Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
Both the antioxidant and D3 agonist actions of pramipexole mediate its neuroprotective actions in mesencephalic cultures. (1/804)Pramipexole (PPX) is a full intrinsic activity, direct-acting dopamine (DA) agonist possessing 7-fold higher affinity for D3 than for D2 receptors. It also is a potent antioxidant. PPX was previously shown to be neuroprotective because it dose dependently attenuated the DA neuron loss produced by levodopa in mesencephalic cultures. Several different drugs with properties similar to PPX were studied here to better understand the mechanism or mechanisms responsible for this neuroprotective effect. The D3-preferring agonist 7-hydroxy-diphenylaminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT) and the D3 antagonist U99194, respectively, increased and decreased the neuroprotective effects of PPX in a dose-dependent fashion. Addition of the selective D2 agonist U95666 or the D2/D3 antagonists domperidone or raclopride did not affect PPX's neuroprotective effect. Interestingly, 7-OH-DPAT by itself did not attenuate the DA neuron loss produced by levodopa. However, when 7-OH-DPAT was combined with a low dose of the antioxidants U101033E or alpha-tocopherol, the toxic effects of levodopa were attenuated. Similar results were observed when the D3-preferring agonist PD128, 907 was studied. In addition, media conditioned by exposure of mesencephalic cultures incubated with all D3-preferring agonists studied was shown to enhance the growth of DA neurons in freshly harvested recipient cultures implicating a D3-mediated trophic activity in the neuroprotective effect. These data suggest that PPX's neuroprotective actions in the levodopa toxicity model are a consequence of its combined actions as a D3 receptor agonist and an antioxidant. (+info)
Aldose reductase functions as a detoxification system for lipid peroxidation products in vasculitis. (2/804)Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis preferentially affecting large and medium-sized arteries. Inflammatory infiltrates in the arterial wall induce luminal occlusion with subsequent ischemia and degradation of the elastic membranes, allowing aneurysm formation. To identify pathways relevant to the disease process, differential display-PCR was used. The enzyme aldose reductase (AR), which is implicated in the regulation of tissue osmolarity, was found to be upregulated in the arteritic lesions. Upregulated AR expression was limited to areas of tissue destruction in inflamed arteries, where it was detected in T cells, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. The production of AR was highly correlated with the presence of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a toxic aldehyde and downstream product of lipid peroxidation. In vitro exposure of mononuclear cells to HNE was sufficient to induce AR production. The in vivo relationship of AR and HNE was explored by treating human GCA temporal artery-severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse chimeras with the AR inhibitors Sorbinil and Zopolrestat. Inhibition of AR increased HNE adducts twofold and the number of apoptotic cells in the arterial wall threefold. These data demonstrate that AR has a tissue-protective function by preventing damage from lipid peroxidation. We propose that AR is an oxidative defense mechanism able to neutralize the toxic effects of lipid peroxidation and has a role in limiting the arterial wall injury mediated by reactive oxygen species. (+info)
Efficacy, safety, and tolerance of the non-ergoline dopamine agonist pramipexole in the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease: a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised, multicentre study. (3/804)OBJECTIVES: Pramipexole, a non-ergot dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, was investigated as an add on drug in advanced parkinsonian patients with motor fluctuations to assess efficacy, safety, and tolerance. METHODS: Seventy eight patients of either sex with advanced Parkinson's disease and treatment complications such as motor fluctuations were enrolled into a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised, multicentre study (phase II) and assigned to add on treatment with pramipexole (n=34) versus placebo (n=44) to a previously stabilised antiparkinsonian medication (7 week dose titration interval, 4 week maintenance period). The primary end point of efficacy was the change from baseline in the total score of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) in the on "period" (2 hours after intake of study medication). Safety and tolerability were assessed on the basis of adverse events, vital signs, laboratory measurements, and ECG recordings. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement of the pramipexole group in UPDRS total scores, subscores part II, III (activities of daily living and motor examination), and IV (complications of therapy). Mean UPDRS total score decreased by 37.3% under pramipexole compared with 12.2% under placebo (p<0.001). Patients under pramipexole reported an overall reduction in "off" periods of 12%--resulting in 1.7 more hours "on" time a day--compared with an increase in "off" periods of 2% under placebo. There were no unexpected safety results. The adverse event profile disclosed a high tolerability. The most important adverse events under pramipexole were fatigue, dyskinesia, and vivid dreams. CONCLUSION: Pramipexole administration is an efficacious and well tolerated add on therapy in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease with an improvement in activities of daily living, motor function, and treatment associated complications. (+info)
