A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. Members contain SAPONINS.
A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.
A plant family of the order Primulales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Some species of the CHRYSANTHEMUM and the old Pyrethrum genera have been reclassified to this genus. The common name of tansy usually refers to this but also forms part of the common name of other plants such as Tansy Ragwort (SENECIO) and Tansyaster (HAPLOPAPPUS).
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is the source of peppermint oil.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.
Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.

gamma-Hydroxybutyrate modulates synthesis and extracellular concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid in discrete rat brain regions in vivo. (1/37)

gamma-Hydroxybutyrate possesses most of the properties of a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator that acts via specific pathways and receptors in brain. Beside its regulatory effects on dopaminergic transmission, gamma-hydroxybutyrate was thought for many years to interfere with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic processes in the brain. The present study demonstrates that in the rat frontal cortex in vivo, gamma-hydroxybutyrate or its agonist NCS-356 administered systemically at a high dose (500 mg/kg) increases GABA contents in dialysates via a mechanism blocked by the peripheral administration of the gamma-hydroxybutyrate antagonist NCS-382. Under the same conditions, the extracellular concentration of this amino acid was not modified in the hippocampus. However, when administered at a low dose (250 mg/kg), gamma-hydroxybutyrate decreases GABA content of the dialysates of the frontal cortex by an NCS-382-sensitive mechanism. Spontaneous [3H]GABA release was observed in the frontal cortex of rats at 160 min after i.p. [3H]-gamma-hydroxybutyrate administration. This result indicates that gamma-hydroxybutyrate in vivo could be the precursor of an extracellular GABA pool in the frontal cortex. After i.p. [3H]-gamma-hydroxybutyrate administration in the rat, the amino acid contents of several brain regions were quantified 160 min later, and the radioactivity in each region was measured. [3H]GABA, [3H]glutamate, and [3H]glycine were detected in most, but not all, of the brain regions studied. In particular, radioactive GABA was not detected in the hippocampus. The other amino acids were not labeled. These results show that gamma-hydroxybutyrate modulates the synthesis and the extracellular concentrations of GABA in specific regions of the rat brain. Identification of these GABA pools and determination of their functional role remain to be defined.  (+info)

Binding characteristics of the gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor antagonist [(3)H](2E)-(5-hydroxy-5,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[a][7]annulen-6-ylidene) ethanoic acid in the rat brain. (2/37)

Radioligand binding studies with [(3)H](2E)-(5-hydroxy-5,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[a][7]annulen-6-ylidene) ethanoic acid ([(3)H]NCS-382), an antagonist of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) receptor, revealed specific binding sites in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. However, there was very little binding in the rat cerebellum, heart, kidney, liver, and lung membranes. Binding was rapid and reached equilibrium in about 5 min. Scatchard analysis of saturation isotherms revealed two different populations of binding sites in the rat cerebral cortex (K(d1), 795 nM, B(max1), 25.4 pmol/mg of protein; K(d2), 21 microM; B(max2), 178 pmol/mg of protein) as well as in the rat hippocampus (K(d1), 441 nM; B(max1), 16.2 pmol/mg of protein; K(d2), 9.8 microM; B(max2), 255 pmol/mg of protein). (+/-)Baclofen (500 microM) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (100 microM) inhibited the binding only partially, whereas (+)bicuculline, muscimol, picrotoxinin, and phaclofen did not modify the binding. Interestingly, potassium chloride (100-300 mM) inhibited [(3)H]NCS-382 binding (34-56%), and this inhibitory effect was not affected by picrotoxinin. GHB and NCS-382 completely inhibited the [(3)H]NCS-382 (16 nM) binding in the rat cerebrocortical and hippocampal membranes, and NCS-382 was found to be about 10 times more potent than GHB in this regard. A variety of ligands for other receptors did not modify the [(3)H]NCS-382 binding, thereby suggesting selectivity of this radioligand for the GHB receptor sites in the brain. Based on these observations, [(3)H]NCS-382 seems to be a better radioligand than [(3)H]GHB for investigating the role of the GHB receptors in various pharmacological actions.  (+info)

Therapeutic intervention in mice deficient for succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria). (3/37)

