4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Syringomyelia: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Vigabatrin: An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Arnold-Chiari Malformation: A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Famous PersonsLorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Flumazenil: A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.Flunitrazepam: A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium: An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Psychoses, Alcoholic: A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Delirium: A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Plasticizers: Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Encephalitis, Japanese: A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.Premenstrual Syndrome: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Spasm: An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.Alprazolam: A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)Passiflora: A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.Citrus paradisi: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that produces the familiar grapefruit. There is evidence that grapefruit inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A4, resulting in delayed metabolism and higher blood levels of a variety of drugs.Pharmacognosy: The science of drugs prepared from natural-sources including preparations from PLANTS, animals, and other organisms as well as MINERALS and other substances included in MATERIA MEDICA. The therapeutic usage of plants is PHYTOTHERAPY.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Consumer Product SafetyInsomnia, Fatal Familial: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by degeneration of the THALAMUS and progressive insomnia. It is caused by a mutation in the prion protein (PRIONS).Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Azabicyclo Compounds: Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.Pharmacoepidemiology: The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Inappropriate Prescribing: The practice of administering medications in a manner that poses more risk than benefit, particularly where safer alternatives exist.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.AlaskaDepression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.

Research and identification of tranquillizers - use of retention index. (1/1844)

At the request of the Service des Haras, our laboratory works on the toxicological problems of the sport-horse. These studies have resulted in the setting up of an anti-doping control for equestrian competitions of various types, not only flat racing. During events, horses, must be calm and docile to the riders' order. Frequently, the latter use tranquillizers to try and win events. The analytical method for the research and identification of these compounds is described. The technique involves successively: 1. alkalinisation of the sample - saliva, blood or urine after enzymatic hydrolysis. 2. extraction with diethyl ether - the recovery is 70% to 90% depending upon the drug. 3. determination by gas-liquid chromatography with use of a retention index for qualitative analysis. We can detect up to fifteen tranquillizers in any one sample, even when present at such low concentrations as found in saliva. The use of the retention index is a reliable method for qualitative analysis. For example, the method has been used for three years, during which period the rentention index of acetylpromazine remained at 3240 +/- 7. The chromatographic analysis was performed on 3% OV-17 at 290 degrees. The chromatographic analysis has been performed by three columns of different polarity (OV-1; OV-17; SP-2250). If on the three columns, the retention index of one peak is the same as that of the tranquilizer, a further confirmation is made with the use of a thermionic detector specific for nitrogenous drugs. In conclusion, this method which is sufficiently precise and specific has been used for anti-doping control.  (+info)

Solid-phase microextraction and GC-ECD of benzophenones for detection of benzodiazepines in urine. (2/1844)

Benzodiazepines are common drugs that cause intoxication. Benzodiazepines and their metabolites can be converted by hydrolysis in acid to the corresponding benzophenones, which are easier to be separated from matrices because of their hydrophobic properties. In this study, a new separation technique called solid-phase microextraction (SPME), which can integrate extraction, concentration, sampling and sample introduction into one single procedure, has been employed to extract the products of benzodiazepines from urine after acid hydrolysis. The extracts were determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The hydrolysis conditions were optimized by a statistic orthogonal design. Factors influencing direct-immersion (DI)-SPME process were also checked and chosen experimentally. The method was evaluated with spiked human urine samples. The recoveries of nine benzodiazepines ranged from 1 to 25%, with the highest for oxazolam and the lowest for bromazepam. The calibration curves were linear from 10 to 500 ng/mL for oxazolam, haloxazolam, flunitrazepam, nimetazepam, and clonazepam and from 20 to 1000 ng/mL for the others except bromazepam. The detection limits were 2-20 ng/mL for most drugs tested. The intraday and interday coefficients of variation of the developed method were within 10 and 17%, respectively. In addition, the utility of the method was confirmed by determining two ingested benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam and oxazolam) in a volunteer's urine; urine flunitrazepam was still detectable 32 h after a therapeutic dose (1.2 mg) of the drug. Finally, the DI-SPME was compared with the conventional liquid-liquid extraction with regard to detection limits and extraction efficiency of the analytes. By DI-SPME, more amounts of analytes could be introduced into GC column than by conventional liquid-liquid extraction, and thus lower detection limits of the analytes were reached, although benzophenone recoveries by DI-SPME were rather low.  (+info)

Drug-protein binding and blood-brain barrier permeability. (3/1844)

The permeability surface area (PS) product, an index of permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was measured by using the in situ perfusion method. In the cerebral circulation, the fraction of drug that permeates into the brain through the BBB is not only the unbound fraction but also the fraction dissociated from the protein in the perfusate. The sum of these two fractions, the apparent exchangeable fraction, was estimated by fitting the parameters of the BBB permeability under the condition of varying BSA concentrations in the perfusate. The unbound fraction of drugs in a buffer containing 0.5 mM BSA was measured by using the ultrafiltration method in vitro, and the apparent exchangeable fraction was measured in vivo by using the intracarotid artery injection method. The apparent exchange fraction was 100% for S-8510, 96.5% for diazepam, 90.9% for caffeine, 38.3% for S-312-d, 33.1% for propranolol, and 6.68% for (+)-S-145 Na, and each of these was higher than the corresponding unbound fraction in vitro in all drugs. The apparent exchangeable fractions, for example, were 8 times higher for diazepam and 38 times for S-312-d than the unbound fractions in vitro. The apparent exchangeable fraction of drugs was also estimated from the parameters obtained with the perfusion method. Because drugs can be infused for an arbitrary length of time in the perfusion method, substances with low permeability can be measured. The apparent exchangeable fractions obtained with this method were almost the same as those obtained with the intracarotid artery injection method.  (+info)

Postnatal development of hippocampal dentate granule cell gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor pharmacological properties. (4/1844)

Postnatal development of hippocampal dentate granule cell gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor pharmacological properties was studied. Granule cells were acutely isolated from hippocampi of 7- to 14- and 45- to 52-day-old rats, and whole cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained. The sensitivity of GABAA receptors to GABA and modulation of GABAA receptor currents by benzodiazepines (BZ), zinc, furosemide, and loreclezole was studied. Multiple changes in the pharmacological properties of dentate granule-cell GABAA receptors occurred during the first 52 days of postnatal development: GABA-evoked maximal current increased with postnatal age; GABAA receptors changed from BZ type 3 in young rats to BZ type 1 in adult rats; furosemide and zinc inhibited GABAA receptor currents in young rats but not in adult rats; the fraction of cells that expressed loreclezole-sensitive GABAA receptors increased with postnatal age. These findings suggest that dentate granule cells in young and adult animals express pharmacologically distinct GABAA receptors and that the postnatal development of these receptors is prolonged, lasting at least 45 days. Comparison with the previously reported pharmacological properties of GABAA receptors on dentate granule cells acutely isolated from hippocampi of 28- to 35-day-old rats suggests that receptors expressed at that age have properties intermediate between young and adult rats.  (+info)

Regional differences in the inhibition of mouse in vivo [3H]Ro 15-1788 binding reflect selectivity for alpha 1 versus alpha 2 and alpha 3 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. (5/1844)

The benzodiazepines flunitrazepam, diazepam, and Ro 15-1788 and the beta-carboline DMCM bind with equivalent affinity to the benzodiazepine binding site of GABAA receptors containing different alpha subunits (i.e., alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, or alpha 5); whereas, the triazolopyridazine CL 218,872 and imidazopyridine zolpidem have higher affinity for alpha 1 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. In the present study, the in vivo binding of [3H]Ro 15-1788 in mouse cerebellum and spinal cord was used to establish the occupancy of the benzodiazepine binding site of GABAA receptors containing primarily alpha 1 and alpha 2/alpha 3 subunits, respectively. Thus, the nonselective compounds flunitrazepam, diazepam, and DMCM all produced a similar inhibition of binding in cerebellum and spinal cord (respective ID50 values of 0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg i.p.); whereas, the alpha 1 selective compounds CL 218,872 and zolpidem were more potent at inhibiting [3H]Ro 15-1788 binding in the cerebellum (ID50 values 4.5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg i.p.) compared to the spinal cord (ID50 values 12 mg/kg and > 30 mg/kg i.p.). Thus, the reduction of in vivo f[3H]Ro 15-1788 binding in tissues containing alpha 1 and alpha 2/alpha 3 receptor populations reflects the in vitro affinities of subtype selective compounds and should help to interpret the behavioral profile of such compounds.  (+info)

Selective activation of heterologously expressed G protein-gated K+ channels by M2 muscarinic receptors in rat sympathetic neurones. (6/1844)

1. G protein-regulated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels were over-expressed in dissociated rat superior cervical sympathetic (SCG) neurones by co-transfecting green fluorescent protein (GFP)-, GIRK1- and GIRK2-expressing plasmids using the biolistic technique. Membrane currents were subsequently recorded with whole-cell patch electrodes. 2. Co-transfected cells had larger Ba2+-sensitive inwardly rectifying currents and 13 mV more negative resting potentials (in 3 mM [K+]o) than non-transfected cells, or cells transfected with GIRK1 or GIRK2 alone. 3. Carbachol (CCh, 1-30 microM) increased the inwardly rectifying current in 70 % of GIRK1+ GIRK2-transfected cells by 261 +/- 53 % (n = 6, CCh 30 microM) at -120 mV, but had no effect in non-transfected cells or in cells transfected with GIRK1 or GIRK2 alone. Pertussis toxin prevented the effect of carbachol but had no effect on basal currents. 4. The effect of CCh was antagonized by 6 nM tripitramine but not by 100 nM pirenzepine, consistent with activation of endogenous M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 5. In contrast, inhibition of the voltage-activated Ca2+ current by CCh was antagonized by 100 nM pirenzepine but not by 6 nM tripitramine, indicating that it was mediated by M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 6. We conclude that endogenous M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors selectively couple to GIRK currents and Ca2+ currents respectively, with negligible cross-talk.  (+info)

Meta-analysis of benzodiazepine use in the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. (7/1844)

