A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
Benzaldehydes are aromatic organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring connected to a formyl group (-CHO), which is the simplest and most representative compound being benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO).
An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 4 of the benzene ring structure.
An aminobenzoic acid isomer that combines with pteridine and GLUTAMIC ACID to form FOLIC ACID. The fact that 4-aminobenzoic acid absorbs light throughout the UVB range has also resulted in its use as an ingredient in SUNSCREENS.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more bromine atoms.
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
A flavoring agent. It is the intermediate product in the two-step bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin. (J Biotechnol 1996;50(2-3):107-13).
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.
'Benzene derivatives' are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring as the core structure, with various functional groups attached to it, and can have diverse chemical properties and uses, including as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and pharmaceuticals.
Compounds that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of CELLS.
The Borage plant family is in the class Magnoliopsida, subclass Asteridae, order Lamiales. It is characterized by hairy foliage, usually alternate and simple; flowers are funnel-shaped or tubular. Some of the species contain PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS.
Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.
Cinnamates are organic compounds that contain a cinnamic acid moiety, widely used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries as esters, with various applications ranging from UV absorbers to local anesthetics and antimicrobial agents.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.
Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Aniline compounds, also known as aromatic amines, are organic chemicals derived from aniline (aminobenzene), characterized by the substitution of hydrogen atoms in the benzene ring with amino groups (-NH2).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

A kinetic study on benzoic acid pungency and sensory attributes of benzoic acid. (1/279)

Aqueous solutions of benzoic acid (BA) were evaluated by two methods: (i) sensory profile: a descriptive test of sensory attributes combined with semiquantitative analysis; and (ii) pungency intensity measures as a function of time: a computerized recording using specific software. Kinetic parameters evaluated were maximal intensity (I(MAX)), total time of pungency (Ttot), rates of increase (V1) and decrease (V2), half-life (T1/2), area under curve (AUC) and time to maximal intensity (T(IMAX)). Results were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD test, iterative calculations and adjustment to equations according to mathematical models, regression analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and clusters analysis. Pungency was the main sensory attribute of BA (3-36 mM) in the tongue and epiglottis. The seven kinetic parameters showed concentration-dependency (P < 0.001) and were described by different functions: (i) lineal: I(MAX) = 2.24 +/- 0.14C - 3.06 +/- 2.58, R2 = 0.98; T(IMAX) = 0.19 +/- 0.02C + 6.87 +/- 0.47, R2 = 0.92; V1 = 0.68 +/- 0.03C + 0.10 +/- 0.69, R2 = 0.99; AUC = 49.10 +/- 3.17C - 230.78 +/- 59.66, R2 = 0.98; (ii) potency: T1/2 = 6.62 +/- 0.61C(0.39+/-0.03), R2 = 0.97; V2 = 1.07 +/- 0.11C(0.53+/-0.04), R2 = 0.98; Ttot = 8.08 +/- 1.01C(0.43+/-0.04), R2 = 0.96. PCA revealed high correlation between (i) T(IMAX) and Ttot; (ii) T1/2 and V2; and (iii) I(MAX) and V1. Stimuli grouped across three main clusters: (i) 3 and 6 mM; (ii) 9, 12 and 18 mM; and (iii) 24 and 36 mM. Maximal pungency intensity best correlated with both concentration and persistence among kinetic parameters. Prototypical prickling of BA was observed at 12 and 18 mM.  (+info)

Chemicals in laboratory room air stimulate olfactory neurons of female Bombyx mori. (2/279)

Laboratory air contained odorants that elicited electrophysiological responses in female Bombyx mori antennae. Air entrainments on charcoal filters, extracted with CS(2) and subsequently with acetone, were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography (GC)-electroantennogram (EAG) as well as by GC-mass spectrometry. The CS(2) extract contained 12 EAG-active peaks from which benzaldehyde, octanal, limonene, 1,8-cineol, methyl benzoate, nonanal, decanal and geranyl acetone were identified. In the acetone extract we identified eight EAG-active peaks as phenol, nonanal, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, octanoic acid, benzoic acid, nonanoic acid, decanoic acid and dimethyl phthalate. The concentrations of benzoic acid and benzaldehyde present in laboratory air were determined. The origin of the substances and importance of such odorants in laboratory air for the interpretation of physiological experiments on the olfactory system is discussed.  (+info)

Gene cloning and nucleotide sequencing and properties of a cocaine esterase from Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1. (3/279)

A strain of Rhodococcus designated MB1, which was capable of utilizing cocaine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of the tropane alkaloid-producing plant Erythroxylum coca. A cocaine esterase was found to initiate degradation of cocaine, which was hydrolyzed to ecgonine methyl ester and benzoate; both of these esterolytic products were further metabolized by Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1. The structural gene encoding a cocaine esterase, designated cocE, was cloned from Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1 genomic libraries by screening recombinant strains of Rhodococcus erythropolis CW25 for growth on cocaine. The nucleotide sequence of cocE corresponded to an open reading frame of 1,724 bp that codes for a protein of 574 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of cocaine esterase has a region of similarity with the active serine consensus of X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidases, suggesting that the cocaine esterase is a serine esterase. The cocE coding sequence was subcloned into the pCFX1 expression plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant cocaine esterase was purified to apparent homogeneity and was found to be monomeric, with an M(r) of approximately 65,000. The apparent K(m) of the enzyme (mean +/- standard deviation) for cocaine was measured as 1.33 +/- 0.085 mM. These findings are of potential use in the development of a linked assay for the detection of illicit cocaine.  (+info)

A 90-kilobase conjugative chromosomal element coding for biphenyl and salicylate catabolism in Pseudomonas putida KF715. (4/279)

The biphenyl and salicylate metabolic pathways in Pseudomonas putida KF715 are chromosomally encoded. The bph gene cluster coding for the conversion of biphenyl to benzoic acid and the sal gene cluster coding for the salicylate meta-pathway were obtained from the KF715 genomic cosmid libraries. These two gene clusters were separated by 10-kb DNA and were highly prone to deletion when KF715 was grown in nutrient medium. Two types of deletions took place at the region including only the bph genes (ca. 40 kb) or at the region including both the bph and sal genes (ca. 70 kb). A 90-kb DNA region, including both the bph and sal genes (termed the bph-sal element), was transferred by conjugation from KF715 to P. putida AC30. Such transconjugants gained the ability to grow on biphenyl and salicylate as the sole sources of carbon. The bph and sal element was located on the chromosome of the recipient. The bph-sal element in strain AC30 was also highly prone to deletion; however, it could be mobilized to the chromosome of P. putida KT2440 and the two deletion mutants of KF715.  (+info)

Novel scheme for biosynthesis of aryl metabolites from L-phenylalanine in the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. (5/279)

Aryl metabolite biosynthesis was studied in the white rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta cultivated in a liquid medium supplemented with L-phenylalanine. Aromatic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following addition of labelled precursors ((14)C- and (13)C-labelled L-phenylalanine), which did not interfere with fungal metabolism. The major aromatic compounds identified were benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde (bitter almond aroma), and benzoic acid. Hydroxy- and methoxybenzylic compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, and acids) were also found in fungal cultures. Intracellular enzymatic activities (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, aryl-alcohol oxidase, aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase, aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase, lignin peroxidase) and extracellular enzymatic activities (aryl-alcohol oxidase, lignin peroxidase), as well as aromatic compounds, were detected in B. adusta cultures. Metabolite formation required de novo protein biosynthesis. Our results show that L-phenylalanine was deaminated to trans-cinnamic acid by a phenylalanine ammonia lyase and trans-cinnamic acid was in turn converted to aromatic acids (phenylpyruvic, phenylacetic, mandelic, and benzoylformic acids); benzaldehyde was a metabolic intermediate. These acids were transformed into benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, and benzoic acid. Our findings support the hypothesis that all of these compounds are intermediates in the biosynthetic pathway from L-phenylalanine to aryl metabolites. Additionally, trans-cinnamic acid can also be transformed via beta-oxidation to benzoic acid. This was confirmed by the presence of acetophenone as a beta-oxidation degradation intermediate. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a beta-oxidation sequence leading to benzoic acid synthesis has been found in a white rot fungus. A novel metabolic scheme for biosynthesis of aryl metabolites from L-phenylalanine is proposed.  (+info)

Developmental regulation of methyl benzoate biosynthesis and emission in snapdragon flowers. (6/279)

In snapdragon flowers, the volatile ester methyl benzoate is the most abundant scent compound. It is synthesized by and emitted from only the upper and lower lobes of petals, where pollinators (bumblebees) come in contact with the flower. Emission of methyl benzoate occurs in a rhythmic manner, with maximum emission during the day, which correlates with pollinator activity. A novel S-adenosyl-l-methionine:benzoic acid carboxyl methyl transferase (BAMT), the final enzyme in the biosynthesis of methyl benzoate, and its corresponding cDNA have been isolated and characterized. The complete amino acid sequence of the BAMT protein has only low levels of sequence similarity to other previously characterized proteins, including plant O-methyl transferases. During the life span of the flower, the levels of methyl benzoate emission, BAMT activity, BAMT gene expression, and the amounts of BAMT protein and benzoic acid are developmentally and differentially regulated. Linear regression analysis revealed that production of methyl benzoate is regulated by the amount of benzoic acid and the amount of BAMT protein, which in turn is regulated at the transcriptional level.  (+info)

Allosteric inhibition of endothelin ETA receptors by 3, 5-dibromosalicylic acid. (7/279)