Therapeutic intervention for human succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria) has been limited to vigabatrin (VGB). Pharmacologically, VGB should be highly effective due to 4-aminobutyrate-transaminase (GABA-transaminase) inhibition, lowering succinic semialdehyde and, thereby, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) levels. Unfortunately, clinical efficacy has been limited. Because GHB possesses a number of potential receptor interactions, we addressed the hypothesis that antagonism of these interactions in mice with SSADH deficiency could lead to the development of novel treatment strategies for human patients. SSADH-deficient mice have significantly elevated tissue GHB levels, are neurologically impaired, and die within 4 weeks postnatally. In the current report, we compared oral versus intraperitoneal administration of VGB, CGP 35348 [3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist], and the nonprotein amino acid taurine in rescue of SSADH-deficient mice from early death. In addition, we assessed the efficacy of the specific GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-[H]benzocycloheptene-5-ol-6-ylideneacetic acid) using i.p. administration. All interventions led to significant lifespan extension (22-61%), with NCS-382 being most effective (50-61% survival). To explore the limited human clinical efficacy of VGB, we measured brain GHB and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in SSADH-deficient mice receiving VGB. Whereas high-dose VGB led to the expected elevation of brain GABA, we found no parallel decrease in GHB levels. Our data indicate that, at a minimum, GHB and GABA(B) receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of SSADH deficiency. We conclude that taurine and NCS-382 may have therapeutic relevance in human SSADH deficiency and that the poor clinical efficacy of VGB in this disease may relate to an inability to decrease brain GHB concentrations.  (+info)

A tertiary alcohol analog of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid as a specific gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligand. (4/37)

gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) shows great promise as a treatment for sleeping disorders but is also increasingly abused. The exact mechanism of action of GHB is yet to be delineated, but it is known to interact with specific GHB binding sites or receptors, to act as a weak agonist at GABA(B) receptors, and that GHB undergoes metabolism to GABA. In drug discrimination studies, GABA(B) agonists, and to a lesser extent GABA(A)-positive modulators, substitute for GHB. To delineate the relative contributions of each receptor system to the profile of GHB, tertiary alcohol analogs of GHB and its homolog, 5-hydroxypentanoic acid (UMB58), were prepared (UMB68 and UMB75, respectively), which cannot be metabolized to GABA-active compounds. Binding studies against [(3)H]NCS-382 [(2E)-(5-hydroxy-5,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[a][7]annulen-6-ylidene) ethanoic acid] showed that the tertiary alcohol analog of GHB (UMB68) has similar affinity to GHB, with the longer chain analogs possessing lower affinity. Against [(3)H]GABA, UMB68 showed no affinity (IC(50) >100 microM) at GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptors. In vivo studies showed that, at behaviorally active doses, rats trained to discriminate GHB did not recognize the novel ligands as GHB. Thus, UMB68 is a selective GHB receptor ligand in binding assays, will not undergo metabolism to GABA-active compounds, and does not show the same effects as GHB in vivo. These data suggest that, although UMB68 binds to the GHB receptor, it does not have the observed GABA receptor-mediated effects of GHB in vivo and could provide a novel tool for studying the pharmacology of the GHB receptor in the absence of complicating GABAergic effects.  (+info)

Effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) on schedule-controlled responding in rats: role of GHB and GABAB receptors. (5/37)

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is an increasingly popular drug of abuse and was recently approved for the treatment of narcolepsy (Xyrem). GHB and GABA receptors have been implicated in mediating effects of GHB; however, the relative importance of each of these receptors is unclear. This study evaluated the effects of selective antagonists in combination with GHB and related compounds on schedule-controlled responding. Eight male Sprague-Dawley rats responded under a fixed-ratio schedule of food presentation. Cumulative dose-effect curves were generated and ED50 values calculated to evaluate the relative potency at decreasing responding. The rank-order potency was as follows: diazepam = baclofen > gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) > 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BDL) = GHB. All compounds decreased responding 20 min after administration. The duration of action of diazepam, GHB, and GBL was shorter than that of 1,4-BDL and baclofen. p-3-Aminopropyl-p-diethoxymethyl phosphinic acid (CGP 35348) antagonized the rate-decreasing effects of baclofen and not GHB; flumazenil antagonized the effects of diazepam and not GHB. The GHB receptor antagonist (2E)-(5-hydroxy-5,7,8,9-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[a][7]annulen-6-ylidene ethanoic acid (NCS-382) did not attenuate the rate-decreasing effects of GHB, baclofen, or diazepam; larger doses of NCS-382 further decreased rate of responding when given in combination with each of these compounds. These studies show that GBL, 1,4-BDL, and GHB differ significantly in potency and duration of action. The ability of CGP 35348 to antagonize the rate-decreasing effects of baclofen may be limited by the involvement of multiple GABAB receptor subtypes and the lack of antagonism of GHB by NCS-382 may be due to its own GHB-like effects.  (+info)