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the evidence for the efficacy and potential harmful effects of benzodiazepines compared with other therapies in the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry were searched for English-language articles published from 1966 to December 1997 that described randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of benzodiazepines in the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal. Key words included "benzodiazepines" (exploded) and "randomized controlled trial." Bibliographies of relevant articles were reviewed for additional RCTs, and manufacturers of benzodiazepines were asked to submit additional RCT reports not in the literature. STUDY SELECTION: Articles were considered for the meta-analysis if they were RCTs involving patients experiencing acute alcohol withdrawal and comparing a benzodiazepine available in Canada with placebo or an active control drug. Of the original 23 trials identified, 11 met these criteria, representing a total of 1286 patients. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were extracted regarding the participants, the setting, details of the intervention, the outcomes (including adverse effects) and the methodologic quality of the studies. DATA SYNTHESIS: The meta-analysis of benefit (therapeutic success within 2 days) showed that benzodiazepines were superior to placebo (common odds ratio [OR] 3.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-8.28). Data on comparisons between benzodiazepines and other drugs, including beta-blockers, carbamazepine and clonidine, could not be pooled, but none of the alternative drugs was found to be clearly more beneficial than the benzodiazepines. The meta-analysis of harm revealed no significant difference between benzodiazepines and alternative drugs in terms of adverse events (common OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.34-1.32) or dropout rates (common OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.47-0.97). INTERPRETATION: Benzodiazepines should remain the drugs of choice for the treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of reminders to enhance the impact of audit in general practice on management of patients who use benzodiazepines. (8/1844)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether reminder cards in medical records enhance the effectiveness of audit with feedback in improving the care of patients taking long term benzodiazepine drugs. DESIGN: Randomised trial, practices receiving feedback only in one group and practices receiving feedback plus reminder cards in the other group. SETTING: 18 general practices in Leicestershire. SUBJECTS: Random samples of patients who had been taking a benzodiazepine anxiolytic or hypnotic drug for four weeks or longer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Entries in medical records indicating compliance with five criteria of care: assessment of suitability for withdrawal; being told about dependency; withdrawal being recommended; withdrawal or continuing medication; and a consultation with the general practitioner in the past year. Data were collected before and after feedback or feedback plus reminders. RESULTS: Of a total population of 125,846 registered with the 18 practices, 2409 (1.9%) had been taking a benzodiazepine for four weeks or longer. Of the 742 in the first samples, 543 (73.2%) were women, the mean (SD) age was 68.7 (14.9) years, and they had been taking a benzodiazepine for 10.1 (6.7) years. The number of patients whose care complied with the criteria rose after the interventions to implement change. The increase was greater in practices receiving feedback plus reminders for only two of the five criteria "told about dependency" increasing from 52 (11.1%) to 118 (25.8%) in the feedback only group, and from 27 (10.5%) to 184 (43.0%) in the feedback plus reminders group; odds ratio (OR) 1.46 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32 to 5.21); and "consulted in the past year" increasing from 434 (93.1%) to 411 (95.8%) in the feedback only group and 255 (96.6%) to 400 (99.8%) in the feedback plus reminders group, OR (95% CI) 13.5 (2.01 to 330.3). CONCLUSIONS: Reminder cards had only a limited effect and cannot be recommended for routine use. There were improvements in the care of patients of both groups of practices and further studies are indicated to determine the impact of both systematically developed criteria and reminders embedded into restructured medical records.  (+info)

*List of benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepine Benzodiazepine dependence Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome Golombok S, Lader M (August 1984). "The ... "Benzodiazepine Names". non-benzodiazepines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2009-04-05. C. Heather ... The below tables contain a sample list of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine analogs that are commonly prescribed, with their ... Benzodiazepines developed in the former Soviet Union (e.g. phenazepam, gidazepam etc.) Benzodiazepines predominantly used only ...

*Benzodiazepine

The benzodiazepine class of drugs also interact with peripheral benzodiazepine receptors. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors ... Once bound to the benzodiazepine receptor, the benzodiazepine ligand locks the benzodiazepine receptor into a conformation in ... Benzodiazepines are also used to treat the acute panic caused by hallucinogen intoxication. Benzodiazepines are also used to ... Benzodiazepine drugs are substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines, although the chemical term can refer to many other compounds that do ...

*Benzodiazepine overdose

... had similar overdose potential as benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines bind to a specific benzodiazepine receptor, thereby ... Benzodiazepine overdose describes the ingestion of one of the drugs in the benzodiazepine class in quantities greater than are ... In 72% of the cases, benzodiazepines were the only drug consumed. Thus, many of deaths associated with benzodiazepine overdoses ... Flumazenil (Romazicon) is a competitive benzodiazepine receptor antagonist that can be used as an antidote for benzodiazepine ...

*Benzodiazepine use disorder

Drug abuse Benzodiazepine overdose Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use Drug facilitated sexual assault "Benzodiazepine ... Most licit prescribed users of benzodiazepines do not escalate their dose of benzodiazepines. Problem benzodiazepine use can be ... Benzodiazepines are a commonly misused class of drug. A study in Sweden found that benzodiazepines are the most common drug ... Benzodiazepine abuse is steadily increasing and is now a major public health problem. Benzodiazepine abuse is mostly limited to ...

*Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

Benzodiazepines : How they work and how to withdraw Professor Heather Ashton (2002). "Benzodiazepines: How They Work and How to ... Re-exposures to benzodiazepines typically resulted in a reactivation of the tolerance and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. ... Barbiturates are cross tolerant to benzodiazepines and should be avoided. Benzodiazepines or cross tolerant drugs should be ... Nevertheless, long-term users of benzodiazepines should not be forced to withdraw against their will. Benzodiazepine withdrawal ...

*List of benzodiazepine designer drugs

... a benzodiazepine Desmethylflunitrazepam, a benzodiazepine Diclazepam, a benzodiazepine Flubromazepam, a benzodiazepine (inc Br ... a benzodiazepine Nitemazepam, a benzodiazepine Nitrazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine Norflurazepam, a benzodiazepine Pyrazolam, ... Benzodiazepine designer drugs include: 3-Hydroxyphenazepam Adinazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine Bromazolam, a ... F) Flubromazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine Flunitrazolam, a triazolobenzodiazepine Meclonazepam, a benzodiazepine Nifoxipam, ...

*Effects of long-term benzodiazepine use

... benzodiazepine abuse, tolerance and benzodiazepine dependence and benzodiazepine withdrawal problems. Both physiological ... Significant toxicity from benzodiazepines can occur in the elderly as a result of long-term use. Benzodiazepines, along with ... Benzodiazepine misuse or misuse of other CNS depressants increases the risk of suicide in drug misusers. Benzodiazepine has ... When benzodiazepine users cease long-term benzodiazepine therapy, their cognitive function improves in the first six months, ...

*E. Wesley Ely

Lonergan, Edmund; Luxenberg, Jay; Areosa Sastre, Almudena (2009-10-07). "Benzodiazepines for delirium". The Cochrane Database ... especially benzodiazepines) to shorten patients' time on mechanical ventilation during ICU treatment. With others at Vanderbilt ... "in the recommendation to minimize the use of benzodiazepines in the most recent sedation guidelines." In July 2007, Ely along ... when using the sedative dexmedetomidine compared to a benzodiazepine (specifically lorazepam). This and subsequent studies have ...

*Photophobia

Albinism Ariboflavinosis Benzodiazepines (long-term use of or withdrawal from benzodiazepines) Chemotherapy Chikungunya ... ISBN 978-0-12-709801-2. Wakakura M, Tsubouchi T, Inouye J (March 2004). "Etizolam and benzodiazepine induced blepharospasm". J ... Pelissolo A; Bisserbe JC (Mar-Apr 1994). "[Dependence on benzodiazepines. Clinical and biological aspects]". Encephale. 20 (2 ...

*Midazolam

A benzodiazepine dependence occurs in about one-third of individuals who are treated with benzodiazepines for longer than 4 ... Benzodiazepines can cause or worsen depression. Paradoxical excitement occasionally occurs with benzodiazepines, including a ... The toxicity of benzodiazepine overdose and risk of death is also increased in the elderly and those with obstructive pulmonary ... Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in the elderly, during pregnancy, in children, in alcohol- or other drug- ...

*Childhood amnesia

Subjects taking benzodiazepines are found to perform worse on learning and memory tasks compared to drug-naive subjects. ... Benzodiazepines are a class of psychiatric medication which increase GABA expression and are known to produce anterograde ... Roth T, Roehrs T, Wittig R, Zorick F (1984). "Benzodiazepines and memory". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 18 (Suppl ...

*Nordazepam

Benzodiazepine Benzodiazepine dependence Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome Long-term effects of benzodiazepines C. Heather ... 4-benzodiazepine derivative. Like other benzodiazepine derivatives, it has amnesic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant ... Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in the elderly, during pregnancy, in children, alcohol- or drug-dependent ... Nordazepam is a partial agonist at the GABAA receptor, which makes it less potent than other benzodiazepines, particularly in ...

*Delirium

Benzodiazepines themselves can cause delirium or worsen it, and there is no reliable evidence for use in non-alcohol-related ... alcohol, benzodiazepines) Substance intoxication Traumatic head injury The pathophysiology of delirium is not well understood ... In critically ill individuals avoidance or cautious use of benzodiazepines has been recommended to reduce the risk of delirium ... If delirium is due to alcohol withdrawal or benzodiazepine withdrawal or if antipsychotics are contraindicated (e.g. in ...

*Relapse

Benzodiazepines (i.e.: Xanax) Opioids activate or block opioid receptors in the brain typically to reduce the effect of pain. ...

*Cloxazolam

Cinazepam Gidazepam DE Patent 1817923 "Benzodiazepine Names". non-benzodiazepines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-12 ... Inoue, H.; Maeno, Y.; Iwasa, M.; Matoba, R.; Nagao, M. (Sep 2000). "Screening and determination of benzodiazepines in whole ... The main site of action of cloxazolam and its active metabolites are the benzodiazepine receptor. The pharmacological actions ... Many benzodiazepines (diazepam, medazepam, estazolam, temazepam, flunitrazepam and nitrazepam) potently inhibit the enzymes ...

