, although apparently not as part of the same transcript as the other ntn genes. The substrate specificity of the enzyme expressed from the cloned and overexpressed gene was similar to the activity expressed from strain TW3 grown on 4-nitrotoluene, providing evidence that ntnD is the previously unidentified gene in the pathway of 4-nitrotoluene catabolism. Examination of the 14.8-kb region around the ntn genes suggests that one or more recombination events have been involved in the formation of their current organization.  (+info)

Voltage-dependent blockade of normal and mutant muscle sodium channels by benzylalcohol. (5/106)

1. We studied the effects of benzylalcohol on heterologously expressed wild type (WT), paramyotonia congenita (R1448H) and hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis (M1360V) mutant alpha-subunits of human skeletal muscle sodium channels. 2. Benzylalcohol blocked rested channels at -150 mV membrane potential, with an ECR(50) of 5.3 mM in wild type, 5.1 mM in R1448H, and 6.2 mM in M1360V. When blockade was assessed at -100 mV, the ECR(50) was reduced in R1448H (2 mM) compared with both wild type (4.3 mM; P<0.01) and M1360V (4.3 mM). 3. Membrane depolarization before the test depolarization significantly promoted benzylalcohol-induced sodium channel blockade. The values of K(D) for the fast-inactivated state derived from benzylalcohol-induced shifts in steady-state availability curves were 0.66 mM in wild type and 0.58 mM in R1448H. In the presence of slow inactivation induced by 2.5 s depolarizing prepulses, the ECI(50) for benzylalcohol-induced current inhibition was 0.59 mM in wild type and 0.53 mM in R1448H. 4. Recovery from fast inactivation was prolonged in the presence of drug in all clones. 5. Benzylalcohol induced significant frequency-dependent block at stimulating frequencies of 10, 50, and 100 Hz in all clones. 6. Our results clearly show that benzylalcohol is an effective blocker of muscle sodium channels in conditions that are associated with membrane depolarization. Mutants that enter voltage-dependent inactivation at more hyperpolarized membrane potentials compared with wild type are more sensitive to inhibitory effects at the normal resting potential.  (+info)

Functional analysis of an olfactory receptor in Drosophila melanogaster. (6/106)

Fifty nine candidate olfactory receptor (Or) genes have recently been identified in Drosophila melanogaster, one of which is Or43a. In wild-type flies, Or43a is expressed at the distal edge of the third antennal segment in about 15 Or neurons. To identify ligands for the receptor we used the Gal4/UAS system to misexpress Or43a in the third antennal segment. Or43a mRNA expression in the antenna of transformed and wild-type flies was visualized by in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled probe. Electroantennogram recordings from transformed and wild-type flies were used to identify cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, benzaldehyde, and benzyl alcohol as ligands for the Or43a. This in vivo analysis reveals functional properties of one member of the recently isolated Or family in Drosophila and will provide further insight into our understanding of olfactory coding.  (+info)

Rate sensitivity of shear-induced changes in the lateral diffusion of endothelial cell membrane lipids: a role for membrane perturbation in shear-induced MAPK activation. (7/106)

Vascular endothelium transduces the temporal gradients in shear stress (tau) originating from unsteady blood flow into functional responses. We measured the effects of step-tau and ramp-tau (i.e., t with different temporal shear gradients) on the lipid lateral diffusion coefficient (D) in the apical membranes of confluent cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells by using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. A step-tau of 10 dynes/cm2 elicited a rapid (5 s) increase of D in the portion of the cell upstream of the nucleus and a concomitant decrease in the downstream portion. A ramp-tau with a rate of 20 dynes/cm2 per min elicited a rapid (5 s) decrease of D in both the upstream and the downstream portions. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK and JNK were activated by step-tau but not by ramping to the same tau level. Benzyl alcohol, which increases D, enhanced the activities of both MAPKs; cholesterol, which reduces D, diminished these activities. We conclude that the lipid bilayer can sense the temporal features of the applied tau with spatial discrimination and that the tau-induced membrane perturbations can be transduced into MAPK activation. These results have implications for understanding the role of t in modulating vascular functions in health and disease.  (+info)

Ten-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulation of the motions of the horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase.PhCH2O- complex. (8/106)

Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out for a period of 10 ns with the dimeric enzyme horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) present as the reactive complex HLADH.NAD+. PhCH2O-. Cross-correlation analysis of the trajectory was carried out with the latter from 500 ps to 10 ns. The resulting cross-correlation map allowed the identification of the correlated and anticorrelated motions, which involve the entire protein. Anticorrelated and correlated motions are carried into the active site-aligned residues.  (+info)

Benzyl alcohol is a aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic, mildly unpleasant odor. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent and as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals. In medicine, it is used as a local anesthetic and antimicrobial agent. It can be found in some personal care products, such as cosmetics, shampoos, and sunscreens, as well as in topical medications and intravenous medications.

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant odor and is used as a solvent and preservative in cosmetics, medications, and other products. Benzyl alcohol can also be found as a natural component of some essential oils, fruits, and teas.

Benzyl alcohol is not typically considered a "drug" or a medication, but it may have various pharmacological effects when used in certain medical contexts. For example, it has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as a preservative in injectable medications to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It can also be used as a local anesthetic or analgesic in some topical creams and ointments.

It's important to note that benzyl alcohol can be harmful or fatal to infants and young children, especially when it is used in high concentrations or when it is introduced into the body through intravenous (IV) routes. Therefore, it should be used with caution in these populations and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Benzyl compounds are organic chemical compounds that contain a benzyl group, which is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom attached to a CH3 group (methyl group) and an aromatic ring, usually a phenyl group. The benzyl group can be represented as -CH2-C6H5.

Benzyl compounds have various applications in different fields such as pharmaceuticals, flavors, fragrances, dyes, and polymers. In pharmaceuticals, benzyl compounds are used as active ingredients or intermediates in the synthesis of drugs. For example, benzylpenicillin is a widely used antibiotic that contains a benzyl group.

Benzyl alcohol, benzyl chloride, and benzyl acetate are some common examples of benzyl compounds with various industrial applications. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent, preservative, and intermediate in the synthesis of other chemicals. Benzyl chloride is an important chemical used in the production of resins, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Benzyl acetate is used as a flavoring agent and fragrance in food and cosmetic products.

It's worth noting that benzyl compounds can be toxic or harmful if ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin, depending on their chemical properties and concentrations. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used under appropriate safety measures.