Primary active transport of organic anions on bile canalicular membrane in humans. (4/804)Biliary excretion of several anionic compounds was examined by assessing their ATP-dependent uptake in bile canalicular membrane vesicles (CMV) prepared from six human liver samples. 2, 4-Dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), sulfobromophthalein glutathione (BSP-SG), E3040 glucuronide (E-glu), beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) (E2-17G), grepafloxacin glucuronide (GPFXG), pravastatin, BQ-123, and methotrexate, which are known to be substrates for the rat canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, and taurocholic acid (TCA), a substrate for the bile acid transporter, were used as substrates. ATP-dependent and saturable uptake of TCA, DNP-SG, LTC4, E-glu, E2-17G, and GPFXG was observed in all human CMV preparations examined, suggesting that these compounds are excreted in the bile via a primary active transport system in humans. Primary active transport of the other substrates was also seen in some of CMV preparations but was negligible in the others. The ATP-dependent uptake of all the compounds exhibited a large inter-CMV variation, and there was a significant correlation between the uptake of glutathione conjugates (DNP-SG, LTC4, and BSP-SG) and glucuronides (E-glu, E2-17G, and GPFXG). However, there was no significant correlation between TCA and the other organic anions, implying that the transporters for TCA and for organic anions are different also in humans. When the average value for the ATP-dependent uptake by each preparation of human CMVs was compared with that of rat CMVs, the uptake of glutathione conjugates and nonconjugated anions (pravastatin, BQ-123, and methotrexate) in humans was approximately 3- to 76-fold lower than that in rats, whereas the uptake of glucuronides was similar in the two species. Thus there is a species difference in the primary active transport of organic anions across the bile canalicular membrane that is less marked for glucuronides. (+info)
Kinetic control of multiple forms of Ca(2+) spikes by inositol trisphosphate in pancreatic acinar cells. (5/804)The mechanisms of agonist-induced Ca(2+) spikes have been investigated using a caged inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and a low-affinity Ca(2+) indicator, BTC, in pancreatic acinar cells. Rapid photolysis of caged IP(3) was able to reproduce acetylcholine (ACh)-induced three forms of Ca(2+) spikes: local Ca(2+) spikes and submicromolar (<1 microM) and micromolar (1-15 microM) global Ca(2+) spikes (Ca(2+) waves). These observations indicate that subcellular gradients of IP(3) sensitivity underlie all forms of ACh-induced Ca(2+) spikes, and that the amplitude and extent of Ca(2+) spikes are determined by the concentration of IP(3). IP(3)-induced local Ca(2+) spikes exhibited similar time courses to those generated by ACh, supporting a role for Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release in local Ca(2+) spikes. In contrast, IP(3)- induced global Ca(2+) spikes were consistently faster than those evoked with ACh at all concentrations of IP(3) and ACh, suggesting that production of IP(3) via phospholipase C was slow and limited the spread of the Ca(2+) spikes. Indeed, gradual photolysis of caged IP(3) reproduced ACh-induced slow Ca(2+) spikes. Thus, local and global Ca(2+) spikes involve distinct mechanisms, and the kinetics of global Ca(2+) spikes depends on that of IP(3) production particularly in those cells such as acinar cells where heterogeneity in IP(3) sensitivity plays critical role. (+info)
Attenuation of ischemia induced increases in sodium and calcium by the aldose reductase inhibitor zopolrestat. (6/804)OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated that zopolrestat, an inhibitor of the enzyme aldose reductase, reduces ischemic injury in hearts from diabetic and non-diabetic rats. To further explore potential cardioprotective mechanisms of zopolrestat, we measured changes in intracellular sodium, calcium, and Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in zopolrestat treated hearts during ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS: Hearts from acute diabetic (Type I) and age-matched control rats were isolated and retrogradely perfused. Hearts had either control perfusion or exposure to 1 microM zopolrestat for 10 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. Changes in intracellular sodium and calcium were measured using 23Na and 19F magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively, while the activity of Na+,K(+)-ATPase was measured using biochemical assays. RESULTS: Zopolrestat