Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.De Lange Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231)Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).Abdominal Wound Closure Techniques: Methods to repair breaks in abdominal tissues caused by trauma or to close surgical incisions during abdominal surgery.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Afterimage: Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Endocrinology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the metabolism, physiology, and disorders of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Toxaphene: A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.

Suppression of cell cycle progression by flavonoids: dependence on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. (1/208)

Some flavonoids are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and cause cell cycle arrest. The dependency of the cytostatic effects of five flavonoids (flavone, alpha-naphthoflavone, apigenin, 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone and 2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone) on a functional AHR was examined in AHR-containing rat hepatoma 5L cells and an AHR-deficient cell line (BP8) derived from the 5L line. The potent AHR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was cytostatic to the 5L line due to the induction of a G(1) arrest and dramatically elevated steady-state levels of CYP1A1 mRNA. TCDD affected neither the proliferation nor CYP1A1 mRNA contents of BP8 cells. With the exception of apigenin, the flavonoids under study induced G(1) arrest in both 5L and BP8 cells when used at concentrations at which they functioned as AHR agonists, but not antagonists. Apigenin-treated 5L and BP8 cultures primarily arrested in G(2)/M. The AHR-containing murine hepatoma cell line 1c1c7 arrested following exposure to AHR agonist concentrations of flavone and alpha-naphthoflavone, but not TCDD. Unlike the G(1) arrest observed in 5L cultures, the latter two flavonoids caused principally G(2)/M arrest in 1c1c7 cells. These studies demonstrate that the cytostatic activities of flavonoids do not require the AHR and the site of checkpoint arrest with a specific flavonoid can vary with cell type.  (+info)

Antioxidant protection against PCB-mediated endothelial cell activation. (2/208)

Certain environmental contaminants such as polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons may be implicated in diseases of the vasculature by compromising normal functions of vascular endothelial cells. We have shown previously that 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonist, can cause disruption of endothelial barrier function. This was supported by an increase in oxidative stress as measured by enhanced 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence and activation of the oxidative stress-sensitive transcription factor NF-kappaB. We have now tested the protective effects of antioxidants vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on endothelial cell activation induced by PCB 77. Only vitamin E completely blocked PCB 77-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction. This protective effect by vitamin E was associated with a decrease in both oxidative stress, as measured by DCF fluorescence, as well as in NF-kappaB activation. Furthermore, vitamin E decreased PCB 77-mediated production of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Although pretreatment of endothelial cells with PDTC prevented the induction of NF-kappaB by PCB 77, this inhibition was not associated with a decrease in DCF levels or protection against endothelial barrier dysfunction. Pretreatment with alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha-NF), an Ah receptor partial antagonist and specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A, partially protected against PCB 77-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. This observation was paralleled by the fact that alpha-NF did not fully antagonize the PCB-induced increase in DCF in endothelial cells. Furthermore, PCB-mediated induction of NF-kappaB and production of IL-6 were only partially blocked by alpha-NF. Of all the tested compounds (vitamin E, PDTC and alpha-NF), vitamin E was most potent in blocking PCB 77-mediated endothelial cell activation. These data give an insight into the potential use of vitamin E and related antioxidants to limit PCB-mediated cell injury and into the use of alpha-NF to explore mechanisms underlying the injurious potential of Ah receptor agonists.  (+info)

Human cytochrome P-450 metabolism of retinals to retinoic acids. (3/208)

Retinoic acids have important pleiotropic biological effects and thus the potential for human cytochrome P-450s (CYPs) to mediate retinoic acid synthesis was investigated. We examined the retinoic acid synthetic activity of human cDNA-expressed CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4, 3A4+ cytochrome b(5) (b(5)), 3A5, and 4A11, expressed individually in insect cells together with NADPH-P-450 reductase. Only CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, and 3A4+b(5) converted all-trans-retinal (20 microM) to all-trans-retinoic acid with turnover numbers of 0.53, 0.18, 0.20, and 0.41 nmol/min/nmol P-450, respectively. With 9-cis-retinal as substrate, CYP1A2 exhibited a turnover number of 1.58 nmol/min/nmol P-450 whereas CYP1A1, 2C19, and 3A4+b(5) had turnover numbers of 0.40, 0.27, and 0.41 nmol/min/nmol P-450, respectively. For CYP3A4 activities with both retinals, b(5) was required. Kinetic analyses revealed that CYP1A1, 1A2, and 3A4+b(5) with all-trans-retinal had apparent K(m) values of 55, 356, and 255 microM, and V(max) values of 2.0, 8.3, and 6.3 nmol/min/nmol P-450, respectively, and with 9-cis-retinal had K(m) values of 77, 91, and 368 microM, and V(max) values of 2.7, 9.7, and 7.6 nmol/min/nmol P-450, respectively. The 9-cis retinoic acid synthetic activity of a group of 12 human liver microsomes correlated only with the CYP1A2 activity (r = 0.96), implicating CYP1A2 in human liver microsomal metabolism of 9-cis- retinal to 9-cis-retinoic acid. These studies have indicated that human CYPs are capable of catalyzing retinal to retinoic acid metabolism, but the physiological relevance of this metabolism is still unclear.  (+info)