Pathway-specific action of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in sensory thalamus and its relevance to absence seizures. (6/37)

The systemic injection of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) elicits spike and wave discharges (SWDs), the EEG hallmark of absence seizures, and represents a well established, widely used pharmacological model of this nonconvulsive epilepsy. Despite this experimental use of GHB, as well as its therapeutic use in narcolepsy and its increasing abuse, however, the precise cellular mechanisms underlying the different pharmacological actions of this drug are still unclear. Because sensory thalamic nuclei play a key role in the generation of SWDs and sleep rhythms, and because direct injection of GHB in the ventrobasal (VB) thalamus elicits SWDs, we investigated GHB effects on corticothalamic EPSCs and GABAergic IPSCs in VB thalamocortical (TC) neurons. GHB (250 microm-10 mm) reversibly decreased the amplitude of electrically evoked EPSCs and GABAA IPSCs via activation of GABAB receptors; however, approximately 60% of the IPSCs were insensitive to low (250 microm-1.0 mm) GHB concentrations. The putative GHB receptor antagonist NSC 382 applied alone had a number of unspecific effects, whereas it either had no action on, or further increased, the GHB-elicited effects on synaptic currents. Low GHB concentrations (250 microm) were also effective in increasing absence-like intrathalamic oscillations evoked by cortical afferent stimulation. These results indicate that low concentrations of GHB, similar to the brain concentrations that evoke SWDs in vivo, differentially affect excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents in TC neurons and promote absence-like intrathalamic oscillations. Furthermore, the present data strengthen previous suggestions on the GHB mechanism of sleep promotion and will help focus future studies on the cellular mechanisms underlying its abuse.  (+info)

Synthesis of 1-benzothiepine and 1-benzazepine derivatives as orally active CCR5 antagonists. (7/37)

Quaternary ammonium benzocycloheptene compound 1 has previously been reported as a clinical candidate for an injectable CCR5 antagonist. In order to develop an orally active CCR5 antagonist, derivatives of tertiary amine benzocycloheptene 2, the chemical precursor to 1, were investigated. The benzocycloheptene ring was converted to benzothiepine and benzazepine rings and it was found that these changes could enhance the potency of tertiary amine derivatives. In particular, the 1-benzothiepine-1,1-dioxide 11b and the N-methyl-1-benzazepine 18 showed increased activity and good preliminary pharmacokinetic properties. The synthesis of 1-benzothiepine and 1-benzazepine derivatives and their activity are described.  (+info)

Metabolism of pyrogallol to purpurogallin by human erythrocytic hemoglobin. (8/37)

The aim of this study was to investigate the oxido-reductive reactions of human hemoglobin with pyrogallol and the metabolism of pyrogallol by the protein, which contains a protoporphyrin IX like cytochrome P-450. Pyrogallol, having three hydroxy groups at the adjacent positions in the benzene ring, oxidized human oxyhemoglobin to methemoglobin and reduced human methemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin. Since superoxide dismutase and catalase inhibited these reactions extensively, active oxygens such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide were considered to be involved in the oxido-reductive reaction of human hemoglobin by pyrogallol. It was also found that the metabolism of pyrogallol to purpurogallin occurred quickly in human erythrocytes, i.e., when pyrogallol was added to human erythrocyte suspension, it oxidized intracellular hemoglobin and produced purpurogallin. The metabolism of pyrogallol to purpurogallin was explained by the pyrogallol oxidation with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide produced during the oxido-reductive reactions of human hemoglobin with pyrogallol. The present results show that human erythrocytes can metabolize pyrogallol, suggesting that the cells may be involved in the metabolism of some drugs in the human body.  (+info)