Derivatives of salicylic acid (SA) and benzoic acid prevent endothelin-1 (ET-1) binding to ETA receptors. This study analyzed actions of 30 derivatives of benzoic acid and salicylic acid on (125)I-ET-1 binding to recombinant rat ETA receptors. The most active compounds were 3,5-dibromosalicylic acid (Br2SA, K(i) = 0.5 mM) and 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid (K(i) = 0.3 mM). They were about 50 times more potent than SA and aspirin. Br2SA inhibited equilibrium (125)I-ET-1 binding in an apparently competitive manner. It accelerated 8-fold the dissociation of (125)I-ET-1 receptor complexes and did not modify the second order rate constant of association of (125)I-ET-1 to its receptors. Br2SA also decreased the affinity of ETA receptors for receptor antagonists BQ-123 and bosentan. Br2SA accelerated dissociation of (125)I-ET-1-solubilized ETA receptor complexes and decreased the apparent molecular size of solubilized receptors. Br2SA and 3,5-diiodosalicylic acid inhibited two cellular actions of ET-1: the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores in isolated cells and contractions of rat aortic rings. They accelerated the relaxing action of BQ-123 and bosentan in ET-1-treated aortic rings. The results suggest the existence of an allosteric modifier site on ETA receptors that recognizes selected derivatives of SA. SA derivatives might be of therapeutic interest to relieve tight ET-1 binding and to favor actions of receptor antagonists.  (+info)

Genetic manipulation of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels affects the extent to which benzoic acid inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/279)

The mechanisms by which the weak acid preservative benzoic acid inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated. A reduction in the pyruvate kinase level, which decreases glycolytic flux, did not increase the sensitivity of yeast to benzoic acid. However, a decrease in 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PF1K), which does not affect glycolytic flux, did increase sensitivity to benzoic acid. Also, resistance was increased by elevating PF1K levels. Hence, resistance to benzoic acid was not dependent upon optimum glycolytic flux, but upon an adequate PF1K activity. Benzoic acid was shown to depress fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels in YKC14, a mutant with low PF1K levels. This effect was partially suppressed by overexpressing constitutively active 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (Pfk26(Asp644)) or by inactivating fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (in a Deltafbp26 mutant). The inactivation of PF2K (in a Deltapfk26 Deltapfk27 mutant) increased benzoic acid sensitivity. Therefore, the antimicrobial effects of benzoic acid can be relieved, at least in part, by the genetic manipulation of PF1K or fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels.  (+info)

Benzoic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H5COOH. It is a colorless crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. Benzoic acid occurs naturally in various plants and serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemical compounds.

In medical terms, benzoic acid and its salts (sodium benzoate, potassium benzoate) are used as preservatives in food, beverages, and cosmetics to prevent bacterial growth. They work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria, particularly gram-positive bacteria, through the disruption of their energy production processes.

Additionally, sodium benzoate is sometimes used as a treatment for hyperammonemia, a condition characterized by high levels of ammonia in the blood. In this case, sodium benzoate acts as a detoxifying agent by binding to excess ammonia and converting it into a more easily excreted compound called hippuric acid.

It is important to note that benzoic acid and its salts can cause allergic reactions or skin irritation in some individuals, particularly those with pre-existing sensitivities or conditions. As with any medication or chemical substance, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Benzoates are the salts and esters of benzoic acid. They are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals to prevent the growth of microorganisms. The chemical formula for benzoic acid is C6H5COOH, and when it is combined with a base (like sodium or potassium), it forms a benzoate salt (e.g., sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate). When benzoic acid reacts with an alcohol, it forms a benzoate ester (e.g., methyl benzoate or ethyl benzoate).

Benzoates are generally considered safe for use in food and cosmetics in small quantities. However, some people may have allergies or sensitivities to benzoates, which can cause reactions such as hives, itching, or asthma symptoms. In addition, there is ongoing research into the potential health effects of consuming high levels of benzoates over time, particularly in relation to gut health and the development of certain diseases.

In a medical context, benzoates may also be used as a treatment for certain conditions. For example, sodium benzoate is sometimes given to people with elevated levels of ammonia in their blood (hyperammonemia) to help reduce those levels and prevent brain damage. This is because benzoates can bind with excess ammonia in the body and convert it into a form that can be excreted in urine.

Nitrobenzoates are a type of organic compound that consists of a benzoate group (a carboxylate derived from benzoic acid) with a nitro group (-NO2) attached to the benzene ring. They are often used in chemical synthesis and have also been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, they are not commonly used in modern medicine as therapeutic agents.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Hippurates" is not a medical term or condition. It might refer to Hippocrates, who is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine." However, if you have a different context in mind, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Metalloporphyrins are a type of porphyrin molecule that contain a metal ion at their center. Porphyrins are complex organic compounds containing four modified pyrrole rings connected to form a planar, aromatic ring known as a porphine. When a metal ion is incorporated into the center of the porphyrin ring, it forms a metalloporphyrin.

These molecules have great biological significance, as they are involved in various essential processes within living organisms. For instance, heme, a type of iron-containing porphyrin, plays a crucial role in oxygen transport and storage in the body by forming part of hemoglobin and myoglobin molecules. Chlorophyll, another metalloporphyrin with magnesium at its center, is essential for photosynthesis in plants, algae, and some bacteria.

Metalloporphyrins have also found applications in several industrial and medical fields, including catalysis, sensors, and pharmaceuticals. Their unique structure and properties make them valuable tools for researchers and scientists to study and utilize in various ways.

Chloride channels are membrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps, allowing the selective passage of chloride ions (Cl-) across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of neuronal excitability, maintenance of resting membrane potential, fluid and electrolyte transport, and pH and volume regulation of cells.

Chloride channels can be categorized into several groups based on their structure, function, and mechanism of activation. Some of the major classes include:

1. Voltage-gated chloride channels (ClC): These channels are activated by changes in membrane potential and have a variety of functions, such as regulating neuronal excitability and transepithelial transport.
2. Ligand-gated chloride channels: These channels are activated by the binding of specific ligands or messenger molecules, like GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) or glycine, and are involved in neurotransmission and neuromodulation.
3. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR): This is a chloride channel primarily located in the apical membrane of epithelial cells, responsible for secreting chloride ions and water to maintain proper hydration and mucociliary clearance in various organs, including the lungs and pancreas.
4. Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs): These channels are activated by increased intracellular calcium concentrations and participate in various physiological processes, such as smooth muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and cell volume regulation.
5. Swelling-activated chloride channels (ClSwells): Also known as volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs), these channels are activated by cell swelling or osmotic stress and help regulate cell volume and ionic homeostasis.

Dysfunction of chloride channels has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, myotonia congenita, epilepsy, and certain forms of cancer.

Food preservatives are substances added to foods to prevent or slow down spoilage caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds, or to retard quality deterioration due to oxidation or other chemical reactions. They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, preventing enzymatic reactions that cause spoilage, or scavenging oxygen that can lead to food degradation. Examples of commonly used food preservatives include sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sulfites, and nitrites. It is important to note that while food preservatives play a crucial role in maintaining the safety and quality of our food supply, excessive consumption of certain preservatives may have adverse health effects.

Ortho-Aminobenzoates are chemical compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with an amino group in the ortho position and an ester group in the form of a benzoate. They are often used as pharmaceutical intermediates, plastic additives, and UV stabilizers. In medical contexts, one specific ortho-aminobenzoate, para-aminosalicylic acid (PABA), is an antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis. However, it's important to note that "ortho-aminobenzoates" in general do not have a specific medical definition and can refer to any compound with this particular substitution pattern on a benzene ring.

Benzaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CHO. It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde, and it consists of a benzene ring attached to a formyl group. Benzaldehyde is a colorless liquid with a characteristic almond-like odor.

Benzaldehyde occurs naturally in various plants, including bitter almonds, cherries, peaches, and apricots. It is used in many industrial applications, such as in the production of perfumes, flavorings, and dyes. In addition, benzaldehyde has been used in medical research for its potential therapeutic effects, such as its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.

However, it is important to note that benzaldehyde can be toxic in high concentrations and may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Therefore, it should be handled with care and used in accordance with appropriate safety guidelines.

'Insectivora' is an outdated taxonomic grouping that was once used to classify small, insect-eating mammals. This order included shrews, moles, hedgehogs, and several other related species. However, modern molecular evidence has revealed that this grouping is not monophyletic, meaning it does not include all descendants of a common ancestor. As a result, the order Insectivora is no longer recognized in current taxonomy. Instead, these animals are now classified into several different orders based on their evolutionary relationships.

Aminobenzoates are a group of chemical compounds that contain an amino (NH2) group and a benzoate (C6H5COO-) group in their structure. They are widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to their various properties, such as ultraviolet light absorption, antimicrobial activity, and anti-inflammatory effects.

One of the most well-known aminobenzoates is para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is a naturally occurring compound found in some foods and also synthesized by bacteria in the human gut. PABA has been used as a topical sunscreen agent due to its ability to absorb ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, but its use as a sunscreen ingredient has declined in recent years due to concerns about skin irritation and potential allergic reactions.

Other aminobenzoates have various medical uses, such as:

* Antimicrobial agents: Some aminobenzoates, such as benzalkonium chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride, are used as antiseptics and disinfectants due to their ability to disrupt bacterial cell membranes.
* Analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents: Aminobenzoates such as methyl salicylate and acetaminophen (paracetamol) are commonly used as pain relievers and fever reducers.
* Vitamin B supplements: PABA is a component of folic acid, which is an essential vitamin for human health. Some people take PABA supplements to treat or prevent various conditions, such as graying hair, rheumatoid arthritis, and vitiligo, although there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses.