'Alcohol drinking' refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the active ingredient. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant that can cause euphoria, disinhibition, and sedation when consumed in small to moderate amounts. However, excessive drinking can lead to alcohol intoxication, with symptoms ranging from slurred speech and impaired coordination to coma and death.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The breakdown of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, a toxic compound that can cause damage to various organs in the body. Chronic alcohol drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and increased risk of cancer.

Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, where a standard drink contains about 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. However, it's important to note that there are no safe levels of alcohol consumption, and any level of drinking carries some risk to health.

Benzaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CHO. It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde, and it consists of a benzene ring attached to a formyl group. Benzaldehyde is a colorless liquid with a characteristic almond-like odor.

Benzaldehyde occurs naturally in various plants, including bitter almonds, cherries, peaches, and apricots. It is used in many industrial applications, such as in the production of perfumes, flavorings, and dyes. In addition, benzaldehyde has been used in medical research for its potential therapeutic effects, such as its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.

However, it is important to note that benzaldehyde can be toxic in high concentrations and may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Therefore, it should be handled with care and used in accordance with appropriate safety guidelines.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mandelic Acids" is not a recognized medical term or concept in dermatology or medicine. Mandelic acid, however, is a type of chemical compound used in skincare products for various purposes such as exfoliation and reducing hyperpigmentation. It is an aromatic hydroxyacetic acid derived from mandelic almonds. If you have any questions about skincare ingredients or treatments, I'd be happy to help clarify those for you!

Toluene is not a medical condition or disease, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. Medically, toluene can be relevant as a substance of abuse due to its intoxicating effects when inhaled or sniffed. It is a colorless liquid with a distinctive sweet aroma, and it is a common solvent found in many products such as paint thinners, adhesives, and rubber cement.

In the context of medical toxicology, toluene exposure can lead to various health issues, including neurological damage, cognitive impairment, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, and hearing and vision problems. Chronic exposure to toluene can also cause significant harm to the developing fetus during pregnancy, leading to developmental delays, behavioral problems, and physical abnormalities.

Aldehyde oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids using NAD+ or FAD as cofactors. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been identified in bacteria, yeast, plants, and animals.

The oxidation reaction catalyzed by aldehyde oxidoreductases involves the transfer of electrons from the aldehyde substrate to the cofactor, resulting in the formation of a carboxylic acid and reduced NAD+ or FAD. The enzymes are classified into several families based on their sequence similarity and cofactor specificity.

One of the most well-known members of this family is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which catalyzes the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones as part of the alcohol metabolism pathway. Another important member is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which further oxidizes the aldehydes generated by ADH to carboxylic acids, thereby preventing the accumulation of toxic aldehydes in the body.

Deficiencies in ALDH enzymes have been linked to several human diseases, including alcoholism and certain types of cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of aldehyde oxidoreductases is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Benzyl viologen is a type of chemical compound that belongs to the class of viologens, which are derivatives of the parent compound methylviologen. The chemical name for benzyl viologen is N,N'-diphenyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride.

Viologens are reduced forms of heterocyclic aromatic amines that can undergo reversible reduction and oxidation reactions. In their reduced form, they act as strong reducing agents, while in their oxidized form, they act as strong oxidizing agents. Benzyl viologen is commonly used as an electron carrier or mediator in various chemical and biological systems, such as redox reactions, photochemical processes, and bioelectrochemical devices like fuel cells and biosensors.

The compound consists of two benzyl groups attached to the nitrogen atoms of a bipyridinium cation, which is then complexed with chloride ions. The reduction potential of benzyl viologen is around -0.45 V vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), making it a useful electron carrier in various applications where an easily reducible and oxidizable compound is required.

It's worth noting that while benzyl viologen has potential uses in scientific research, it may also have toxic effects on living organisms, so appropriate safety precautions should be taken when handling this chemical.

'Acinetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. They are known for their ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels, as well as their resistance to many antibiotics.

Some species of Acinetobacter can cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or have been exposed to medical devices such as ventilators or catheters. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and meningitis.

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most common species associated with human infection and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it a significant public health concern. Infections caused by Acinetobacter can be difficult to treat and may require the use of last-resort antibiotics.

Preventing the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings is important and includes practices such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and contact precautions for patients with known or suspected infection.

Pharmaceutical preservatives are substances that are added to medications, pharmaceutical products, or biological specimens to prevent degradation, contamination, or spoilage caused by microbial growth, chemical reactions, or environmental factors. These preservatives help extend the shelf life and ensure the stability, safety, and efficacy of the pharmaceutical formulation during storage and use.

Commonly used pharmaceutical preservatives include:

1. Antimicrobials: These are further classified into antifungals (e.g., benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, thimerosal), antibacterials (e.g., parabens, phenol, benzyl alcohol), and antivirals (e.g., phenolic compounds). They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
2. Antioxidants: These substances prevent or slow down oxidation reactions that can degrade pharmaceutical products. Examples include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherols (vitamin E), sulfites, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
3. Chelating agents: These bind to metal ions that can catalyze degradation reactions in pharmaceutical products. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an example of a chelating agent used in pharmaceuticals.

The choice of preservative depends on the type of formulation, route of administration, and desired shelf life. The concentration of the preservative should be optimized to maintain product stability while minimizing potential toxicity or adverse effects. It is essential to conduct thorough safety and compatibility studies before incorporating any preservative into a pharmaceutical formulation.

4-Nitrophenylphosphatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate, producing 4-nitrophenol and phosphate. This enzyme is commonly used in laboratory assays to measure enzyme activity or to determine the presence of certain metals, such as aluminum and lead, which can inhibit its activity. The hydrolysis reaction results in the formation of yellow 4-nitrophenol, which can be easily measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 405 nm. The activity of 4-nitrophenylphosphatase is often used as an indicator of the functional status of certain organelles, such as lysosomes, in biological systems.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

Benzoates are the salts and esters of benzoic acid. They are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals to prevent the growth of microorganisms. The chemical formula for benzoic acid is C6H5COOH, and when it is combined with a base (like sodium or potassium), it forms a benzoate salt (e.g., sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate). When benzoic acid reacts with an alcohol, it forms a benzoate ester (e.g., methyl benzoate or ethyl benzoate).