Introduction. PREPARATION OF ETHANOL AND ETHANOIC ACID AIM: To obtain pure samples of Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) and Ethanoic Acid (CH3COOH) from fermented Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae). BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The use of yeast in food production is the oldest and most extensive contribution made by any group of microorganisms. A most common substrate that yeast can work with is GLUCOSE. Glucose is a monosaccharide, which are sweet crystalline sugars that dissolve easily in water to form sweet solutions. Monosaccharides have the general formula (CH2O)n and consist of a single sugar molecule. Glucose is the simplest and most common monosaccharide. It is a Hexose sugar and therefore has the formula C6H12O6. Glucose can exist in two possible ring forms, known as the alpha (?) and beta (?) forms: The hydroxyl group on Carbon atom 1 can project below the ring (? glucose) or above the ring (? glucose). Molecules like this, which have the same molecular formula but a different structural formula, are said ...
Acetic acid (ethanoic acid) and hydrochloric acid react with KOH solution. The enthalpy of neutralisation of ethanoic acid is - 55.8 kj /mol while that of hydrochloric acid is - 57.3 kJ /mol. Can you think of why are the…
The existence of a specific GHB receptor was predicted by observing the action of GHB and related compounds that primarily act on the GABAB receptor, but also exhibit a range of effects which were found not to be produced by GABAB activity, and so were suspected of being produced by a novel and at the time unidentified receptor target. Following the discovery of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR172A, it was subsequently found to be the GHB receptor whose existence had been previously predicted.[1] The rat GHB receptor was first cloned and characterised in 2003[2] followed by the human receptor in 2007.[3] ...
20% ACETIC ACID CH3COOH, Ethanoic acid. Lab Reagent. Descaler to remove limescale. Natural, eco friendly weed killer. Rust remover. Stop bath photography.
20% ACETIC ACID CH3COOH, Ethanoic acid. Lab Reagent. Descaler to remove limescale. Natural, eco friendly weed killer. Rust remover. Stop bath photography.
Solution for question: How Will You Convert Methanol to Ethanoic Acid concept: Amines - Nomenclature. For the courses CBSE (Arts), CBSE (Commerce), CBSE (Science), PUC Karnataka Science
Find right answers right now! Chemical equation for the reaction of ethanoic acid with potassium? More questions about Science & Mathematics
Lookchem Provide Cas No.133330-59-3 Basic information: Properties,Safety Data,Sds and Other Datebase. We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 133330-59-3 8-Chloro-5,6-dihydro-11H-benzo[5,6]cyclohepta[1,2-β]pyridin-11-one 1-Oxide.
The production of colours by the action of the enzyme peroxidase on various amino and phenolic compounds has been recorded from time to time, but such reactions have, in general, been regarded merely as tests for the presence of peroxidase, and the nature of the coloured products has been determined only in a few instances. The fairly wide distribution of the enzyme, more particularly in plants, suggests that it has considerable biological importance, but the role that it plays in metabolic processes has not yet been elucidated. From the work of Elliott (1932, a, b), it would appear that the enzyme is not concerned with general oxidative katabolism since it does not attack the majority of amino-acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates. On the other hand, where the products of oxidation have been investigated, they have proved to be, in general, of higher molecular weight than the substrate. Thus, for example, guaiacol is oxidized to tetraguaiacol (Bertrand, 1903), pyrogallol to purpurogallin ...
Vinegar isnt a single chemical substance, but a mixture in the form of a solution, so there are several different substances present each with their own formula. The most significant substance other than the water it is all dissolved in is called ethanoic acid (old name acetic acid) and this gives vinegar its smell and acidity. The molecular formula for ethanoic acid is C_2H_4O_2 but formulae like this are ambiguous. Other substances might have the same number if each atom but arranged differently in the molecule, so it us better to use a structural formula: CH_3COOH
