Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Ethers, Cyclic: Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.Khellin: A vasodilator that also has bronchodilatory action. It has been employed in the treatment of angina pectoris, in the treatment of asthma, and in conjunction with ultraviolet light A, has been tried in the treatment of vitiligo. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1024)Psoralea: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of psoralen (FICUSIN).Amiodarone: An antianginal and class III antiarrhythmic drug. It increases the duration of ventricular and atrial muscle action by inhibiting POTASSIUM CHANNELS and VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. There is a resulting decrease in heart rate and in vascular resistance.Dipterocarpaceae: A plant family of the order Theales.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Dictionaries, MedicalCoal Tar: A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Cyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Mescaline: Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.IndolizinesNitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.ThiophenesHeterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Histamine H3 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.Receptors, Histamine H3: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Drug Inverse Agonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that bind to the same receptor binding-site as an agonist (DRUG AGONISM) for that receptor but exerts the opposite pharmacological effect.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)MaleimidesUridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Receptors, Histamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.Heliotropium: A plant genus in the family Boraginaceae, order Lamiales, subclass Asteridae. This is the True Heliotrope that should not be confused with an unrelated plant sometimes called Garden Heliotrope (VALERIAN).Receptors, Catecholamine: Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway.Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.

Beneficial effects of raxofelast (IRFI 016), a new hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidant, in carrageenan-induced pleurisy. (1/1327)

1. Peroxynitrite is a strong oxidant that results from reaction between NO and superoxide. It has been recently proposed that peroxynitrite plays a pathogenetic role in inflammatory processes. Here we have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of raxofelast, a new hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidant agent, in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. 2. In vivo treatment with raxofelast (5, 10, 20 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneally 5 min before carrageenan) prevented in a dose dependent manner carrageenan-induced pleural exudation and polymorphonuclear migration in rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, as well as histological organ injury were significantly reduced by raxofelast. 3. Immunohistochemical analysis for nitrotyrosine, a footprint of peroxynitrite, revealed a positive staining in lungs from carrageenan-treated rats. No positive nitrotyrosine staining was found in the lungs of the carrageenan-treated rats, which received raxofelast (20 mg kg 1) treatment. 4. Furthermore, in vivo raxofelast (5, 10, 20 mg kg(-1)) treatment significantly reduced peroxynitrite formation as measured by the oxidation of the fluorescent dihydrorhodamine 123, prevented the appearance of DNA damage, the decrease in mitochondrial respiration and partially restored the cellular level of NAD+ in ex vivo macrophages harvested from the pleural cavity of rats subjected to carrageenan-induced pleurisy. 5. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that raxofelast, a new hydrophilic vitamin E-like antioxidant agent, exerts multiple protective effects in carrageenan-induced acute inflammation.  (+info)

Phase I study of Carzelesin (U-80,244) given (4-weekly) by intravenous bolus schedule. (2/1327)

Carzelesin is a cyclopropylpyrroloindole analogue which acts as a DNA-sequence-specific alkylating agent. In this phase I study, Carzelesin was given as a 4-weekly 10 min i.v. infusion to 51 patients with advanced solid tumours. Patients received a median of two courses (range 1-5) at one of nine dose levels: 24, 48, 96, 130, 150, 170, 210, 250 and 300 microg m(-2). According to NCI-CTC criteria, non-haematological toxicities (grade 1/2) included fever, nausea and vomiting, mucositis and anorexia, none of which was clearly dose related. The dose-limiting toxicity was haematological and consisted mainly of neutropenia and to a lesser extent thrombocytopenia. From the dose level 150 microg m(-2), the haematological toxicity (particularly thrombocytopenia) was delayed in onset, prolonged and cumulative in some patients. In several courses, double WBC nadirs occurred. The maximum tolerated dose for a single course was 300 microg m(-2). From the dose level 170 microg m(-2), the intended dose intensity could not be delivered to most patients receiving > 2 courses owing to cumulative haematological toxicity. The dose level with the best dose intensity for multiple courses was 150 microg m(-2). The pharmacokinetics of Carzelesin and its metabolites (U-76,073; U-76,074) have been established in 31 patients during the first course of treatment using a HPLC method. Carzelesin exhibited linear pharmacokinetics. The concentration of U-76,074 (active metabolite) extended above the lower limit of quantitation (1 ng ml(-1)) for short periods of time and only at the higher dose levels. There was no relationship between neutropenia and the AUC of the prodrug Carzelesin, but the presence of detectable plasma levels of the active metabolite U-76,074 was usually associated with a substantial decrease in ANC values.  (+info)

Identification of SK-951, a novel benzofuran derivative, as an agonist to 5-HT4 receptors. (3/1327)

The pharmacological profile of SK-951 ((-)4-amino-N-[2-(1-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octan-5-yl) ethyl]-5-chloro-2,3-dihydro-2-methylbenzo[b]furan-7-carboxamide hemifumarate) was identified in relation to serotonin 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors by the receptor binding assay and functional studies. The receptor binding assay showed that SK-951 bound to the 5-HT3 receptor with a high affinity, to the 5-HT4 receptor with relatively higher affinity and to the muscarinic M2 receptor with a low affinity, but not to dopamine D1 and D2 and serotonin 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 and muscarinic M1 and M3 receptors. SK-951 caused relaxations of tunica muscularis mucosae preparations from rat esophagus which were precontracted with carbachol, and the effects were antagonized by GR113808, a selective 5-HT4 antagonist. In the longitudinal muscle with myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparations from guinea pig ileum, SK-951 enhanced the electrically-stimulated contraction of preparations in which the 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors were blocked, and it enhanced the electrically-stimulated release of [3H]acetylcholine (ACh). These effects of SK-951 were antagonized by GR113808. SK-951 inhibited the 5-HT3 receptor-mediated contractions. These results indicate that SK-951 possesses properties of an agonist for the 5-HT4 receptor and an antagonist for the 5-HT3 receptor. Thus, SK-951 is a new and potent 5-HT4-receptor agonist and causes contractions of guinea pig ileum mediated by enhancement of ACh release via the 5-HT4 receptor.  (+info)

Selective stimulation of colonic transit by the benzofuran 5HT4 agonist, prucalopride, in healthy humans. (4/1327)

BACKGROUND: Prucalopride (R093877) is a selective and specific 5HT4 agonist, the first of a new chemical class of benzofurans, with gastrointestinal prokinetic activities in vitro. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of prucalopride on gastrointestinal and colonic transit. METHODS: A validated scintigraphic technique was used to measure gastrointestinal and colonic transit over 48 hours in 50 healthy volunteers. For seven days, each subject received a daily dose of 0. 5, 1, 2, or 4 mg prucalopride, or placebo in a double blind, randomised fashion. The transit test was performed over the last 48 hours. RESULTS: There were significant accelerations of overall colonic transit at 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours (p<0.05) and proximal colonic emptying t1/2 (p<0.05). The 0.5, 2, and 4 mg doses of prucalopride were almost equally effective and accelerated colonic transit compared with placebo. Prucalopride did not significantly alter gastric emptying (p>0.5) or small bowel transit (overall p=0. 12). The medication appeared to be well tolerated during the seven day treatment of healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: Prucalopride accelerates colonic transit, partly by stimulating proximal colonic emptying, but does not alter gastric or small bowel transit in healthy human subjects. Prucalopride deserves further study in patients with constipation.  (+info)

Simultaneous SPECT studies of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine binding sites in baboons. (5/1327)

The central nervous system dopamine transporters (DATs) and dopamine D2/D3 receptors are implicated in a variety of neurological disorders. Both sites are also targets for drug treatment. With the successful development of [99mTc]TRODAT-1, single-isotope imaging studies using this ligand for DAT imaging can be complemented by additional use of 123I-labeled D2/D3 receptor ligand co-injected to assess both pre- and postsynaptic sites of the dopaminergic system simultaneously. METHODS: Twelve SPECT scans of the brain were obtained in two baboons after intravenous administration of 740 MBq (20 mCi) [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 (technetium, [2-[[2-[[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]oct-2-yl]methyl ](2-mercaptoethyl) amino]ethyl]-amino]ethanethiolato (3-)]- oxo-[1R-(exo-exo)]) and 185 MBq (5 mCi) [123I]iodobenzamide or [123I]iodobenzofuran. SPECT data were acquired by a triple-head gamma camera equipped with ultra-high-resolution fanbeam collimators (scan duration = 210 min). Two sets of SPECT data were obtained using energy windows of 15% centered on 140 keV for 99mTc and 10% asymmetric with a lower bound at 159 keV for 123I. After coregistration with MRI, region-of-interest analysis was performed using predefined templates from coregistered MRI. In blocking studies, baboons were pretreated with N-methyl-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT, 14 mg) or raclopride (14 mg) to block DAT or D2/D3 binding site, respectively. RESULTS: Image quality of dual-isotope studies was similar to that obtained from single-isotope studies. When one site was blocked with CFT or raclopride, the binding of the respective ligand to the other site was not affected. CONCLUSION: This is the first example that clearly demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous imaging of both pre- and postsynaptic sites of the dopaminergic system in baboons with dual-isotope SPECT studies. With or without corrections for cross-contamination of 123I into the 99mTc window, striatum-to-cerebellum ratios (target-to-nontarget) of dual-isotope experiments did not differ significantly from single-isotope experiments. This method may be a valuable and cost-effective tool for gaining comprehensive information about the dopaminergic system in one SPECT imaging session.  (+info)