Benzoates are generally considered safe for use in food and cosmetics in small quantities. However, some people may have allergies or sensitivities to benzoates, which can cause reactions such as hives, itching, or asthma symptoms. In addition, there is ongoing research into the potential health effects of consuming high levels of benzoates over time, particularly in relation to gut health and the development of certain diseases.

In a medical context, benzoates may also be used as a treatment for certain conditions. For example, sodium benzoate is sometimes given to people with elevated levels of ammonia in their blood (hyperammonemia) to help reduce those levels and prevent brain damage. This is because benzoates can bind with excess ammonia in the body and convert it into a form that can be excreted in urine.

"Pseudomonas putida" is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in soil and water environments. It is a non-pathogenic, opportunistic microorganism that is known for its versatile metabolism and ability to degrade various organic compounds. This bacterium has been widely studied for its potential applications in bioremediation and industrial biotechnology due to its ability to break down pollutants such as toluene, xylene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also known for its resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics, making it a valuable tool in the study of bacterial survival mechanisms and potential applications in bioremediation and waste treatment.

Xylenes are aromatic hydrocarbons that are often used as solvents in the industrial field. They are composed of two benzene rings with methyl side groups (-CH3) and can be found as a mixture of isomers: ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, and para-xylene.

In a medical context, xylenes may be relevant due to their potential for exposure in occupational settings or through environmental contamination. Short-term exposure to high levels of xylenes can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, as well as symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and nausea. Long-term exposure has been linked to neurological effects, including memory impairment, hearing loss, and changes in behavior and mood.

It is worth noting that xylenes are not typically considered a direct medical diagnosis, but rather a potential exposure hazard or environmental contaminant that may have health impacts.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Membrane fluidity, in the context of cell biology, refers to the ability of the phospholipid bilayer that makes up the cell membrane to change its structure and organization in response to various factors. The membrane is not a static structure but rather a dynamic one, with its lipids constantly moving and changing position.

Membrane fluidity is determined by the fatty acid composition of the phospholipids that make up the bilayer. Lipids with unsaturated fatty acids have kinks in their hydrocarbon chains, which prevent them from packing closely together and increase membrane fluidity. In contrast, lipids with saturated fatty acids can pack closely together, reducing membrane fluidity.

Membrane fluidity is important for various cellular processes, including the movement of proteins within the membrane, the fusion of vesicles with the membrane during exocytosis and endocytosis, and the ability of the membrane to respond to changes in temperature and other environmental factors. Abnormalities in membrane fluidity have been linked to various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Hexobarbital is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called barbiturates. It is primarily used as a short-acting sedative and hypnotic agent, which means it can help induce sleep and reduce anxiety. Hexobarbital works by depressing the central nervous system, slowing down brain activity and causing relaxation and drowsiness.

It's important to note that hexobarbital is not commonly used in modern medical practice due to the availability of safer and more effective alternatives. Additionally, barbiturates like hexobarbital have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and their use is associated with several risks, including respiratory depression, overdose, and death, particularly when taken in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or opioids.

Benzoic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H5COOH. It is a colorless crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. Benzoic acid occurs naturally in various plants and serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemical compounds.

In medical terms, benzoic acid and its salts (sodium benzoate, potassium benzoate) are used as preservatives in food, beverages, and cosmetics to prevent bacterial growth. They work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria, particularly gram-positive bacteria, through the disruption of their energy production processes.

Additionally, sodium benzoate is sometimes used as a treatment for hyperammonemia, a condition characterized by high levels of ammonia in the blood. In this case, sodium benzoate acts as a detoxifying agent by binding to excess ammonia and converting it into a more easily excreted compound called hippuric acid.

It is important to note that benzoic acid and its salts can cause allergic reactions or skin irritation in some individuals, particularly those with pre-existing sensitivities or conditions. As with any medication or chemical substance, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Phenylethyl Alcohol is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound with the formula C8H10O. It is a colorless oily liquid that is used as a fragrance ingredient in cosmetics and personal care products due to its rose-like odor.

In a medical context, Phenylethyl Alcohol may be mentioned in relation to its potential antimicrobial properties or as a component of certain pharmaceutical preparations. However, it is not a medication or treatment on its own. It is important to note that while Phenylethyl Alcohol has been studied for its potential health benefits, more research is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

Aldehydes are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and a double bonded oxygen atom, also known as a formyl or aldehyde group. The general chemical structure of an aldehyde is R-CHO, where R represents a hydrocarbon chain.

Aldehydes are important in biochemistry and medicine as they are involved in various metabolic processes and are found in many biological molecules. For example, glucose is converted to pyruvate through a series of reactions that involve aldehyde intermediates. Additionally, some aldehydes have been identified as toxicants or environmental pollutants, such as formaldehyde, which is a known carcinogen and respiratory irritant.

Formaldehyde is also commonly used in medical and laboratory settings for its disinfectant properties and as a fixative for tissue samples. However, exposure to high levels of formaldehyde can be harmful to human health, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling aldehydes in medical and laboratory settings.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' is a species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, such as in soil and water. It is a non-motile, oxidase-negative organism that can form biofilms and has the ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels.

While 'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' itself is generally considered to be a low-virulence bacterium, it is closely related to other species within the genus 'Acinetobacter' that are known to cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients or those with underlying medical conditions. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and wound infections.

It is important to note that the identification of 'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' can be challenging due to its tendency to form mixed cultures with other 'Acinetobacter' species, as well as its ability to undergo genetic changes that can make it difficult to distinguish from other members of the genus. Accurate identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are critical for appropriate treatment and infection control measures.

Chloroform is a volatile, clear, and nonflammable liquid with a mild, sweet, and aromatic odor. Its chemical formula is CHCl3, consisting of one carbon atom, one hydrogen atom, and three chlorine atoms. Chloroform is a trihalomethane, which means it contains three halogens (chlorine) in its molecular structure.

In the medical field, chloroform has been historically used as an inhaled general anesthetic agent due to its ability to produce unconsciousness and insensibility to pain quickly. However, its use as a surgical anesthetic has largely been abandoned because of several safety concerns, including its potential to cause cardiac arrhythmias, liver and kidney damage, and a condition called "chloroform hepatopathy" with prolonged or repeated exposure.

Currently, chloroform is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine but may still be encountered in laboratory settings for various research purposes. It's also possible to find traces of chloroform in drinking water due to its formation during the disinfection process using chlorine-based compounds.