*Fosazepam

... is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative; it is a water soluble derivative of diazepam. It has sedative and ... Fosazepam has similar effects on sleep as other benzodiazepines. In a clinical trial it was reported that fosazepam to lead to ... Benzodiazepine DE Patent 2022503 Clarke, CH.; Ferres, HM.; Nicholson, AN.; Stone, BM. (Oct 1975). "Proceedings: Effect of ... Another clinical trial also found worsening of sleep while on benzodiazepines as well as during withdrawal with suppression of ...

*Oxazepam

... , as with other benzodiazepine drugs, can cause tolerance, physical dependence, addiction, and benzodiazepine ... CID 4616 from PubChem "Benzodiazepine Names". non-benzodiazepines.org.uk. Retrieved 2008-12-29. "FASS". ... deep coma Oxazepam is an intermediate-acting benzodiazepine of the 3-hydroxy family; it acts on benzodiazepine receptors, ... Benzodiazepine overdoses can be much more dangerous if a coingestion of other CNS depressants such as opiates or alcohol has ...

*Poly drug use

Benzodiazepines are notorious for causing death when mixed with other CNS depressants such as opioids, alcohol, or barbiturates ... 8 Serfaty M, Masterton G (1993). "Fatal poisonings attributed to benzodiazepines in Britain during the 1980s". Br J Psychiatry ... Drummer OH; Ranson DL (December 1996). "Sudden death and benzodiazepines". Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 17 (4): 336-42. doi: ... Buckley NA, Dawson AH, Whyte IM, O'Connell DL (1995). "[Relative toxicity of benzodiazepines in overdose.]". BMJ. 310 (6974): ...

*Haloxazolam

"Benzodiazepine Names". non-benzodiazepines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2009-04-05. Guan, F; ... Benzodiazepine Tanaka, E; Terada, M; Misawa, S; Wakasugi, C (1996). "Simultaneous determination of twelve benzodiazepines in ... Haloxazolam (marketed in Japan under the brand name Somelin), is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It has similar ... Tan, X; Uchida, S; Matsuura, M; Nishihara, K; Kojima, T (2003). "Long-, intermediate- and short-acting benzodiazepine effects ...

*Fludiazepam

"Benzodiazepine Names". non-benzodiazepines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-12-29. Neville, GA ... As with all benzodiazepines, fludiazepam is used recreationally. Benzodiazepine Diazepam Diclazepam (the 2ʹ-chloro-analog) ... US Patent 3299053 -ARYL-JH-L,X-BENZODIAZEPIN-Z(LH)-ONES Tsuchiya, T.; Fukushima, H. (Apr 1978). "Effects of benzodiazepines and ... Inoue, H.; Maeno, Y.; Iwasa, M.; Matoba, R.; Nagao, M. (Sep 2000). "Screening and determination of benzodiazepines in whole ...

*Delorazepam

Although overdoses of benzodiazepines alone rarely result in death, the combination of benzodiazepines and other sedatives ( ... "Benzodiazepine Names". non-benzodiazepines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-12-29. Oliveira- ... Benzodiazepine abuse in patients taking them as prescribed on an as-needed basis for chronic/refractory anxiety, insomnia, and ... Benzodiazepine Phenazepam-7-bromo-analog Nordiclazepam is used as the precursor with which to make Uldazepam via the thionamide ...

*Carbamazepine

As a drug that induces cytochrome P450 enzymes, it accelerates elimination of many benzodiazepines and decreases their action. ... Moody D (2004). "Drug interactions with benzodiazepines". In Raymon LP, Mozayani A. Handbook of Drug Interactions: a Clinical ...

*Alprazolam

As a benzodiazepine, alprazolam produces a variety of therapeutic and adverse effects by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor ... Alprazolam and other benzodiazepines may also cause the development of physical dependence, tolerance, and benzodiazepine ... Do not take opioid cough medicines with benzodiazepines or other medicines that depress the CNS "Benzodiazepine Names". Non- ... To some degree, these older benzodiazepines are self-tapering. The benzodiazepines diazepam (Valium) and oxazepam (Serepax) ...

*Prazepam

Benzodiazepine Benzodiazepine dependence Long-term effects of benzodiazepines US Patent 3192199 - Process for the production of ... More training regarding benzodiazepines has been recommended for doctors. Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in ... "Benzodiazepine Names". non-benzodiazepines.org.uk. Retrieved 2009-05-31. Inchem - Prazepam. ... benzodiazepines and related 1,4-benzodiazepines in mice". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 58 (1): 281-289. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(96 ...