Affinity isolation of imidazoline binding proteins from rat brain using 5-amino-efaroxan as a ligand. (6/1327)

We have employed an amino derivative of the imidazoline ligand, efaroxan, to isolate imidazoline binding proteins from solubilised extracts of rat brain, by affinity chromatography. A number of proteins were specifically retained on the affinity column and one of these was immunoreactive with an antiserum raised against the ion conducting pore component of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Patch clamp experiments confirmed that, like its parent compound, amino-efaroxan blocks ATP-sensitive potassium channels in human pancreatic beta-cells and can stimulate the insulin secretion from these cells. The results reveal that a member of the ion conducting pore component family is strongly associated with imidazoline binding proteins in brain and in the endocrine pancreas.  (+info)

Reactivity of Cl-P(+)-Cl toward cyclic organic ethers. (7/1327)

The dichlorophosphenium ion (Cl-P(+)-Cl) undergoes a variety of reactions with cyclic organic ethers in the gas phase in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Most of the reactions are initiated by Cl-P(+)-Cl-induced heterolytic C-O bond cleavage. However, the observed final products depend on the exact structure of the ether. For saturated ethers, e.g., tetrahydropyran, tetrahydrofuran, and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, the most abundant ionic product corresponds to hydroxide abstraction by Cl-P(+)-Cl. This unexpected reaction is rationalized by a multistep mechanism that involves an initial heterolytic C-O bond cleavage accompanied by a 1,2-hydride shift, and that ultimately yields a resonance-stabilized allyl cation and HOPCl2. The process is estimated to be highly exothermic (AM1 calculations yield delta H = -(33-38) kcal mol(-1) for the ethers mentioned above). However, the adducts formed from most of the unsaturated ethers are unable to undergo hydride shifts and hence cannot react via this pathway. In some of these cases, e.g., for 2,5-dihydrofuran and 2,5-dihydro-3,4-benzofuran, the C-O bond heterolysis is followed by oxygen/chlorine exchange to yield the O=PCl radical and a resonance-stabilized carbocation (AM1 calculations yield delta H = -14 kcal mol(-1) for the reaction of 2,5-dihydro-3,4-benzofuran). Hydride abstraction by Cl-P(+)-Cl also yields an abundant product for these two ethers. On the other hand, the ethers with low ionization energies, such as 2,3-dihydrofuran and 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, react with Cl-P(+)-Cl by electron transfer. Finally, a unique pathway, addition followed by elimination of HCl, dominates the reaction with furan. The observed reactions are rationalized by thermochemical data obtained from semiempirical molecular orbital calculations.  (+info)

Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from soils inoculated with Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. (8/1327)

Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) (10 ppm each) from soil microcosms to final concentrations in the parts-per-billion range was affected by the addition of Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. Rates and extents of removal were influenced by the density of RW1 organisms. For 2-CDD, the rate of removal was dependent on the content of soil organic matter (SOM), with half-life values ranging from 5.8 h (0% SOM) to 26.3 h (5.5% SOM).  (+info)