Catechols are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to it in the ortho position. The term "catechol" is often used interchangeably with "ortho-dihydroxybenzene." Catechols are important in biology because they are produced through the metabolism of certain amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, and are involved in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters and hormones. They also have antioxidant properties and can act as reducing agents. In chemistry, catechols can undergo various reactions, such as oxidation and polymerization, to form other classes of compounds.

Diphenylhexatriene (DPH) is a fluorescent chemical compound that is often used in research and scientific studies as a probe to investigate the properties and behavior of lipid membranes in cells. It is particularly useful for studying the mobility and orientation of lipids within membranes, as well as the fluidity and microviscosity of the membrane environment.

When DPH is incorporated into a lipid membrane, it can emit fluorescence when excited with light at a specific wavelength. The intensity and polarization of the emitted fluorescence can provide information about the motion and orientation of the DPH molecules, which in turn can reveal details about the physical properties of the membrane.

It's worth noting that while DPH is a valuable tool for studying lipid membranes, it is not typically used as a medical diagnostic or therapeutic agent.

MedlinePlus is not a medical term, but rather a consumer health website that provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable health information, written in easy-to-understand language. It is produced by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the world's largest medical library, and is widely recognized as a trusted source of health information.

MedlinePlus offers information on various health topics, including conditions, diseases, tests, treatments, and wellness. It also provides access to drug information, medical dictionary, and encyclopedia, as well as links to clinical trials, medical news, and patient organizations. The website is available in both English and Spanish and can be accessed for free.

Copyright is a legal concept that gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights to its use and distribution, usually for a limited period of time. In the medical field, copyright protection can apply to various works such as medical textbooks, journal articles, educational materials, software, and multimedia presentations. It is important to note that copyright law seeks to strike a balance between protecting the rights of creators and promoting the progress of science and knowledge by allowing for limited use of copyrighted material under certain circumstances, such as fair use.

It's worth mentioning that while copyright protection can apply to medical works, there are also exceptions and limitations to copyright law that may allow for the use of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright owner in certain situations. For example, in the United States, the "fair use" doctrine allows for limited use of copyrighted material without obtaining permission from the copyright owner, depending on factors such as the purpose and character of the use, the nature of the copyrighted work, the amount and substantiality of the portion used, and the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

When using medical works that are protected by copyright, it is important to obtain permission from the copyright owner or ensure that the use falls under an exception or limitation to copyright law, such as fair use, in order to avoid infringing on the exclusive rights of the copyright owner.

Patient medication knowledge, also known as patient medication literacy or medication adherence, refers to the ability of a patient to understand and effectively communicate about their medications, including what they are for, how and when to take them, potential side effects, and other important information. This is an essential component of medication management, as it allows patients to properly follow their treatment plans and achieve better health outcomes. Factors that can affect patient medication knowledge include age, education level, language barriers, and cognitive impairments. Healthcare providers play a key role in promoting patient medication knowledge by providing clear and concise instructions, using visual aids when necessary, and regularly assessing patients' understanding of their medications.

Drug Information Services (DIS) are specialized resources within healthcare systems, typically staffed by clinical pharmacists and pharmacy residents, that provide evidence-based information and analysis about medications to healthcare professionals and patients. The primary goal of DIS is to optimize medication use and improve patient outcomes through the provision of accurate, unbiased, and timely information on drug therapy.

DIS commonly provide a range of services, including:

1. Answering medication-related questions from healthcare providers, such as physicians, nurses, and other pharmacists, regarding drug interactions, dosing, adverse effects, and therapeutic alternatives.
2. Developing and maintaining formulary management systems to ensure the safe and cost-effective use of medications within a healthcare institution or system.
3. Providing patient education materials and resources on medication therapy, including proper administration techniques, potential side effects, and storage requirements.
4. Conducting ongoing literature evaluations and synthesizing evidence-based recommendations for medication use in various clinical scenarios.
5. Collaborating with healthcare teams to develop and implement guidelines, policies, and procedures related to medication management and safety.
6. Offering educational programs and resources for healthcare professionals and students to enhance their knowledge of pharmacotherapy and medication safety practices.
7. Participating in multidisciplinary committees focused on improving medication use processes, reducing medication errors, and promoting patient safety.

DIS are essential components of modern healthcare systems, as they help ensure the safe, effective, and efficient use of medications for improved patient outcomes.

A pharmaceutical society is a professional organization that represents and serves the interests of pharmacists and the pharmaceutical industry in a given society or country. The primary objective of these societies is to promote the advancement of the profession of pharmacy, including education, research, and practice. They also work to ensure the safe and effective use of medications, advocate for evidence-based policies and practices, and provide resources and support to their members.

Pharmaceutical societies may engage in various activities, such as:

1. Developing guidelines and standards for pharmacy education and practice.
2. Providing continuing education programs for pharmacists.
3. Conducting research and disseminating knowledge related to pharmacy and medication use.
4. Advocating for policies that promote the safe and effective use of medications.
5. Collaborating with other healthcare professionals, regulatory bodies, and industry partners to improve patient outcomes.
6. Providing resources and support to members, including career development opportunities and networking events.

Examples of pharmaceutical societies include the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), the Royal Pharmaceutical Society (RPS) in the UK, and the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP).

A non-medical internship is not specifically related to the field of medicine. It generally refers to an organized period of work experience, often temporary, in which a person typically a student or trainee, gains practical knowledge and skills in a particular industry or profession. The intern is supervised and mentored by experienced professionals in the field. Non-medical internships can be found in various sectors such as business, engineering, law, education, media, technology, and many others. They provide an opportunity to apply theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom to real-world situations and help interns develop professional competencies and networks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Maryland" is a proper noun and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. However, if you are referring to a specific medical term or concept that includes "Maryland," could you please provide more context? I'll do my best to help with accurate information based on the provided context.