A novel 4 S [3H]beta-naphthoflavone-binding protein in liver cytosol of female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists. (4/208)

beta-Naphthoflavone (beta-NF) is a widely used inducer of phase-I and phase-II enzymes controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Studies of competitive binding with (3)H-labelled 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have shown that beta-NF is a high-affinity ligand for AhR and also for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-binding protein, both soluble proteins of rat liver in 8 S and 4 S fractions, respectively, of sucrose gradients. This study examined binding of [(3)H]beta-NF to liver cytosolic proteins of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment of rats with beta-NF, 3-MC, TCDD or alpha-naphthoflavone (alpha-NF) increased the specific [(3)H]beta-NF binding to liver cytosol up to 125-fold that of vehicle (corn oil)-treated rats (<100 fmol/mg of protein). Sucrose gradients revealed a large 4 S and a small 8 S peak of radioactivity from [(3)H]beta-NF binding to cytosols of beta-NF-, 3-MC-, TCDD- or alpha-NF-treated rats. Whereas co-incubation with the unlabelled beta-NF eliminated both peaks, co-incubation with 2,3, 7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) eliminated only the 8 S peak. The sucrose density gradient from [(3)H]TCDD binding to cytosol of beta-NF- or TCDD-treated rats yielded a small 4 S and a larger 8 S peak; only the latter was abolished by co-incubation with TCDF. Thus, the patterns of sedimentation, distribution and elimination of radioactivity from the 8 S fraction of the liver cytosols from beta-NF-, 3-MC-, TCDD- or alpha-NF-treated rats were characteristic for the AhR, whereas those from the 4 S fraction appeared specific for [(3)H]beta-NF binding. The data indicate that potent AhR agonists, TCDD, 3-MC and beta-NF, and to a lesser extent alpha-NF, a weak AhR agonist, induce a 4 S [(3)H]beta-NF-binding protein in liver cytosol of female rats. alpha-NF, beta-NF and 3-MC were effective competitors (80-85% inhibition) of the [(3)H]beta-NF-specific binding to the beta-NF-, 3 MC- or TCDD-induced 4 S protein, whereas several PAHs including B[a]P and benzo[e]pyrene were only weak competitors. The increased [(3)H]beta-NF binding was not associated with glycine N-methyltransferase activity. Hence, the 4 S [(3)H]beta-NF-binding protein described herein differs from the constitutive 4 S PAH-binding protein of rat liver cytosols in the inducibility by beta-NF and 3-MC, ligand-binding characteristics, and lack of glycine N-methyltransferase activity. Gel filtration on Sephacryl of liver cytosols from beta-NF-treated rats indicated a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa for [(3)H]beta-NF-bound protein and suggested that it was derived from a large mass component that before the radioligand binding was eluted with the void volume of the gel and sedimented in a 7 S fraction of the sucrose gradient. The [(3)H]beta-NF binding activity was not eluted with glutathione S-transferase Ya, aldehyde-3-dehydrogenase or DT-diaphorase [NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase] activities, which are AhR-controlled and beta-NF-inducible. Further studies are needed to determine the identity and function of this novel protein which may be involved either directly or indirectly (as a carrier protein) in xenobiotic metabolism in vivo.  (+info)

Dual role of human cytochrome P450 3A4 residue Phe-304 in substrate specificity and cooperativity. (5/208)