*Ethyl loflazepate

"Benzodiazepine Names". non-benzodiazepines.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2009-04-05. Ueki, S; ... Ethyl loflazepate (marketed under the brand names Meilax, Ronlax and Victan) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It ... The cause of death was asphyxia due to benzodiazepine toxicity. High doses of the antidepressant fluvoxamine may potentiate the ... Its mechanism of action is similar to other benzodiazepines. Ethyl loflazepate also produces an active metabolite which is ...
While expert recommendations caution against long-term benzodiazepine use in the elderly, survey data suggest increasing benzodiazepine use with age. Computerized pharmacy records of staff-model HMO were used to examine benzodiazepine prescribing. Six-month prevalence of benzodiazepine use 2.8% and prevalence of continued use 0.7% were lower...
Benzodiazepines are widely used clinically to treat anxiety and insomnia. They also induce muscle relaxation, control epileptic seizures, and can produce amnesia. Moreover, benzodiazepines are often abused after chronic clinical treatment and also for recreational purposes. Within weeks, tolerance to the pharmacological effects can develop as a sign of dependence. In vulnerable individuals with compulsive drug use, addiction will be diagnosed. Here we review recent observations from animal models regarding the cellular and molecular basis that might underlie the addictive properties of benzodiazepines. These data reveal how benzodiazepines, acting through specific GABA(A) receptor subtypes, activate midbrain dopamine neurons, and how this could hijack the mesolimbic reward system. Such findings have important implications for the future design of benzodiazepines with reduced or even absent addiction liability ...
Benzodiazepine use disorder, also called misuse or abuse,[1] is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses risks of dependence, withdrawal and other long-term effects.[2][3] Benzodiazepines are one of the more common prescription drugs used recreationally. When used recreationally benzodiazepines are usually administered orally but sometimes they are taken intranasally or intravenously. Recreational use produces effects similar to alcohol intoxication.[3][4] In tests in pentobarbital trained rhesus monkeys benzodiazepines produced effects similar to barbiturates.[5] In a 1991 study, triazolam had the highest self-administration rate in cocaine trained baboons, among the five benzodiazepines examined: alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, triazolam.[6] A 1985 study found that triazolam and temazepam maintained higher rates of self-injection than a variety of other benzodiazepines.[7] A 1991 study indicated that diazepam, in ...
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders when used in conjunction with benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy and when used as a monotherapy. Patients using CBT alone have dropout rates similar to or lower than those patients undergoing other forms of therapy, including benzodiazepines. CBT also works well with patients who do not respond adequately to pharmacotherapy. Combined CBT and benzodiazepine treatment has additive effects when compared with benzodiazepine monotherapy; however, patients receiving combined therapy who subsequently discontinue benzodiazepine treatment experience a loss of efficacy compared with CBT and placebo, perhaps due to fear extinction being context dependent. To avoid this loss of efficacy, CBT may be administered alone or as a bridge between benzodiazepine use and discontinuation during a medication taper. The case report upon which this supplement is based questions the value of CBT for patients experiencing cognitive ...
Antipsychotics are the most important treatment for schizophrenia. However, antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine and clozapine, are associated with severe weight gain/obesity side-effects. Although numerous studies have been carried out to identify the exact mechanisms of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, it is still important to consider other pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and its associated inflammation pathway is one of the most important pathways involved in regulation of energy balance. In the present study, we examined the role of hypothalamic protein kinase R like endoplasmic reticulum kinase- eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (PERK-eIF2α) signaling and the inflammatory IkappaB kinase β- nuclear factor kappa B (IKKβ-NFκB) signaling pathway in olanzapine-induced weight gain in female rats. In this study, we found that olanzapine significantly activated PERK-eIF2α and IKKβ-NFκB signaling in SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Olanzapine treatment for ...
Question - Ive just started taking benzodiazepines again - this time - DM. Find the answer to this and other Medical questions on JustAnswer
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to (1) estimate the frequency of benzodiazepine use in psychiatric practice, (2) investigate factors associated with use, (3) establish whether a relationship exists between benzodiazepine dose and length of use, and (4) investigate factors associated with time to discontinuation. METHODS: This study was conducted in South Verona, Italy. All individuals who were exposed to benzodiazepines during 2005 were extracted from the local Psychiatric Case Register, and the longitudinal history of benzodiazepine exposure was retrospectively described. RESULTS: In 2005, a total of 1,771 individuals were in contact with at least one of the psychiatric facilities of the South Verona catchment area. Of these, 535 were benzodiazepine users, yielding a frequency of use of 30.2% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 28.0, 32.4]. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, lower level of education, diagnosis of affective illness, longer length of illness and higher service use were
A growing number of observational studies have shown the critical role of potentially inappropriate medications for increasing the risk of cognitive impairment. In a linked paper, Billioti de Gage and colleagues (doi:10.1136/bmj.g5205) extend the pharmacoepidemiological research on the adverse cognitive effects of benzodiazepines with an investigation of their link with Alzheimers disease.1 Their results suggest that long term exposure to benzodiazepines might be a modifiable risk factor for this condition.. The authors conducted a nested case-control study of about 2000 older members of a public drug plan in the province of Quebec, Canada. They observed a cumulative dose-effect association between exposure to benzodiazepines (at least 90 days) and risk of developing Alzheimers disease and found that exposure lasting more than 180 days was associated with a nearly twofold increase in risk. In further analyses, they showed that longer acting benzodiazepines were associated with greater risk of ...
Long term use of benzodiazepines which have a similar effect on the brain as alcohol and are also associated with depression.[23] Major depressive disorder can also develop as a result of chronic use of benzodiazepines or as part of a protracted withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines are a class of medication which are commonly used to treat insomnia, anxiety and muscular spasms. As with alcohol, the effects of benzodiazepine on neurochemistry, such as decreased levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, are believed to be responsible for the increased depression.[24][25][26][27] Major depressive disorder may also occur as part of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.[28][29][30] In a long-term follow-up study of patients dependent on benzodiazepines, it was found that 10 people (20%) had taken drug overdoses while on chronic benzodiazepine medication despite only two people ever having had any pre-existing depressive disorder. A year after a gradual withdrawal program, no patients had taken any ...
The advent of palliative care played an important role in widening the appropriate use of opioid analgesics. The relatively high level of benzodiazepine prescriptions in our study suggests that the same is happening here. Protocols for the use of benzodiazepines in other healthcare settings emphasize the need for short courses, low doses and the avoidance of as required prescriptions. There is little evidence for long term efficacy, but with a median stay under the hospices care of just over three months, relatively few of our patient group could be said to have long term benzodiazepine use unless they had been taking this class of drug prior to hospice referral. Indeed, the fact that half of all benzodiazepine use was within the last three weeks of life and by a parenteral route implies that the patient group under consideration here is different from those with which usual guidance for benzodiazepine use is concerned. The relevance of benzodiazepine protocols to palliative care settings ...
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The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is taking aim at concurrent use of opioid medications and benzodiazepines. The federal agency announced Aug. 31 that it is requiring new boxed label warnings and patient-focused Medication Guides for nearly 400 prescription opioids, opioid-containing cough medicines and benzodiazepines.. The FDA added in its announcement that because of the unique medical needs of patients who receive medication-assisted treatment for opioid dependence, it will continue to review evidence on the effects of concurrent use of opioids for addiction with benzodiazepines.. An agency data review, coinciding with a petition signed by many state and local public health officials last February, found that the number of patients who were prescribed an opioid and a benzodiazepine jumped 41% from 2002-2014. In addition, overdose deaths involving both medication classes nearly tripled from 2004-2011.. "It is nothing short of a public health crisis when you see a substantial increase of ...
An automated high-performance liquid chromatographic method, benzodiazepines by REMEDi HS, was used to analyze benzodiazepines and their metabolites after β-glucuronidase hydrolysis of 1-mL urine specimens from the following: 924 clinic and hospital patients whose specimens had previously been found to be presumptively positive using either EMIT® or Triage® immunoassay methodologies and 128 individuals whose specimens had screened negative by EMIT d.a.u.™. REMEDi analyses did not correlate with the immunoassay results in 136 of the positive and three of the negative urine specimens. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) confirmatory analyses were performed on these discordant specimens using 3 mL β-glucuronidasehydrolyzed urine followed by extraction with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1) and derivatizatlon with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. Two benzodiazepines, flunitrazepam and clonazepam, and their 7-amino metaholites were analyzed without prior derivatization. The ...
Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV. In the case of benzodiazepine dependence, however, the continued use seems to be associated with the avoidance of unpleasant withdrawal reaction rather than from the pleasurable effects of the drug. Benzodiazepine dependence develops with long-term use, even at low therapeutic doses, without the described dependence behavior. Addiction, or what is sometimes referred to as psychological dependence, includes people misusing or craving the drug not to relieve withdrawal symptoms, but to experience its euphoric or intoxicating effects. It is important to distinguish between addiction and drug abuse of benzodiazepines and normal physical dependence on benzodiazepines. The increased GABAA inhibition caused by benzodiazepines is ...
Synonyms for benzodiazepines at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
Some of the street names associated with benzodiazepines include benzos, tranx and sleepers, according to the Addiction Help Center. Benzodiazepines are a commonly abused and potentially...
Immediate-release (IR) benzodiazepines have a short duration of therapeutic effect and are generally less effective for anxiety than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in reducing concomitant depressive symptomatology. Common criticisms of benzodiazepines also include the patients tendency to develop a tolerance to the anxiolytic effect and a dependence on the drug itself. The newer extended-release (XR) benzodiazepine formulation was designed to increase efficacy, duration of therapeutic effect, tolerance, compliance, and ease of discontinuation. The XR benzodiazepine alprazolam has shown efficacy in panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder comparable to the older benzodiazepine formulations. Pharmacokinetic data show that the XR formulation has a longer therapeutic effect compared with IR formulations, which reduces the potential for breakthrough anxiety symptoms. Data also indicate that the XR formulation has less abuse liability than the IR formulation. This article reviews the ...
Like many drugs being abused these days, benzodiazepines are often prescribed by a doctor. The most commonly prescribed and abused benzos are Xanax®, Valium®, and Klonopin®, but there are dozens of other ones as well. They may be prescribed to treat a variety of symptoms, but are most often prescribed to treat mood disorders such as generalized anxiety and major depressive. Drugs like Rohypnol® have been used to aid in anesthesia before surgery.. As tranquilizers, benzos produce a sedated effect in both mind and body. This is helpful in treating anxiety, seizures, insomnia, and muscle spasms. This same effect makes these pills at extremely high risk for abuse. Unlike many other substances and prescriptions, a person can build tolerance and dependence within just a few week of taking the medication as prescribed. Some people seek out benzos, while others become addicted without any intention of doing so. Because of the potential for dependence to develop, many people become addicted quickly ...
Weight gain, a serious problem associated with some antipsychotic drugs, notably olanzapine and clozapine, was suggested to be associated with -759C/T polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene. This study aimed to examine a potential association of two functional polymorphisms of the promoter region of this gene: -759C/T (rs3813929) and -697G/C (rs518147), with weight gain after 6 weeks of olanzapine monotherapy. It included 107 patients with schizophrenia; among them 36 are first-episode drug-naive patients. Analysis was carried out by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A protective effect of -759T and -697C alleles was found: significantly less patients with -697C (3/51) and no patient with -759T (0/28) alleles experienced body mass index increase |or=10% (P=0.0006 and 0.002, respectively). The same was true for drug-naive patients possessing any of the variant alleles. There was a significant association of haplotypes with a |or=10% body mass index increase (P=0.001). On the basis of the
Of the studies that used strategies to deal with reverse causation, our findings are in line with one recent study14 but are in contrast with two previous studies that reported an increased risk of dementia with benzodiazepine use.8 9 In a case-control study conducted using administrative data from the UK based Clinical Practice Research Datalink, high use of benzodiazepines, as determined by number of prescriptions, was not associated with an increased risk of Alzheimers disease after use initated in the prodromal phase was accounted for. In fact, people who filled more than 100 benzodiazepine prescriptions had a lower risk for Alzheimers disease than non-users, a finding the authors cautioned against overinterpreting.14 In contrast, in a prospective population based study conducted in France of 1063 older adults, new use of benzodiazepines was associated with an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio 1.62, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 2.43).8 In regard to this latter study, our results ...
This invention relates to benzodiazepine derivatives which are useful as drugs exhibiting antagonism at the gastrin and/or CCK-B receptor, and to their production.
