Benzoylcholine: The benzoic acid ester of choline.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Thiocholine: A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.CholinesterasesButyrylthiocholine: A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Succinylcholine: A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Chemical Warfare: Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.Mustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Tetany: A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from HYPOCALCEMIA or reduced serum levels of MAGNESIUM that may be associated with HYPERVENTILATION; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; RICKETS; UREMIA; or other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1490)Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Taste Buds: Small sensory organs which contain gustatory receptor cells, basal cells, and supporting cells. Taste buds in humans are found in the epithelia of the tongue, palate, and pharynx. They are innervated by the CHORDA TYMPANI NERVE (a branch of the facial nerve) and the GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Vascular Grafting: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Pulmonary Stretch Receptors: Stretch receptors found in the bronchi and bronchioles. Pulmonary stretch receptors are sensors for a reflex which stops inspiration. In humans, the reflex is protective and is probably not activated during normal respiration.Rhodium: Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fascia Lata: CONNECTIVE TISSUE of the anterior compartment of the THIGH that has its origins on the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine, and its insertion point on the iliotibial tract. It plays a role in medial rotation of the THIGH, steadying the trunk, and in KNEE extension.Dantrolene: Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Habits: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.Benzyl Alcohol: A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.SulfonesZollinger-Ellison Syndrome: A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.

Probing the structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor with 4-benzoylbenzoylcholine, a novel photoaffinity competitive antagonist. (1/8)

[(3)H]4-Benzoylbenzoylcholine (Bz(2)choline) was synthesized as a photoaffinity probe for the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). [(3)H]Bz(2)choline acts as an nAChR competitive antagonist and binds at equilibrium with the same affinity (K(D) = 1.4 microm) to both agonist sites. Irradiation at 320 nm of nAChR-rich membranes equilibrated with [(3)H]Bz(2)choline results in the covalent incorporation of [(3)H]Bz(2)choline into the nAChR gamma- and delta-subunits that is inhibitable by agonist, with little specific incorporation in the alpha-subunits. To identify the sites of photoincorporation, gamma- and delta-subunits, isolated from nAChR-rich membranes photolabeled with [(3)H]Bz(2)choline, were digested enzymatically, and the labeled fragments were isolated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and/or reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. For the gamma-subunit, Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease produced a specifically labeled peptide beginning at gammaVal-102, whereas for the delta-subunit, endoproteinase Asp-N produced a labeled peptide beginning at deltaAsp-99. Amino-terminal sequence analysis identified the homologous residues gammaLeu-109 and deltaLeu-111 as the primary sites of [(3)H]Bz(2)choline photoincorporation. This is the first identification by affinity labeling of non-reactive amino acids within the acetylcholine-binding sites, and these results establish that when choline esters of benzoic acid are bound to the nAChR agonist sites, the para substituent is selectively oriented toward and in proximity to amino acids gammaLeu-109/deltaLeu-111.  (+info)

Rate-determining step of butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzoylcholine and benzoylthiocholine. Volumetric study of wild-type and D70G mutant behavior. (2/8)

The rate-limiting step for hydrolysis of the positively charged oxoester benzoylcholine (BzCh) by human butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) is deacylation (k(3)), whereas it is acylation (k(2)) for hydrolysis of the homologous thioester benzoylthiocholine (BzSCh). Steady-state hydrolysis of BzCh and BzSCh by wild-type BuChE and its peripheral anionic site mutant D70G was investigated at different hydrostatic pressures, which allowed determination of volume changes associated with substrate binding, and the activation volumes for the chemical steps. A differential nonlinear pressure-dependence of the catalytic parameters for hydrolysis of both substrates by both enzymes was shown. Nonlinearity of the plots may be explained in terms of compressibility changes or rate-limiting changes. To distinguish between these two possibilities, enzyme phosphorylation by diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) in the presence of substrate (BzSCh) under pressure was studied. There was no pressure dependence of volume changes for DFP binding or for phosphorylation of either wild-type or D70G. Analysis of the pressure dependence for steady-state hydrolysis of substrates, and for phosphorylation by DFP provided evidence that no enzyme compressibility changes occurred during the catalyzed reactions. Thus, the nonlinear pressure dependence of substrate hydrolysis reflects changes in the rate-limiting step with pressure. Change in rate-determining step occurred at a pressure of 100 MPa for hydrolysis of BzCh by wild-type and at 75 MPa for D70G. For hydrolysis of BzSCh the change occurred at higher pressures because k(2) << k(3) at atmospheric pressure for this substrate. Elementary volume change contributions upon initial binding, productive binding, acylation and deacylation were calculated from the pressure differentiation of kinetic constants. This analysis shed light on the molecular events taking place along the hydrolysis pathways of BzCh and BzSCh by wild-type BuChE and the D70G mutant. In addition, volume change differences between wild-type and D70G provided new evidence that residue D70 in the peripheral site controls hydration of the active site gorge and the dynamics of the water molecule network during catalysis. Finally, a steady-state kinetic study of the oxyanion hole mutant (G117H) showed that substitution of the ethereal sulfur for oxygen in the substrate alters the final adjustment of substrate in the active site and stabilization of the acylation transition state.  (+info)