The structural basis of cooperativity of progesterone hydroxylation catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 3A4 has been investigated. A recent study suggested that substitution of larger side chains at positions Leu-211 and Asp-214 partially mimics the action of effector by reducing the size of the active site. Based on predictions from molecular modeling that Phe-304 in the highly conserved I helix is involved in both effector and substrate binding, a tryptophan residue was substituted at this position. The purified F304W mutant displayed hyperbolic progesterone hydroxylase kinetics, indicating a lack of homotropic cooperativity. However, the mutant remained responsive to stimulation by alpha-naphthoflavone, exhibiting a 2-fold decrease in the K(m) value for progesterone 6beta-hydroxylation in the presence of 25 microM effector. Combining substitutions to yield the triple mutant L211F/D214E/F304W maintained the V(max) and decreased the K(m) for progesterone 6beta-hydroxylation, minimized stimulation by alpha-naphthoflavone, and decreased the rate of alpha-naphthoflavone oxidation to one-eighth of the wild type. Interestingly, the DeltaA(max) for spectral binding of alpha-naphthoflavone was unaltered in L211F/D214E/F304W. Overall, the results suggest that progesterone and alpha-naphthoflavone are oxidized at separate locations within the P450 3A4 binding pocket, although both substrates appear to have equal access to the reactive oxygen.  (+info)

Activity of benzo[a]pyrene and its hydroxylated metabolites in an estrogen receptor-alpha reporter gene assay. (6/208)

A human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, transiently transfected with a chimeric estrogen receptor (Gal4-HEG0) and a luciferase reporter plasmid (17m5-G-Luc), was used to investigate the estrogenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a prototypical polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). B[a]P at concentrations > or = 1 microM produced responses comparable to that of 0.1 nM 17beta-estradiol (E2). The ER antagonist ICI 182,780 (ICI) completely inhibited the response to both E2 and B[a]P, indicating that the responses were ER-mediated. However, 2 microM alpha-napthoflavone (alpha-NF), an Ah receptor antagonist and P450 inhibitor, also decreased the response to B[a]P but not to E2. Analysis of the profile of B[a]P metabolites in the transfected MCF-7 cultures indicated that alpha-NF inhibited the production of the 3- and 9-hydroxy (3-OH and 9-OH), as well as the 7, 8- and 9,10-dihydroxy (7,8-OH and 9,10-OH) B[a]P species. In the ER-alpha reporter assay, the 3-OH and 9-OH metabolites produced maximal responses comparable to E2, with EC50 values of 1.2 microM and 0.7 microM, respectively. The 9,10-OH metabolite exhibited minimal activity in the assay. These responses were inhibited by ICI for both the 3-OH and the 9-OH species; however, alpha-NF inhibited only the response to the 9-OH metabolite. The 7,8-OH metabolite did not exhibit significant estrogenic activity. Furthermore, 7,8-OH B[a]P displayed observable cytotoxicity at concentrations > or = 10(-7) M. This cytotoxic response was completely inhibited by alpha-NF, suggesting that 7,8-OH B[a]P was being further metabolized to one or more cytotoxic metabolites.  (+info)

Metabolism of the antidepressant mirtazapine in vitro: contribution of cytochromes P-450 1A2, 2D6, and 3A4. (7/208)

The metabolism of the antidepressant mirtazapine (MIR) was investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant enzymes. Mean K(m) values (+/-S.D., n = 4) were 136 (+/-44) microM for MIR-hydroxylation, 242 (+/-34) microM for N-demethylation, and 570 (+/-281) microM for N-oxidation in HLM. Based on the K(m) and V(max) values, MIR-8-hydroxylation, N-demethylation, and N-oxidation contributed 55, 35, and 10%, respectively, to MIR biotransformation in HLM at an anticipated in vivo liver MIR concentration of 2 microM. Recombinant CYP predicted a 65% contribution of CYP2D6 to MIR-hydroxylation at 2 microM MIR, decreasing to 20% at 250 microM. CYP1A2 contribution increased correspondingly from 30 to 50%. In HLM, quinidine and alpha-naphthoflavone reduced MIR-hydroxylation to 75 and 45% of control, respectively, at 250 microM MIR. A >50% contribution of CYP3A4 to MIR-N-demethylation at <1 microM MIR was indicated by recombinant enzymes. In HLM, ketoconazole (1 microM) reduced N-desmethylmirtazapine formation rates to 60% of control at 250 microM. Twenty percent of MIR-N-oxidation was accounted for by CYP3A4 at 2 microM MIR, increasing to 85% at 250 microM, while CYP1A2 contribution decreased from 80 to 15%. Ketoconazole reduced MIR-N-oxidation to 50% of control at 250 microM. MIR did not substantially inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP1E2, and CYP3A4 activity in vitro. Induction/inhibition or genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 may affect MIR metabolism, but involvement of several enzymes in different metabolic pathways may prevent large alterations in in vivo drug clearance.  (+info)