It's important to note that some aminobenzoates can be toxic in high doses or with prolonged exposure, so they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Para-aminobenzoates are a group of compounds that contain a para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) molecule. PABA is an organic compound that is related to benzoic acid and aminobenzoic acid. It is not an essential nutrient for humans, but it does play a role in the metabolism of certain bacteria.

Para-aminobenzoates are often used as ingredients in sunscreens because PABA absorbs ultraviolet (UV) light and can help protect the skin from sun damage. However, para-aminobenzoates can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people, so they have largely been replaced by other UV-absorbing compounds in modern sunscreens.

In addition to their use in sunscreens, para-aminobenzoates are also used in the treatment of various medical conditions. For example, they may be used as a topical agent to treat fungal infections or as a systemic therapy to treat rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.

It is important to note that para-aminobenzoates should not be confused with paracetamol (also known as acetaminophen), which is a commonly used pain reliever and fever reducer. While both compounds contain the word "para," they are chemically distinct and have different uses in medicine.

4-Aminobenzoic acid, also known as PABA or para-aminobenzoic acid, is an organic compound that is a type of aromatic amino carboxylic acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in alcohol.

4-Aminobenzoic acid is not an essential amino acid for humans, but it is a component of the vitamin folic acid and is found in various foods such as meat, whole grains, and molasses. It has been used as a topical sunscreen due to its ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) radiation, although its effectiveness as a sunscreen ingredient has been called into question in recent years.

In addition to its use in sunscreens, 4-aminobenzoic acid has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its possible role in protecting against UV-induced skin damage and its potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and to determine the safety and effectiveness of 4-aminobenzoic acid as a dietary supplement or topical treatment.

'4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a chemical compound that is often used in research and scientific studies. Its molecular formula is C14H10N2O6S2. This compound is a derivative of stilbene, which is a type of organic compound that consists of two phenyl rings joined by a ethylene bridge. In '4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid', the hydrogen atoms on the carbon atoms of the ethylene bridge have been replaced with isothiocyanate groups (-N=C=S), and the phenyl rings have been sulfonated (introduction of a sulfuric acid group, -SO3H) to increase its water solubility.

This compound is often used as a fluorescent probe in biochemical and cell biological studies due to its ability to form covalent bonds with primary amines, such as those found on proteins. This property allows researchers to label and track specific proteins or to measure the concentration of free primary amines in a sample.

It is important to note that '4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a hazardous chemical and should be handled with care, using appropriate personal protective equipment and safety measures.

Parabens are a group of synthetic preservatives that have been widely used in the cosmetics and personal care product industry since the 1920s. They are effective at inhibiting the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which helps to prolong the shelf life of these products. Parabens are commonly found in shampoos, conditioners, lotions, creams, deodorants, and other personal care items.

The most commonly used parabens include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. These compounds are often used in combination to provide broad-spectrum protection against microbial growth. Parabens work by penetrating the cell wall of microorganisms and disrupting their metabolism, which prevents them from multiplying.

Parabens have been approved for use as preservatives in cosmetics and personal care products by regulatory agencies around the world, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). However, there has been some controversy surrounding their safety, with concerns raised about their potential to mimic the hormone estrogen in the body and disrupt normal endocrine function.

While some studies have suggested that parabens may be associated with health problems such as breast cancer and reproductive toxicity, the evidence is not conclusive, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential risks. In response to these concerns, many manufacturers have begun to remove parabens from their products or offer paraben-free alternatives. It's important to note that while avoiding parabens may be a personal preference for some individuals, there is currently no scientific consensus on the need to avoid them entirely.

Salicylates are a group of chemicals found naturally in certain fruits, vegetables, and herbs, as well as in some medications like aspirin. They are named after willow bark's active ingredient, salicin, from which they were derived. Salicylates have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and antipyretic (fever-reducing) properties.

In a medical context, salicylates are often used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. High doses of salicylates can have blood thinning effects and may be used in the prevention of strokes or heart attacks. Commonly prescribed salicylate medications include aspirin, methylsalicylate, and sodium salicylate.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to salicylates, and overuse can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers, ringing in the ears, and even kidney or liver damage.

Bromobenzoates are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a benzene ring substituted with one or more bromine atoms and a carboxylic acid group. They are used in various applications, including as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and intermediates in organic synthesis.

In the medical field, some bromobenzoates have been used as antimicrobial agents, while others have been investigated for their potential therapeutic benefits in treating conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, and epilepsy. However, many of these compounds have fallen out of use due to their side effects or the development of safer and more effective treatments.

It's important to note that bromobenzoates can be harmful if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin, and they may pose environmental hazards as well. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used only under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Niflumic acid is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is primarily used as a topical agent for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with various musculoskeletal conditions, such as strains, sprains, and arthritis. It works by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that mediate inflammation, pain, and fever.

Niflumic acid is available as a cream or gel for topical application, and it is not typically used for systemic treatment due to its potential gastrointestinal side effects. It may also be used off-label for the treatment of other conditions that involve pain and inflammation. As with any medication, niflumic acid should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and it is important to follow all dosage instructions carefully to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

Zygosaccharomyces is a genus of sac fungi, specifically belonging to the family Saccharomycetaceae. These are commonly referred to as "zygosaccharomyces" or "zygo-saccharomyces." They are known for their ability to tolerate high sugar concentrations and low pH levels, making them highly resistant to various food preservation methods.

One of the most well-known species in this genus is Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which is often found in sweet foods like fruit juices, syrups, and honey. Another species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, can be found in a variety of environments including food products, plants, and even clinical settings.

These fungi are important in the field of biotechnology due to their ability to produce useful enzymes and metabolites. However, they can also cause spoilage in certain food products, leading to economic losses for the industry.

Vanillic Acid is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the name 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid. It is a type of phenolic acid that occurs naturally in some foods and plants, including vanilla beans, pineapples, and certain types of mushrooms.

Vanillic Acid has been studied for its potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. However, it is not considered a medication or a medical treatment and does not have a specific medical definition.

Carboxylic acids are organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group, which is a functional group made up of a carbon atom doubly bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group. The general formula for a carboxylic acid is R-COOH, where R represents the rest of the molecule.

Carboxylic acids can be found in various natural sources such as in fruits, vegetables, and animal products. Some common examples of carboxylic acids include formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), propionic acid (C2H5COOH), and butyric acid (C3H7COOH).

Carboxylic acids have a variety of uses in industry, including as food additives, pharmaceuticals, and industrial chemicals. They are also important intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds. In the body, carboxylic acids play important roles in metabolism and energy production.

Hydroxybenzoates are the salts or esters of hydroxybenzoic acids. They are commonly used as preservatives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products due to their antimicrobial and antifungal properties. The most common examples include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. These compounds work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi, thereby increasing the shelf life and safety of various products. However, there has been some concern about their potential health effects, including possible hormonal disruption, and their use in certain applications is being re-evaluated.

Chlorides are simple inorganic ions consisting of a single chlorine atom bonded to a single charged hydrogen ion (H+). Chloride is the most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid in the human body. The normal range for chloride concentration in the blood is typically between 96-106 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Chlorides play a crucial role in maintaining electrical neutrality, acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure in the body. They are also essential for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of membrane potentials, and digestion (as hydrochloric acid in the stomach).

Chloride levels can be affected by several factors, including diet, hydration status, kidney function, and certain medical conditions. Increased or decreased chloride levels can indicate various disorders, such as dehydration, kidney disease, Addison's disease, or diabetes insipidus. Therefore, monitoring chloride levels is essential for assessing a person's overall health and diagnosing potential medical issues.

Salicylic Acid is a type of beta hydroxy acid (BHA) that is commonly used in dermatology due to its keratolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. It works by causing the cells of the epidermis to shed more easily, preventing the pores from becoming blocked and promoting the growth of new skin cells. Salicylic Acid is also a potent anti-inflammatory agent, which makes it useful in the treatment of inflammatory acne and other skin conditions associated with redness and irritation. It can be found in various over-the-counter skincare products, such as cleansers, creams, and peels, as well as in prescription-strength formulations.

Salicylanilides are a group of synthetic compounds that contain a salicylic acid moiety (a phenolic ring with a hydroxyl and a carboxyl group) linked to an aniline part through a carbon chain. They are known for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Some common representatives of this class include salicylanilide, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid methyl ester, and 3-amino-5-chlorosalicylanilide. These compounds have been used in various medical and veterinary applications, such as topical antimicrobial agents, ovicides (agents that kill the eggs of parasites), and anthelmintics (agents that expel or destroy parasitic worms). However, due to concerns about potential toxicity and environmental persistence, their use has been limited in recent years.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Petunia" is not a medical term. It's the name of a genus of plants in the family Solanaceae, commonly known as petunias. They are popular ornamental plants due to their vibrant and diverse flowers. If you have any questions about botany or gardening, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

A hypotonic solution is a type of fluid that has a lower osmotic pressure than another fluid. In the context of medical and physiological terms, it typically refers to a solution that has a lower solute concentration (and therefore lower osmolarity) than the fluids found in the body's cells.

When a hypotonic solution is introduced into the body or comes into contact with body tissues, water molecules tend to move from the area of lower solute concentration (the hypotonic solution) to the area of higher solute concentration (the body's fluids), in an attempt to equalize the osmotic pressure. This movement of water can cause cells to swell and potentially burst if the difference in osmolarity is significant or if the exposure is prolonged.

Hypotonic solutions are sometimes used medically for specific purposes, such as in irrigation solutions or in certain types of intravenous fluids, where careful control of osmotic pressure is required. However, it's important to use them appropriately and under medical supervision to avoid potential adverse effects.

Retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are derivatives of vitamin A. They are widely used in dermatology for the treatment of various skin conditions, including acne, psoriasis, and photoaging. Retinoids can help to reduce inflammation, improve skin texture and tone, and stimulate collagen production.

Retinoids work by binding to specific receptors in the skin cells, which triggers a series of biochemical reactions that regulate gene expression and promote cell differentiation and turnover. This can help to unclog pores, reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and improve the overall health and appearance of the skin.

There are several different types of retinoids used in skincare products, including retinoic acid, retinaldehyde, and retinol. Retinoic acid is the most potent form of retinoid and is available by prescription only. Retinaldehyde and retinol are weaker forms of retinoid that can be found in over-the-counter skincare products.

While retinoids can be highly effective for treating various skin conditions, they can also cause side effects such as dryness, irritation, and sensitivity to the sun. It is important to use retinoids as directed by a healthcare professional and to follow proper sun protection measures when using these products.

Benzene derivatives are chemical compounds that are derived from benzene, which is a simple aromatic hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C6H6. Benzene has a planar, hexagonal ring structure, and its derivatives are formed by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the benzene molecule with other functional groups.

Benzene derivatives have a wide range of applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, and explosives. Some common examples of benzene derivatives include toluene, xylene, phenol, aniline, and nitrobenzene. These compounds can have different physical and chemical properties depending on the nature and position of the substituents attached to the benzene ring.

It is important to note that some benzene derivatives are known to be toxic or carcinogenic, and their production, use, and disposal must be carefully regulated to ensure safety and protect public health.

Cytostatic agents are a type of medication used in cancer treatment that work by inhibiting or suppressing the growth and division of cancer cells. Unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy, which kills cancer cells outright, cytostatic agents aim to keep cancer cells from dividing and multiplying, effectively halting or slowing down the progression of the disease.

These agents target specific pathways involved in cell division and growth, such as the cell cycle, DNA replication, or protein synthesis. By interfering with these processes, cytostatic agents can prevent cancer cells from multiplying while minimizing harm to healthy cells.

Examples of cytostatic agents include hormonal therapies, targeted therapies, and some types of immunotherapy. While cytostatic agents may not cure cancer, they can help manage the disease, improve quality of life, and extend survival for patients with advanced or metastatic cancer.

Boraginaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes approximately 150 genera and around 2,700 species. This family is characterized by having flowers with five united sepals and five distinct petals, often forming a bell or tube shape. The stamens are usually fused to the corolla (the collective term for the petals).

Plants in this family can be found worldwide, but they are particularly diverse in Mediterranean regions and tropical mountainous areas. They include both herbaceous plants and woody shrubs. Some familiar examples of Boraginaceae include forget-me-nots (Myosotis spp.), borage (Borago officinalis), and heliotrope (Heliotropium spp.).

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, medical definitions typically apply to terms related to medicine, clinical practice, or human health. Boraginaceae is a taxonomic category in botany, not a term with direct medical relevance. However, some plants within this family do have medicinal uses, and it's crucial to consult reliable sources or healthcare professionals for information on their safe use.

Tetrahydronaphthalenes are organic compounds that consist of a naphthalene ring with two hydrogens replaced by saturated carbon chains. It is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with a chemical formula C10H12. Tetrahydronaphthalenes can be found in various natural sources, including coal tar and some essential oils. They also have potential applications in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and other organic compounds.

Cinnamates are organic compounds that are derived from cinnamic acid. They contain a carbon ring with a double bond and a carboxylic acid group, making them aromatic acids. Cinnamates are widely used in the perfume industry due to their pleasant odor, and they also have various applications in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

In a medical context, cinnamates may be used as topical medications for the treatment of skin conditions such as fungal infections or inflammation. For example, cinnamate esters such as cinoxacin and ciclopirox are commonly used as antifungal agents in creams, lotions, and shampoos. These compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of fungi, leading to their death.

Cinnamates may also have potential therapeutic benefits for other medical conditions. For instance, some studies suggest that cinnamate derivatives may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, making them promising candidates for the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine their safety and efficacy in humans.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Structures" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of botany to refer to the different parts of a plant, such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Each of these structures has specific functions that contribute to the overall growth, reproduction, and survival of the plant. If you have any questions related to biology or botany, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and has a melting point of 40-42°C. Phenol is a weak acid, but it is quite reactive and can be converted into a variety of other chemicals.

In a medical context, phenol is most commonly used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It has a characteristic odor that is often described as "tarry" or " medicinal." Phenol is also used in some over-the-counter products, such as mouthwashes and throat lozenges, to help kill bacteria and freshen breath.

However, phenol is also a toxic substance that can cause serious harm if it is swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It can cause irritation and burns to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes, and it can damage the liver and kidneys if ingested. Long-term exposure to phenol has been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

Because of its potential for harm, phenol is regulated as a hazardous substance in many countries, and it must be handled with care when used in medical or industrial settings.

Epoxide hydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides, which are molecules containing a three-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. This reaction results in the formation of diols, which are molecules containing two hydroxyl groups (-OH).

Epoxide hydrolases play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) and the metabolism of endogenous compounds. They help to convert toxic epoxides into less harmful products, which can then be excreted from the body.

There are two main types of epoxide hydrolases: microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). mEH is primarily responsible for metabolizing xenobiotics, while sEH plays a role in the metabolism of endogenous compounds such as arachidonic acid.

Impaired function or inhibition of epoxide hydrolases has been linked to various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, these enzymes are considered important targets for the development of drugs and therapies aimed at treating these conditions.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Phenylacetates are a group of organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a benzene ring with a hydroxyl group) and an acetic acid group. In the context of medicine, sodium phenylacetate is used in the treatment of certain metabolic disorders, such as urea cycle disorders, to help remove excess ammonia from the body. It does this by conjugating with glycine to form phenylacetylglutamine, which can then be excreted in the urine.

It is important to note that the use of phenylacetates should be under the supervision of a medical professional, as improper use or dosage can lead to serious side effects.

Trimethylsilyl compounds are organosilicon substances that contain the functional group Si(CH3)3-, known as a trimethylsilyl group. These compounds are widely used in various fields, including chemistry and biochemistry, as reagents, protecting groups, or derivatizing agents.

In a medical context, trimethylsilyl compounds may be encountered in the analysis of biological samples, such as blood, urine, or tissues, using techniques like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). These methods often require the derivatization of polar or labile compounds to increase their volatility and thermal stability. Trimethylsilylating agents, such as trimethylsilyl chloride (TMSCl) or N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), are commonly used to convert polar functional groups like hydroxyl (-OH), amino (-NH2), or carboxyl (-COOH) into their corresponding trimethylsilyl ethers, esters, or amides. This derivatization process facilitates the separation and detection of these compounds in complex biological matrices.

It is important to note that direct exposure to some trimethylsilyl compounds may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract; therefore, appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling these substances.

Acetic anhydride is a chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O. It is a colorless liquid that is used as a reagent in organic synthesis, particularly in the production of cellulose acetate and other acetate esters. Acetic anhydride is also an important intermediate in the synthesis of certain pharmaceuticals and dyes.

In medical terminology, acetic anhydride is not typically used as a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. However, it can be used in laboratory settings to synthesize compounds that may have medical applications. For example, acetic anhydride has been used to produce certain antiviral drugs and antibiotics.

It is important to note that acetic anhydride can be harmful or fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It can cause burns and eye damage, and may be harmful to the respiratory system if inhaled. Therefore, it should be handled with care and used only in well-ventilated areas with appropriate personal protective equipment.

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant odor and is used as a solvent and preservative in cosmetics, medications, and other products. Benzyl alcohol can also be found as a natural component of some essential oils, fruits, and teas.

Benzyl alcohol is not typically considered a "drug" or a medication, but it may have various pharmacological effects when used in certain medical contexts. For example, it has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as a preservative in injectable medications to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It can also be used as a local anesthetic or analgesic in some topical creams and ointments.

It's important to note that benzyl alcohol can be harmful or fatal to infants and young children, especially when it is used in high concentrations or when it is introduced into the body through intravenous (IV) routes. Therefore, it should be used with caution in these populations and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Coumaric acids are a type of phenolic acid that are widely distributed in plants. They are found in various foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. The most common forms of coumaric acids are p-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid.

Coumaric acids have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties. They may also play a role in preventing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of coumaric acids.

It's worth noting that coumaric acids are not to be confused with warfarin (also known as Coumadin), a medication used as an anticoagulant. While both coumaric acids and warfarin contain a similar chemical structure, they have different effects on the body.

In medical terms, acids refer to a class of chemicals that have a pH less than 7 and can donate protons (hydrogen ions) in chemical reactions. In the context of human health, acids are an important part of various bodily functions, such as digestion. However, an imbalance in acid levels can lead to medical conditions. For example, an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach can cause gastritis or peptic ulcers, while an accumulation of lactic acid due to strenuous exercise or decreased blood flow can lead to muscle fatigue and pain.

Additionally, in clinical laboratory tests, certain substances may be tested for their "acidity" or "alkalinity," which is measured using a pH scale. This information can help diagnose various medical conditions, such as kidney disease or diabetes.

Triazenes are a class of organic compounds that contain a triazene functional group, which is composed of three nitrogen atoms bonded in a row (-N=N-NH-). In the context of medicine, certain triazene derivatives have been studied and used in cancer chemotherapy. For example, dacarbazine (also known as DTIC) is a triazene anticancer drug that is used to treat malignant melanoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. These compounds are believed to work by alkylating DNA, which can disrupt cancer cell growth and division. However, their use is limited due to side effects and the development of resistance in some cases.