Hydrolysis of oxo- and thio-esters by human butyrylcholinesterase. (3/8)

Catalytic parameters of human butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) for hydrolysis of homologous pairs of oxo-esters and thio-esters were compared. Substrates were positively charged (benzoylcholine versus benzoylthiocholine) and neutral (phenylacetate versus phenylthioacetate). In addition to wild-type BuChE, enzymes containing mutations were used. Single mutants at positions: G117, a key residue in the oxyanion hole, and D70, the main component of the peripheral anionic site were tested. Double mutants containing G117H and mutations on residues of the oxyanion hole (G115, A199), or the pi-cation binding site (W82), or residue E197 that is involved in stabilization of tetrahedral intermediates were also studied. A mathematical analysis was used to compare data for BuChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of various pairs of oxo-esters and thio-esters and to determine the rate-limiting step of catalysis for each substrate. The interest and limitation of this method is discussed. Molecular docking was used to analyze how the mutations could have altered the binding of the oxo-ester or the thio-ester. Results indicate that substitution of the ethereal oxygen for sulfur in substrates may alter the adjustment of substrate in the active site and stabilization of the transition-state for acylation. This affects the k2/k3 ratio and, in turn, controls the rate-limiting step of the hydrolytic reaction. Stabilization of the transition state is modulated both by the alcohol and acyl moieties of substrate. Interaction of these groups with the ethereal hetero-atom can have a neutral, an additive or an antagonistic effect on transition state stabilization, depending on their molecular structure, size and enantiomeric configuration.  (+info)

Cholinesterases from flounder muscle. Purification and characterization of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored and collagen-tailed forms differing in substrate specificity. (4/8)

Flounder (Platichthys flesus) muscle contains two types of cholinesterases, that differ in molecular form and in substrate specificity. Both enzymes were purified by affinity chromatography. About 8% of cholinesterase activity could be attributed to collagen-tailed asymmetric acetylcholinesterase sedimenting at 17S, 13S and 9S, which showed catalytic properties of a true acetylcholinesterase. 92% of cholinesterase activity corresponded to an amphiphilic dimeric enzyme sedimenting at 6S in the presence of Triton X-100. Treatment with phospholipase C yielded a hydrophilic form and uncovered an epitope called the cross-reacting determinant, which is found in the hydrophilic form of a number of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. This enzyme showed catalytic properties intermediate to those of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. It hydrolyzed acetylthiocholine, propionylthiocholine, butyrylthiocholine and benzoylthiocholine. The Km and the maximal velocity decreased with the length and hydrophobicity of the acyl chain. At high substrate concentrations the enzyme was inhibited. The p(IC50) values for BW284C51 and ethopropazine were between those found for acetylcholinesterase and butylcholinesterase. For purified detergent-soluble cholinesterase a specific activity of 8000 IU/mg protein, a turnover number of 2.8 x 10(7) h-1, and 1 active site/subunit were determined.  (+info)

Comparison of a commercially available assay system with two reference methods for the determination of plasma cholinesterase variants. (5/8)