The valid review by Furukawa and colleagues shows that benzodiazepines may add to the efficacy of antidepressants. The effect is strongest after 1 week, lasts until 4 weeks, and disappears after 6 to 8 weeks, although this last finding is based on data concerning only 162 patients. What could cause this somewhat unexpected benefit? First, it may be that benzodiazepines prevent the occurrence of anxiety-related adverse effects in the first weeks of treatment, which may have led to fewer dropouts, particularly in the studies with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The 2 studies (126 patients) evaluating SSRIs do not seem to exclude such a trend, but no subgroup analysis was done. The effect, however, is still statistically significant after exclusion of dropouts. Second, the beneficial effect may be because of a reduction in anxiety and sleep disturbance, leaving the core symptoms of low mood and anhedonia undisturbed. Such a subgroup analysis was not possible and would require ...
Background: the STOPP criteria advise against the use of long-acting benzodiazepines (LBs). Objective: to study whether LBs are associated with a higher fall risk than short-acting benzodiazepines (SBs) (elimination half-life ≤10 h). Methods: we used base-line data and prospective fall follow-up from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a longitudinal cohort study including 1,509 community-dwelling older persons (Study 1) and from a separate fall prevention study with 564 older persons after a fall (Study 2). Time to the first fall after inclusion and number of falls in the first year after inclusion were the primary endpoints. Results: both in Study 1 and Study 2 the use of SBs was associated with time to the first fall, hazard ratio (HR) 1.62 (95% CI: 1.03-2.56) and HR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.19-2.26),respectively. LBs were not significantly associated with time to first fall, HR 1.40 (0.85-2.31) and HR 1.08 (0.72-1.62). In both studies, the use of SBs was also associated with number of falls, ...
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Benzo (benzodiazepines) Addiction - Benzodiazepines (sometimes called benzos ) work to calm or sedate a person, by raising the level of the inhibitory
Vol 266 No 7148 p668-670. May 19, 2001 Pharmacists have a role to play in assisting patients addicted to benzodiazepines, according to Sheena Macgregor, prescribing adviser for Borders Primary Care NHS Trust, Roxburghshire, Scotland. Ms Macgregor told The Journal on May 16 that, despite increased medical and public awareness of the long-term effects of benzodiazepines, many patients still requested sleeping tablets, or "something to help them cope" with a difficult life event.. Ms Macgregors comments follow a BBC Panorama programme that highlighted the degree to which benzodiazepines are being prescribed in the United Kingdom. The programmes presenter claimed that more than one million adults in Britain were addicted to tranquillisers prescribed by their general practitioners. This was despite guidance that was issued in 1988 by the Committee on Safety of Medicines, which stated that benzodiazepines should not be prescribed for more than four weeks at a time.. Speaking on the programme, which ...
narrow-angle glaucoma.. FDA pregnancy category C. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while using this medication. Taking antipsychotic medication during the last 3 months of pregnancy may cause problems in the newborn, such as withdrawal symptoms, breathing problems, feeding problems, fussiness, tremors, and limp or stiff muscles. However, you may have withdrawal symptoms or other problems if you stop taking your medicine during pregnancy. If you become pregnant while taking olanzapine, do not stop taking it without your doctors advice. Olanzapine can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while using olanzapine ...
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Benzodiazepines and antidepressants are both metabolised by CYP 450 enzymes which may result in the inhibition or induction of either drug group. Therefore, individuals should be monitored closely to ensure outcomes are appropriatex ...
Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed medications that promote short-term anxiety relief but cause long-term harm and even death when abused.
Aside from their pharmacokinetic properties, e.g. their speed of action and the duration of residual effects, benzodiazepines are still considered as equivalent in terms of their effects on cognition. Here we review evidence ...
The ancestral allele is C. The rs7412(T) allele, also known as Arg176Cys, generally indicates the presence of an Apoε2 allele; see the ApoE page for a full discussion of the ApoE alleles and their association with Alzheimers disease. Another SNP related to ApoE is rs429358. In a study of 67 mostly Caucasian patients prescribed the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine, carriers of a rs7412(C) allele were more likely to gain significant weight compared to rs7412(T;T) carriers, as assessed by physiogenomic analysis of corresponding weight profiles. Two other SNPs, rs5092 and rs4765623, were also significantly associated with weight profiles in these patients.[PMID 17199131] ...
Falls are a major problem for older adults, causing injury, disability and, in serious cases, death. Poor muscle strength, thinning bones, certain medical conditions, medications, and a variety of other factors may contribute to greater risk. Now a study presenting updated research on medication use and the risk of falls finds that people taking antidepressants are more likely to experience falls. Taking benzodiazepines for mood disorders or sedatives and hypnotics for sleep problems were also associated with greater risk.. The researchers couldnt determine whether the medications themselves, the medical conditions these drugs treat, or some other factor was to blame. But drowsiness and/or dizziness are common side effects of using antidepressants and benzodiazepines.. In the study, published in the Archives of Internal Medicine, researchers looked at fall occurrences among 79,000 participants age 60 and older and the use of medications in nine unique drug classes (including high blood pressure ...
Half-Life. When a benzodiazepine is taken on a regular basis, there is an ongoing process of drug absorption and elimination. The time it takes for half of the drug to be eliminated or for the blood concentration level to fall by half is known as the half-life. This may vary according to individual, particularly in the elderly.. When someone on a longer acting half-life drug misses several doses or abruptly discontinues the drug, it can take days before withdrawal symptoms surface. This is important to know as some people who stop taking the medication abruptly spend a brief period thinking that they will not have withdrawal symptoms only to be unpleasantly surprised days later.. Tolerance. When the receptors in the brain become habituated to the action of a benzodiazepine, more of the drug is needed in order for the desired therapeutic effect to be achieved. This often develops with regular use and is known as tolerance.. Inter-dose Withdrawal. People who use benzodiazepines sporadically or ...
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Jacqmin, P. ; Lesne, Michel. Measurement of Benzodiazepines By Radioimmuno Assay and Radioreceptor Assay in Biological Samples.In: Annales de Biologie Clinique, Vol. 40, no. 4, p. 480-481 (1982 ...
Doctors give trusted, helpful answers on causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, and more: Dr. Rosenfeld on pregnancy and benzodiazepines: Used for short-term treatment of anxiety, muscle spasm, insomnia, agitation, sedation, they are safe, as long as closely monitored by your doctor.
The PCRS recently sent out information to each GP in relation to their prescribing of Benzodiazepines and "Z" drugs (Zolpidem).The purpose of this was to inform GPs of their prescribing and where they were in relation to the national average of prescribing these items and to enable the GP to self audit their practice in relation to their prescribing ...
This test is simple, fast, reliable and accurate test which detects for the presence Benzodiazepines (diazepam) in urine. All tests are CE Marked and FDA
Benzodiazepines, also called benzos, are among the most commonly used depressant medications. Dependence may occur whether users take them as prescribed or use
This is a blood test to screen for a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. These are depressant drugs used to help patients sleep and ease anxiety.
This is a blood test to screen for a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. These are depressant drugs used to help patients sleep and ease anxiety.
TY - JOUR. T1 - AN EXAMINATION OF ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA OF 1,4-BENZODIAZEPINES BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRY. AU - BARRETT, J. AU - Smyth, Franklin. AU - DAVIDSON, IE. PY - 1973. Y1 - 1973. M3 - Article. VL - 25. SP - 387. EP - 393. JO - JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY. JF - JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY. SN - 0022-3573. IS - 5. ER - ...
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Researchers looked at internalizing and externalizing behaviors in children at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 years of age, comparing children exposed to benzodiazepines and sedative-hypnotics during pregnancy to unexposed children.
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Despite the fact that there have been many reports on benzodiazepine BZD dependence, consensus about its definition has not been reached. Reliable prevalence data to estimate the dependence liability of BZDs are therefore lacking. This study is the first to assess the prevalence of BZD dependence in out-patient BZD users 115 general practice GP...
All other benzodiazepines are classified as anxiolytics in N05B (e.g. diazepam) or hypnotics/sedatives in N05C (e.g. midazolam).. N03AF Carboxamide derivatives ...
After consent and screening, patients will be initiated on 5mg or 10mg per day of olanzapine. Olanzapine doses will be titrated to 10-20 mg of olanzapine over one week, to a maximum of 20mg by day 21. Patients will also receive either topiramate (25mg bid titrated over 18 days to 150 mg bid. with flexibility to titrate to 200mg bid) or matched placebo. Topiramate will be initiated at a dose of 25 mg bid and will be increased by 25 mg bid every three days as tolerated. Patients will be evaluated by a blinded (to treatment status and adverse events) rater ...
Olanzapine depressive disorder. Olanzapine is a medication that is used to treat bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. This selection from the eMedTV archives offers an overview of olanzapine.
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Congratulations! You have found the Benzodiazepine Forum on Forum Jar. This forum is a place where people who are interested in Benzodiazepine come together and discuss about Benzodiazepine. Please use the message board below to post anything related to Benzodiazepine . If you are interested in other similar forums, please check out the Related Forums section on the right. If you like this forum, please dont forget to tell your friends about Forum Jar ...
Clinically relevant benzodiazepines allosterically stimulate neurotransmitter-evoked chloride currents at the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A(GABAA) receptor. Rat wild-type or mutated alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2S subunits were coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes and investigated with electrophysiological techniques. Point mutations in two subunits were identified that affect the response of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced currents by benzodiazepines. Mutation of one of three amino acid residues to alanine (alpha Tyr161 and alpha Thr206) or leucine (gamma Phe77) resulted in a approximately 3-fold increase in potentiation by diazepam. The response to zolpidem was increased in two mutant channels containing the mutated alpha subunit but was nearly absent in channels containing the mutated gamma subunit. In the former cases, methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) acted as a negative allosteric modulator of the channel, much stronger than in the wild-type channel, whereas ...
... s are widely used in medicine to treat anxiety and insomnia. Here are warning signs on how it can lead to addiction.
Benzodiazepines are a type of medication known as tranquilizers -- familiar names are Valium and Xanax -- that are easily abused. Learn more from WebMD about the effects, symptoms, and abuse of these drugs.
Thanks, Peter. Im happy that benzodiazepines BZDs are not liable to produce an increase in all-reason fatality.. Other concerns with the long-term use of BZDs are related to irrevsrsible memory impairment and an acceleration in the emergence of Alzheimers Dementia. Right now, my impression is that neither of these occur at a greater risk when compared to non-users. I havent researched these things thoroughly, though.. ...
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The myriad physiological functions of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are mediated by the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex comprising of the GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC groups. The various GABAA subunits with region-specific distributions in the brain subserve different functional and physiological roles. For example, the sedative and anticonvulsive effects of classical benzodiazepines are attributed to the α1 subunit, and the α2 and α3 subunits mediate the anxiolytic effect. To optimize pharmacotherapies with improved efficacy and devoid of undesirable side effects for the treatment of anxiety disorders, subtype-selective imaging radiotracers are required to assess target engagement at GABA sites and determine the dose-receptor occupancy relationships ...
Olanzapine is a medication that belongs to a group of drugs called antipsychotics. It can be prescribed to you in order to help deal with the symptoms linked to schizophrenia. It can also be prescribed in order to help treat symptoms linked to high mood swings (mania). In either case, Olanzapine is able to work by balancing out certain chemical substances inside the brain that might be out of balance at the moment.. What information should you know before you start taking this medicational treatment?. Youll be given instructions as to how to take this drug, be sure to follow them exactly. Also, there are instructions that come with it when you get it. Follow these for safety purposes as Well. One good thing to remember before using this is youll need to be consistent with its used. This means creating a daily schedule to help you remember. Once you have one be sure to follow it at the same time every day.. What do you do if you miss a dose? Should you just wait until your next scheduled time ...
The use of benzodiazepine anxiolytics and hypnotics continues to excite controversy. Views differ from expert to expert and from country to country as to the extent of the problem, or even whether lon
Benzodiazepines are widely prescribed for a variety of conditions such as anxiety, insomnia and in severe cases of depression if accompanies by anxiety or severe distress.
Opioids and benzodiazepine drugs may result in serious risks when misused. Therefore FDA has recently issued boxed warnings and labeling changes for the safe use of the drug.
... is a serious health condition. Learn about the risks of using benzos, why theyre addictive and how to safely stop taking them.
1 Answer - Posted in: anxiety, benzodiazepine withdrawal, insomnia - Answer: Lithium is not a benzodiazepine. It is a mood stabilizer used for ...
Richard,. You think my argument falls short- I feel that you are naive in your desires to "bridge the divide", and are missing the point. Perhaps this is because, quite luckily, youve never had to experience what myself and so many other iatrogenic benzo victims have had to endure- and so maybe its not that you dont get it, but rather that you just are unable to b/c you havent personally lived or experienced it.. I will try to explain (keep in mind- on a very uneven playing field- you with full use of your cognitive abilities, and me extremely cognitively impaired w neurotoxicity, which has made this dialogue so difficult all along, despite the desire. It is extremely frustrating to want to debate or to have so much back and forth when you can barely use your brain effectively) where I think you miss the point.. 1. Everyone already (for the most part- and incorrectly) equates benzodiazepine use with addiction. So, that problem is already recognized. What were trying to do here is not deny ...