Define benzofuran. benzofuran synonyms, benzofuran pronunciation, benzofuran translation, English dictionary definition of benzofuran. n. A colorless liquid, C8H6O, found in coal tar and used to make thermoplastic resins for paints and varnishes. Also called coumarone . n a colourless...
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a family of organic compounds with one or several of the hydrogens in the dibenzofuran structure replaced by chlorines. For example, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) has chlorine atoms substituted for each of the hydrogens on the number 2, 3, 7, and 8 carbons (see structure in the upper left corner of the second image). Polychlorinated dibenzofurans are much more toxic than the parent compounds, with properties and chemical structures similar to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. These groups together are often inaccurately called dioxins. They are known teratogens, mutagens, and suspected human carcinogens. PCDFs tend to co-occur with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). PCDFs can be formed by pyrolysis or incineration at temperatures below 1200 °C of chlorine containing products, such as PVC, PCBs, and other organochlorides, or of non-chlorine containing products in the presence of chlorine donors. Dibenzofurans are known persistent organic ...
The domino three-component coupling reaction of arynes with DMF and active methylenes or methines was studied as a highly efficient method for preparing heterocycles. Coumarin derivative 5 was formed when diethyl malonate (2) or α-bromomalonate (3) were used as a C2-unit. In contrast, dihydrobenzofurans 7a and 7b were obtained by using α-chloroenolates generated from α-chloromalonates 4a and 4b and Et2Zn. The benzofuran 15a could be obtained by using ethyl iodoacetate (14) as a C1-unit. The one-pot conversion of dihydrobenzofurans 7a, 7b and 8a into benzofurans 15a and 15b was also studied. The direct synthesis of benzofuran 15b was achieved by using the active methine 18 having ketone and ester groups.
Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in humans: the role of cytochrome P450s and alcohol dehydrogenase in biotransformation. - Xingxing Diao, Pan Deng, Cen Xie, Xiuli Li, Dafang Zhong, Yifan Zhang, Xiaoyan Chen
Article Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo‐P‐dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA. Concentrations of poly...
Bioactivation of 3-n-butylphthalide via sulfation of its major metabolite 3-hydroxy-NBP: mediated mainly by sulfotransferase 1A1. - Xingxing Diao, Xiaoyan Pang, Cen Xie, Zitao Guo, Dafang Zhong, Xiaoyan Chen
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Earlier, we reported on the design of sulfated benzofuran dimers (SBDs) as allosteric inhibitors of thrombin (Sidhu et al. J. Med. Chem.201154 5522-5531). To identify the site of binding of SBDs, we studied thrombin inhibition in the presence of exosite 1 and 2 ligands. Whereas hirudin peptide and heparin octasaccharide did not affect the IC(50) of thrombin inhibition by a high affinity SBD, the presence of full-length heparin reduced inhibition potency by 4-fold. The presence of γ fibrinogen peptide, which recognizes Arg93, Arg97, Arg173, Arg175, and other residues, resulted in a loss of affinity that correlated with the ideal Dixon-Webb competitive profile. Replacement of several arginines and lysines of exosite 2 with alanine did not affect thrombin inhibition potency, except for Arg173, which displayed a 22-fold reduction in IC(50). Docking studies suggested a hydrophobic patch around Arg173 as a plausible site of SBD binding to thrombin. The absence of the Arg173-like residue in factor Xa ...
The subject of the invention is benzofuran, benzothiophene, indole or indolizine compounds of general formula: ##STR1## in which: Het represents one of the groups: ##STR2## in which T,T and Treprese
80592-86-5 - ZLZINPAIXXXARB-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Benzofuran, 5-bromo-2-(diethylaminomethyl)-3-phenyl- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Experimental studies have shown that dioxin-like chemicals may interfere with aspects of the endocrine system including growth. However, human background population studies are, however, scarce. We aimed to investigate whether early exposure of healthy infants to dioxin-like chemicals was associated …
A total number of 120 healthy subjects (with an approximate 1:1 female:male ratio) are planned to be randomised.. Day 1: a baseline ECG profile. Day 1: Group 1 will receive prucalopride, Group 2a will receive moxifloxacin, and Group 2b will receive placebo.. On Day 5 (steady-state level is reached), a full ECG assessment day will be performed, enabling the comparison of prucalopride 2 mg with placebo.. Subsequently, the number of tablets will be escalated in all groups (blinded) with 1 tablet a day up to 5 tablets.. On Day 13 (steady state for the supratherapeutic dose level of 10 mg of prucalopride) another ECG assessment day will be performed, enabling a comparison of prucalopride 10 mg with placebo.. Group 2b will receive a single dose of moxifloxacin on Day 15. All subjects will be discharged on Day 16. Subjects will remain in the CRU throughout the treatment period.. All subjects will return for a follow-up visit on Day 30 (± 1 week) (approximately 14 days after the last dose). ...
Mycoremediation, or fungus-based remediation, is an ex situ form of bioaugmentation, in which hazardous organics are degraded or detoxified by fungi that are introduced into the contaminated soil via a fungal inoculum. Due to the ability of white-rot fungi (WRF) to degrade extremely recalcitrant contaminants (e.g., high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), work on fungus-based remediation has focused on the treatment of soils contaminated with these types of chemicals. In addition, work has progressed on the soil microbiology of mycoremediation and on the development of techniques to monitor the fate of fungi inoculated into soils. Fallout of PCDDs and PCDFs from combustion at incineration facilities has resulted in serious pollution of the surrounding soil environment because of their extremely high persistence and toxicity. Importantly, the extent of the enhancement varied with soil and
Benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid (4-amino-2-methyl-phenyl)-amide 433252-24-5 MSDS report, Benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid (4-amino-2-methyl-phenyl)-amide MSDS safety technical specifications search, Benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid (4-amino-2-methyl-phenyl)-amide safety information specifications ect.
Benzofuran-3(2H)-one 7169-34-8 MSDS report, Benzofuran-3(2H)-one MSDS safety technical specifications search, Benzofuran-3(2H)-one safety information specifications ect.
Svante Arrhenius väg 8, Stockholm. Arrheniuslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16, Stockholm (Unit for Analytical and Toxicological Chemistry). Mailing address: ...
Vizard, C. G., Rimmer, D. L., Pless-Mulloli, T., Singleton, I., & Air, V. S. (2006). Identifying contemporary and historic sources of soil polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in an industrial urban setting. Science of the Total Environment, 370(1), 61 - 69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.06.006. ...
We have developed a one-step synthesis of benzofurans from o-iodophenol and various terminal alkynes, by using Pd catalyst supported on nano-sized carbon balls (NCB) under copper- and ligand free conditions. This recyclable catalyst could be reused more than 5 times in the same heteroannulation reaction. The results have demonstrated that diverse 2-substituted benzofurans with tolerant functional groups can be prepared simply and conveniently under these conditions ...
Exposure to chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) (75 chemicals) occurs mainly from eating food that contains the chemicals. One chemical in this group, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin or 2,3,7,8-TCDD, has been shown to be very toxic in animal studies. It causes effects on the skin and may cause cancer in people. This chemical has been found in at least 91 of 1,467 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 6-methoxy-3-methyl-n-phenyl-n-[3-(1-piperidinyl)propyl]-1-benzofuran-2-carboxamide (C25H30N2O3) from the PQR.
N-(2-Fluorophenyl)-4-[5-[(3-methyl-1-benzofuran-2-carbonyl)amino]pyridin-2-yl]piperazine-1-carboxamide | C26H24FN5O3 | CID 52917631 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
1-[(5-Nitro-2-phenyl-1-benzofuran-3-yl)methyl]piperidine | C20H20N2O3 | CID 558839 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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4B11: Design and Synthesis of Inhibitors of Plasmodium Falciparum N-Myristoyltransferase, a Promising Target for Anti-Malarial Drug Discovery.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yibin Xiang, Bradford Hirth, Gary Asmussen, Hans-Peter Biemann, Kimberly A Bishop, Andrew Good, Maria Fitzgerald, Tatiana Gladysheva, Annuradha Jain, Katherine Jancsics, Jinyu Liu, Markus Metz, Andrew Papoulis, Renato Skerlj, J David Stepp, Ronnie R Wei].
I knew an old boy who mounted a barrel behind the axle on his old Farmall so he could take his kid to the field with him and not worry about losing him to a tragic run-over accident. I bet he knew someone who lost a child that way. When riding the fender, axle, or a parents lap, a kid can fall forward and be run over by the rear wheel of a tractor. It does happen! Passengers should not be riding on tractors unless modifiations are added to make it safe. Families never really recover from tragedies that kill their kids, and the emergency personnel that have to clean up the aftermath carry those images in their heads, too. Kids are precious, and cant be replaced, so dont do what this guy is doing, and that goes for your riding lawnmower, too ...
The Yankees have decided, as expected, to start the ALDS on Wednesday instead of Thursday to get the day of rest between Game 1 and 2.. As for the rotation, it will be CC Sabathia in Game 1 followed by A.J. Burnett and Andy Pettitte. Thats a little bit of a surprise considering Burnett would get the nod for Game 5 instead of Pettitte who has always been a big-game pitcher for the Yankees.. However, Burnett is pretty comfortable at home and Pettitte doesnt get rattled on the road.. ...
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