An anion is an ion that has a negative electrical charge because it has more electrons than protons. The term "anion" is derived from the Greek word "anion," which means "to go up" or "to move upward." This name reflects the fact that anions are attracted to positively charged electrodes, or anodes, and will move toward them during electrolysis.

Anions can be formed when a neutral atom or molecule gains one or more extra electrons. For example, if a chlorine atom gains an electron, it becomes a chloride anion (Cl-). Anions are important in many chemical reactions and processes, including the conduction of electricity through solutions and the formation of salts.

In medicine, anions may be relevant in certain physiological processes, such as acid-base balance. For example, the concentration of anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3-) and chloride (Cl-) in the blood can affect the pH of the body fluids and help maintain normal acid-base balance. Abnormal levels of anions may indicate the presence of certain medical conditions, such as metabolic acidosis or alkalosis.

Chlorobenzoates are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a benzene ring substituted with one or more chlorine atoms and a carboxylate group. They are derivatives of benzoic acid, where one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring have been replaced by chlorine atoms.

Chlorobenzoates can be found in various industrial applications, such as solvents, plasticizers, and pesticides. Some chlorobenzoates also have medical uses, for example, as antimicrobial agents or as intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals.

However, some chlorobenzoates can be toxic and harmful to the environment, so their use is regulated in many countries. It's important to handle and dispose of these substances properly to minimize potential health and environmental risks.

Free radical scavengers, also known as antioxidants, are substances that neutralize or stabilize free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons, capable of causing damage to cells and tissues in the body through a process called oxidative stress. Antioxidants donate an electron to the free radical, thereby neutralizing it and preventing it from causing further damage. They can be found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, or they can be synthesized and used as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.

Catechols are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to it in the ortho position. The term "catechol" is often used interchangeably with "ortho-dihydroxybenzene." Catechols are important in biology because they are produced through the metabolism of certain amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, and are involved in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters and hormones. They also have antioxidant properties and can act as reducing agents. In chemistry, catechols can undergo various reactions, such as oxidation and polymerization, to form other classes of compounds.

Phenols, also known as phenolic acids or phenol derivatives, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon ring. In the context of medicine and biology, phenols are often referred to as a type of antioxidant that can be found in various foods and plants.

Phenols have the ability to neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some common examples of phenolic compounds include gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid, among many others.

Phenols can also have various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. However, some phenolic compounds can also be toxic or irritating to the body in high concentrations, so their use as therapeutic agents must be carefully monitored and controlled.

Aniline compounds, also known as aromatic amines, are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with an amino group (-NH2). Aniline itself is the simplest and most common aniline compound, with the formula C6H5NH2.

Aniline compounds are important in the chemical industry and are used in the synthesis of a wide range of products, including dyes, pharmaceuticals, and rubber chemicals. They can be produced by reducing nitrobenzene or by directly substituting ammonia onto benzene in a process called amination.

It is important to note that aniline compounds are toxic and can cause serious health effects, including damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. They can also be absorbed through the skin and are known to have carcinogenic properties. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling aniline compounds.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