Xanax is different to other benzodiazepines in the way that it is significantly harder to self-detox or slowly reduce dosage leading to abstinence. Once a physiological dependence has developed it is strongly recommended to seek medical care and support for quitting.. The safest way to quit Xanax is to taper off dosage slowly under the care of medical attention. This method depends on how long and strong the dependence has built. If the dependence is not newly-developed then tapering off can take months. The benefit of this method is that as you lower dosage your brain adjusts to the decreasing dosages and slowly increases production of GABA to compensate. The lack of GABA in the brain is what causes the withdrawal symptoms. Thereby using this method significantly decreases the withdrawal symptoms which are felt by going cold turkey.. A method that is much safer and quicker is to go through a detoxification program or drug rehab. It is possible to safely detox off Xanax with medical attention ...
Patient Ken = 30 yo healthy male with ~1 year c/o persistent anxious feelings, difficulty concentrating, difficulty sleeping. Prior relief with diazepam from a friend s supply. Requests daily diazepam. At first, we may want to help and provide the diazepam. Is this really in patient s best interests ...
Introduction: Inappropriate benzodiazepines (BZD) and z-drugs use in older populations is associated with a variety of sociodemographic and health-related factors. Recent studies reported that inappropriate BZD and z-drugs use is associated with increased age, female gender, and severe negative psychological (e.g. depression) and somatic (e.g. chronic disease) factors. The current study explores the sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with inappropriate BZD and z-drugs use in older people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among randomly selected patients of one health insurance ("AOK North-West") with BZD and z-drugs prescriptions in the past 12 months. The sample was stratified by appropriateness to German prescription guidelines (yes vs. no) and age (50-65 vs. ,65 years). To examine the association of selected sociodemographic and psychological variables (e.g. sex, employment status, quality of life, depression) with inappropriate use a binary logistic ...
record abstracts. Several limitations to the data exist and should be noted prior to using this DAWN file: DAWN data collectors attempt to identify with a high degree of specificity the exact drugs involved in an ED visit, but extant medical records vary in specificity and detail. If extant medical records include only a general description of a drug (e.g., "benzodiazepines"), the drug is grouped in a general category (e.g., "benzodiazepines not otherwise specified"). ; Many drug-related ED visits involve multiple drugs. In these instances, it may be difficult or impossible to determine whether a single drug is responsible for the visit or if the visit was the result of the interaction between the drugs. ; When multiple drugs are involved, it should not be assumed that they are all taken for the same reason; a patient may misuse one type of prescription medication while taking another medication as prescribed. ; While DAWN seeks to report only the drugs that are related to the ED visit, some ...
I have discussed about the how, when and what happens when taking Benzo longer than it should be and why it is addictive. Addictive in the sense that the body becomes dependent of the action of benzo. Remember the role of GABA inhibitors? How it inhibits neurotransmitters to be excited? This role is very important…
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The high quality of an automated SPE clean-up method is described here. It allows for the direct injection of extracts into the LC/MS-MS system resulting in excellent recovery of all analytes. Automation of the SPE process increased recovery ranges from 10 to 20% compared to results obtained using the manual liquid/liquid extraction method. The automated method has now been fully validated in the laboratory.
Will you have Enough Medication at the Time of a Disaster? As we see people across the world struggle with unexpected disasters, we might wonder how prepared are we if one should strike where we live? There is a certain amount of preparation that we can do. We can try to live in a safe […]. ...
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Dr Gould covered the risks of co-prescribing benzodiazepines and opioids, particularly for elderly patients, and proposed therapeutic alternatives at PAINWeek 2017.
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Addiction is a chronic, progressive disease that affects millions of people in the U.S.and worldwide. Benzodiazepine addiction is one of the most serious forms of addiction due to the potentially life-threatening withdrawal symptoms.
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Ranzepam is a drug that belongs to the group of benzodiazepines. Its active ingredient is diazepam. Avoid breastfeeding while taking this medication. In the elderly patients, lowest effective dose
The use of sedatives, such as benzodiazepines and opioids, is the typical treatment for agitation. Read about their different effects and adverse events in the PAD Management Knowledge Centre at epgonline.org.
Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome: Find the most comprehensive real-world symptom and treatment data on benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome at PatientsLikeMe. 49 patients with benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome experience fatigue, depressed mood, pain, anxious mood, and insomnia and use Cannabis, Acetaminophen (Paracetamol), Adrafinil, Biofeedback, and Cannabidiol to treat their benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome and its symptoms.
AIMS: To describe alprazolam poisoning and the relative toxicity of alprazolam compared with other benzodiazepines. METHODS: A database of consecutive poisoning admissions to a regional toxicology service was searched to identify consecutive benzodiazepine deliberate self poisonings, which were coded as alprazolam, diazepam or other benzodiazepine. Major outcomes used were length of stay (LOS), intensive care (ICU) admission, coma (GCS > 9), flumazenil administration and requirement for mechanical ventilation. Prescription data were obtained for benzodiazepines for the study period. RESULTS: There were 2063 single benzodiazepine overdose admissions: 131 alprazolam overdoses, 823 diazepam overdoses and 1109 other benzodiazepine overdoses. The median LOS for alprazolam overdoses was 19 h which was 1.27 (95% CI 1.04, 1.54) times longer compared with other benzodiazepines by multiple linear regression. For patients with alprazolam overdoses, 22% were admitted to ICU which was 2.06 (95% CI 1.27, ...
Barbone and colleagues observed a significant increase in risk for motor vehicle crashes with use of benzodiazepines and zopiclone in this case-crossover study. A dose-response relation was seen. Analysis according to drug elimination half-life showed that anxiolytics with long half-lives were specifically associated with an increased occurrence of road traffic crashes. Surprisingly, risk associated with benzodiazepine use was highest among drivers , 30 years of age and decreased with advancing age. Among persons ≥ 65 years of age, no increase in risk was found. These results conflict with those of 2 epidemiologic studies that focused on the geriatric population (1, 2). In view of the widespread concerns about the harmful effects of long half-life benzodiazepines on the elderly, the results reported by Barbone and colleagues seem incongruous. There are several possible explanations for these findings, including insufficient statistical power to detect an increased risk in the elderly, reduced ...
Lorazepam-glucuronide is eventually excreted by the nonclinical data! Seizures intravenous diazepam in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other medications that cause drowsiness or breathing problems! Benzodiazepine treatment should be told that ativan injection contains benzyl alcohol well below that associated with subtle but prolonged cognitive deficits persist for greater intervals because of extremes of age; therefore, lorazepams anticonvulsant effects, benzodiazepines are the possible side effects. Warnings & precautions 10 ways to stop stress tips to fast stress relief generalized anxiety disorder (gad) slideshow take the missed dose as soon as you remember, use it at the injection should be borne in mind when these other drugs revealed that visual tracking (the ability to recall! Ativan dosage needs to be dose-related, meaning larger doses as high as 0! adverse effects ativan In mild cases symptoms include headaches, anxiety and signs of infection ...
Title:Antipsychotic Drugs: From Receptor-binding Profiles to Metabolic Side Effects. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):Spyridon Siafis, Dimitrios Tzachanis, Myrto Samara and Georgios Papazisis*. Affiliation:Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 3rd Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki. Keywords:Receptor-binding profiles, antipsychotics, metabolic side effects, neurotransmitters, obesity, diabetes, metabolic regulation, feeding behavior.. Abstract:Background: Antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects are major concerns in psychopharmacology and clinical psychiatry. Their pathogenetic mechanisms are still not elucidated. Methods: Herein, we review the ...
Benzodiazepines and cyclobenzaprine are used to treat muscle spasms. Benzodiazepines are also used to treat insomnia, seizures, anxiety disorders, nervousness, panic disorders, alcohol withdrawal, status epilepticus, premenstrual syndrome, and as sedation during surgery. Benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants that cause drowsiness and cyclobenzaprine is a muscle relaxant.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Second-generation antipsychotic medications in the treatment of mood disorders. T2 - Focus on aripiprazole. AU - Buckley, Peter F.. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Second-generation antipsychotic medications offer a broader range of therapeutic efficacies than first-generation agents. Consequently, our field has witnessed a rapid expansion of the use of second-generation antipsychotic drugs for several conditions beyond psychosis. The use of second-generation antipsychotic medications has been most pronounced in mood disorders, especially in bipolar disorders. Information about the agents clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole in terms of their efficacy and tolerability in bipolar disorder is now available. Aripiprazole, a new agent whose proposed mechanism(s) of action differs from that of other agents, has been shown in placebo-controlled comparative trials in bipolar patients to be an effective and well tolerated treatment option for ...
The major finding of this study is that inverse agonism at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor is not a reliable predictor of atypical antipsychotic activity. Additionally, several potent 5-HT2-family antagonists with equivocal (e.g., M100907, ritanserin) or no (isoclozapine, mianserin, amitriptyline) antipsychotic activity were found to be potent and effective inverse agonists at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor. These results indicate that inverse agonist activity at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor does not, by itself, reliably distinguish between typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs.. Several prior studies have described inverse agonist actions of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs at 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors (Barker et al., 1994; Westphal and Sanders-Bush, 1994; Labrecque et al., 1995; Egan et al., 1998;Herrick-Davis et al., 2000). Thus, Egan et al. (1998) were the first to systematically evaluate a large series of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs for their inverse agonist actions at h5-HT2A ...
In the management of alcohol withdrawal, a benzodiazepine can reduce psychomotor agitation and, used at an early stage, it may prevent progression to more severe symptoms of withdrawal including convulsions and delirium tremens. For less severe symptoms, the benzodiazepine is given orally either as a fixed regimen of tapering doses or according to withdrawal symptoms as and when they arise (symptom-triggered therapy).. The long-acting benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide and diazepam are licensed for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms; both allow smooth tapering down of the dose.. A benzodiazepine can also be used for managing severe symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and may be of value in managing seizures and the potentially life-threatening condition of delirium tremens (characterised by hallucinations, disorientation, agitation, tremor, severe tachycardia, hypertension, fever, drenching sweats, and fluid and electrolyte disturbances). These symptoms are treated in an in-patient setting ...
Acute treatment of panic, or really any type of acute anxiety, usually involves the use of fast acting medications. These typically have short half lives, and rapid times to onset. The most common medications used for acute treatment of anxiety are the benzodiazepines. They all work through potentiation of GABA action at GABA-A receptors in the CNS. Because of their indirect effect on the GABA receptor, the benzodiazepines are relatively safe compared with other sedatives.. There are three classes of benzodiazepines: 2-keto, 3-hydroxy, and triazolo. 2-keto drugs include chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, prazepam, clorazepate, halazepam, clonazepam, and flurazepam. Many of these are pro-drugs; they are oxidized in the liver (usually to active metabolites). They therefore tend to have long half-lives and are more susceptible to drug interactions and age effects. The 3-hydroxy drugs include oxazepam, lorazepam, and temezepam. These are conjugated in the liver (to inactive substances); thus, they have ...
The binding of [3H]diazepam to benzodiazepine receptors was studied in extensively washed membranes of rat cerebral cortex in the presence of the depressant barbiturate, pentobarbital. Pentobarbital, like the endogenous neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), increased the basal binding and also potentiated the GABA-enhanced binding of [3H]diazepam to benzodiazepine receptors by increasing the apparent affinity of [3H]diazepam for the benzodiazepine receptor. The concentrations of pentobarbital necessary to elicit these effects in vitro are the same as those observed after treatment with pharmacologically relevant doses, suggesting that a common neurochemical association may exist between these types of compounds. ...
The clinical picture and features of NMS with atypical antipsychotics seem to be different from those of typical antipsychotics. This had led to uncertainty over the diagnosis of NMS in patients on atypical antipsychotics who manifest only few of the NMS symptoms.38 Among the core symptoms of NMS, fever is often encountered less frequently in patients with atypical antipsychotic-induced NMS.38 The issue is further complicated by the various operational definitions of NMS.38 The DSM-IV-TR defines NMS as the presence of severe muscle rigidity and elevated temperature after antipsychotic initiation along with two or more of: diaphoresis, dysphagia, tremor, incontinence, changes in level of consciousness, mutism, tachycardia, elevated or labile blood pressure, leukocytosis, or laboratory evidence of muscle injury (elevated CPK level). Various other criteria for NMS have been postulated, each with varying emphasis on the individual symptoms and signs.39 Another set of criteria defines NMS in patients ...