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Benzocycloheptenes and heterocyclic analogues as potential drugs. I. N-Substituted derivatives of 5-amino-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene and some other compounds ...
To evaluate the effects of C-ring substituents on the absorption maxima, each compound was compared to the parent (2a) bearing only the methoxy substituent on the B-ring. F-BODIPY 2a itself has a maximum absorbance wavelength of 530 nm, which is hypsochromically shifted by 44 nm from the unsubstituted pyrrolyldipyrrin F-BODIPY.16 This indicates that the electron-donating methoxy group causes a blue-shift in absorption. All modifications to the C-ring (2b-2l) bathochromically shifted the absorbance wavelength (9-35 nm) compared to the unsubstituted, methoxy bearing F-BODIPY 2a (see ESI, Fig. S3 and S4†). The greatest shift in absorption wavelength maxima of the C-ring modified pyrrolyldipyrrin F-BODIPYs occurred with the alkyl and ethanoic acid derivative substituents: 2b, 2j and 2k bearing a -CH2CH3, -CH2C(O)NEt2 and -CH2CO2Bn group, respectively. This trend is in agreement with that observed for F-BODIPYs whereby as the core becomes more alkyl substituted, the fluorophore absorbs at a higher ...
A colourless liquid acyl chloride (see acyl halides), CH3COCl, with a pungent smell; r.d. 1.105; m.p. -112.15°C; b.p. 50.9°C. It is made by reacting ethanoic acid with a halogenating agent such as phosphorus(III) chloride, phosphorus(V) chloride, or sulphur dichloride oxide and is used to introduce ethanoyl groups into organic compounds containing -OH, -NH2, and -SH groups. See acylation. ...
Thanks to the big screen, many of us think of acids as dangerous, burn-through-anything substances. Think of those scenes in the Alien movies, where the aliens blood drips through solid metal, destroying everything in its path. Of course the vast majority of acids are much more boring. Vinegar (which contains ethanoic acid) and citric acid (found in, guess what, citrus fruits)…
Thanks to the big screen, many of us think of acids as dangerous, burn-through-anything substances. Think of those scenes in the Alien movies, where the aliens blood drips through solid metal, destroying everything in its path. Of course the vast majority of acids are much more boring. Vinegar (which contains ethanoic acid) and citric acid (found in, guess what, citrus fruits)…
Acetic acid (also called ethanoic acid) is a weak organic acid. Unlike a lot of other food additives, acetic acid is commonly used in home cooking.
[ə si:tɪk, ə sɛt ] noun Chemistry the acid that gives vinegar its characteristic taste; ethanoic acid. [CH3COOH.] Origin C18: acetic from Fr. acétique, from L. acetum vinegar
Benzocycloheptenes are cycloheptenes with additional benzene rings attached. Most have two benzene rings, and are called dibenzocycloheptenes. Some benzocycloheptenes and substituted benzocycloheptenes have medical uses as antihistamines, anticholinergics, antidepressants, antiserotonergics. Examples include: Antihistamines and Antiserotonergics Azatadine Desloratadine Loratadine Rupatadine Cyproheptadine Ketotifen Pizotifen Anticholinergics Deptropine Anticonvulsants Oxitriptyline Antidepressants and Anticholinergics Amineptine Amitriptyline Nortriptyline Noxiptyline Octriptyline Protriptyline Various Cyclobenzaprine Intriptyline Toll-like receptor 4 investigating probable antagonistic (antiinflammatory) property of several TCA based molecules Benzocycloheptenes at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH ...
Introduction. I.B. CHEMISTRY: PRACTICAL 08-12-12. P2,P3,& P4-STOICHIOMETRY SULAIMAN JALLOH AIM: 1) To prepare a standard solution of potassium hydrogen phthalate by weighing and dissolving it water of correct volume. 2)To use the standard solution of 1) to standardize(find the concentration of) sodium hydroxide solution. 3)To determine the percentage of ethanoic acid,by volume,in vinegar,by titrating with standardized sodium hydroxide in 2) 1) MAKING A STANDARD SOLUTION OF POTASSIUM HYDROGEN PHTHALATE RAW DATA TABLE mass of weighing bottle,m+/-0.01g Volume of solution titrated,v+/-0.15 Concentration of sodium hydroxide given ,Cb/mol/ 33.88 250.00 0.1 The purity of the acid is given as 99.5+/-0.5% Calculations for the mass of the acid needed to make 250 of solution of the acid. Equation for the reaction: C6H5COOKCOOH+NaOH C6H5COOKCOONa+H2O so,the mole ratio of the acid to base is 1:1 This means 1 mole of acid gives 1 mole of the base. number of moles of sodium hydroxide,Nb=c v where ...