... of benzoic acid and 40% benzoic acid esters. In terms of its biosynthesis, benzoate is produced in plants from cinnamic acid. A ... benzoic acid is meta directing. Reactions typical for carboxylic acids apply also to benzoic acid. Benzoate esters are the ... Typical concentrations of benzoic acid as a preservative in food are between 0.05 and 0.1%. Foods in which benzoic acid may be ... For this reason, benzoic acid for human consumption was obtained by dry distillation of gum benzoin. Food-grade benzoic acid is ...
It is the acid anhydride of benzoic acid and the simplest symmetrical aromatic acid anhydride. It is a white solid. It is ... It can be produced by dehydrating benzoic acid by heating.[citation needed] Benzoic anhydride provides a convenient way to ... usually prepared by the dehydration reaction of benzoic acid, e.g. using acetic anhydride: 2 C6H5CO2H + (CH3CO)2O → (C6H5CO)2O ... "aldrich product page". H. T. Clarke; E. J. Rahrs (1923). "Benzoic Anhydride". Org. Synth. 3: 21. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.003.0021 ...
Substituted benzoic acids". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 11 (5): 1020-2. doi:10.1021/jm00311a023. PMID 5697062. Villegas- ... Myotonia can be achieved in preparations of intact isolated muscle by the administration of 9-Anthracenecarboxylic acid, a ... Navarro, A.; Martinez-Morales, M.; Morales-Aguilera, A. (1986). "Pharmacokinetics of anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, a potent ...
Maki, Takao; Takeda, Kazuo (June 2000). "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi: ...
It is prepared by hydrogenation of benzoic acid. Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid is a precursor to the nylon-6 precursor caprolactam ... abscisic acid buciclic acid chlorogenic acid chorismic acid dicyclomine quinic acid shikimic acid tranexamic acid Quinic acid ... Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid exhibits the reactions typical of carboxylic acids, including its conversion to the acid chloride ... "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_ ...
... (PTBBA) is an organic compound . A substituted benzoic acid, it is used in alkyd resins. This ... "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_ ... Benzoic acids, Tert-butyl compounds, Alkyl-substituted benzenes). ...
Maki, Takao; Takeda, Kazuo (2000). "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/ ... tolfenamic acid, flufenamic acid, and meclofenamic acid are derived from fenamic acid or anthranilic acid and are called " ... Fenamic acid is a derivative of anthranilic acid,: 235 which in turn is a nitrogen isostere of salicylic acid, which is the ... Anthranilic acid is an aromatic acid with the formula C6H4(NH2)(CO2H) and has a sweetish taste. The molecule consists of a ...
It reacts with water to produce hydrochloric acid and benzoic acid: C6H5COCl + H2O → C6H5COOH + HCl Benzoyl chloride is a ... Benzoyl chloride is produced from benzotrichloride using either water or benzoic acid: C6H5CCl3 + H2O → C6H5COCl + 2 HCl ... "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_ ... C6H5CCl3 + C6H5CO2H → 2 C6H5COCl + HCl As with other acyl chlorides, it can be generated from the parent acid and standard ...
Benzoic acids, IARC Group 3 carcinogens, Sunscreening agents, Non-proteinogenic amino acids). ... 4-Aminobenzoic acid (also known as para-aminobenzoic acid or PABA because the two functional groups are attached to the benzene ... 7. Microscopic dissociation constants of 4-amino- and 4-(dimethylamino)benzoic acid". J. Org. Chem. 46 (4): 653-657. doi: ... Maki, T.; Takeda, K. (2000). "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi: ...
"Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_ ... Blackburn, G. Michael (2006). Nucleic Acids in Chemistry and Biology. Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 145. ISBN 9780854046546. ( ...
Benzoyl chloride is produced from benzotrichloride using either water or benzoic acid: C 6 H 5 CCl 3 + H 2 O ⟶ C 6 H 5 COCl + 2 ... carboxylic acids to form an organic acid anhydrides. In the above reactions, HX (hydrogen halide or hydrohalic acid) is also ... Maki, Takao; Takeda, Kazuo (2000). "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: ... It is the dichloride (i.e., double chloride) of the 6-carbon dicarboxylic acid adipic acid. An important use of adipoyl ...
Takao Maki; Kazuo Takeda (2002). "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: ... It is also a precursor to 4-aminobenzoic acid. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid is prepared by oxidation of 4-nitrotoluene using oxygen or ... "4-nitrobenzoic acid - PubChem Public Chemical Database". Retrieved 11 April 2010. "Safety data for p-nitrobenzoic acid". ... 4-Nitrobenzoic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(NO2)CO2H. It is a pale yellow solid. It is a precursor to 4- ...
With a pKa of 3.47, 3-nitrobenzoic acid is about ten times more acidic than benzoic acid. The conjugate base of benzoic acid is ... It is prepared by nitration of benzoic acid at low temperatures. Both 2-Nitrobenzoic acid and 4-Nitrobenzoic acid are produced ... "Dissociation Constants Of Organic Acids And Bases". Retrieved 11 April 2010. Takao Maki, Kazuo Takeda (2002). "Benzoic Acid and ... 3-Nitrobenzoic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(NO2)CO2H. It is an aromatic compound and under standard ...
Maki, Takao; Takeda, Kazuo (2000). "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/ ... The isocyanate adds water in a nucleophilic addition step to yield a carbamic acid (aka urethane). The carbamic acid ... The formation of an intermediate nitrene is not possible because it implies also the formation of a hydroxamic acid as a ... In the synthesis of gabapentin, beginning with the mono-amidation of 1,1-cyclohexane diacetic acid anhydride with ammonia to 1, ...
... is formed by the condensation of methanol and benzoic acid, in presence of a strong acid. Methyl benzoate ... "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a03_ ... Electrophiles attack the ring, illustrated by acid-catalysed nitration with nitric acid to give methyl 3-nitrobenzoate. ...
Takao Maki; Kazuo Takeda (2002). "Benzoic Acid and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: ... 3-Chlorobenzoic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula ClC6H4CO2H. It is a white solid that is soluble in some ... 3-Chlorobenzoic acid is prepared by oxidation of 3-chlorotoluene. It is a metabolic byproduct of the drug bupropion. ... "3-chlorobenzoic acid". PubChem. Retrieved 27 October 2018. (Articles without InChI source, Articles without KEGG source, ECHA ...
... is prepared by oxidation of 4-chlorotoluene. Takao Maki; Kazuo Takeda (2002). "Benzoic Acid and ... 4-Chlorobenzoic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula ClC6H4CO2H. It is a white solid that is soluble in some ...
The conjugates of benzoic acid (hippuric acid and the glucuronide of benzoic acid) are rapidly eliminated in urine. When given ... It is rapidly hydrolyzed to benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol is subsequently metabolized to benzoic acid. ... It is the ester of benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid. It forms either a viscous liquid or solid flakes and has a weak, sweet- ... It is a byproduct of benzoic acid synthesis by toluene oxidation. It can also be synthesized by the Tishchenko reaction, using ...
Figure 1. Glycine conjugation of benzoic acid. The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated ... fatty acid thiokinase (medium chain), acyl-activating enzyme, fatty acid elongate, fatty acid activating enzyme, fatty acyl ... Mahler HR, Wakil SJ, Bock RM (1953). "Studies on fatty acid oxidation. I. Enzymatic activation of fatty acids". J. Biol. Chem. ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ...
Figure 1. Glycine conjugation of benzoic acid. The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... benzoyl-CoA is then conjugated to glycine by GLYAT to form hippuric acid, releasing CoASH. In addition to the factors listed in ...
Figure 1. Glycine conjugation of benzoic acid. The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... benzoyl-CoA is then conjugated to glycine by GLYAT to form hippuric acid, releasing CoASH. In addition to the factors listed in ...
... benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4- ... Figure 1. Glycine conjugation of benzoic acid. The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). ...
... benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4- ... Figure 1. Glycine conjugation of benzoic acid. The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... In principle, INNs are selected only for the active part of the molecule which is usually the base, acid or alcohol. In some ...
Figure 1. Glycine conjugation of benzoic acid. The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... benzoyl-CoA is then conjugated to glycine by GLYAT to form hippuric acid, releasing CoASH. In addition to the factors listed in ...
... is oxidized to benzoic acid, which is converted to hippuric acid by glycine N-acyltransferase (GLYAT) enzymes ... Industry uses the gas-phase ketonization of phenylacetic acid using acetic acid over a ceria-alumina solid acid catalyst. A ... Figure 1. Glycine conjugation of benzoic acid. The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated ... White produced phenylacetone in a tube furnace using phenylacetic acid and acetic acid. MDP2P - related compound with a ...
"Nu-nu-dibenzylsulfamyl benzoic acid". (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles ... Stachel A, Kutzsche A, Zerweck W (1957). Nu-nu-dibenzylsulfamyl benzoic acid. US Patent US 2805250 A. Beyerle R, Nitz RE, Resag ... Together with Werner Zerweck they developed Nu-nu-dibenzylsulfamyl benzoic acid, US patent 2805250 A, in the early 1950s. Other ...
L. F. Fieser (1925). "p-Toluyl-o-Benzoic Acid". Organic Syntheses. 4: 73. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.004.0073. L. F. Fieser (1925). "β ... Oxidation of the methyl group gives anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid. Kingsford-Adaboh, R.; Kashino, S. (1995). "Disordered ...
Figure 1. Glycine conjugation of benzoic acid. The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... A common example is the processing of glutathione conjugates to acetylcysteine (mercapturic acid) conjugates. Here, the γ- ... Boyland E, Chasseaud LF (1969). "The role of glutathione and glutathione S-transferases in mercapturic acid biosynthesis". Adv ...
... benzoic acid, hippuric acid, norephedrine, and phenylacetone. Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4- ... Figure 1. Glycine conjugation of benzoic acid. The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... The attachment of the amino acid lysine slows down the relative amount of dextroamphetamine available to the blood stream. ...
Figure 1. Glycine conjugation of benzoic acid. The glycine conjugation pathway consists of two steps. First benzoate is ligated ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ... benzoyl-CoA is then conjugated to glycine by GLYAT to form hippuric acid, releasing CoASH. In addition to the factors listed in ...
... of benzoic acid and 40% benzoic acid esters. In terms of its biosynthesis, benzoate is produced in plants from cinnamic acid. A ... benzoic acid is meta directing. Reactions typical for carboxylic acids apply also to benzoic acid. Benzoate esters are the ... Typical concentrations of benzoic acid as a preservative in food are between 0.05 and 0.1%. Foods in which benzoic acid may be ... For this reason, benzoic acid for human consumption was obtained by dry distillation of gum benzoin. Food-grade benzoic acid is ...
4-Methylbenzoic acid, methyl ester; Methyl ester of 4-methylbenzoic acid; p-Toluylic acid, methyl ester; 4-(Methoxycarbonyl) ... Benzoic acid, 4-methyl-, methyl ester. *Formula: C9H10O2 ... Other names: p-Toluic acid, methyl ester; p-Carbomethoxytoluene ...
Homeopathic Benzoic Acid. - CHEST indications, uses & symptoms from 12 cross linked materia medicas. Available 2C-30C, 4X-30X, ... Benzoic Acid. - Chest symptoms Benzoic Acid, Benzoicum Acidum, Benz.-ac, Benzene Carboxylic Acid, Carboxybenzene, E210, ... Benzoic Acid.- main page Below are the main rubriks (i.e strongest indications or symptoms) of Benzoic Acid. in traditional ... Have you ever used Benzoic Acid.? Yes No. Filter Benzoic Acid. chest symptoms:. ...
... Boronic Acids. Fluorophenylacetic Acids. Indoles. Ligands for Suzuki Coupling. Pyridinecarboxylic Acids. ... 5-Chloro-2-[2-(oxan-2-yloxy)ethoxy]benzoic acid, 95%. Catalog Number: 178297 ... 5-Methyl-2-[2-(oxan-2-yloxy)ethoxy]benzoic acid, 95%. Catalog Number: 178300 ... 2-({[2-Methyl-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}carbonyl)benzoic acid. Catalog Number: 179248 ...