Influence of beta-naphthoflavone on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene metabolism, DNA adduction, and tumorigenicity in rainbow trout. (8/208)

Metabolism, DNA adduction, and tumor induction by 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were examined in cultured trout liver cells and in vivo in trout. Modulating CYP1A1 activity indicated this enzyme plays a significant role in metabolizing DMBA to water-soluble compounds in isolated trout liver cells. The major DMBA metabolites identified in trout liver cells were 10-, 11-, 8,9-, and 5,6-DMBA dihydrodiols, and DMBA, 2- or 3- or 4-phenol; 7-OH-methyl-12-methyl-benz(a)anthracene and 12-OH-methyl-7-methyl-benz(a)anthracene were minor metabolites. A very small amount of DMBA-3,4-dihydrodiol was detected, and polar metabolites, which did not migrate with any DMBA metabolite standards, were observed. Incubating trout hepatocytes with DMBA-3, 4-dihydrodiol produced three prominent, nonpolar adducts indistinguishable from those in mouse embryo cells. However, DMBA-DNA adducts, formed in trout in vivo or in trout liver cells exposed to DMBA, were predominantly more polar than those formed in mouse embryo fibroblasts, and levels of DMBA-DNA adducts formed in trout liver cells were not significantly altered by modulating CYP1A1 activity. No significant repair of DMBA-DNA adducts was detected in cultured trout liver cells over a 48-h period, supporting previous studies indicating that fish are less efficient than mammals in repairing polyaromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts. Compared to animals receiving DMBA alone, beta-naphthoflavone pretreatment in vivo did not affect hepatic CYP1A1, DMBA-DNA adducts, nor hepatic tumor response; but did significantly reduce tumor response in two other target organs. These results collectively indicate that DMBA bioactivation to DNA-binding metabolites in trout liver cells and mouse embryo cells predominantly involve different metabolic pathways to form the DNA-binding intermediates.  (+info)