For assaying plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) activity and phenotyping by means of dibucaine inhibition, we have compared a commercially available kit, in which butyrylthiocholine is used as substrate, with two reference methods, one using benzoylcholine and the other propionylthiocholine. With 50 different samples of three of the most common genetic variants, we could clearly differentiate the variants with benzoylcholine and dibucaine, whereas there was some overlap of the E1uE1u and E1uE1a phenotypes with the other two substrates at 30 degrees C. The phenotypes were better differentiated at 25 degrees C, and in our hands the use of butyrylthiocholine was preferable to propionylthiocholine for phenotyping with dibucaine. The affinity of the usual and atypical homozygotes for fluoride with butyrylthiocholine gave an inverted response to the affinity of these variants for the anion with benzoylcholine. We suggest that this may be explained by the role of the chromogen or its products in the assay procedure with the thiocholine substrate.  (+info)

Rate assay for determination of serum pseudo-cholinesterase activity. (6/8)

A simple and reproducible method for the determination of serum pseudo-cholinesterase activity was developed by making use of a stable substrate, p-hydroxybenzoylcholine, with p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase as a linked enzyme. The method is based on spectrophotometric measurement of the decrease of NADPH. p-Hydroxybenzoate released from p-hydroxybenzoylcholine is hydroxylated by the action of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase in the presence of NADPH and O2 to produce 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate and NADP+. This method is superior to the conventional methods in that this substrate is extremely stable up to pH 9.0, which is close to the optimum pH for the assay (pH 8.0). Serum interference was resolved by the use of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase as a linked enzyme. The Km value of pseudocholinesterase for p-hydroxybenzoylcholine is 1 X 10(-5) M. The results of our method and Garry's method (Clin. Chem. 11, 91-96, 1965) correlated well (r = 0.962). The within-run and between-run C.V. values were 2.1 and 2.7, respectively.  (+info)

Is serum cholinesterase activity a predictor of succinyl choline sensitivity? An assessment of four methods. (7/8)

Four methods for measuring serum cholinesterase activity have been applied to sera of normal individuals and of patients shown to be sensitive to short-acting muscle relaxants of the succinyldicholine type. They have been assessed according to their ability to differentiate between sensitive and insensitive individuals on the basis of enzyme activity measurements alone. The method described, based upon that of Dietz et al. [Clin. Chem. 19, 1309 (1973)], in which propionylthiocholine is used as substrate, is best for this purpose, being capable of identifying over 90% of affected individuals with no false positives. Acetylcholine and butyrylthiocholine are slightly inferior substrates in this respect, and benzoylcholine gives little useful information.  (+info)

Kinetics of local anesthetic esters and the effects of adjuvant drugs on 2-chloroprocaine hydrolysis. (8/8)

A rapid, reliable method for the determination of 2-chloroprocaine in serum was developed. The method, using double-beam ultraviolet spectroscopy, provides rapid, accurate analysis of 2-chloroprocaine in the range of 5.5 to 111 microM (1.5--30 microgram/ml), as documented by comparison with the accepted gas chromatographic procedure. The contribution of 4-amino-2-chlorobenzoic acid, the principal metabolite of 2-chloroprocaine, to the total absorbance at 300 nm was examined and found to be negligible. Using the ultraviolet spectrophotometric method, values of the Michaelis-Menton constant (Km) and maximal reaction velocity (Vmax) for hydrolysis of procaine and 2-chloroprocaine by homozygous typical, heterozygous, and homozygous atypical plasma cholinesterase were determined. The Kms for the three genotypes were 5.0, 6.2, and 14.7 microM, respectively, for procaine, and 8.2, 17, and 103 microM, respectively for 2-chloroprocaine. The Vmaxs for the three genotyps were similar for all esters. Vmax for procaine was 18.6 +/- 0.9 nmol/min/ml serum, while Vmax for 2-chloroprocaine was 98.4 +/- 2.1 nmol/min/ml serum. At high concentrations, 2-chloroprocaine acts as an inhibitor of its hydrolysis. The inhibitory effects of lidocaine, bupivacaine, neostigmine, and succinyldicholine on 2-chloroprocaine hydrolysis for homozygous typical and atypical variants, respectively, were studied. Competitive inhibition was demonstrated for all four drugs. However, at clinically significant concentrations, only neostigmine and bupivacaine produced high degrees of inhibition. The competitive inhibition constants (K1) for the typical and atypical variants, respectively, were 3.3 +/- 0.3 microM and 15.1 +/- 4.8 microM for neostigmine, and 4.2 +/- 0.3 microM and 36.9 +/- 9.8 microM for bupivacaine.  (+info)