blunted the rise in [Na]i during ischemia in both diabetic hearts and non-diabetic hearts. The end-ischemic [Na]i was 21.3 +/- 2.6 mM in the zopolrestat treated diabetics and 25.9 +/- 2.3 in zopolrestat treated non-diabetics, versus 31.6 +/- 2.6 mM and 32.9 +/- 2.8 mM in the untreated diabetics and untreated non-diabetics, respectively, (P = 0.002). Similarly, the rise in [Ca]i at the end of ischemia was significantly reduced in zopolrestat treated diabetic and non-diabetic hearts (P = 0.005). Zopolrestat increased the activity of Na-,K(+)-ATPase in diabetic hearts under baseline conditions (11.70 +/- 0.95 versus 7.28 +/- 0.98 mumol/h/mg protein, P = 0.005) as well as during ischemia and reperfusion. Similar changes in Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity were also observed in non-diabetic hearts. CONCLUSIONS: The data provide additional support to the protective effects of zopolrestat and suggest that a possible mechanism of action may be associated with the attenuation of the rise in [Na]i and [Ca]i during ischemia and reperfusion. (+info)
Antioxidant activity: what do we measure? (7/804)Inhibition of oxidation of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) by free radicals generated by decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidopropane) (ABAP) by antioxidants and biological material was studied. A correlation was found between the ability of various substances to delay the onset of ABTS oxidation and their rapid reduction of the ABTS+* cation radical, and between the ability to reduce the maximal rate of ABTS oxidation and slow reduction of ABTS+*. The length of the lag period of ABTS oxidation was found to be independent of ABTS concentration. Similar decrease of peroxynitrite-induced ABTS+* formation by antioxidants was observed when the antioxidants were added before and after peroxynitrite. All these findings indicate that the main effect of antioxidants in this system is reduction of ABTS+* and not prevention of its formation. Reduction of oxidation products rather than inhibition of their formation may be the predominant mode of action of antioxidants in various assays of antioxidant activity. (+info)
Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka. (8/804)Malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes was studied in a traditional tank-irrigation-based rice-producing village in the malaria-endemic low country dry zone of northcentral Sri Lanka during the period August 1994-February 1997. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human and bovid bait catches, bovid-baited trap huts, indoor catches, and pit traps. Mosquito head-thoraces were tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and blood-engorged abdomens for the presence of human blood by ELISAs. House surveys were done at two-day intervals to record cases of blood film-confirmed malaria among the villagers. A total of 7,823 female anophelines representing 14 species were collected. Trends in anopheline abundance were significantly correlated with rainfall of the preceding month in An. annularis, An. barbirostris, An. subpictus, An. vagus, and An. varuna, but were not significant in An. culicifacies and An. peditaeniatus. Malaria parasite infections were seen in seven mosquito species, with 75% of the positive mosquitoes containing P. falciparum and 25% P. vivax. Polymorph PV247 was recorded from a vector (i.e., An. varuna) for the first time in Sri Lanka. Computations of mean number of infective vector (MIV) rates using abundance, circumsporozoite (CS) protein rate, and human blood index (HBI) showed the highest rate in An. culicifacies. A malaria outbreak occurred from October 1994 to January 1995 in which 45.5% of village residents experienced at least a single disease episode. Thereafter, malaria incidence remained low. Anopheles culicifacies abundance lagged by one month correlated positively with monthly malaria incidence during the outbreak period, and although this species ranked fifth in terms of abundance, infection was associated with a high MIV rate due to a high CS protein rate and HBI. Abundance trends in other species did not correlate significantly with malaria. It was concluded that An. culicifacies was epidemiologically the most important vector in the study area. (+info)
Benzothiazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a thiazole ring. They have the chemical formula C7H5NS. Benzothiazoles and their derivatives have a wide range of applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes, and materials science.
In the medical field, benzothiazoles have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties. Some benzothiazole derivatives have shown promising results as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medical potential of these compounds and to develop safe and effective drugs based on them.
It's important to note that while benzothiazoles themselves have some biological activity, most of the medical applications come from their derivatives, which are modified versions of the basic benzothiazole structure. These modifications can significantly alter the properties of the compound, leading to new therapeutic possibilities.