Brundel, dang, I dont like hearing that about 7, 8 benzoflavone . I was about to pick up several bottles of Dermacrine when they were back in stock.
Dirk Niebel alipinga vikali misaada ya maendeleo alipokuwa upande wa upinzani na aliitaka wizara ya ushirikiano wa kiuchumi na maendeleo ijumuishwe na wizara ya mambo ya nje.
Licha ya vijana wengi kuhitimu wakiwa na elimu nzuri, bado ukosefu wa ajira umekuwa kikwako kikubwa kwao linapokuja suala la kujiimarisha kimaisha na kujenga mustakabali wao.
前天七人從北部同車南下3準備參加大學同學范聖侑(三十二歲(與陳群穎(三十一歲(昨午在彰化舉辦的婚宴》一行人從台北出發前3坐副駕駛座的邱迪威用手機自拍3駕駛陳冠佑雖僅半張臉入鏡3但看得出臉上笑意3同坐第二排的詹孟蓁 王紫誼3一個笑容燦爛3一個開心比「YA「3後排為情侶檔張昕頤與林惟翊3沒想到竟是這群麻吉最後一次合影(隨後車子到新竹接吳俊瑩3改由吳俊瑩坐副駕駛座3邱男換至第二排右座3詹女坐第二排中間 ...
High-level prescribing trends for Other Lipid-Regulating Preps (BNF code 021200000) across all GP practices in NHS England for the last five years. You can see which CCGs prescribe most of this chemical relative to its class, or learn more about this site.. View all matching dm+d items.. ...
High-level prescribing trends for Aspirin Combined Preparations (BNF code 0407010W0) across all GP practices in NHS England for the last five years. You can see which CCGs prescribe most of this chemical relative to its class, or learn more about this site.. View all matching dm+d items.. ...
en] Cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases are able to oxidize a large variety of endogenous and exogenous substrates. This paper describes the in vitro interaction between benzopyrene and steroids at the level of two rat liver monooxygenases: steroid-16 alpha-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH). The results obtained suggest the following conclusions: (1) Steroid-16 alpha-hydroxylase is partially supported by a specific cytochrome P-450 form which is not inhibited in vitro by exogenous substrates. Steroid-16 alpha-hydroxylase is completely independent from cytochrome P1-450 (or P-448), as it is insensitive, in vitro, to alpha-naphthoflavone; (2) AHH is supported by two cytochrome P-450 forms: a specific form which is inducible by methylcholanthrene and inhibited in vitro by alpha-naphthoflavone, but is insensitive to metyrapone and steroids; and another less specific form which is inhibited by metyrapone and steroids in vitro ...
Kinetic and inhibitor studies using cDNA-expressed enzymes and human liver microsomes have characterized the specificity of a range of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A substrate and inhibitor probes towards the two isoforms comprising this subfamily. Expressed CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 both catalyzed the O-deethylation of phenacetin, although the apparent Km was about 4-fold lower for CYP1A2 (25 vs. 108 microM). Phenacetin O-deethylation exhibited biphasic kinetics in human liver microsomes, and the apparent Km for the high-affinity component (9 +/- 6 microM) was consistent with the involvement of CYP1A2 in this reaction. The prototypic CYP1A xenobiotic inhibitor and substrate probes alpha-naphthoflavone, ellipticine, 7-ethoxycoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin all inhibited CYP1A1- and CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation as well as the high-affinity component of human liver phenacetin O-deethylase activity. alpha-Naphthoflavone and 7-ethoxycoumarin were, however, approximately 10-fold more potent as ...
We have analyzed the possible role of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the aging process of mice using a homozygous null mouse (Ahr-/-) line as a model. We studied 52 male and female Ahr-/- mice aged from 6-13 months. Forty-six percent died or were ill by 13 months of age. Ahr-/- mice developed age-related lesions in several organs, some of which were apparent after only 9 months of age. Cardiovascular alterations included cardiomyopathy (100%) with hypertrophy and focal fibrosis. Vascular hypertrophy and mild fibrosis were found in the portal areas of the liver (81%), and vascular hypertrophy and mineralization were common in the uterus (70%). Gastric hyperplasia that progressed with age into polyps was evident in the pylorus of 71% of the mice over 9 months of age. Ahr-/- mice had T-cell deficiency in their spleens but not in other lymphoid organs. The immune system deficiency described previously could be the origin for the rectal prolapse found in 48% of the null mice, associated
CAS NO:192-97-2; Chemical name:benzo[e]pyrene ; physical and chemical property of 192-97-2, benzo[e]pyrene is provided by ChemNet.com