... (also known as α-Cresol) is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH. The benzyl group is often ... Benzyl alcohol is toxic to neonates and is associated with the gasping syndrome. "Benzyl alcohol". Archived from the original ... Sensitization to benzyl alcohol occurs very rarely, mainly in patients with stasis dermatitis. Benzyl alcohol is not considered ... Benzyl esters also occur naturally. Benzyl alcohol is produced industrially from toluene via benzyl chloride, which is ...
... (EC, benzoyl-CoA:benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase, benzoyl-CoA:benzyl alcohol/ ... benzyl alcohol O-benzoyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction benzoyl-CoA + benzyl alcohol ⇌ {\ ... Benzyl+alcohol+O-benzoyltransferase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology ( ... benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase, benzoyl-coenzyme A:phenylethanol benzoyltransferase) is an enzyme with systematic name ...
It is rapidly hydrolyzed to benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol is subsequently metabolized to benzoic acid. The ... generated from sodium and benzyl alcohol) as catalyst: Knowles CO (1991). "22.4.2 Benzyl Benzoate". In Hayes WJ, Laws ER (eds ... It is the ester of benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid. It forms either a viscous liquid or solid flakes and has a weak, sweet- ... Benzyl benzoate is produced industrially by the reaction of sodium benzoate with benzyl chloride in the presence of a base, or ...
It is prepared by treating benzyl chloride with base. Friedrich Brühne; Elaine Wright (2007). "Benzyl Alcohol". Ullmann's ... It is classified as an ether derived from benzyl alcohol. A colorless, nearly odorless oil, the compound's main use is as a ...
Benzyl is most commonly abbreviated Bn. For example, benzyl alcohol can be represented as BnOH. Less common abbreviations are ... In IUPAC nomenclature, the prefix benzyl refers to a C6H5CH2 substituent, for example benzyl chloride or benzyl benzoate. ... Treatment of alcohol with a strong base such as powdered potassium hydroxide or sodium hydride and benzyl halide (BnCl or BnBr ... In organic chemistry, benzyl is the substituent or molecular fragment possessing the structure R−CH2−C6H5. Benzyl features a ...
It is formed by the condensation of benzyl alcohol and acetic acid. Similar to most other esters, it possesses a sweet and ... It is collected and used by the bees as an intra-specific pheromone; In apiculture benzyl acetate is used as a bait to collect ... "Benzyl acetate". The Good Scents Company. Schiestl, F.P. & Roubik, D.W. (2004). "Odor Compound Detection in Male Euglossine ... Natural sources of benzyl acetate include varieties of flowers like jasmine (Jasminum), and fruits like pear, apple, etc. " ...
... preparation containing benzyl alcohol derivative, polysorbate 80 and propylene glycol should be used in ... "The Gasping Syndrome and Benzyl Alcohol Poisoning". New England Journal of Medicine. 307 (22): 1384-1388. doi:10.1056/ ...
... contain 15 mg benzyl alcohol per 1 mL as a preservative. Premature infants who have been given large amounts of benzyl alcohol ... Gershanik J, Boecler B, Ensley H, McCloskey S, George W (November 1982). "The gasping syndrome and benzyl alcohol poisoning". ...
Benzyl alcohol is used as well. Activators increase the penetration rate; for dichloromethane water is suitable, other choices ...
Alcohol 12 was protected by a benzyl group. The acetonide protecting group was removed from the ketone. Ketone 14 was converted ... The primary alcohol was protected as a silyl ether and the secondary alcohol was activated as a triflate (11). Heating this ... Subsequent reduction using sodium borohydride produced alcohol 51 . Reaction of this alcohol with the Ojima lactam 52 and a ... In the next step, the aldehyde was protected as a dimethyl acetal, and the ester was reduced to give primary alcohol 18. The ...
It is a phthalate ester of containing benzyl alcohol, and n-butanol tail groups. Like most phthalates, BBP is non-volatile and ... Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is an organic compound historically used a plasticizer, but which has now been largely phased out ... While a major part of the BBP is excreted as a mono-benzyl phthalate metabolite, a minor fragment of the BBP is excreted in the ... Monobutyl phthalate is isolated and then added to a mixture of benzyl bromide in acetone in the presence of potassium carbonate ...
As a preservative, the injectable solution contains benzyl alcohol. Toxicity from propylene glycol has been reported in the ... They should also not drive, operate machinery, or use alcohol within this period. Drug and alcohol dependence - The risk of ... benzyl alcohol as preservative. Lorazepam injectable solution is administered either by deep intramuscular injection or by ... It is the classic way in which acute alcohol intoxication may affect a person. Benzodiazepines should not be administered to ...
Benzyl trichloroacetimidate is easily accessible from benzyl alcohol and trichloroacetonitrile. Benzyl trichloroacetimidate is ... 1993). "A useful application of benzyl trichloroacetimidate for the benzylation of alcohols". Tetrahedron. 49 (8): 1619-1624. ...
... death and other symptoms resulting from benzyl alcohol poisoning. The symptoms caused by benzyl alcohol explosure include ... Benzyl alcohol Carl R. Baum (2008), "Examples of mass exposures involving the pediatric population", in Jerrold B. Leikin; ... 1982), "The gasping syndrome and benzyl alcohol poisoning", N Engl J Med, 307 (22): 1384-8, doi:10.1056/nejm198211253072206, ... "Neonatal Deaths Associated With Use Of Benzyl Alcohol -- United States". CDC. (Poisons). ...
In Australia, Cēpacol lozenges contain cetylpyridinium chloride and benzyl alcohol. Cepacaine lozenges contains lignocaine and ...
Benzyl alcohol and benzyl chloride and virtually all benzyl derivatives are readily oxidized to benzoic acid. Benzoic acid is ... 3, p. 337 Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel Bindu Nair (2001). "Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, ... Reduction to benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol is possible using DIBAL-H, LiAlH4 or sodium borohydride. Decarboxylation to ... "Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol using in Situ Generated Hydrogen Peroxide". Organic Process Research & Development. 18 (11): 1455- ...
Formulations of amiodarone that contain benzyl alcohol should not be given to neonates, because the benzyl alcohol may cause ... Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (June 1982). "Neonatal deaths associated with use of benzyl alcohol--United States". MMWR. ... Singhal A, Ghosh P, Khan SA (March 2003). "Low dose amiodarone causing pseudo-alcoholic cirrhosis". Age and Ageing. 32 (2): 224 ... Low-dose amiodarone has been reported to cause pseudo-alcoholic cirrhosis. Long-term administration of amiodarone (usually more ...