Thiazoles are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring consisting of a nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom, along with two carbon atoms and two hydrogen atoms. They have the chemical formula C3H4NS. Thiazoles are present in various natural and synthetic substances, including some vitamins, drugs, and dyes. In the context of medicine, thiazole derivatives have been developed as pharmaceuticals for their diverse biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and antihypertensive properties. Some well-known examples include thiazide diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide) used to treat high blood pressure and edema, and the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone.
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 is an enzyme that is part of the cytochrome P450 family, which are a group of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics (foreign substances) in the body. Specifically, CYP1A1 is found primarily in the liver and lungs and plays a role in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are chemicals found in tobacco smoke and are produced by the burning of fossil fuels and other organic materials.
CYP1A1 also has the ability to activate certain procarcinogens, which are substances that can be converted into cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) within the body. Therefore, variations in the CYP1A1 gene may influence an individual's susceptibility to cancer and other diseases.
The term "P-450" refers to the fact that these enzymes absorb light at a wavelength of 450 nanometers when they are combined with carbon monoxide, giving them a characteristic pink color. The "CYP" stands for "cytochrome P," and the number and letter designations (e.g., 1A1) indicate the specific enzyme within the family.
Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.
Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.
It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.
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- I 2 and TBHP mediate a convenient synthesis of 2-acylbenzothiazoles in very good yields from acetophenones and benzothiazoles. (organic-chemistry.org)
- Herein, the formation of a photosensitizing disulfide in benzothiazole synthesis from 2-Aminothiophenol and aldehydes was proposed and confirmed through in-depth mechanistic studies. (ewha.ac.kr)
- Although the parent compound, benzothiazole is not widely used, many of its derivatives are found in commercial products or in nature. (wikipedia.org)
- Benzothiazole derivatives have a wide interest because of their diverse biological activities and clinical use. (ijpsr.com)
- Benzothiazoles have a promising biological profile and are easy to access which makes this pharmacophore an interesting molecule for designing new bioactive benzothiazole derivatives. (ijpsr.com)
- Firefly luciferin can be considered a derivative of benzothiazole. (wikipedia.org)
- A benzothiazole derivative is suggested as a dye for arsenic detection. (wikipedia.org)
- The tetra(ethylene glycol) derivative of benzothiazole aniline, BTA-EG 4 , is a novel amyloid-binding small molecule that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and protect cells from Aβ-induced toxicity. (jneurosci.org)
- Benzothiazoles are related to thiazoles, which lack the fused benzene ring. (wikipedia.org)
- Benzothiazole is an aromatic heterocyclic compound with the chemical formula C 7H 5NS. (wikipedia.org)
- Members of the benzothiazole aniline (BTA) family of compounds are characterized as a class of small molecules that have shown great promise in preventing Aβ-protein interactions. (jneurosci.org)
- Researchers at Ningbo Combireg Pharmaceutical Technology Co. Ltd. and Versitech Ltd. have described benzothiazole compounds reported to be useful for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19). (bioworld.com)
- Benzothiazoles consist of a 5-membered 1,3-thiazole ring fused to a benzene ring. (wikipedia.org)
- Benzothiazoles are prepared by treatment of 2-mercaptoaniline with acid chlorides: C6H4(NH2)SH + RC(O)Cl → C6H4(NH)SCR + HCl + H2O Benzothiazole occurs naturally in some foods but is also used as a food additive. (wikipedia.org)
- This value indicates that benzothiazole will volatilize slowly from water surfaces(2,SRC). (charite.de)
- The formal acylation of the benzothiazoles is achieved through a sequence involving formation of an aryl glyoxal, ring-opening of the benzothiazole followed by condensation of the amino group with the aryl glyoxal, cyclization and oxidation. (organic-chemistry.org)
- We identified an amino-benzothiazole scaffold from a whole-cell screen against recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis under expressing the essential signal peptidase LepB. (nih.gov)
- Benzothiazole is an aromatic heterocyclic compound with the chemical formula C 7H 5NS. (wikipedia.org)
- Subsidiary Shandong Sunsine Chemical Co. Ltd is completing project, which has a capacity of 30,000 metric tons per year of TBBS N- tert-butyl-benzothiazole sulphonamide), in two phases. (rubbernews.com)
- Riluzole is in a class of medications called benzothiazoles. (medlineplus.gov)
- Detector sensitivity provided quantitation in the sub-microgram benzothiazole was determined during the same analysis run, this method is straightforward and analytically efficient. (cdc.gov)