Hatua nyingine ni kutenga shule mbili maalum za michezo kwa kila Mkoa pamoja na kuhamasisha wadau kuanzisha shule za aina hiyo, kutoa ushauri elekezi kwa Vyama vya Michezo wakati wa maandalizi ya timu za Taifa zinazoshiriki kwenye michezo ya Kimataifa ikiwemo Olimpiki, Michezo ya Afrika na Michezo ya Jumuiya ya Madola, kuendesha na kuratibu mashindano ya michezo kwa ajili ya wanafunzi wa Shule za Msingi (UMITASHUMTA) na michezo ya Shule za Sekondari (UMISSETA) kwa kushirikiana na Wizara nyingine. ...
Timu ya wanasayansi nchini Marekani wamefanikiwa kutengeneza kimiminika kitakachokuwa kikiwekwa kwenye uke wa mwanamke ili kuzuia ukimwi na magonjwa...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 192-65-4 DIBENZO[A,E]PYRENE UNLABELED. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Phthalates are esters of 1,2-benzoldicarbonic acid (ortho-phthalic acid). The chemical structure of phthalates can be characterised by a planar aromatic ring with two slightly mobile side chains. For phthalates, in general, side chains are mainly alkyl groups with a secondary role played by allyl, benzyl, phenyl, cycloalkyl and alkoxy groups. With alkyl phthalates, a further distinction can be made between branched and unbranched side chains.. In the early 1980s, annual, world-wide production of phthalate esters was estimated to be 20 million tonnes (Schmitzer et al, 1988), although it may now be closer to 5 million tonnes (Lewis et al 1998). The total consumption of phthalate esters in the UK was estimated to be 122,000 tonnes in 1989, of which 54% was DEHP and DIOP (Brooke et al 1991).. Phthalates esters are manufactured world-wide on a large scale, being mainly produced for use as plasticisers in resins and polymers, especially as a softener in PVC (87% of the total production of phthalates ...
Environmental exposure to carcinogens may contribute to increasing breast cancer rates and geographic variation in breast cancer incidence in the United States. One class of chemicals that has received much attention are the polyaromatic hydrocarbons that are ubiquitous in the environment and occur in cigarette smoke. The cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) gene codes for an enzyme that contributes to aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity, which is involved in the metabolism of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Genotypic variants of CYP1A1 have been associated with increased aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity, and some epidemiological studies suggest that women with the variant genotype(s) are at increased risk for breast cancer.. We prospectively evaluated the associations between the CYP1A1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, as well as the potential modification of these associations by cigarette smoking, in a case-control study nested within the Nurses Health Study. We analyzed the T→C transition ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylases in liver from rats of different age, sex and nutritional status. Distinction of two types by 7,8-benzoflavone. by Friedrich J. Wiebel et al.
Yahya Jammeh aliyetawala Gambia kwa miaka 22, anatuhumiwa kuwakandamiza wapizani na kutumia utesaji na ukatili wa kutisha dhidi ya waandamanaji na wanasiasa waliokuwa wakimkosoa. Suala hilo lilishika kasi hasa katika kipindi cha kampeni za uchaguzi wa rais uliopita, ambapo akthari ya viongozi wa vyama mbalimbali vya siasa na wapinzani dhidi ya serikali walitiwa mbaroni nchini. Hata baadhi ya weledi wa mambo waliutaja ushindi wa Adama Barrow kuwa uliotokana na natija ya vitendo hivyo vya serikali iliyopita. Kwa kuwa na idara ya usalama wa taifa yenye nguvu, Jammeh aliweza kuwakandamiza wapinzani na waandamanaji nchini Gambia ambapo alizuia kila aina ya maandamano na mikusanyiko ya wapinzani. Siku chache zilizopita, naibu mkuu wa shirika la kutetea haki za binaadamu la Human Rights Watch anayeshughulikia masuala ya mipango ya shirika hilo alitoa ripoti iliyoeleza kwamba, serikali ya Jammeh ilikuwa ikitumia vitisho na utesaji dhidi ya viongozi wa vyama vya upinzani na kuwanyima haki zao za msingi. ...
Serikali ya Tanzania imesema inajivunia kutanabaisha kwamba lengo la nne la milenia ambalo ni kupunguza vifo vya watoto wa chini ya umri wa miaka mitano limetimizwa tayari ikiwa imesalia miaka miwili kabla ya ukomo wa malengo ya maendeleo ya milenia hapo 2015.. Akizungumza na Flora Nducha wa Radio ya Umoja wa Mataifa waziri wa afya wa nchi hiyo Dr Hussein Mwinyi amesema na kwa malengo mengine mawili ya afya yaliyosalia wamepiga hatua kubwa. (SAUTI YA DR HUSSEIN MWINYI). ...