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Danshensu (DSU) and salvianolic acid B (SAB) are the primary water-soluble compounds of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae). In this study, we analyzed the effects of DSU, SAB and a S. miltiorrhiza extract (SME) on cell proliferation. Additionally, the effects of DSU and SAB on collagen synthesis in Detroit 551 human normal fibroblast cells and on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells were verified. The results demonstrated that SME can enhance the proliferation of Detroit 551 cells and that this boost may be caused by DSU and SAB. This research showed that SME, DSU and SAB all have the ability to increase the production of collagen in Detroit 551 cells. The results also confirmed that DSU and SAB can attenuate the α-MSH-stimulated melanin production of B16 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase activity. Therefore, SME, DSU and SAB each have the potential to be utilized as active ingredients in wound healing or cosmetic treatments. In the future, DSU and SAB could also be used as functional components
Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), an antioxidant and free radical scavenging compound, is the most abundant bioactive compound extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.
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ABSTRACTThe annual variations of wet deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere were measured at two sites (A and B) near two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in southern Taiwan. Results showed that particle scavenging dominates in the wet deposition processes for the removal of PCDD/Fs from the atmosphere, the highest value was observed at the highest chlorinated congener. The ambient temperature and the amount of precipitation played an important role in the variation of PCDD/F deposition fluxes. It was found that temperature was inversely associated with the existence of particulate PCDD/Fs, indicating PCDD/Fs are scavenged most efficiently in cold weather. PCDD/F wet deposition fluxes in rainy seasons (from June to August) were significantly higher than those in dry seasons (from December to February), revealing a positive relationship between wet deposition flux and monthly rainfall. Additionally, the annual total (dry + wet) deposition
Results of recent studies showed that 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are equipotent in domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) while PeCDF is more potent than TCDD in ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). To elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying these differences in relative potency of PeCDF among avian species, we tested the hypothesis that this is due to species-specific differential binding affinity of PeCDF to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1). Here, we modified a cell-based binding assay that allowed us to measure the binding affinity of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) to avian AHR1 expressed in COS-7 (fibroblast-like cells). The results of the binding assay show that PeCDF and TCDD bind with equal affinity to chicken AHR1, but PeCDF binds with greater affinity than TCDD to pheasant (3-fold) and Japanese quail (5-fold) AHR1. The current report introduces a COS-7 whole-cell binding ...
In vitro analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) cellular toxicity in PLC/PRF/5 cell proliferation--the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid, inchin-gorei-san and shou-saiko-to on cell toxicity.
Mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been shown to be useful in the analysis of environmental samples for low (ppt) levels of compounds like polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in cases where interfering materials present in the samples made analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) difficult or impossible. While the technique shows promise because of its high selectivity, researchers have reported stability problems with mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry instruments and other questions regarding the reproducibility of analytical results exist. This study was undertaken to develop an MS/MS method for the analysis of PCDD/Fs, determine the stability of an MS/MS instrument over a period of months and to compare analytical results obtained by MS/MS with those obtained by HRMS. The results demonstrated that by following the protocol developed in the study, an MS/MS instrument can generate reproducible analytical results over a period of months and ...
Title: Dronedarone: A Safety Comparison to Amiodarone. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):James R. Clem, Debra K. Farver, Janet R. Fischer and Thomas J. Johnson. Affiliation:South Dakota State University College of Pharmacy, 4801 North Career Avenue, Sioux Falls, SD 57107, USA.. Keywords:Dronedarone, SR 33589, amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, safety. Abstract: Dronedarone is an oral Class III antiarrhythmic agent which was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in nonpermanent atrial fibrillation. Structurally similar to amiodarone, dronedarone is a benzofuran derivative but it lacks the iodine moiety attached to amiodarone. Based upon the investigational clinical trials to date, it appears that dronedarone has an established efficacy when compared to placebo along with exhibiting a minimal adverse effect profile. The efficacy of dronedarone will need to be further evaluated in comparison trials with established antiarrhythmics for atrial fibrillation. The adverse profile of ...
NTP MEAN BODY WEIGHTS AND SURVIVAL TABLE REPORT: EISRPT41 LAB: Battelle Columbus TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTOR EVALUATION(PECDF) DATE: 07/14/03 EXPERIMENT: 96007 TEST: 05 TIME: 14:21:29 CAGES FROM 0000 TO LAST CAGE PAGE: 1 TEST TYPE: CHRONIC ROUTE: GAVAGE NTP: C96007F ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ REASONS FOR REMOVAL: ALL REMOVAL DATE RANGE: ALL TREATMENT GROUPS: INCLUDE ALL NTP MEAN BODY WEIGHTS AND SURVIVAL TABLE REPORT: EISRPT41 LAB: BATTELLE COLUMBUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTOR EVALUATION(PECDF) DATE: 07/14/03 EXPERIMENT: 96007 TEST: 05 TIME: 14:35:48 SPECIES: RATS, SPRAGUE-DAWLEY TEST TYPE: TWO YEAR ROUTE: ORAL GAVAGE NTP: 96007F CONT: NO1-ES-75411 CAS: 57117-31-4 MEAN BODY WEIGHTS AND SURVIVAL OF FEMALE RATS IN THE TWO YEAR ORAL GAVAGE STUDY OF TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTOR EVALUATION(PECDF) ...
Other data set: Additional PCB congeners are reported under data file name PCBPOL_F. Among these PCB congeners PCB 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 has a toxic equivalence factor (TEF) and may be used with this data set for calculating a total TCDD equivalence.. Subsample Weights. PCDDs, PCDFs, and cPCBs were measured in a one-third subsample of participants 12 years and older. Special sample weights are required to analyze these data properly. Specific sample weights for this subsample are included in this data file and should be used when analyzing these data.. Samples were pooled in groups of 8 samples per pool within 40 demographic groups. The analysis of NHANES 2009-2010 pooled-sample data must be conducted with the basic demographic variables provided in this data file. This pooled-sample data file cannot be linked to other NHANES 2009-2010 data. Because each sample person does not have an equal probability of selection, sample weighting is needed to produce correct population ...
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The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) has prepared this memo in response to your January 28, 2003, request for guidance on dioxin, as well as to identify a consistent approach for agencies and programs to assess the carcinogenic health risks from exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Guidance for assessing the noncancer health risks is still under development and will not be addressed in this memo. Because of the uncertainties associated with the toxicities of dioxin mixtures, MDH uses a conservative approach to evaluate potential risks. As more data become available, MDH re-evaluates and revises its risk assessment methods and procedures, as appropriate. Dioxin-like Compounds. The term dioxins is used to refer to a family of complex but related chlorinated compounds with similar chemical structures and biological activity. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) include 75 individual compounds, the polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) include 135 individual compounds, and the ...
Usnic acid, a lichen secondary metabolite inhibits Group A Streptococcus biofilms.: Group A Streptococci (GAS) are involved in a number of life threatening dise
NTP Experiment-Test: 96007-05 NEOPLASMS BY INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL Report: PEIRPT04 Study Type: CHRONIC TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTOR EVALUATION(PECDF) Date: 07/14/03 Route: GAVAGE Time: 14:46:46 31 WEEK SSAC RATS Facility: Battelle Columbus Laboratory Chemical CAS #: 57117-31-4 Lock Date: 07/25/02 Cage Range: All Reasons For Removal: 25017 Scheduled Sacrifice Removal Date Range: 11/03/99 - 11/04/99 Treatment Groups: Include All Note: Animals arranged according to CID number Page 1 NTP Experiment-Test: 96007-05 NEOPLASMS BY INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL Report: PEIRPT04 Study Type: CHRONIC TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTOR EVALUATION(PECDF) Date: 07/14/03 Route: GAVAGE Time: 14:46:46 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ , 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, , , DAY ON TEST , 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, , , , 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, , , ...
High levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in edible fish in the Baltic Sea have raised health concerns in the Baltic region and the rest of Europe. Thus, there are urgent needs to characterize sources in order to formulate effective mitigation strategies. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of past and present sources of PCDD/Fs in the Baltic Sea environment by exploring chemical fingerprints in sediments, air, and biota. The spatial and temporal patterns of PCDD/F distributions in the Baltic Sea during the 20th century were studied in Swedish coastal and offshore sediment cores. The results showed that PCDD/F levels peaked in 1975 (± 7 years) in coastal and 1991 (± 5 years) in offshore areas. The time trends of PCDD/Fs in the sediment cores also showed that environmental half-lives of these pollutants have been shorter in coastal than in offshore areas (15 ± 5 and 29 ± 14 years, respectively). Consequently, ...
Salvianolic acid B inhibits growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivovia cyclooxygenase-2 and apoptotic pathways. International Journal of Cancer. Vol.124, No.9 (1 May 2009): 2200-2209. Yubin Hao, Tianpei Xie, Alexandru Korotcov, Yanfei Zhou, Xiaowu Pang, Liang Shan, Hongguang Ji, Rajagopalan Sridhar, Paul Wang, Joseph Califano, Xinbin Gu.. ...
Salvianolic acid B inhibits growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivovia cyclooxygenase-2 and apoptotic pathways. International Journal of Cancer. Vol.124, No.9 (1 May 2009): 2200-2209. Yubin Hao, Tianpei Xie, Alexandru Korotcov, Yanfei Zhou, Xiaowu Pang, Liang Shan, Hongguang Ji, Rajagopalan Sridhar, Paul Wang, Joseph Califano, Xinbin Gu.. ...