Chloroprocaine hydrochloride is a local anesthetic given by injection during surgical procedures and labor and delivery. Chloroprocaine, like other local anesthetics, blocks the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential.
Chloroprocaine: | | Chloroprocaine | | | ||| | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
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Endotoxin stimulates leukocytes to release cytokines that initiate septic shock in humans and animals. CD14, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane glycoprotein, is an endotoxin receptor on leukocytes, and endotoxin binding to CD14 induces cytokine production. Here we show that glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored or integral membrane CD14 mediates identical cellular responses to endotoxin, including NF-kappa B activation and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We also show that an anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody that does not block endotoxin binding to CD14 nonetheless inhibits cell activation by endotoxin. These findings suggest that binding of endotoxin to cell-surface CD14 is followed by subsequent interactions of the endotoxin-CD14 complex with additional membrane component(s) that enable transmembrane signaling. This function of CD14 may be prototypic for other members of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored family of proteins that do not play a primary role in signal ...
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Abstract: A decrease in activities of isoenzymes of aryl-, carboxyl esterases and alkaline phosphatase was shown, by means of agar gel electrophoresis, in blood serum and in most the isoforms of perinephric adipose tissue of rats within 3 days after partial pancreatectomy. In subsequent periods (6, 11 and 14 days) a normalization in the enzymatic activity and an increase in content of blood serum cholinesterase activity occurred ...
The formation of filaments from naturally occurring protein molecules is a process at the core of a range of functional and aberrant biological phenomena, such as the assembly of the cytoskeleton or the appearance of aggregates in Alzheimers disease. The macroscopic behaviour associated with such processes
In most parts of the world, aphids are the number cause of plant damage among harmful insects. They come in a wide range and variety of sizes and colors, depending upon where you live, and eat just about everything. Aphids will work over a plant, reproducing at a great rate and when the plant they are feeding on becomes over populated they will develop wings and move on to another plant. As you can see if you do not tackle the problem immediately you can get over run with aphids fairly quickly. Here are four methods you can start implementing right away with any aphid issues you may have ...
More than 5000 passengers of Tokyo subway trains were injured with toxic chemicals including the nerve gas sarin. Most of the victims examined had marked miosis and decreased serum cholinesterase activity. To monitor the genetic aftereffects of sarin exposure, we measured sister chromatid exchanges SCEs of the victims using peripheral blood...
Studies conducted by numerous researchers have all shown the same thing: the number of horses that are overweight is on the rise. A horse that is overweight
Km for the uncharged ester, o-nitrophenylbutyrate, was 0.14 mM for both enzymes, whereas Km for benzoylcholine was 0.005 mM for ... The turnover numbers of usual and atypical cholinesterases were the same: 15,000 mumol of benzoylcholine hydrolyzed/min/mumol ...
... benzoylcholine MeSH D02.092.877.883.333.115 --- carbachol MeSH D02.092.877.883.333.130 --- cytidine diphosphate choline MeSH ... benzoylcholine MeSH D02.675.276.232.115 --- carbachol MeSH D02.675.276.232.130 --- cytidine diphosphate choline MeSH D02.675. ... benzoylcholine MeSH D02.241.223.100.215 --- bumetanide MeSH D02.241.223.100.275 --- dicamba MeSH D02.241.223.100.360 --- ...
Km for the uncharged ester, o-nitrophenylbutyrate, was 0.14 mM for both enzymes, whereas Km for benzoylcholine was 0.005 mM for ... The turnover numbers of usual and atypical cholinesterases were the same: 15,000 mumol of benzoylcholine hydrolyzed/min/mumol ...
Benzoylcholine chloride , C12H18ClNO2 , CID 76298 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification ...
ChE phenotypes were determined using benzoylcholine as a substrate and four differential inhibitors: pancuronium bromide ...