Jeshi la Polisi nchini Tanzania limekanusha madai ya ukiukaji haki za binadamu pamoja na mauaji dhidi ya wakazi wa eneo la Nyamongo linalozunguka mgodi wa machimbo ya dhahabu wa North Mara ulioko Wilayani Tarime mkoani Mara.. Katika Ripoti iliyotolewa hivi karibuni kwenye Bunge la Uingereza na Wanaharakati wa masuala ya madini, polisi kwa kushirikiana na kampuni ya African Barrick inayomiliki mgodi wa North Mara walishutumiwa kwa vitendo vya mauaji na ukatili dhidi ya wananchi waishio jirani na mgodi huo.. Erick David Nampesya alitembelea eneo la Nyamongo kwenye mgodi huo.. ...
Masaa machache tu baada ya safari ya Boris Jonhnson, Waziri wa Mambo ya Nje wa Uingereza nchini Gambia, viongozi wapya wa nchi hiyo wametangaza kuwa, nchi hiyo itaendelea kuwa mwanachama katika Mahakama ya Kimataifa ya Jinai (ICC). ...
Haya ndiyo matokeo ya uchaguzi wa urais Tanzania kwa mujibu wa majimbo, kama yanavyotangazwa na Tume ya Taifa ya Uchaguzi ya Tanzania.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthetic anticonvulsants, antihypoxics, and liver monooxygenase system inducers based on amides and urea. XI. Synthesis of alkyl- and arylalkylureas and their effects on the liver monooxygenase system. AU - Bakibaev, S. S.. AU - Akhmedzhanov, R. R.. AU - Filimonov, V. D.. AU - Novocheeva, T. P.. AU - Saratikov, A. S.. AU - Tignibidina, L. G.. AU - Pustovoitov, A. V.. PY - 1993/9. Y1 - 1993/9. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=14744281917&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=14744281917&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/BF00780583. DO - 10.1007/BF00780583. M3 - Article. VL - 27. SP - 631. EP - 634. JO - Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. JF - Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal. SN - 0091-150X. IS - 9. ER - ...
Notes: The LarvaX will include either the HQPROP T2.5*2.5*3 or EMAX Avan ramdomly. Specifications:Wheelbase: 100mmSize: 88mm*88mm*45mm(without propellers)Weight: 50g(without battery)Recommended Battery: 3S 300mah/350mah or 2S 450mah Features: New Crazybee F4 PRO V3.0 AIO Flight controller 2-4s Lipo Compatible Powerful
Torskøya local information and maps. Torskøya is a island in Troms, Norway, Europe. Torskoya is also known as Torskenoy, Torskenoya, Torskenøy, Torskenøya.
GNF351 is a full aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist. GNF351 competes with a photoaffinity AHR ligand for binding to the AHR with an IC50 of 62 nM. GNF351 is minimal toxicity in mouse or human keratinocytes. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Al-Majlisi anaandika simu lizi ndefu ndani ya kitabu chake, Hayaat al-Quluub (sehemu ya Pili), kuhusu moja ya matukio ambalo lilitokea wakati wa Miraj:. "Huko Bayt al-Mamuur, Mtukufu Mtume aliiona Al- Kaaba moja kwa moja chini yake, kiasi kwamba angedondosha kitu kutoka mkononi mwake, kingeangukia kwenye paa lake. Mtukufu Mtume (s.a.w.w) anasema: "Nilisikia sauti ikisema, Hapa ndio mahali patakatifu, na wewe ndiye Mtume uliyekusudiwa, kutoa heshima kwenye msikiti huu. Kila kilichopo kwenye ardhi kina mfano wake ndani ya Pepo.. Kisha Mola Wangu akaniamuru nifungue mkono wangu, na nichote kwenye maji yanayotiririka kutoka kwenye nguzo ya upande wa kulia wa Arshi,ambavyo nilifanya; na kwa sababu hii ikawa inastahili kuchukua maji ya wudhuu kwa mkono wa kulia.. Kisha sauti ikaamuru, Osha uso wako kwa maji haya ili uweze kuwa msafi wa kuiona Nuru ya Utukufu Wangu na Fahari. Kisha osha mikono yako, kwani utalichukua Neno Langu. Kisha vuta mikono yako yenye unyevunyevu juu ya kichwa chako na ...
... benzoflavones MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.175.100 --- beta-naphthoflavone MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.190 --- biflavonoids MeSH ... benzoflavones MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.175.100 --- beta-naphthoflavone MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.190 --- biflavonoids MeSH ...
... benzanthracenes and benzoflavones). Research has focused on naturally occurring compounds with the hope of identifying an ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ...
Slaga et al., "The Effects of Benzoflavones on Polycyclic Hydrocarbon Metabolism and Skin Tumor Initiation," Chem.-Biol. ...
... differential inhibition and stimulation by benzoflavones and organic solvents. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 144: 78 (1971).PubMed ...