1121 Benzoic acid (Previous) (Back) (Next) Geometry predicted using PM7. # Species Formula ... PM7 Benzoic acid H=-70.1 HR=C&P1970 I=9.8 IR=LLNBS82 C -0.00179830 +1 0.00101221 +1 -0.00016777 +1 C 2.77661958 +1 0.00588220 + ...
Benzoic acid, 4-[(E. )-[2-(9H-fluoren-9-. ylidene)hydrazinyli. dene]methyl]- [ACD/Index Name] ... drazono)methyl]benzoic acid *Molecular FormulaC21H14N2O2 ... methyl]benzoic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name] 4-[(E)-(9H-Fluoren-. 9- ... Hydrazines-acid Henrys Law Constant (25 deg C) [HENRYWIN v3.10]: Bond Method : 2.18E-011 atm-m3/mole Group Method: Incomplete ... Aqueous Base/Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis (25 deg C) [HYDROWIN v1.67]: Rate constants can NOT be estimated for this structure! ...
Nucleophile recognition as an alternative inhibition mode for benzoic acid based carbonic anhydrase inhibitors ... Nucleophile recognition as an alternative inhibition mode for benzoic acid based carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. *PDB DOI: https ... Nucleophile recognition as an alternative inhibition mode for benzoic acid based carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Martin, D.P., ... MERCURIBENZOIC ACID. C7 H5 Hg O2. FVFZSVRSDNUCGG-UHFFFAOYSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ...
This page contains information on the chemical Benzoic acid, p-amino-, 3-(dibutylamino)propyl ester, hydrochloride including: 8 ... Benzoic acid, p-amino-, 3-(dibutylamino) propyl ester, hydrochloride. Identifications. *CAS Number: 5892-15-9*Synonyms/Related: ... Benzoic acid, p-amino-, 3-(dibutylamino) propyl ester, hydrochloride*Butacaine chloride*Butacaine hydrochloride*p-Aminobenzoic ... Chemical Database - Benzoic acid, p-amino-, 3-(dibutylamino)propyl ester, hydrochloride. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. 1995 - ...
In the present study, we show that benzoic acid derivatives isolated from Bjerkandera adusta promote the activity of the two ... our results suggest that the hydroxybenzoic acid scaffold could be considered as a promising candidate for the development of ... 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzoic acid) showed the most potent interaction with both enzymes, which justifies the strong activation of ... 1H-NMR spectrum of 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (1) in CD3OD, Figure S3: ESI(−)-HRMS spectrum of 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (1), Figure ...
... benzoic acid , C28H22N2O4 , CID 1381899 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents ...
It efficiently produces benzoic acid, a product stocked in undergraduate and high school chemistry labs and also used in ... But theres good news: Stache has discovered a new path for polystyrene waste that includes being upcycled into benzoic acid, a ... In the optimized process, PS broke down to 23% benzoic acid. Other products included smaller plastic molecules that can be ...
Macleaya cordata extract or benzoic acid have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities that makes them ... 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (MB). Compared with the CON diet, dietary MB or AGP increased the final weight and average daily gain ... 1000mg/kg benzoic acid (MB). Compared with the CON diet, dietary MB or AGP increased the final weight and average daily gain, ... of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of feed supplemented with Macleaya cordata extract and benzoic acid on ...
BENZOIC ACID).Also offer free database of 163260-73-9(4-(1,4-DIOXASPIRO[4,5]DEC-8-YL)-BENZOIC ACID) including MSDS sheet( ... BENZOIC ACID) for price inquiry. where to buy 163260-73-9(4-(1,4-DIOXASPIRO[4,5]DEC-8-YL)- ... Physical properties of Benzoic acid,4-(1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)- are: (1)ACD/LogP: 2.60; (2)# of Rule of 5 Violations: 0; ( ... The Benzoic acid,4-(1,4-dioxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)- has the CAS registry number 163260-73-9. This chemicals molecular formula is ...
Benzoic acid,3-[2-[[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]amino]-4-pyridinyl]-5-(phenylamino)-, methyl ester ... Comprehensive supplier list for Benzoic acid,3-[2-[[(1,1-dimethylethoxy)carbonyl]amino]-4-pyridinyl]-5-(phenylamino)-, ... benzoic acid, Benzoic acid, 3-[[4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-3-methoxyphenyl]azo]- Molecular Formula: C18H19Cl2N3O3. Molecular ... Benzoic acid,3-[2-[4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]-3-methoxyphenyl]diazenyl]- (1 supplier). IUPAC Name: 3-[[4-[bis(2-chloroethyl) ...
with N,N-diethylethanamine (1:1),Benzoic acid, 2-[[[[(phenylmethoxy)carbonyl]amino]acetyl]amino]- ... Comprehensive supplier list for Benzoic acid, 2-[[[[(4-methoxyphenyl)diphenylmethyl]thio]oxy]methyl]-,compd. ... benzoic acid, 2-({[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]amino}carbonyl)benzoic acid, Benzoic acid, 2-[[[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]amino] ... benzoic acid, 2-[[4-[(6-methoxypyridazin-3-yl)sulfamoyl]phenyl]carbamoyl]benzoic acid, Benzoic acid, 2-(((4-(((6-methoxy-3- ...
Combining isosorbide and lignin-related benzoic acids for high-Tg polymethacrylates. *Mark ... and different vanillic acid esters. This afforded a range of seven bio-based monomers with different size, polarity, and ... and different vanillic acid esters. This afforded a range of seven bio-based monomers with different size, polarity, and ... and different vanillic acid esters. This afforded a range of seven bio-based monomers with different size, polarity, and ...
BDBM50056401 2-diethylaminoethyl [2-methoxy-4-amino-5-chloro]benzoate::4-Amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy-benzoic acid 2-diethylamino- ...
3,5-Dinitrosalicylic Acid. Synonyms. 2-Hydroxy-3,5-dinitro-benzoic Acid; 2-Hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzoic Acid; 3,5-Dinitro-2- ... 3,5-Dinitrosalicylic Acid (cas# 609-99-4) is a compound useful in organic synthesis.Dyes and metabolites. ... 5-Dinitrosalicylic Acid 609-99-4 from toronto research chemicals Inc. ...
2-acetoxy benzoic acid, 3-abH = 3-acetoxy benzoic acid and 4-abH = 4-acetoxy benzoic acid were prepared using their respective ... Co-ordination behaviour of hydrazine and isomers of acetoxy benzoic acids with transition metal ions ...
Benzoic acid. *Jan Pícha, Radek Cibulka*, František Liška, Patrik Pařík and Oldřich Pytela. Reparametrization and/or ... Ortho Effect in Dissociation of Benzoic Acids with Electron-Accceptor Substituents Using the AISE Theory; Relation to para ... Enhancement of Selectivity Towards Benzoic Acid. 1996, Vol. 61, Issue 11, pp. 1675-1680 [Abstract] ...
... benzoic acid sodium salt, Sodium 2-chloro-6-((4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)thio)benzoate, Pyrithiobac sodium salt, DPX-PE350, ... 2-Chloro-6-{(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)thio}benzoic acid sodium salt; Sodium 2-chloro-6-((4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)thio) ... 3-(Pyrimidin-2-yl)-2-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)methyl]propanoic acid 4(3H)-Pyrimidone Pyrimido[4,5-c]pyridazin-5(6H)-one 1-(2-Pyrimidyl) ... bismuth cadmium ruthenium Pyrocincholic acid methyl ester Pyrocurzerenone Pyrogallol ...
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Benzoic acid is a preservative which prevents the treatment from being contaminated. It also stabilizes the product over time. ... Benzoic acid is a preservative which prevents the treatment from being contaminated. It also stabilizes the product over time. ...
Benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, is a colourless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. Benzoic acid occurs ... naturally free and bound as benzoic acid es ... Benzoic Acid Production Business. Profitable Business Ideas in ... Acid, #Benzoic_Acid, #Manufacture_of_Benzoic_Acid, #Preparation_of_Benzoic_Acid, #Benzoic_Acid_Production, #Benzoic_Acid_ ... Process for Manufacture of Benzoic Acid, Manufacturing of Benzoic Acid, Benzoic Acid Plant, Benzoic Acid Uses, Benzoic Acid ...
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Partition coefficient of benzoic acid lab report pdf 2019 J. 2 MgBr + CO 2 O (MgBr) O OH O benzoic acid (2) H+ The carbon- ... The concentration of benzoic acid in aqueous, CB = 10.65 mol/m3 Concentration of benzoic acid in kerosene MA = MBVB VA = 30 ( ... The partition coefficient was determined to be 4.5 as the benzoic acid in the organic layer was 40.9mg and the benzoic acid in ... Once the ideal solvent was determined a recovery of 27% or 0.54 grams of Benzoic Acid from 2.0 grams of crude Benzoic Acid mix ...
SSEMEA - 3-(Ethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid (ug/L). Variable Name: SSEMEA. SAS Label: 3-(Ethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid (ug/L). ... SSEMEAL - 3-(Ethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid Cmt code. Variable Name: SSEMEAL. SAS Label: 3-(Ethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid Cmt code. ... 3-(Ethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid (ug/L). Target: Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS. Code or Value. Value Description. ... 3-(Ethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid Cmt code. Target: Both males and females 3 YEARS - 150 YEARS. Code or Value. Value Description. ...
  • Discussion and conclusions: For my result, the calculated partition coefficient of benzoic acid was 1. (stickycompany.com)
  • In the first lab period, a simple liquid to liquid extraction was done for the determination of a partition coefficient of benzoic acid. (ukessays.com)
  • It is the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, is a colourless crystalline solid and the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid. (entrepreneurindia.co)
  • Benzoic acid is an organic compound because it contains carbon and it is also an aromatic carboxylic acid. (crestpainting.net)
  • Email: [email protected], Maestro Soccer The carboxylic acid used in this experiment is acetic acid and isopentyl alcohol, the WebThe accoster is taking a substance. (crestpainting.net)
  • disputed - discuss] Benzoic acid is produced commercially by partial oxidation of toluene with oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • evaporation of 1mL toluene yielded 0.030g of benzoic acid. (stickycompany.com)
  • WebSynthesis of benzoic acid (Oxidation of toluene) Random Experiments Int. The crystals are then washed with cold water and dried. (crestpainting.net)
  • Stoeger Firearms Catalog, WebThe peroxide solution and trimethylacetic acid also act as good oxidising agent for toluene to form benzoic acid. (crestpainting.net)
  • The reaction is quite slow if the side chain is a simple alkyl gro Running head: SYNTHESIS OF BENZOIC ACID 1 Synthesis of Benzoic Acid Simon C. Kahwaji (CIN: Benzoic acid can be made very easily from toluene. (crestpainting.net)
  • Scheme SM 9.2.3.1- Reaction scheme for the synthesis of phosphonium salt ].Benzoic acid can be prepared in the home lab through the oxidation of toluene using Potassium (ii) The hydrogen sulfate ion formed in Step (a) (i) removes a proton from the intermediate, regenerating the aromatic ring and the sulfuric acid catalyst. (crestpainting.net)
  • In 1875 Salkowski discovered the antifungal properties of benzoic acid, which was used for a long time in the preservation of benzoate-containing cloudberry fruits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting calcium benzoate is converted to benzoic acid with hydrochloric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficacy of benzoic acid and benzoate is thus dependent on the pH of the food. (wikipedia.org)
  • The selection of phenyl carboxylate side groups included benzoate, p -cyanobenzoate, meta/para-methoxybenzoates, and different vanillic acid esters. (lu.se)
  • Benzoic acid and benzoate are used to preserve acidified food products such as fruit juice, pickles (vinegar), sparkling drinks, etc. as the efficacy of both of them depends on the pH of food. (entrepreneurindia.co)
  • Benzoic acid is extensively used to manufacture sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate which are also known as its derivatives. (entrepreneurindia.co)
  • Increasing demand for the replacement of phthalate plasticizers by benzoate plasticizers for different applications is likely to drive the demand for Benzoic acid market. (entrepreneurindia.co)
  • Details for: Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate. (who.int)