The main air pollutants in the sintering process of iron ore are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and harmful dust. Ore sintering on sinter strands is one of the first technology steps in the ironworks. It is a process in which iron ore is crushed, subjected to annealing and mixed with appropriate additives, and then sintered in order to produce sinter which is the main component of iron in the blast furnace process. PCDD/Fs emissions were measured and the addition of ammonium sulfate as an inhibitor of the synthesis of dioxins in the sintering process of iron ore was studied ...
... is a condition caused by poisoning with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). This primarily refers to a specific mass poisoning with PCBs and PCDFs in rice bran oil, which occurred in northern Kyushu, Japan, in 1968. About 14,000 people who had consumed the contaminated rice oil in Japan were affected. Common symptoms included some abnormalities on the skin and eye tissues, irregular menstrual cycles and a lowered immune system. Other symptoms included fatigue, headache, cough, and unusual skin sores. Additionally, in children, there were reports of poor cognitive development.. An almost identical case occurred in Taiwan a decade later in 1979, known as Yu-cheng disease.. ...
Prucalopride is an orally active enterokinetic compound that has been launched as a therapy for laxative-resistant chronic constipation. Prucalopride acts
Single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 33 healthy volunteers with 2 sessions. Each session consisted of a run-in day for baseline assessments, 8 treatment days and 5 additional days for followup assessments. Subjects were randomised to start with either the prucalopride or placebo session. The prucalopride dose was consecutively escalated in 2 mg steps per day, starting from 2 mg up to 10 mg once daily If a subject did not tolerate the 10- or 8-mg dose, 1 step back in the dosage scheme was allowed, from 10 to 8 mg on Day 6, or from 8 to 6 mg on Day 5. Subjects with intolerance for doses of less than 6 mg, were withdrawn from the study. Repeated dosing (6, 8 or 10 mg) was continued once daily until Day 8, to achieve steady-state. During placebo, the number of placebo tablets was consecutively escalated in an identical way as described for prucalopride. Between the 2 sessions, there was a washout period of 14 to 21 days, to avoid any carry-over effect ...
Kombucha contains multiple species of yeast and bacteria, along with the amino acids, enzymes, organic acids and polyphenols they produce.. It is also rich in B-complex vitamins and vitamin C (about 750mg per 500ml - the exact quantities vary between samples.). The chance of contamination by airborne moulds or bacterial spores is very low because of the mild alcoholic element (less than 0.5%) and its acidity; acetic acid, ethanol, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, glycerol, lactic acid and usnic acid. Usnic acid possesses a wide range of intersecting biological properties.. It has been shown to have potent antibiotic effective against harmful bacteria, such as E. Coli, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Pneumococcus ...
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Previous investigations suggest that DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is a promising multifaceted drug for the treatment of stroke. It is not clear whether NBP can treat traumatic brain injury (TBI) and what could be the mechanisms of therapeutic benefits. To address these issues, TBI was induced by a controlled cortical impact in adult male mice. NBP (100 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally administered within 5 min after TBI. One day after TBI, apoptotic events including caspase-3/9 activation, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation into the nucleus in the pericontusion region were attenuated in NBP-treated mice compared to TBI-saline controls. In the assessment of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) pathway, NBP ameliorated the p65 expression and the p-IκB-α/IκB-α ratio, indicating reduced NF-κB activation. Consistently, NBP reduced the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor ...
Italy and #OperationGreenRights are still working on the data, about the chemical agents, contained in the dumps of Ilvas and Riva Groups database (www.ilvataranto.com & www.rivagroup.com). The chemical agents tables, sometimes, are not easy to read, sometimes is not possible to understand which is the real grade of production, of these materials, but is sure that some values are not crossable. Another certain is that these limits are applied by the law. The factories, which produce chemical agents over the limits set by the law, make this work dangerous for all the people who works in these places and for who lives in these cities. The limits are decided by the law, so are not changeable by the owners of these factories. One of the most dangerous chemical agent produced is furan (C4H4O). The furan is an organic persistent enviromental pollutant which naturally becames benzofuran polychlorinated, whom is associated to dioxins. Also normally, the furan is highly volatile close to room ...
ABSTRACT: A new multispored species of Lecanora containing usnic acid, L. weii is described as new to science. A key to the four known multispored speciesof Lecanora in China is also provided. KEYWORDS: Ascomycota, flora of China, lichens, pruinose discs ...
Moura, Jusci ne B. et al. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the organic extract of Cladonia substellata Vainio and usnic acid against Staphylococcus spp. obtained from cats and dogs. Pesq. Vet. Bras., Apr 2017, vol.37, no.4, p.368-378. ISSN 0100- ...
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Biotransformation and biodegradation of chemical compounds are the major processes which determine the fate of organic compounds in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The susceptibility of a...
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Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They are mostly by-products of various industrial processes - or, in case of dioxin-like PCBs and PBBs, part of intentionally produced mixtures. They include: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins. PCDDs are derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxin. There are 75 PCDD congeners, differing in the number and location of chlorine atoms, and seven of them are especially toxic, the most dangerous being 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), or furans. PCDFs are derivatives of dibenzofuran. There are 135 isomers, ten have dioxin-like properties. Polychlorinated/polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs/PBBs), derived from biphenyl, of which twelve are "dioxin-like". Under certain conditions PCBs may form dibenzofurans/dioxins through partial oxidation. Finally, dioxin may refer to 1,4-Dioxin proper, the basic chemical unit of the ...
Since 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) carried out global surveys on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk. This study presents a review of the three most recent surveys from 2000 to 2010, including DDT. The objective was to identify global quantitative differences and provide baseline information for 52 countries or provide time-trends for countries with previous data. Individual human milk samples were collected following a WHO-designed procedure and combined to form a national pooled sample. Here, we report global levels for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and the sum of o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDE, o,p′-DDD and p,p′-DDD (ΣDDTs). A concise risk-benefit evaluation related to human milk contamination with these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was also done. Large global and regional differences were observed. Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were highest in India and some European and ...
POLYCHLORINATED NAPHTHALENE (PCN) AND DIBENZOFURAN (PCDF) CONGENER PATTERNS FROM PHENOL PRECURSORS IN THERMAL PROCESS: [II] EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM DICHLOROPHENOLS (DCPs) - Municipal waste incinerator;Thermal process;Combustion;Polychlorinated Naphthalenes;Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans;Chlorophenol;
Dioxins refers to a group of persistent chlorinated chemical compounds that have similar chemical structures and properties, and have similar biological characteristics, including toxicity. Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) has conducted an analytical survey of dioxins in a range of food sampled in Australia with the purpose of assessing the level of risk to human health associated with the dietary exposure of the Australian population to dioxins. The overall conclusion of this report is that, on the basis of the available data, taking into account all the inherent uncertainties and limitations, the public health and safety risk for all Australians from exposure to dioxins from foods is very low.. Dioxins includes the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs or dioxins), the closely related polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs or furans) and polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs, or PCBs). These compounds can accumulate in the body fat of animals and humans and have a tendency ...
The management of municipal solid waste (MSW), particularly the role of incineration, is currently a subject of public debate. Incineration shows to be a good alternative of reducing the volume of waste and eliminating certain infectious components. Moreover, Municipal Waste Incinerators (MWI), are reported to be highly hygienic and apart from that MWIs are immediately effective in terms of transport (incinerators can be built close to the waste sources) and incinerations nature. Nevertheless, the emissions of many hazardous substances make the Municipal Waste Incineration (MWI) plants to be unpopular. Metals (especially lead, manganese, cadmium, chromium and mercury) are concentrated in fly and bottom ashes. Furthermore, incomplete combustion produces a wide variety of potentially hazardous organic compounds, such as aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), chlorinated hydrocarbons including polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF), and even acid gases, ...