Delirium tremens. Causes, symptoms, treatment Delirium tremensDelirium tremens. Causes, symptoms, treatment Delirium tremens

Benzodiazepine medications such as diazepam or lorazepam are often used. These drugs also help treat seizures, anxiety, and ...
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Are Passion Vine Leaves Poisonous? | Garden GuidesAre Passion Vine Leaves Poisonous? | Garden Guides

... benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants, making their effects stronger or more intense. The chemicals in passion vine may ...
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Benzodiazepine substitution is simply the replacement of one benzodiazepine with another. Although benzos have ... ... Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication. It is used to treat anxiety disorders ...
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BenzodiazepinesBenzodiazepines

... , commonly known as minor tranquillisers and sleeping pills, are prescribed mainly for problems relating to ... Benzodiazepine dependency. Benzodiazepines are potentially addictive drugs. Not all people taking benzodiazepines long-term ... How do benzodiazepines work?. Benzodiazepines act on the brain and central nervous system by increasing the calming effect of ... they carry their benzodiazepines with them just in case. *the benzodiazepines are interfering with their lives in some way, ...
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benzodiazepines | Autism Speaksbenzodiazepines | Autism Speaks

Ambien, autism, autism medications, autism medicines, Autism Speaks, autism treatments, benzodiazepines, beta blockers, ...
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endogenous benzodiazepinesendogenous benzodiazepines

... Charles King charles at anatomy.ucl.ac.uk Tue Jan 30 07:13:51 EST 1996 *Previous message: ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1996-January/022253.html

BenzodiazepinesBenzodiazepines

Benzo.org.uk - Benzodiazepine addiction and withdrawal. BENZACT. www.benzodiazepine.org. Benzo critics. Ashton, DM, FRCP, C. ... Media may 2001] Rogue doctors worse than backstreet drug dealers (benzodiazepines). [Media 2001 Benzodiazepines] Drug killing ... Social and general costs of iatrogenic benzodiazepine addiction. Benzodiazepines - Time for Action and Accountability! by Joan ... Benzodiazepines (aka. minor tranquilizers or sedatives). [back] Toxic Psychiatry Pharma addiction 1.5 million Xanax addicts ...
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Benzodiazepines learning module : MHRABenzodiazepines learning module : MHRA

v. Substitute the benzodiazepine for another class of anxiolytics. The benzodiazepine should not be replaced with another class ... It is often necessary to switch to a benzodiazepine with a long half‐life to manage benzodiazepine withdrawal Correct ... A benzodiazepine should not be the first-choice treatment in this case. Further, benzodiazepines should generally be avoided in ... Many features of benzodiazepine withdrawal resemble complaints that might have led to benzodiazepine prescribing in the first ...
more infohttp://www.mhra.gov.uk/benzodiazepines-learning-module/con234573?useSecondary=&showpage=22

Benzodiazepines learning module : MHRABenzodiazepines learning module : MHRA

4.3 Benzodiazepines for the management of alcohol withdrawal. In the management of alcohol withdrawal, a benzodiazepine can ... or if a symptom is not amenable to benzodiazepine treatment, or if the benzodiazepine is not proving effective-specialist ... A benzodiazepine can also be used for managing severe symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and may be of value in managing seizures ... The long-acting benzodiazepines chlordiazepoxide and diazepam are licensed for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms; ...
more infohttp://www.mhra.gov.uk/benzodiazepines-learning-module/con234573?useSecondary=&showpage=17

Benzodiazepine AbuseBenzodiazepine Abuse

Benzodiazepines are a type of medication known as tranquilizers -- familiar names are Valium and Xanax -- that are easily ... Benzodiazepine Abuse Overview. Benzodiazepines are a type of medication known as tranquilizers. Familiar names include Valium ... Benzodiazepine Abuse Symptoms. At normal or regular doses, benzodiazepines relieve anxiety and insomnia. They are usually well ... Chronic abuse of benzodiazepines can lead to the following symptoms that mimic many of the indications for using them in the ...
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Medical Definition of BenzodiazepinesMedical Definition of Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines: A class of drugs that act as tranquilizers and are commonly used in the treatment of anxiety. Benzodiazepines ...
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Benzodiazepine use disorder - WikipediaBenzodiazepine use disorder - Wikipedia

Benzodiazepine use disorder, also called misuse or abuse,[1] is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for ... Benzodiazepines. The core structure of benzodiazepines. "R" labels denote common locations of side chains, which give different ... Benzodiazepines are a commonly misused class of drug. A study in Sweden found that benzodiazepines are the most common drug ... The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome seen in chronic high dose benzodiazepine abusers is similar to that seen in therapeutic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzodiazepine_use_disorder

Protease Inhibitors and BenzodiazepinesProtease Inhibitors and Benzodiazepines

Some benzodiazepines have been found to disrupt melatonin production. These results show that, although the benzodiazepine ... Protease Inhibitors and Benzodiazepines. James Howard jmhoward at sprynet.com Mon Jul 7 07:18:42 EST 1997 *Previous message: ... including the benzodiazepines. (I will tie this directly to benzodiazepines, following these citations.) Melatonin reduces ... I suggest the problem with some benzodiazepines and protease inhibitors is that some benzodiazepines are raising DHEA. This ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/neur-sci/1997-July/029064.html

SureStep Benzodiazepines (BZO 200)SureStep Benzodiazepines (BZO 200)

... ,For the qualitative detection of single and multiple drugs and drug metabolites in human ...
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temazepam (Restoril): Benzodiazepines Side Effects & Dosagetemazepam (Restoril): Benzodiazepines Side Effects & Dosage

It is in the benzodiazepine class of drugs, the same family that includes diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam ( ... It is in the benzodiazepine class of drugs, the same family that includes diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam ( ... Temazepam and other benzodiazepines have been associated with fetal damage, including congenital malformations, when taken by ... Temazepam and other benzodiazepines act by enhancing the effects of gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA is a ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/temazepam/article.htm

Benzodiazepines plus opiatesBenzodiazepines plus opiates

Benzodiazepine modulation of opiate reward by. Walker BM, Ettenberg A.. Department of Psychology, University of California, ... Case studies reveal that opiate addicts often premedicate themselves with benzodiazepine (BDZ) tranquilizers prior to taking ...
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Benzodiazepines: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions & WarningsBenzodiazepines: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions & Warnings

... a list of common benzodiazepines, adverse reactions, warnings and withdrawal symptoms. ... Learn about the drug class benzodiazepines including their uses, ... How Do Benzodiazepines Work?. *Common Uses for Benzodiazepines ... Benzodiazepines Used Outside the U.S.. Other international benzodiazepines are available that are not approved for use in the U ... Costs of Benzodiazepines. Many oral benzodiazepines are available in a generic form which can lead to cost-savings for patients ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/article/benzodiazepines.html

benzodiazepines | www.emcdda.europa.eubenzodiazepines | www.emcdda.europa.eu

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the reference point on drugs and drug addiction information in Europe. Inaugurated in Lisbon in 1995, it is one of the EUs decentralised agencies. Read more ,,. ...
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Benzodiazepines vs. Cyclobenzaprine: Uses, Side Effects & AddictionBenzodiazepines vs. Cyclobenzaprine: Uses, Side Effects & Addiction

Benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants that cause drowsiness and cyclobenzaprine is a muscle relaxant. ... Benzodiazepines are also used to treat insomnia, seizures, anxiety disorders, nervousness, panic disorders, alcohol withdrawal ... Benzodiazepines and cyclobenzaprine are used to treat muscle spasms. ... Benzodiazepines vs. Cyclobenzaprine. *Facts on benzodiazepines vs. cyclobenzaprine. *What are benzodiazepines? What is ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/benzodiazepines_vs_cyclobenzaprine/article.htm