Direct assay of PlChE activity using benzoylcholine as the substrate. Dibucaine number. - % inhibition by 10-5mol/l cinchocaine ...
Rate-determining step of butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzoylcholine and benzoylthiocholine. Volumetric study ...
... benzoylcholine chloride or bromide, acetylthiochloine iodide or bromide or chloride, methacholine chloride or bromide, betaine ... benzoylcholine chloride or bromide, acetylthiochloine iodide or bromide or chloride, methacholine chloride or bromide, betaine ... benzoylcholine chloride or bromide, acetylthiochloine iodide or bromide or chloride, methacholine chloride or bromide, betaine ... benzoylcholine bromide or chloride, acetylthiochloine iodide, methacholine bromide or chloride, betaine hydro bromide or ...
Boc Sciences offers cas 700368-52-1 (4-Nitrophenyl)methyl-b-D-glucopyranoside in bulk,please inquire us to get a quote for 700368-52-1 (4-Nitrophenyl)methyl-b-D-glucopyranoside.
... benzoylcholine MeSH D02.092.877.883.333.115 --- carbachol MeSH D02.092.877.883.333.130 --- cytidine diphosphate choline MeSH ... benzoylcholine MeSH D02.675.276.232.115 --- carbachol MeSH D02.675.276.232.130 --- cytidine diphosphate choline MeSH D02.675. ... benzoylcholine MeSH D02.241.223.100.215 --- bumetanide MeSH D02.241.223.100.275 --- dicamba MeSH D02.241.223.100.360 --- ...
... hydrolyzing butyrylcholine and benzoylcholine efficiently.23,25 These unequal specificities are explained by differences in the ...
Alfa Aesar™ Benzoylcholine iodide, 98+%. Chemische Bezeichnung oder Material: Benzoylcholine iodide CAS.: 17518-43-3 ...
Damped oscillatory hysteretic behaviour of butyrylcholinesterase with benzoylcholine as substrate. Masson, P., Goldstein, B. N ...
below the median level for the sample as a whole (1.09 μmoles benzoylcholine per minute per mL serum). Prevalence odds ratios ( ... Phenotype was determined by measuring serum enzyme activity with benzoylcholine in Na/K phosphate buffer, as previously ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Hysteresis of butyrylcholinesterase in the approach to steady-state kinetics. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
... but not benzoylcholine. [named after the us economist richard h. Thaler (born 1941) and was published by the practitioners. The ...
There is some chemical similarity between benzoylcholine and procaine (novocaine). Both these compounds are hydrolysed by ... dibucaine benzoylcholine 5 x 1 0 - 5 ~ as inhibitor, was termed dibucaine number (DN) (Kalow and Genest, 1957). Reference to ...
Rate-determining step of butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzoylcholine and benzoylthiocholine. Volumetric study ...
Duncan DR, Chen PY, Patterson JT, Lee YU, Hibino N, Cleary M, Naito Y, Yi T, Gilliland T, Kurobe H, Church SN, Shinoka T, Fahmy TM, Simons M, Breuer CK. TGFßR1 inhibition blocks the formation of stenosis in tissue-engineered vascular grafts. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Feb 10; 65(5):512-4 ...
Acetylthiocholine/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Benzoylcholine/diagnosis , Cholinesterases/blood , Female , Genetic Variation , ... Two substrates, acetyl thiocholine iodide ATCI and benzoylcholine chloride BCC were compared for the determination of plasma ...
... major assistancr it is important to a delusion is difficult for entry asaistance the pelvis to an iud should not benzoylcholine ...
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D2.455.426.559.389.127.133 Benzoylcholine D2.241.223.100.156 D2.241.223.100.141 D2.455.426.559.389.127.141 Bermuda Z1.295.390 ...
... robaxin 750 mg ingredients the variant enzyme was also more resistant to the inhib-itory effects of dibucaine on benzoylcholine ...
In the kinetic studies, it was found that substrate analogs choline and benzoylcholine inhibited both the native enzyme and the ...
Low activity of patient plasma butyrylcholinesterase with butyrylthiocholine (BTC) and benzoylcholine, and values of dibucaine ...
... benzoylcholine, (phenylacetyl)choline, and (phenoxyacetyl)choline from the reaction of the corresponding ester hydrochlorides ...
  • In the kinetic studies, it was found that substrate analogs choline and benzoylcholine inhibited both the native enzyme and the enzyme heated at 45 degrees C for 24 hr competitively, whereas succinylcholine was the partial competitive inhibitor of native enzyme but the pure competitive inhibitor of the heated enzyme. (storysteel.ml)