0069]Particularly preferred compounds according to formula (I) include: [0070]N-[1-cyano-1-(5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl)ethyl]-4-[(trif- luoromethyl)thio]benzamide, [0071]N-{(1R*)-1-cyano-1-[(2R*)-5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl]eth- yl}-4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]benzamide, [0072]N-{(1R)-1-cyano-1-[(2R)-5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl]ethyl- }-4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]benzamide, [0073]N-{(1S)-1-cyano-1-[(2S)-5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl]ethyl- }-4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]benzamide, [0074]N-{(1R*)-1-cyano-1-[(2S*)-5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl]eth- yl}-4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]benzamide, [0075]N-{(1R)-1-cyano-1-[(2S)-5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl]ethyl- }-4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]benzamide, [0076]N-{(1S)-1-cyano-1-[(2R)-5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl]ethyl- }-4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]benzamide, [0077]N-[1-cyano-1-(5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl)ethyl]-4-(trifl- uoromethoxy)benzamide, ...
Hormonal therapy resistance remains a considerable barrier in the treatment of breast cancer. Activation of the Akt-PI3K-mTOR pathway plays an important role in hormonal therapy resistance. Our recent preclinical and clinical studies showed that the addition of a histone deacetylase inhibitor re-sensitized hormonal therapy resistant breast cancer to tamoxifen. As histone deacetylases are key regulators of Akt, we evaluated the effect of combined treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor PCI-24781 and tamoxifen on Akt in breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that while both histone deacetylase and estrogen receptor inhibition down regulate AKT mRNA and protein, their concerted effort results in down regulation of AKT activity with induction of cell death. Histone deacetylase inhibition exerts its effect on AKT mRNA through an estrogen receptor-dependent mechanism, primarily down regulating the most abundant isoform AKT1. Although siRNA depletion of AKT modestly induces cell death, when combined with
We explored the effects of combination of acupuncture and Chinese medicinal herbs in treating model rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and to explore whether acupuncture has positive effects on the absorption of salvianolic acid B in the extracts of a Chinese medicine formula when treating the model rats. 60 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Groups A, B, C, D, E and F, with ten rats in each group. Except Group F, all of the other rats were induced to PCOS with oral administration of letrozole. The rats in Group F served as normal controls. Group A was treated with acupuncture. Group B was treated with oral administration of the extracts of the Chinese medicine formula. Group C was treated with a combination of oral administration of the extracts of Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Group D received western medicine as positive controls. After treatment, the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone(LH) and testosterone (T) in each ...
Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic chemicals that persist in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Their presence in the environment in Europe has declined since the 1970s, following concerted efforts by public authorities and industry.. In the context of EFSAs work, dioxins refers to two groups of compounds: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Dioxins have no technological or other use, but are generated in a number of thermal and industrial processes as unwanted and often unavoidable by-products. In contrast to dioxins, PCBs had widespread use in numerous industrial applications, and were produced in large quantities for several decades with an estimated total world production of 1.2-1.5 million tonnes, until they were banned in most countries by the 1980s.. Dioxins and PCBs are found at low levels in many foods. Longer-term exposure to these substances has been shown to cause a range of adverse effects on the nervous, immune ...
Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic chemicals that persist in the environment and accumulate in the food chain. Their presence in the environment in Europe has declined since the 1970s, following concerted efforts by public authorities and industry.. In the context of EFSAs work, dioxins refers to two groups of compounds: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Dioxins have no technological or other use, but are generated in a number of thermal and industrial processes as unwanted and often unavoidable by-products. In contrast to dioxins, PCBs had widespread use in numerous industrial applications, and were produced in large quantities for several decades with an estimated total world production of 1.2-1.5 million tonnes, until they were banned in most countries by the 1980s.. Dioxins and PCBs are found at low levels in many foods. Longer-term exposure to these substances has been shown to cause a range of adverse effects on the nervous, immune ...
High quality reference standard solutions for use in environmental/analytical testing and toxicological research. Wellington Laboratories offers an extensive inventory of individual certified reference standards and solution mixtures of native and mass-labelled halogenated organic compounds including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. Wellington Laboratories also offer a variety of calibration sets and support solutions designed to be used for common regulatory methods or modified in-house methods
Furthermore, the term "aryl" includes multicyclic aryl groups, eg, tricyclic, bicyclic, eg, naphthalene, benzoxazole, benzodioxazole, benzothiazole, benzoimidazole, benzothiophene, methylenedioxophenyl, quinoline, isoquinoline, naphthridine, indole, benzofuran, purine, benzofuran, deazapurine, or indolizine! It can take up to six weeks for shingles pain to go away completely? Attorney John Durham assembled an investigative team of experienced professionals to recommend to the Attorney General whether a full investigation was warranted "into whether the law was violated in connection with the interrogation of certain detainees" Following a two year investigation, on June 30, 2011, the Justice Department announced that it was opening a full criminal investigation into the deaths of two individuals in CIA custody overseas, and that it had concluded that further investigation into the other cases examined in the preliminary investigation was not warranted? Sancycline (2A) is treated with NaNO 2 ...
Phthalides by rhodium-catalyzed ketone hydroacylation.: Phthalides are biologically relevant five-membered lactones found in herbs, fruits, and vegetables. Here
Article Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl in human blood from Japanese. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) of whole blood sam...
Fulminant Liver Failure Due to Usnic Acid for Weight Loss. Durazo, Francisco A.; Lassman, Charles; Han, Steven H.B.; Saab, Sammy; Lee, Nancy P.; Kawano, Marvin; Saggi, Bob; Gordon, Sherilyn; Farmer, Douglas G.; Yersiz, Hasan; Goldstein, R. Leonard I.; Ghobrial, Mark; Busuttil, Ronald W. // American Journal of Gastroenterology;May2004, Vol. 99 Issue 5, p950 The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in developed countries has increased significantly over the years. Among the most popular are the weight loss supplements or“fat burners.†Liver failure due to these popular remedies has been widely recognized. Usnic acid has... ...
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It only seems logical to see how existing municipal waste incinerators are doing. After all, the past is the best prediction of the future. In the last few weeks alone, 3 incinerators have made headlines. Harrisburg, PAs incinerator is about to go into receivership because the city can no longer pay for it; Hudson Falls, NY is trying to sell their incinerator; and most troubling, Spokane, WAs incinerator violated air pollution limits for mercury in June. Why did it take until September for the violation to surface? Apparently, the permit for Spokanes incinerator only requires continuous monitoring for three pollutants. Nine other pollutants, including mercury, are only tested for annually. Much like the proposed Frederick incinerator, the Spokane incinerator purports to have "state of the art" pollution controls. Officials think that there was something that was going through the system that was high in mercury. That is precisely the problem when permits only require an annual snapshot of ...
Figure 6: Hypothetical diagrams of the effect of Bakumondo-to. (a) After ligation of dioxins to the AhR, the receptor translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus, binds to DRE, and activates transcription of CYP1A1, mucin and other genes in bronchiolar Clara cells. Excess mucin production from Clara cells by dioxins is supposed to be responsible at least in part for respiratory symptoms of Yusho patients. (b) Active ingredients in Bakumondo-to would block activation of the AhR by competitive interference with the interaction between dioxins and the AhR, and inhibit transcription of mucin in Clara cells, leading to improvement of respiratory symptoms of Yusho patients ...
As the measurements of PCDD/PCDFs are complex, there is no reliable estimation of emissions in most of low- and middle-income countries. In order to help countries identify sources of emissions and to estimate release of PCDD/PCDFs, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has established a Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Furans and Other Unintentional Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) [21, 22]. The main objective of the Toolkit is to estimate the PCDD/PCDFs emissions from existing sources to the air, water, land, residue, and other products [22]. Therefore, emissions of PCDD/PCDFs were estimated by the methods proposed by the UNEP Toolkit, which consists of five-steps [21-23]. They are 1) the use of screening matrix to identify the major source categories of PCDD/PCDFs, 2) controlling subcategories to determine present activities and sources in the country, 3) collection of detailed information on the processes and classifying processes into similar ...
Demand for the development of non\antibiotic growth promoters in animal production has increased in recent years. separation of the feeding organizations (CON, LAC, PRO and SYN), showing different microbial compositions relating to different feed additives or their combination. These results suggest that individual materials and their combination have unique actions and independent mechanisms for changes in the distal gut microbiota. Intro In the animal industry, much\improved farming systems and Salvianolic acid A IC50 cost\effective techniques for the production of pathogen\free high\quality meat are important goals of current study (Lalls NCIMB 11181 (Pajarillo NCIMB 11181 within the microbial diversity of weaned piglets and to compare the unexplored synergistic effect against the individual effects of the prebiotic and probiotic within the structure and composition of faecal microbiota, using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Results DNA sequence data and quality control Seventy\nine ...