  • The product contains significant amounts of chlorinated benzoic acid derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzyl alcohol and benzyl chloride and virtually all benzyl derivatives are readily oxidized to benzoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzoic acid, benzoates and their derivatives are used as preservatives for acidic foods and beverages such as citrus fruit juices (citric acid), sparkling drinks (carbon dioxide), soft drinks (phosphoric acid), pickles (vinegar) and other acidified foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, we show that benzoic acid derivatives isolated from Bjerkandera adusta promote the activity of the two main protein degradation systems, namely the ubiquitin-proteasome (UPP) and especially the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) in human foreskin fibroblasts. (mdpi.com)
  • The acidity of benzoic acid $(\ce{C6H5-COOH})$ and its substituted derivatives, $\ce{R-C6H4-COOH}$ $(e.g., \ \ce{4-NO2-C6H4-COOH})$ have been studied extensively using the Hammett Equation. (stackexchange.com)
  • Similarly, acetic acid $(\ce{CH3-COOH})$ and its substituted derivatives, $\ce{R-CH2-COOH}$ $(e.g., \ \ce{Cl-CH2-COOH})$ have been studied extensively as well using similar Hammett Equation. (stackexchange.com)
  • These latter also investigated how hippuric acid is related to benzoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It often is conjugated to glycine in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid. (entrepreneurindia.co)
  • I think with benzoic/formic acid it gets very messy because there are significant effects arising from solvation and it might not be easiest to compare these solely based on electronic effects. (stackexchange.com)
  • Highlighted with 27 tables and 59 figures, this 112-page report "Asia Pacific Organic Acid Biocides Market 2020-2030 by Product Type (Formic Acid, Lactic Acid, Ascorbic Acid, Propionic Acid, Benzoic Acid), Application, and Country: Trend Forecast and Growth Opportunity" is based on a comprehensive research of the entire Asia Pacific organic acid biocides market and all its sub-segments through extensively detailed classifications. (taiwannews.com.tw)
  • cyanobenzoate, meta/para-methoxybenzoates, and different vanillic acid esters. (lu.se)
  • Benzoic acid occurs naturally free and bound as benzoic acid esters in many plant and animal species. (entrepreneurindia.co)
  • These plasticizers, which are used similarly to those derived from terephthalic acid ester, represent alternatives to phthalates. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 In this experiment, we will demonstrate a method of determining the partition coefficient, specifically benzoic acid.This experiment uses the separation technique of acid-base extraction as well as liquid to liquid extraction to partition benzoic acid between equal amounts of methylene chloride and water by taking advantage of the ionizability. (ukessays.com)
  • After the evaporation, the vial was reweighed to determine the weight of the benzoic acid extracted into the original methylene chloride layer (40.9mg). (ukessays.com)
  • Benzoic acid is a fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. (entrepreneurindia.co)
  • Benzoic acid when used as a preservative is added with a concentration of 0.05-0.1% to the food products. (entrepreneurindia.co)
  • Benzoic acid is a preservative which prevents the treatment from being contaminated. (omycosmetics.com)
  • Calculate the distribution coefficient (Concentration of benzoic acid in dichloromethane: Concentration of benzoic acid in aqueous layer [/b] Using: molecular weight of benzoic acid=122 Concentration 2.4g/L. Shake and drain off the lower DCM layer. (stickycompany.com)
  • Concern has been expressed that benzoic acid and its salts may react with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in some soft drinks, forming small quantities of carcinogenic benzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The benzoic acid market is projected to grow from USD 1,009.9 Million in 2018 to USD 1,313.5 Million by 2023, at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2018 to 2023. (entrepreneurindia.co)
  • Report Ocean has recently published a new report titled " Asia Pacific Organic Acid Biocides Market " 2023, which outlines the regional and global markets that are predicted to experience significant growth between 2023 and 2031. (taiwannews.com.tw)
  • Production of phenol involves the use of benzoic acid. (crestpainting.net)
  • Please explain the Chemical Tests To Distinguish Between Phenol and Benzoic Acid? (learncbse.in)
  • Neutral FeCl 3 test: Phenol produces violet colouration while benzoic acid won't. (learncbse.in)
  • Benzoic acid /bɛnˈzoʊ.ɪk/ is a white (or colorless) solid organic compound with the formula C6H5COOH, whose structure consists of a benzene ring (C6H6) with a carboxyl (−C(=O)OH) substituent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other nitriles and amides, benzonitrile and benzamide can be hydrolyzed to benzoic acid or its conjugate base in acid or basic conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In benzoic acid, you have the resonance being the dominating effect, destabilizing a conjugate base anion. (stackexchange.com)
  • Benzoic acid is an important precursor for the industrial synthesis of many other organic substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential benefits of bioactive plant substances and organic acids for domestic animals include promoting nutrient absorption and digestion, improving animal growth performance, and promoting intestine health and immune status ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The partition coefficient was determined to be 4.5 as the benzoic acid in the organic layer was 40.9mg and the benzoic acid in the aqueous layer was 9.1mg. (stickycompany.com)
  • Asia Pacific organic acid biocides market will grow by 7.1% annually with a total addressable market cap of $10.05 billion over 2020-2030 owing to the rising need of organic acid biocides in various industry verticals. (taiwannews.com.tw)
  • resulting in a large market for Asia Pacific Organic Acid Biocides Market . (taiwannews.com.tw)
  • The balanced (most likely) projection is used to quantify organic acid biocides market in every aspect of the classification from perspectives of Product Type, Application, and Region. (taiwannews.com.tw)
  • After WebView Lab Report - Synthesis of Benzoic Acid.docx from CHEM 1110 at California State University, Los Angeles. (crestpainting.net)
  • You weight out exactly 1.00 mg of benzoic acid and dissolve it in a mixture of 2.0 mL of diethyl ether and 2.0 mL of water. (stickycompany.com)
  • The mechanism starts with the absorption of benzoic acid into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Spectral Report Form, identify: the -OH absorption the C=O absorption absorptions characteristic of an aromatic ring Analyze the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of benzoic acid which appears on the next page, and fill out the Spectra Report Form. (crestpainting.net)
  • To better understand exposure to DEET we measured one DEET metabolite, 3-(ethylcarbamoyl)benzoic acid in a one-third subsample of participants 3+ years of age from NHANES 2015-2016. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzoic acid occurs naturally in many plants and serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzoic acid and its salts are used as food preservatives, represented by the E numbers E210, E211, E212, and E213. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiment 2: Extraction Discussion In the Part A of the experiment, the Kd (distribution coefficient) of benzoic acid between MtBE and water was calculated to be 28.6. (stickycompany.com)
  • EXPERIMENT 6 - Extraction of Benzoic Acid - Determination of Distribution Coefficient To print or download this file, click the link below: 2423L6.pdf PDF document, 150 KB (154502 bytes) In the first section of the lab, we successfully determined the partition coefficient through a liquid to liquid extraction. (stickycompany.com)
  • Analyze the IR spectrum of benzoic acid which you obtained in the laboratory. (stickycompany.com)
  • 1 augustine adu-knust e-mail:[email protected] kwame nkrumah university of science and technology, kumasi knust college of science department of chemistry analytical laboratory report title: determination of the equilibrium constant for the formation of tri-iodide ion (i3-) name: augustine adu date: 23rd september, 2014 e-mail :[email protected] particles of benzoic acid polydisperse mixture. (stickycompany.com)
  • Second extraction: extract 50.0 mL aqueous benzoic acid with two 5.0 mL portions of DCM. (stickycompany.com)
  • The second lab period was an acid-base extraction of benzoic acid. (ukessays.com)
  • Macleaya cordata extract or benzoic acid have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities that makes them potential antibiotic alternatives. (frontiersin.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of feed supplemented with Macleaya cordata extract and benzoic acid on growth performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and microflora in weaned piglets. (frontiersin.org)
  • Twenty-four weaned piglets [Duroc × (Large White × Landrace)] 28 days of age and weighing 8.41 ± 0.13 kg were randomly divided in equal numbers ( n = 8) into three groups fed a basal diet (CON), CON + 20 mg/kg flavomycin + 50 mg/kg quinocetone (AGP), or CON + 50 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract + 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (MB). (frontiersin.org)
  • But there's good news: Stache has discovered a new path for polystyrene waste that includes being upcycled into benzoic acid, a chemical with wide commercial demand, through a mild process that uses light, an oxygen-rich environment and an abundant iron-based catalyst. (sflorg.com)
  • Electrodeposition of silver amalgam particles (AgAPs) on various substrates represents a prospective approach to the development of a novel detection system applicable in the study of various electrochemically active substances, including nucleic acids and proteins. (researchgate.net)
  • The benzoyl group is often abbreviated "Bz" (not to be confused with "Bn" which is used for benzyl), thus benzoic acid is also denoted as BzOH, since the benzoyl group has the formula -C6H5CO. (wikipedia.org)
  • It efficiently produces benzoic acid, a product stocked in undergraduate and high school chemistry labs and also used in fragrances, food preservatives, and other ubiquitous products. (sflorg.com)
  • Benzoic Acid Salicylic Acid Lotion suppliers and exporters can order different strengths of this lotion in India containing the active ingredients in the proportionate quantities to Cbdnj Pharma. (cbdnj.shop)
  • With the talent and Excellence of our competent Pharma team, Cbdnj Pharma are engaged in Manufacturing, Exporting and Supplying of Benzoic Acid Salicylic Acid Lotion with its supreme quality. (cbdnj.shop)
  • Cbdnj Pharma's Benzoic Acid Salicylic Acid Lotion contains Benzoic Acid and Salicylic Acid as active ingredients. (cbdnj.shop)
  • The following are list of possible side-effects that may occur after using of Benzoic Acid Salicylic Acid Lotion. (cbdnj.shop)
  • Salicylic acid 5% in fixed-combination with urea 10% is used to soften and control growth of calluses. (drugs.com)
  • For self-medication , apply topically using appropriate preparation containing salicylic acid 1.8-3% to affected areas of skin and/or scalp. (drugs.com)
  • For self-medication , apply topically using appropriate preparation containing salicylic acid 12-40% (in plaster) or 12-17.6% (in collodion-like vehicle). (drugs.com)
  • Kerasal foot ointment (salicylic acid 5% in combination with urea 10%): Gently massage into skin until fully absorbed. (drugs.com)
  • For self-medication , apply topically using appropriate preparation containing salicylic acid 12-40% (in plaster), 5-17% (in collodion-like vehicle), or 15% (in karaya gum-glycol plaster vehicle). (drugs.com)
  • Salicylic acid 27.5 or 28.5% solution: Prior to application, soak wart in warm water for 5 minutes. (drugs.com)
  • and is derived from salicylic acid. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Salts of benzoic acid are used as food preservatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leavening agents that release acids when they are heated react with baking soda to help biscuits, cakes, and other baked goods rise. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Benzoic acid is cheap and readily available, so the laboratory synthesis of benzoic acid is mainly practiced for its pedagogical value. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzoic acid has the advantage that it does not affect the odor or taste of the soft drink, if used in small quantities. (entrepreneurindia.co)
  • Foods in which benzoic acid may be used and maximum levels for its application are controlled by local food laws. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain additives help change the acid-base balance of foods to get a certain flavor or color. (medlineplus.gov)