Benzyl alcohol can be formed from benzaldehyde by means of hydrogenation. Reaction of benzaldehyde with anhydrous sodium ... Numerous other methods have been developed, such as the partial oxidation of benzyl alcohol, alkali hydrolysis of benzal ... one molecule of the aldehyde is reduced to the benzyl alcohol and another molecule is simultaneously oxidized to benzoic acid. ... "The benzaldehyde oxidation paradox explained by the interception of peroxy radical by benzyl alcohol" (PDF). Nature ...
... is the chemical compound which is the ester derived from cinnamic acid and benzyl alcohol. Benzyl cinnamate ... Benzyl cinnamate can be prepared by heating benzyl chloride and excess sodium cinnamate in water to 100-115 °C or by heating ... "Benzyl cinnamate". Sigma-Aldrich. George A. Burdock (2010), "BENZYL CINNAMATE", Fenaroli's Handbook of Flavor Ingredients (6th ... Benzyl cinnamate is used in heavy oriental perfumes and as a fixative. It is used as a flavoring agent. It is used ...
The ketone is then reduced with sodium borohydride yielding a benzyl alcohol. Condensation with 4-hydroxycoumarin under HCl ... She had no history of liver disease or alcohol or illicit substance abuse. Initial physical examination was remarkable only for ...
It contains 2% benzyl alcohol, so it is less painful than ethanol. However it does cause hemolysis and kidney failure in large ... The alcohol does need some time to denature proteins of the endothelium and activate the coagulation system to cause a blood ... polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - These are permanent agents. They are tiny balls 50-1200 um in size. The particles are not meant to ... Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer, soluted in Dimethyl-Sulfoxide (DMSO) under the trade name Onyx. Depending on the desired ...
Peligot's salt can oxidize benzyl alcohol, a reaction which can be catalyzed by acid. A related salt, pyridinium chlorochromate ... Özgün, B.; Pek, A. (1991). "Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of benzyl alcohol by potassium chlorochromate". Reaction ...
There is a formulation with benzyl alcohol, which is toxic to babies; other formulations should be used. Sargramostim has not ...
Newer generic formulations contain sodium metabisulfite or benzyl alcohol as antimicrobial agents. Propofol emulsion is an ... The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. 40 (6): 428-437. doi:10.3109/00952990.2014.933840. PMID 25083822. S2CID ...
... was first prepared from treatment of benzyl alcohol with hydrochloric acid. Industrially, benzyl chloride is ... Benzyl ethers are often derived from benzyl chloride. Benzyl chloride reacts with aqueous sodium hydroxide to give dibenzyl ... Benzyl bromide Benzyl fluoride Benzyl iodide List of highly toxic gases NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0053". ... benzyl chloride reacts with water in a hydrolysis reaction to form benzyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid. In contact with mucous ...
Another isomer of cresol is called Benzyl alcohol, or alpha-cresol (α-cresol). Benzyl alcohol has a hydroxy group inside a ...
... solutions often contain preservatives such as benzalkonium chloride and benzyl alcohol. Preservative-free products ...
An early method for production of benzoyl chloride involved chlorination of benzyl alcohol. It reacts with water to produce ...
For example, benzaldehyde decomposes into benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol, the Cannizzaro reaction. In the autumn of 1855, ... In Alessandria, he discovered that aromatic aldehydes are decomposed by an alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide into a ... Cannizzaro, S. (1853). "Ueber den der Benzoësäure entsprechenden Alkohol" [On the alcohol corresponding to benzoic acid]. ... mixture of the corresponding acid and alcohol. ...
Other names in common use include p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and coniferyl alcohol ... In enzymology, an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an aromatic ... Suhara K, Takemori S, Katagiri M (1969). "The purification and properties of benzylalcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp". ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is aryl-alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase. ...
Benzyl alcohol (also known as α-Cresol) is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH. The benzyl group is often ... Benzyl alcohol is toxic to neonates and is associated with the gasping syndrome. "Benzyl alcohol". Archived from the original ... Sensitization to benzyl alcohol occurs very rarely, mainly in patients with stasis dermatitis. Benzyl alcohol is not considered ... Benzyl esters also occur naturally. Benzyl alcohol is produced industrially from toluene via benzyl chloride, which is ...
Pulchrol (1) is a natural benzochromene isolated from the roots of Bourreria pulchra, shown to possess potent antiparasitic activity towards both Leishmania and Trypanozoma species. As it is not understood which molecular features of 1 are important for the antiparasitic activity, several analogues were synthesized and assayed. The ultimate goal is to understand the structure-activity relationships (SAR:s) and create a QSAR model that can be used for the development of clinically useful antiparasitic agents. In this study, we have synthesized 25 2-methoxy-6,6-dimethyl-6H-benzo[c]chromen analogues of 1 and its co-metabolite pulchral (5a), by semi-synthetic procedures starting from the natural product pulchrol (1) itself. All 27 compounds, including the two natural products 1 and 5a, were subsequently assayed in vitro for antiparasitic activity against Trypanozoma cruzi, Leishmania brasiliensis and Leishmania amazoniensis. In addition, the cytotoxicity in RAW cells was assayed, and a selectivity ...
Benzyl Alcohol. Benzyl Alcohol. Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH. The benzyl group is often ... Substance name: benzyl alcohol. Trade name: Benzyl Alcohol. EC no: 202-859-9. CAS no: 100-51-6. HS code: 29062100. KH product ... thus benzyl alcohol is denoted as BnOH. Benzyl alcohol is a colorless liquid with a mild pleasant aromatic odor. It is a useful ... Benzyl alcohol is partially soluble in water (4 g/100 mL) and completely miscible in alcohols and diethyl ether ...
CHEMICAL INSPECTION & REGULATION SERVICE LIMITED(Liaocheng Luxi Benzyl Chloride Chemical CO.,Ltd.) Regus Harcourt Centre D02 ...
This product contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. Benzyl alcohol has been associated with a fatal "Gasping Syndrome" in ... Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity in Pediatric Patients ("Gasping Syndrome") This product contains benzyl alcohol as a preservative. The ... Clindamycin injection contains benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol can cross the placenta. See WARNINGS. ... The risk of benzyl alcohol toxicity depends on the quantity administered and the liver and kidneys capacity to detoxify the ...