Encephalitis Medication: Antivirals, Corticosteroids, Diuretics, BenzodiazepinesEncephalitis Medication: Antivirals, Corticosteroids, Diuretics, Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines. Class Summary. These agents are used to treat seizures associated with encephalitis. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/791896-medication

Cardiac failure and benzodiazepines.  - PubMed - NCBICardiac failure and benzodiazepines. - PubMed - NCBI

Cardiac failure and benzodiazepines.. Guilleminault C1, Clerk A, Labanowski M, Simmons J, Stoohs R. ... Overall, the benzodiazepine hypnotic improved the sleep fragmentation noted in these patients by decreasing the arousal index ... However, the benzodiazepine hypnotic had no significant effect on central hypopneas or apneas [baseline mean respiratory ... All had previously been prescribed a benzodiazepine hypnotic by their home physicians, but the medication had been discontinued ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8235236?dopt=Abstract

Benzodiazepines: Uses, types, side effects, and risksBenzodiazepines: Uses, types, side effects, and risks

However, benzodiazepines have considerable risks and can be fatal if abused. This article looks at the many types of these ... Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs commonly prescribed to treat anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy, and alcohol dependence. ... Fast facts on benzodiazepines. *Benzodiazepines are used for a range of health issues, including anxiety, sleep disorders, and ... Benzodiazepines can be used to treat anxiety, seizures, and insomnia.. Benzodiazepines are effective for treating a range of ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/262809.php

Benzodiazepines | Memorial HealthBenzodiazepines | Memorial Health

Learn more about Benzodiazepines at Memorial Health Grapefruit Juice -Possible Harmful Interaction Hops, Kava, Passionflower... ... Consult your physician before trying melatonin to help handle benzodiazepine withdrawal or before trying to stop benzodiazepine ... Medications in the benzodiazepine family exert calming and sedative effects and are used to treat anxiety and insomnia . ... Other herbs with a sedative effect that might cause problems when combined with benzodiazepines include ashwagandha ( Withania ...
more infohttps://memorialhealth.com/hl/?/21449/Diazepam

Benzodiazepines | Memorial HealthBenzodiazepines | Memorial Health

Learn more about Benzodiazepines at Memorial Health Grapefruit Juice -Possible Harmful Interaction Hops, Kava, Passionflower... ... Consult your physician before trying melatonin to help handle benzodiazepine withdrawal or before trying to stop benzodiazepine ... Medications in the benzodiazepine family exert calming and sedative effects and are used to treat anxiety and insomnia . ... Other herbs with a sedative effect that might cause problems when combined with benzodiazepines include ashwagandha ( Withania ...
more infohttps://memorialhealth.com/hl/?/21449/Durapam

Orellanine Mushroom Toxicity Medication: GI decontaminant, BenzodiazepinesOrellanine Mushroom Toxicity Medication: GI decontaminant, Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines. Class Summary. Depresses all levels of CNS (eg, limbic formation, reticular formation), possibly by increasing ... Has twice the affinity for benzodiazepine receptors than diazepam. May be administered IM if unable to obtain vascular access. ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/818036-medication
  • A person who has become dependent on benzodiazepines may experience withdrawal symptoms when trying to cut down or stop taking benzodiazepines. (beyondblue.org.au)
  • Withdrawal symptoms may occur if you suddenly stop taking benzodiazepines or cyclobenzaprine. (medicinenet.com)
  • Given the millions of people worldwide who take benzodiazepines long-term, we are desperately short of data and high-quality randomized trials aimed at developing evidence-based withdrawal protocols. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, the authors found that, partly because of the very low quality of evidence for the reported outcomes, it was not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding pharmacologic interventions for facilitating benzodiazepine discontinuation in chronic benzodiazepine users. (medscape.com)
  • In further analyses, they showed that longer acting benzodiazepines were associated with greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease compared with shorter acting benzodiazepines, adding support for a causal association. (bmj.com)
  • Even a letter from the primary-care practitioner pointing out the continuing usage of benzodiazepines and questioning their need can result in reduction or cessation of use. (springer.com)
  • The College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia recommends discontinuing the usage of benzodiazepines in those on opioids and those who have used them long term. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Their results suggest that long term exposure to benzodiazepines might be a modifiable risk factor for this condition. (bmj.com)
  • They observed a cumulative dose-effect association between exposure to benzodiazepines (at least 90 days) and risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and found that exposure lasting more than 180 days was associated with a nearly twofold increase in risk. (bmj.com)
  • Yaffe, Boustani and Fairbanks (1) commented on a carefully conducted study that showed that exposure to benzodiazepines doubled the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. (bmj.com)
  • A benzodiazepine can also be used for managing severe symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and may be of value in managing seizures and the potentially life-threatening condition of delirium tremens (characterised by hallucinations, disorientation, agitation, tremor, severe tachycardia, hypertension, fever, drenching sweats, and fluid and electrolyte disturbances). (mhra.gov.uk)
  • Benzodiazepines are powerful anticonvulsants and highly effective at preventing prolonged epileptic seizures. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The benzodiazepines are probably the most addictive drugs ever created and the vast army of enthusiastic doctors who prescribed these drugs by the tonne have created the world's largest drug addiction problem. (whale.to)
  • This mechanism may be directly involved in effects of many kinds of drugs that produce addiction, including the benzodiazepines. (bio.net)
  • As controlled substances, all benzodiazepines have the potential for abuse, addiction and diversion. (drugs.com)
  • Dr. Von Stieff explains the dangers of what benzodiazepines do and how these GABA drugs, like Xanax and diazepam, can lead to prescription addiction and even cause alcoholics to relapse. (youtube.com)
  • FDA officials say that the benefits of taking drugs designed to treat addiction in concert with benzodiazepines, which could cause serious adverse side effects, outweigh the risks. (aboutlawsuits.com)
  • In England and Wales between 1990 and 1996, 1,623 people overdosed on heroin, morphine and other opiates while 1,810 died from benzodiazepines. (whale.to)
  • Benzodiazepines enhance responses to the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA by opening GABA-activated chloride channels and allowing chloride ions to enter the neuron. (drugs.com)
  • Benzodiazepines are believed to work by boosting the effects of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. (medicinenet.com)
  • Antidepressants do not carry the same risk of dependency as benzodiazepines. (beyondblue.org.au)
  • Protease Inhibitors and Benzodiazepines James Howard Since some questions have been posted here regarding protease inhibitors and benzodiazepines, I thought I would use my theory of the pineal hormone, melatonin, and the adrenal hormone, DHEA, to attempt to answer it. (bio.net)
  • I suggest the connection of protease inhibitors and benzodiazepines is directly tied to effects of these drugs on the melatonin - DHEA cycle. (bio.net)
  • Some benzodiazepines have been found to disrupt melatonin production. (bio.net)
  • These results show that, although the benzodiazepine flunitrazepam improves sleep, it reduces the nocturnal secretion of melatonin, and therefore alters the circadian rhythm of a hormone which is supposed to play a special role in circadian sleep-wake rhythmicity. (bio.net)
  • Consult your physician before trying melatonin to help handle benzodiazepine withdrawal or before trying to stop benzodiazepine medication under any conditions. (memorialhealth.com)
  • Accordingly, it is now even more imperative that long-term benzodiazepine users be reviewed with respect to possible discontinuation. (springer.com)
  • Carbamazepine was the only drug that appeared to have any useful adjunctive properties for assisting in the discontinuation of benzodiazepines but the available data are insufficient for recommendations to be made regarding its use. (springer.com)
  • All had previously been prescribed a benzodiazepine hypnotic by their home physicians, but the medication had been discontinued for at least 1 month. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, the benzodiazepine hypnotic improved the sleep fragmentation noted in these patients by decreasing the arousal index from a mean of 18 +/- 6 per hour at baseline to a mean of 9 +/- 6.5 per hour after one month of benzodiazepine therapy. (nih.gov)
  • However, they are less toxic than their predecessors, the barbiturates, and death rarely results when a benzodiazepine is the only drug taken. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepines are a type of medication known as tranquilizers . (webmd.com)
  • Subjects were monitored under three conditions: 1) without any sleeping medication, 2) during nasal CPAP administration and 3) at two points during a month-long administration of the benzodiazepine that had initially been prescribed to them. (nih.gov)
  • Benzodiazepines can be helpful drugs when used intermittently or for a short period of time only (two to four weeks). (beyondblue.org.au)
  • If taken for a long period of time (months or years), benzodiazepines can become less effective and there is also a high risk of becoming physically dependent on these drugs. (beyondblue.org.au)
  • Benzodiazepines are one of the more common prescription drugs used recreationally. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Dr. Chris Ford, former clinical director of Substance Misuse Management in General Practice, among drugs of abuse , benzodiazepines are often seen as the 'bad guys' by drug and alcohol workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grapefruit juice slows the body's normal breakdown of several drugs, including some benzodiazepines, allowing them to build up to potentially dangerous levels in the blood. (memorialhealth.com)
  • However, the only direct evidence that pregnenolone supplements have any effect at all relates to a potential interaction between the hormone and benzodiazepine drugs. (memorialhealth.com)
  • However, people who rely upon benzodiazepine drugs may find them less effective if pregnenolone is added into the mix. (memorialhealth.com)
  • This chart contains binding data for benzodiazepines and related drugs investigated by Roche up to the late 1990s (though in some cases the compounds were originally synthesised by other companies such as Takeda or Upjohn). (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepines are commonly misused and taken in combination with other drugs of abuse. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, benzodiazepines are well-tolerated and are safe and effective drugs in the short term for a wide range of conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepines are also used as muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants. (memorialhealth.com)
  • Benzodiazepines are a class of drug commonly known as minor tranquillisers and sleeping pills. (beyondblue.org.au)
  • Benzodiazepines and cyclobenzaprine are used to treat muscle spasms . (medicinenet.com)
  • Some benzodiazepines can be used to treat health conditions such as epilepsy or for sedation before a procedure or operation. (beyondblue.org.au)
  • Benzodiazepines and alcohol both depress the CNS-the combination may increase sedation and depress cardiovascular and respiratory function. (mhra.gov.uk)