... benzoflavones MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.175.100 --- beta-naphthoflavone MeSH D03.438.150.266.450.190 --- biflavonoids MeSH ... benzoflavones MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.175.100 --- beta-naphthoflavone MeSH D03.830.219.266.450.190 --- biflavonoids MeSH ...
... benzanthracenes and benzoflavones). Research has focused on naturally occurring compounds with the hope of identifying an ...
Mikkelsen, M., Rimbault, D. L., Barker, P. B., Bhattacharyya, P. K., Brix, M. K., Buur, P. F., Cecil, K. M., Chan, K. L., Chen, D. Y. T., Craven, A. R., Cuypers, K., Dacko, M., Duncan, N. W., Dydak, U., Edmondson, D. A., Ende, G., Ersland, L., Forbes, M. A., Gao, F., Greenhouse, I. 及其他46, Harris, A. D., He, N., Heba, S., Hoggard, N., Hsu, T. W., Jansen, J. F. A., Kangarlu, A., Lange, T., Lebel, R. M., Li, Y., Lin, C. Y. E., Liou, J. K., Lirng, J. F., Liu, F., Long, J. R., Ma, R., Maes, C., Moreno-Ortega, M., Murray, S. O., Noah, S., Noeske, R., Noseworthy, M. D., Oeltzschner, G., Porges, E. C., Prisciandaro, J. J., Puts, N. A. J., Roberts, T. P. L., Sack, M., Sailasuta, N., Saleh, M. G., Schallmo, M. P., Simard, N., Stoffers, D., Swinnen, S. P., Tegenthoff, M., Truong, P., Wang, G., Wilkinson, I. D., Wittsack, H. J., Woods, A. J., Xu, H., Yan, F., Zhang, C., Zipunnikov, V., Zöllner, H. J. & Edden, R. A. E., 五月 1 2019, 於 : NeuroImage. 191, p. 537-548 12 p.. 研究成果: 雜誌貢獻 ...
Mikkelsen, M., Rimbault, D. L., Barker, P. B., Bhattacharyya, P. K., Brix, M. K., Buur, P. F., Cecil, K. M., Chan, K. L., Chen, D. Y. T., Craven, A. R., Cuypers, K., Dacko, M., Duncan, N. W., Dydak, U., Edmondson, D. A., Ende, G., Ersland, L., Forbes, M. A., Gao, F., Greenhouse, I. & 46 others, Harris, A. D., He, N., Heba, S., Hoggard, N., Hsu, T. W., Jansen, J. F. A., Kangarlu, A., Lange, T., Lebel, R. M., Li, Y., Lin, C. Y. E., Liou, J. K., Lirng, J. F., Liu, F., Long, J. R., Ma, R., Maes, C., Moreno-Ortega, M., Murray, S. O., Noah, S., Noeske, R., Noseworthy, M. D., Oeltzschner, G., Porges, E. C., Prisciandaro, J. J., Puts, N. A. J., Roberts, T. P. L., Sack, M., Sailasuta, N., Saleh, M. G., Schallmo, M. P., Simard, N., Stoffers, D., Swinnen, S. P., Tegenthoff, M., Truong, P., Wang, G., Wilkinson, I. D., Wittsack, H. J., Woods, A. J., Xu, H., Yan, F., Zhang, C., Zipunnikov, V., Zöllner, H. J. & Edden, R. A. E., May 1 2019, In : NeuroImage. 191, p. 537-548 12 p.. Research output: Contribution ...
Benzoflavones/pharmacology. *Diet, Western*. *Fatty Liver/prevention & control. *Hepatocytes/drug effects. *Indoleamine-Pyrrole ...
keywords = "Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Antioxidants/pharmacology, Benzoflavones/pharmacology, Butylated Hydroxyanisole/ ...
Animals , Benzoflavones/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line, Tumor , Enzyme Activation , Genistein/pharmacology , ...
Antagonists: Passiflora-Benzoflavones,. GABAA-rho -Rezeptor ?. Mitochondrial Benzodiazepine- Receptor: MBR, PBR od. MDR ...
Benzoflavones, chemistry, isolation & purification, Drugs, Chinese Herbal, Molecular Structure, Sitosterols, Umbelliferones ...
Slaga, TJ, Thompson, S, Berry, DL, Digiovanni, J, Juchau, MR, and Viaje, A (1977). The effects of benzoflavones on polycyclic ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons eg, 3-methylcholanthrene, benzopyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones eg, beta-naphthoflavone ...
Benzoflavones ‎ (← links). *Complement 1 inactivators ‎ (← links). *Atroxase ‎ (← links). *Macrophage migration-inhibitory ...
None of the papers cited seem to show benzoflavones as being carcogens at all. October 31, 2009 7:40 AM Post a Comment ... indicating the complex interaction of effects of benzoflavones upon various cutaneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ...
Benzoflavones D3.438.150.266.450.175 D3.633.100.150.266.450.175 Benzofurans D3.438.127 D3.633.100.127 Benzophenanthridines ...
Benzoflavones D3.830.219.266.450.175 D3.383.663.283.266.450.175 Benzopyrans D3.830.219 D3.383.663.283 Berkelium D1.268.33.100 ...
... benzoflavones). [0138] Naturally occurring compounds that have been identified as ligands of AhR include derivatives of ...
Comparative Study 2012; 33(Suppl 3): 33-40 PubMed PMID: 23353841 Citation Keywords: Benzoflavones:chemistry, Cytochrome P-450 ...
Comparative Study 2012; 33(Suppl 3): 33-40 PubMed PMID: 23353841 Keywords: Benzoflavones:chemistry, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme ...
Benzoflavones as cholesterol esterase inhibitors: Synthesis, biological evaluation and docking studies. Keywords: سینتیک آنزیم ...
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzanthracenes, benzoflavones (e.g., beta- ...