Demand for the development of non\antibiotic growth promoters in animal production has increased in recent years. separation of the feeding organizations (CON, LAC, PRO and SYN), showing different microbial compositions relating to different feed additives or their combination. These results suggest that individual materials and their combination have unique actions and independent mechanisms for changes in the distal gut microbiota. Intro In the animal industry, much\improved farming systems and Salvianolic acid A IC50 cost\effective techniques for the production of pathogen\free high\quality meat are important goals of current study (Lalls NCIMB 11181 (Pajarillo NCIMB 11181 within the microbial diversity of weaned piglets and to compare the unexplored synergistic effect against the individual effects of the prebiotic and probiotic within the structure and composition of faecal microbiota, using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Results DNA sequence data and quality control Seventy\nine ...
INTRODUCTION: Given prior safety experience with other 5-HT4 agonists for chronic constipation, an observational, population-based cohort study in five data sources from Germany, Sweden, and the UK was conducted to evaluate the cardiovascular safety of prucalopride.
Lithospermic acid ((+)-Lithospermic acid) is a plant-derived polycyclic phenolic carboxylic acid isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, and has the anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective activity on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage in vitro and in vivo. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Why buy Vesigard 7.5mg (Darifenacin XR) for Overactive Bladder?. Vesigard 7.5 mg is a cost-effective medication against the symptoms of an overactive bladder. This medicine belongs to the class of drugs known as antispasmodics. The active ingredient is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of an overactive bladder since 2004. Vesigard 7.5 mg is manufactured by Cipla Ltd. It is available here at various pack size. You can buy this medication here at its lowest price. How does Vesigard 7.5mg (Darifenacin XR) work?. Vesigard 7.5 mg tablet ER is an antimuscarinic. It works by relaxing muscles of the urinary bladder to prevent frequent, urgent or uncontrolled urination. Darifenacin is the active ingredient of Vesigard. It used for the treatment of an overactive bladder. It also slows movement in the urinary tract, lowering bladder contractions.. How to use Vesigard 7.5mg (Darifenacin XR)?. The usual recommended starting dose for this medicine is 7.5mg once daily. It comes as ...
Allcosmeticsource.com Diosgenin 98%(CAS#512-04-9) 20MG/vial, FREE SHIPPING [PTC-RP0-1572]- Diosgenin 98%(CAS#512-04-9) 20MG/vial, FREE SHIPPING cas: 512-04-9 Specifications PRODUCT NAME SPECIFICATION TEST METHOD SOPHORA ALKALOIDS TANNATE 11.65% TITRATION OXYMATRINE 98.00% HPLC MATRINE 98.00% HPLC TOTAL MATRINES 70.00% TITRATION MATRINES LIQUID EXTRACT 1.00% HPLC 4.00% HPLC TOOSENDANIN 1%(LIQUID) HPLC 2%(POWDER) HPLC SODIUMTANSHINONII ASILATE 96.00% UV TANSHINONEⅡA 1.00% HPLC 2.00% HPLC 3.00% HPLC 4.00% HPLC 5.00% HPLC 10.00% HPLC 20.00% HPLC 30.00% HPLC 40.00% HPLC 50.00% HPLC 95-98% HPLC TOTAL TANSHINONES 1.00% UV 10.00% UV 20.00% UV 40.00% UV 50.00% UV 60.00% UV SALVIANIC ACID A 5.00% HPLC 10.00% HPLC SALVIANOLIC ACID B 6.00% HPLC 8.00% HPLC 10.00% HPLC DANSHEN MIXTURE SALVIANOLIC ACIDB 7.5% IIA 0.3% HPLC DIAMMONIUM GLYCYRRHIZINATE 98.00% HPLC ASTRAGALUS POLYSACCHARIDE 70.00% UV ASTRAGALUS 0.30% HPLC GYPENOSIDES 98.00% UV
Dioxin-like chemicals and brominated flame retardants are ubiquitous in the environment, despite the introduction of international prohibitions and restrictions. These chemicals do not remain in the vicinity of their source, instead they can be transported over long distances, in fact even to pristine areas in the northern latitudes. However, there have been rather few time series experiments monitoring the trends in the levels of chlorinated and brominated forms of these chemicals in the environment. In this study, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in the liver and muscle of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) caught in a remote area in Finnish Lapland during 1986-2007. Five time points were selected: years 1986, 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2007. The levels of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs declined from 1986 until 2003 in both females and males, but tended to increase again in 2007. The peak
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Society continues to generate more waste and to change this alarming trend; strong political and industrial measures are urgently needed.. Despite what industry and governments would like people to believe,incineration is not a solution to the worlds waste problems, but partof the problem.. Incinerators may reduce the volume of solid waste, but they do notdispose of the toxic substances contained in the waste. They create thelargest source of dioxins, which is one of the most toxic chemicalsknown to science.. Incinerators emit a wide range of pollutants in their stack gases,ashes and other residues. The filters used to clean incinerator stackgases produce solid and liquid toxic wastes, which also need to bedisposed.. The only way to improve the situation is to avoid toxic waste production by improving our products and processes.. Public opposition to incineration isgrowing worldwide. People are recognising that there is no place forthe incineration of waste in a sustainable society.. ...
Yoshimura et al1 reported that although exposure to dioxin (TCDD) (after the explosion at Seveso) was associated with a subsequent significant and substantial drop in offspring sex ratio (proportion male),2 there was no obvious similarity in the offspring sex ratios after accidental ingestion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Yusho, Japan,1 and Yucheng, Taiwan.3 PCBs and PCDFs are toxicologically similar to (although less potent than) TCDD. The authors wrote that in Taiwan, despite exposure to chemicals similar to TCDD sufficient to produce obvious clinical disease, the sex ratio was not altered. They inferred that sex ratio is unlikely to be a sensitive indicator of exposures to chemicals such as PCBs, PCDFs, and dioxins. The argument is not decisive and Yoshimura et al1 called for further research.. I had predicted4 Mocarellis low paternal offspring sex ratio on the basis of the known endocrine effects of dioxin on exposed men.5 The basis of my prediction was a ...
Also empathogens in general (e. g.: 5-APB, 5-MAPB, 6-APB and other substituted benzofurans, MDAI, MDMA). ...
4E)-6-(4-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid ... 2-Morpholin-4-ylethyl (E)-6-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-1H-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-4-methylhex-4-enoate ...
Also empathogens in general (e. g.: 5-APB, 5-MAPB, 6-APB and other substituted benzofurans, MDAI, MDMA). ...
4-(5-Chloro-1-benzofuran-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidine. Identifiers CAS Number ...
Benzofurans and dihydrobenzofurans: 5-APB. *5-APDB. *5-EAPB. *5-MAPB. *5-MAPDB ...
Also empathogens in general (e. g.: 5-APB, 5-MAPB, 6-APB and other substituted benzofurans, MDAI, MDMA). ...
"Effect of Periodic Replacement of the Heteroatom on the Spectroscopic Properties of Indole and Benzofuran Derivatives". J. Phys ...
benzen, benzofuran,. karbazol, karbolin,. inden, indolin,. isatin, metilindol,. oksindol, pirol,. skatol Y (šta je ovo?) ( ...
3,3-Bis(4-hidroksifenil)-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-ona. Nama lain 3,3-Bis(4-hidroksifenil)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-ona ...
Benzofuran. Dibenzofuran Structure Point group. C2v. Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their ...
benzen, benzofuran, karbazol, karbolin, inden, indolin, isatin, metylindol, oxindol, pyrrol, skatol. Indol er en aromatisk ...
Benzofurans and dihidrobenzofurans: 5-APB. *5-APDB. *5-EAPB. *5-MAPB. *5-MAPDB ...
Benzofurans and dihidrobenzofurans: 5-APB. *5-APDB. *5-EAPB. *5-MAPB. *5-MAPDB ...
... and benzofuran, respectively. Fusion of two benzene rings gives rise to a third large family of compounds, respectively the ...
1-(Benzofuran-2-il)-2-propilaminopentan ((-)-BPAP)[4] je lek sa neobičnim profilom dejstva. On se u izvesnoj meri može ... Shimazu S, Tsunekawa H, Yoneda F, Katsuki H, Akaike A, Janowsky A. Transporter Mediated Actions of R-(-)-1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2- ... Shimazu S, Takahata K, Katsuki H, Tsunekawa H, Tanigawa A, Yoneda F, Knoll J, Akaike A. (-)-1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2- ...
Monte AP; Marona-Lewicka D; Cozzi NV; Nichols DE (November 1993). "Synthesis and pharmacological examination of benzofuran, ... "Pharmacological profile of novel psychoactive benzofurans". British Journal of Pharmacology. 172 (13): 3412-25. doi:10.1111/ ...
6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran. 2 Nordefrin (α-Me-NE). β,3,4-Trihydroxyamphetamine, (R)-. 3 ...
... , a first in class dihydro-benzofuran-carboxamide, is a selective, high affinity serotonin (5-HT4) receptor agonist ... 4-Amino-5-chloro-N-[1-(3-methoxypropyl)piperidin-4-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-7-carboxamide ... "Selective stimulation of colonic transit by the benzofuran 5HT4 agonist, prucalopride, in healthy humans". Gut. 44 (5): 682- ...
Also empathogens in general (e. g.: 5-APB, 5-MAPB, 6-APB and other substituted benzofurans, MDAI, MDMA). ...
benzofuran. dibenzofuran. Če ni navedeno drugače, podatki veljajo za. material v standardnem stanju (pri 25 °C, 100 kPa). ...
... benzofuran dimers,[4] benzofuran trimers,[5] as well as polymeric lignins.[6] A new sulfated β-O4 lignin (SbO4L) has been ...
"Pharmacological properties of ABT-239 [4-(2-{2-[(2R)-2-Methylpyrrolidinyl]ethyl}-benzofuran-5-yl)benzonitrile]: II. ...
Also empathogens in general (e. g.: 5-APB, 5-MAPB, 6-APB and other substituted benzofurans, MDAI, MDMA). ...
... benzofurans or benzothiophenes. N-alkylpyrroles are obtained in good yield (86%) in the reaction of the vinamidinium salt with ...
Benzofuran Benzopyrone Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). ...
... benzopyrans and benzofurans. Extracts of the plant have shown antifungal, anticyanobacterial, and antitermite effects. A number ...
... and application of furans and benzofurans bearing a fluorine atom and a trifluoromethyl group are reviewed. ... Zhou H, Niu J-J, Xu J-W, Hu S-J (2009) Novel route to 2-trifluoromethylated benzofurans. Synth Commun 39:716-732CrossRefGoogle ... Synthesis and reactions of (trifluoromethyl)benzofurans. Chem Pharm Bull 25:3009-3012CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Butin A.V., Trushkov I.V., Serdyuk O.V., Abaev V.T. (2014) Fluorinated Furans and Benzofurans. In: Nenajdenko V. (eds) Fluorine ...