Benzyl alcohol lotion, 5%;. Brand name product: Ulesfia lotion. *Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol. Benzyl alcohol lotion, ... Benzyl alcohol lotion is intended for use on persons who are 6 months of age and older and its safety in persons aged more 60 ...
Benzyl alcohol. 0.00000001. 1,100. RBC-n. Biphenyl. 0.000000004. 180. RBC-n. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. 0.0000002. 0.45. RBC-c ...
Benzyl alcohol. * Cinnamic derivatives. Miscellaneous allergens are as follows:. * Chromate (K dichromate) - Leather, soaps ...
Benzyl alcohol. Antimicrobial activity. At low concentrations of ,2%, has been used as a preservative agent.. Toxicity and ...
Benzyl Alcohol. Benzyl Benzoate. Bifenthrin. Bio Green 347PC. Bis PEG-12 Dimethicone. Bitrex®. Blend of benzotriazole UVA and ... Ethoxylated Alcohol. Ethoxylated Alcohol (Active). Ethoxylated Alcohol Phosphate Ester. Ethoxylated Amine. Ethoxylated Castor ... Cetearyl Alcohol. Cetyl Alcohol. Charcoal. CHJFS1110115 White Ink. Chlorohexidine Digluconate. Chloroxylenol. Chroma LC303115A ... n-Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chlorides. n-Alkyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chlorides / n-Alkyl Dimethyl Ethylbenzyl Ammonium ...
Ulesfia®see Benzyl Alcohol Topical. *Ulipristal. *Uloric®see Febuxostat. *Ultomiris®see Ravulizumab-cwvz Injection ...
Benzyl alcohol, α-(. isopropylaminomethy. l)- KK 1-2 MFCD20661415 MFCD20661782 α-(((1-Methylethyl). amino)methyl)benzen. ... Benzyl Alcohols Henrys Law Constant (25 deg C) [HENRYWIN v3.10]: Bond Method : 1.15E-010 atm-m3/mole Group Method: Incomplete ...
Formulation contains preservative benzyl alcohol; because benzyl alcohol is rapidly metabolized by a lactating woman, benzyl ... Mesna injection contains the preservative benzyl alcohol; because benzyl alcohol is rapidly metabolized by a pregnant woman, ... Benzyl alcohol toxicity. *Serious adverse reactions including fatal reactions and "gasping syndrome" occurred in premature ... Injection formulation contains 10.4 mg/mL of preservative benzyl alcohol; avoid use in premature neonates and low-birth-weight ...
anisyl alcohol. FL/FR. benzyl acetate. FL/FR. benzyl alcohol. FL/FR. ...
Isopropyl AlcoholBenzyl Alcohol • Linalool • Hydroxycitronellal • Cetrimonium Chloride • Citronellol • Limonene • Benzyl ...
Furfuryl Alcohol; Isopropanol; Benzyl Alcohol; Bisphenol A; Diglycidal Ethers of Bisphenol A; Central Nervous System; Skin; ... Benzyl-alcohol air concentrations were less than 0.01mg/CuM. Perchloroethylene (127184) concentrations ranged from about 0.01 ... molecular weight 120 aromatics and diacetone-alcohol (123422). Isopropanol air concentrations ranged from 7.9 to 216 milligrams ... to 0.46mg/CuM, compared with the OSHA standard of 670mg/Cu M. Furfuryl-alcohol (98000) concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to ...
benzyl alcohol. *benzyl benzoate. *benzyl cinnamate. *benzyl salicylate. *beta-caryophyllene. *bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2- ...
Benzyl alcohol. Parfum. Složení:. Aqua. Sodium laureth sulfate. Cocamidopropyl betaine. Lanolin alcohol (Eucerit®). ...
Benzyl Alcohol. * Trideceth-12. * Polyquaternium-11. * Cetrimonium Chloride. Full Ingredient descriptions available:. ...
Benzyl Alcohol (natural). Dehydroacetic Acid (natural). Ways to customize:. Shampoo base ingredients can also be used as a body ... Benzyl Alcohol (natural), Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride (natural), Sodium PCA (natural), Dehydroacetic Acid (natural), ...
Aromatic alcohols - preparation and properties of phenols and benzyl alcohol.. Ethers - Nomenclature of ethers - general ...
Alcohol Denat, Parfum, Benzyl Benzoate, Benzyl Salycilate, Hexyl Cinnamal, Farnesol, Limonene, Amyl Cinnamal, Isoeugenol, ... Geraniol, Cinnamy; Alcohol, Hydroxycitronellal, Citronellol, Eugenol, Lunalool, Benzyl Alcohol, Coumarin, CI 15995 ...
Alcohol Denat, Parfum (Fragrance), Aqua/Water/Eau, Benzyl Benzoate, Benzyl Salicylate, Citral, Citronellol, Geraniol, ... Alcohol Denat, Parfum (Fragrance), Aqua/Water/Eau, Benzyl Benzoate, Benzyl Salicylate, Citral, Citronellol, Geraniol, ...
With its extremely fine texture, CARONs loose powder is renowned for its unique lightweight, cutting-edge formula. It is used by professionals to set make-up. Redesigned for greater ease of use, this semi-loose powder now comes in a handy version that you can take with you for touch-ups throughout the day. Its formula
  • Benzyl alcohol is used as a bacteriostatic preservative at low concentration in intravenous medications, cosmetics, and topical drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some caution is necessary if a high percent of Benzyl alcohol is used as benzaldehyde arises from benzyl alcohol when used as preservative in an injectable formulation solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spectrum™ Chemical Benzyl Alcohol, NF is used as an anti-parasite medication used to treat head lice and as a common preservative in many injectable drugs. (fishersci.ca)
  • Benzyl Alcohol is most commonly used as a preservative. (skinsort.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol is toxic to neonates and is associated with the gasping syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol is produced industrially from toluene via benzyl chloride, which is hydrolyzed: C6H5CH2Cl + H2O → C6H5CH2OH + HCl Another route entails hydrogenation of benzaldehyde, a by-product of the oxidation of toluene to benzoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of bulk samples revealed the presence of methylene - chloride (75092), toluene (108883), isopropanol (67630), methyl-ethyl-ketone (78933), methyl-isobutyl- ketone (108101), xylene (1330207), butyl-cellosolve (111762), molecular weight 120 aromatics and diacetone-alcohol (123422). (cdc.gov)
  • Benzyl alcohol, sold under the brand name Ulesfia, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2009, as a 5% solution for the treatment of head lice in people 6 months of age and older. (wikipedia.org)
  • The benzyl group is often abbreviated "Bn" (not to be confused with "Bz" which is used for benzoyl), thus benzyl alcohol is denoted as BnOH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol has moderate solubility in water (4 g/100 mL) and is miscible in alcohols and diethyl ether. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol has low acute toxicity with an LD50 of 1.2 g/kg in rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the 5 products in our database that have a known concentration of Benzyl Alcohol, we've seen concentrations from 0% to 6.3% specified within their ingredient lists. (skinsort.com)
  • Benzyl-alcohol air concentrations were less than 0.01mg/CuM. (cdc.gov)
  • Perchloroethylene (127184) concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to 0.46mg/CuM, compared with the OSHA standard of 670mg/Cu M. Furfuryl-alcohol (98000) concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to 7.84mg/CuM, compared with the OSHA standard of 200mg/CuM. (cdc.gov)