Benzofuran derviatives have shown biological activities ranging from antifungal and antimicrobial to antagonists for the H3 ... A diversity of synthetic routes can be applied to the synthesis of benzofurans. The presence of a halogen allows these reagents ... Lear More about Benzofurans
New Reagents for ... Benzofuran (coumarone), a heterocyclic compound consisting of fused benzene and furan rings, has been identified as a ...
Animal studies have shown effects on the liver, kidneys, lungs, and stomach from exposure to high levels of 2,3-benzofuran. ... 3-benzofuran is most likely to occur from breathing contaminated air at the workplace. ... 2,3-Benzofuran is not used for any commercial purposes, but the part of the coal oil that contains 2,3-benzofuran is made into ... Is there a medical test to show whether Ive been exposed to 2,3-benzofuran?. There is a test to measure 2,3-benzofuran in the ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Benzofuran (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 63, 1995) ...
benzofuran synonyms, benzofuran pronunciation, benzofuran translation, English dictionary definition of benzofuran. n. A ... benzofuran. Also found in: Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to benzofuran: Benzothiophene ben·zo·fu·ran. (bĕn′zō- ... Benzofuran - definition of benzofuran by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/benzofuran ... benzofuran. (ˌbɛnzəʊˈfjʊəræn) n. (Elements & Compounds) a colourless insoluble aromatic liquid obtained from coal tar and used ...
Benzofuran is extracted from coal tar. It is also obtained by dehydrogenation of 2-ethylphenol. Benzofurans can be prepared by ... Benzofuran is the "parent" of many related compounds with more complex structures. For example, psoralen is a benzofuran ... Benzofuran is the heterocyclic compound consisting of fused benzene and furan rings. This colourless liquid is a component of ... Kusurkar, R. S.; Bhosale, D. K. (1990). "Novel Synthesis of Benzosubstituted Benzofurans Via Diels-Alder Reaction". Synthetic ...
... benzofurans. The synthetic utility is demonstrated by the short synthesis of natural benzofurans without protection of the ... Synthesis of Benzofurans. Recent Literature. A convenient metal-free cyclization of ortho-hydroxystilbenes into 2- ... A one-pot method for the preparation of alkyl aryl ethers from aryl halides and the preparation of substituted benzofurans via ... Moreover, the O-arylated products so formed can be directly transformed into substituted benzofurans in a single operation.. T ...
The substituted benzofurans are a class of chemical compounds based on the heterocyclyc and polycyclic compound benzofuran. ... The derivatives may be produced by substitutions at six locations of the benzofuran molecule, as well as saturation of the 2,3 ... Stanczuk A, Morris N, Gardner EA, Kavanagh P. Identification of (2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (APB) phenyl ring positional isomers ... Monte AP, Marona-Lewicka D, Cozzi NV, Nichols DE (November 1993). "Synthesis and pharmacological examination of benzofuran, ...
The WHO Regional Office for Europe (‎EURO)‎ and the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven Division have coordinated a comprehensive programme on polychlorinated biphenyls (‎PCBs)‎, polychlorinated ...
2,3-Benzofuran. SUMMARY. What is 2,3-benzofuran?. What happens to 2,3-benzofuran when it enters the environment?. How might I ... How can 2,3-benzofuran affect my health?. How likely is 2,3-benzofuran to cause cancer?. Is there a medical test to show ... 2,3-Benzofuran is not used for any commercial purposes. Rather, the part of the coal oil that contains 2,3-benzofuran is made ... Is there a medical test to show whether Ive been exposed to 2,3-benzofuran?. There is a test to measure 2,3-benzofuran in the ...
The WHO Regional Office for Europe (‎EURO)‎ and the WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven Division have coordinated a comprehensive programme on polychlorinated biphenyls (‎PCBs)‎, polychlorinated ...
1-benzofuran-3-carboxamide; CAS Number: 959304-51-9; find Enamine-ENA394767411 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical ...
3-Dimethyl-1-benzofuran-5-amine , C10H11NO , CID 12445383 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
The benzofuran 15a could be obtained by using ethyl iodoacetate (14) as a C1-unit. The one-pot conversion of dihydrobenzofurans ... The direct synthesis of benzofuran 15b was achieved by using the active methine 18 having ketone and ester groups. ... 7a, 7b and 8a into benzofurans 15a and 15b was also studied. ... The benzofuran 15a could be obtained by using ethyl iodoacetate ... The one-pot conversion of dihydrobenzofurans 7a, 7b and 8a into benzofurans 15a and 15b was also studied. The direct synthesis ...
Parallel Synthesis of Benzofurans. 12 February 2015 A series of benzofurans (structures often targeted in diabetes and insulin ... Starting out with p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, a four step synthetic pathway led to the synthesis of a benzofuran derivative in high ...
A new series of 2-alkyloxy-pyridine-3-carbonitrile-benzofuran hybrids (4a-x) was synthesized. All the new derivatives were ... 2-Acetylbenzofuran [38], 3-(benzofuran-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde (1) [32] and 2-((3-(benzofuran-2-yl)-1-phenyl- ... Synthesis and 2D-QSAR Study of Active Benzofuran-Based Vasodilators. Nagy M. Khalifa 1,2. , Aladdin M. Srour 2,*,†, Somaia S. ... 4-(3-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-ethoxy-6-(furan-2-yl)pyridine-3-carbonitrile (4r): Yield 2.14 g (45.3%), m.p ...
2-benzofuran-1,3-dione, addition product with 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethanol, reacted with one mole ethylene oxidebenzofuran-1,3-dione, addition product with 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethanol, reacted with two mole ethylene oxidebenzofuran-1,3-dione, addition product with 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethanol, reacted with three mole ethylene oxidebenzofuran-1,3-dione, addition product with 2-(2-hydroxyethoxy)ethanol, reacted with one mole ethylene oxide
5,5-sulfonylbis(2-benzofuran-1,3-dione). CAS names 1 IUPAC names 2 Other identifiers 3 ...
5-Butyl-7-methoxy-1-benzofuran-4-yl) acetate , C15H18O4 , CID 188490 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical ...
Benzofurans used to inhibit bone loss EP19960300344 EP0722726A1 (en) 1995-01-20. 1996-01-17. Benzofuran derivatives for ... Benzofurans as suppressors of neurodegeneration JP4761112B2 (en) * 2005-02-16. 2011-08-31. 公益財団法人新産業創造研究機構. Comprising a ... Benzofurans used to inhibit bone loss Applications Claiming Priority (4). Application Number. Priority Date. Filing Date. Title ... Benzofurans used to inhibit bone loss Download PDF Info. Publication number. US5489587A. US5489587A US08376955 US37695595A
benzofurans, C-H activation, deuterium, palladium, synthetic methods National Category Organic Chemistry Identifiers. URN: urn: ... Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of 2,3-Disubstituted Benzofurans: An Approach Towards the Synthesis of Deuterium Labeled ... Palladium-catalyzed oxidative annulations between phenols and alkenylcarboxylic acids produced a library of benzofuran ...
benzofurans, C-H activation, deuterium, palladium, synthetic methods HSV kategori Identifikatorer. URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva- ... Palladium-Catalyzed Synthesis of 2,3-Disubstituted Benzofurans: An Approach Towards the Synthesis of Deuterium Labeled ... Palladium-catalyzed oxidative annulations between phenols and alkenylcarboxylic acids produced a library of benzofuran ...
A new palladium-catalyzed method for the synthesis of benzofurans by reaction of 2-hydroxystyrenes and iodobenzenes via a C-H ... A new palladium-catalyzed method for the synthesis of benzofurans by reaction of 2-hydroxystyrenes and iodobenzenes via a C-H ... Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of benzofurans via C-H activation/oxidation tandem reaction and its application to the synthesis ... Palladium-catalyzed synthesis of benzofurans via C-H activation/oxidation tandem reaction and its application to the synthesis ...
1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane ((-)BPAP) is a drug with an unusual effects profile. It can loosely be grouped with ... Shimazu S, Tsunekawa H, Yoneda F, Katsuki H, Akaike A, Janowsky A. Transporter Mediated Actions of R-(-)-1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2- ... Shimazu S, Takahata K, Katsuki H, Tsunekawa H, Tanigawa A, Yoneda F, Knoll J, Akaike A. (-)-1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2- ... Knoll J, Yoneda F, Knoll B, Ohde H, Miklya I. (-)-1-(Benzofuran-2-yl)-2-propylaminopentane, [(-)BPAP], a selective enhancer of ...
The subject of the invention is benzofuran, benzothiophene, indole or indolizine compounds of general formula: ##STR1## in ... Het may represent, in particular, a 4-T benzofuran-2 or 3-yl, 5-T benzofuran-2 or 3-yl, 7-T benzofuran-2 or 3-yl, 4-T ... benzofuran dioxalate 9.58 g (0.018 mole) of 2-n-butyl 3-[4-(3-di-n-butylaminopropionamido)benzoyl] 5-nitro benzofuran in the ... benzofuran hydrochloride 2 g of 2-n-butyl 3-[4-(3-di-n-butylamino-propoxy)benzoyl] 5-methyl sulfonamido benzofuran are ...
  • Amiodarone is a benzofuran derivative: 2-butyl-3-benzofuranyl 4-[2-(diethylamino)-ethoxy]-3,5-diiodophenyl ketone hydrochloride. (nih.gov)
  • The in vitro effect of the resinous exudate of Heliotropium filifolium, of the 3 H-spiro[1-benzofuran-2,1 '-cyclohexane] derivative called filifolinol 1, isolated from the resin and the semi-synthetic compounds filifolinone 2 and filifolinoic acid 3, obtained from filifolinol 1, were evaluated on the proliferation of an immortalized cell line, UCHT1, derived from rat thyroid. (bvsalud.org)
  • The unsaturated benzofuran derivative 6-APB , or 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran is also known, but the difference in pharmacological effects between 6-APB and 6-APDB has yet to be fully elucidated. (psychonautwiki.org)
  • Benzofuran showed differing inducing characteristics compared to benzodioxole compounds, and caused induction of epoxide hydratase and glutathione S-transferases. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Because 6-APDB and other substituted benzofurans have not been explicitly outlawed in some countries, they are often technically legal, contributing to their popularity as a substitute or replacement for serotonergic entactogens like MDMA or MDA, and are typically distributed through the online research chemicals grey market. (psychonautwiki.org)
  • Substituted benzofurans: GABAA receptor, and was used for the treatment of cheap legal valium 5mg insomnia. (peonia.nl)
  • Therefore, there are many structural isomers owing to the multiple possible positions of the oxygen atom and the tetrahedral carbon atom: Benzofuran Benzopyrone Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). (wikipedia.org)