  • This is an example of a Ritter reaction: C6H5CH2OH + NCCHCH2 → C6H5CH2N(H)C(O)CHCH2 Benzyl alcohol is used as a general solvent for inks, waxes, shellacs, paints, lacquers, and epoxy resin coatings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl Alcohol is a solvent and helps dissolve other ingredients. (skinsort.com)
  • Each vial of bacteriostatic water for injection contains 231 mg of benzyl alcohol (see section 4-4). (who.int)
  • Benzyl alcohol (also known as α-Cresol) is an aromatic alcohol with the formula C6H5CH2OH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol is used effectively for treating lice infestations as the active ingredient in lotion shampoo with 5% benzyl alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol is an ingredient used in the manufacture of soaps, topical creams, skin lotions, shampoos, and facial cleansers and is popular due to its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ingredient is an astringent alcohol. (skinsort.com)
  • Benzyl Alcohol is a somewhat common cosmetic ingredient, with about 8.7% of the products in our database containing it. (skinsort.com)
  • Benzyl Alcohol is most often found as ingredient number 19 within an ingredient list. (skinsort.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol is produced naturally by many plants and is commonly found in fruits and teas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can react with ammonia, amine and alcohol to produce benzenesulfonamide and benzene sulfonate respectively. (lookchem.com)
  • Our database includes 3578 products that contain Benzyl Alcohol. (skinsort.com)
  • Small amounts of Benzyl Alcohol is not irritating and safe to use in skincare products. (skinsort.com)
  • In organic synthesis, benzyl esters are popular protecting groups because they can be removed by mild hydrogenolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any type of sanitizing product will have high amounts of alcohol to help kill bacteria and viruses. (skinsort.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol is not considered to be a carcinogen, and no data are available regarding teratogenic or reproductive effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different types of alcohol will have different effects on skin. (skinsort.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to benzyl alcohol, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in benzyl alcohol lotion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • you are allergic to methylprednisolone, any other medications, benzyl alcohol , or any of the ingredients in methylprednisolone injection. (nih.gov)
  • This product may contain inactive ingredients (such as benzyl alcohol found in some brands), which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. (webmd.com)
  • Analysis of bulk samples revealed the presence of methylene - chloride (75092), toluene (108883), isopropanol (67630), methyl-ethyl-ketone (78933), methyl-isobutyl- ketone (108101), xylene (1330207), butyl-cellosolve (111762), molecular weight 120 aromatics and diacetone-alcohol (123422). (cdc.gov)
  • We present the case of a woman with allergic contact dermatitis from benzyl alcohol and a brief review of allergy to this chemical. (medscape.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol topical is no longer available in the United States. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you are currently using benzyl alcohol topical, you should call your doctor to discuss switching to another treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Topical benzyl alcohol comes as a lotion to apply to the scalp and hair. (medlineplus.gov)
  • [ 1 3 ] In topical preparations, benzyl alcohol may function as a preservative, solvent, and/or anesthetic, as well as a viscosity-decreasing agent. (medscape.com)
  • Multidose vials used for injection, Excipients: Benzyl alcohol and H 2 O. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children 6 months of age and older. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication must be used a second time to kill the lice that may hatch from these eggs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Does rubbing alcohol kill lice on combs? (healthline.com)
  • There's not a lot of evidence that rubbing alcohol effectively kills lice on combs. (healthline.com)
  • Bacteriostatic saline is a physiological saline solution containing the bacteriostatic agent benzyl alcohol as a 0.9% solution. (nih.gov)
  • The benzyl alcohol group received bacteriostatic saline as a preinjection, and the lidocaine group received propofol containing lidocaine. (nih.gov)
  • If benzyl alcohol lotion gets in your eyes, flush them with water right away. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adsorption of SDS on kaolin from different alcohol-water mixtures. (uib.no)
  • Benzyl-alcohol air concentrations were less than 0.01mg/CuM. (cdc.gov)
  • Perchloroethylene (127184) concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to 0.46mg/CuM, compared with the OSHA standard of 670mg/Cu M. Furfuryl-alcohol (98000) concentrations ranged from about 0.01 to 7.84mg/CuM, compared with the OSHA standard of 200mg/CuM. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Benzyl alcohol is a weak sensitizer found in a wide array of plants and plant products, foods, cosmetics, and medications. (medscape.com)
  • Pioneers in the industry, we offer terabinafine hydrochloride 1% w/w benzyl alcohol 1%w/w, betamethasone valerate 0.1%+clindamycin phosphate 1%+nicotinamide 4.0%, luliconazole cream 1% w/w and fluticasone propionate 0.05 usp cream from India. (swisschemhealthcare.com)
  • Benzyl Alcohol Toxicity: Serious and fatal adverse reactions including "gasping syndrome" can occur in neonates. (nih.gov)
  • [ 5 ] We report a patient with an allergy to benzyl alcohol, discuss the importance of patch testing with personal products and the investigation of synonyms, and present a brief review of the literature regarding benzyl alcohol. (medscape.com)
  • A small 2011 research review suggests benzyl alcohol might be effective, but there's no evidence that it's any better than a regular insecticide or pediculicide. (healthline.com)
  • Your doctor will prescribe a specific amount of benzyl alcohol lotion based on your hair length. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while using benzyl alcohol lotion, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol found in many naturally occurring plant products such as balsam of Peru. (medscape.com)
  • In 1998, the Food and Drug Administration listed benzyl alcohol as an ingredient in 322 cosmetic formulations, including baby toiletries, mascaras, hair dyes, and other skin care products. (medscape.com)
  • Benzyl alcohol lotion should only be used on the hair and scalp. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Apply benzyl alcohol lotion to dry hair and scalp area. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The nature of alcohol co-adsorption sites and their effects on surfactant aggregate structure on silica investigated by H-2 and C-13 NMR. (uib.no)