Ethanal. Computer illustration of a molecule of ethanal, or acetaldehyde (formula CH3CHO). Atoms are depicted as cylinders and are colour-coded: carbon (yellow), hydrogen (white) and oxygen (red). Ethanal is a colourless liquid with a pungent odour. It is mainly used in the chemical industry, in the preparation of ethanoic acid, ethanoic anhydride and n-butanol. - Stock Image A700/0144
179 matching references were found. Chao J., Ideal gas thermodynamic properties of ethane and propane, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1973, 2, 427-438. [all data] Chao J., Ideal gas thermodynamic properties of ethylene and propylene, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1975, 4, 251-261. [all data] Chao J., Ideal gas thermodynamic properties of propanone and 2-butanone, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1976, 5, 319-328. [all data] Chao J., Ideal gas thermodynamic properties of methanoic and ethanoic acids, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1978, 7, 363-377. [all data] Chao J., Perfect gas thermodynamic properties of methanal, ethanal and their deuterated species, Thermochim. Acta, 1980, 41, 41-54. [all data] Chao J., Chemical thermodynamic properties of toluene, o-, m- and p-xylenes, Thermochim. Acta, 1984, 72, 323-334. [all data] Chao J., Thermodynamic properties of key organic oxygen compounds in the carbon range C1 to C4. Part 2. Ideal gas properties, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 1986, 15, 1369-1436. [all data] Chao J., Ideal ...
Ethanol is oxidised by acidifed sodium dichromate in a test-tube reaction, firstly to form ethanal and, with further oxidation, ethanoic acid.
Can anyone on here help with this please?. It is well known that acetobacter will cause dilute solutions of ethanol to be oxidised to ethanoic acid when left standing exposed to air; this being the reason that wine left standing in air will spoil and taste vinegary.. It is also reported that different strains of the bacteria can produce other compounds such as dihydroxyacetone and gluconic acid from other starting materials. The bacteria are therefore clearly versatile.. This suggests that in addition to ethanol a wide variety of alcohols in dilute aqueous solution may be oxidised to carboxylic acids when exposed to the atmosphere which will normally contain these bacteria.. However I cannot find any specific references to support this broader suggestion, neither in my textbook collection, which is substantial, nor on the internet. There are articles and statements which come close but I cant find an authoritative source (except one which I am doubtful about) which states categorically that all ...
Synonyms: Acetic acid; Acetic acid glacial; Ethanoic acid; Ethylic acid; glacial acetic acid; Methanecarboxylic acid; Shotgun; TCLP extraction fluid 2; vinegar; Vinegar acid. ...
Synonyms for acetic acid in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acetic acid. 1 synonym for acetic acid: ethanoic acid. What are synonyms for acetic acid?
Jan 19, 2018· acetic acid (ethanoic acid): #CH_3COOH# #CH_3COOH = C_2H_4O_2# sodium hydroxide: #NaOH# neutralisation reactions always produce a salt and water. in this case, the salt is sodium ethanoate (#CH_3COONa, C_2H_3O_2Na#) equation: #C_2H_4O_2 + NaOH = C_2H_3O_2Na + H_2O# carbon: #2# on the left, #2# on the right sodium: #1# on the left, #1# on the right ...
MODEL RELEASED. Using a pH meter. Schoolgirl using a pH meter on a solution of dilute ethanoic acid (CH3.COOH). The display shows an acidic pH of 4.90. A pH reading measures the concentration of free hydrogen ions. A pH below 7 (acidic) is a higher concentration of hydrogen ions than found in water (pH 7, neutral). A pH above 7 (alkaline) is a lower concentration than found in water. - Stock Image H460/0239
Acetic acid is a chemical reagent which has a number of applications in the various sectors, for instance, the industrial sector. The acetic acid is a methane carboxylic or ethanoic acid which has a strong pungent smell and a very distinct sour taste. It is produced synthetically as well as by bacterial fermentation method. Acetic…
Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (Ghb) information based on scientific evidence includes description, drug interactions, safety concerns, and effectiveness.
Learn more about Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (ghb) uses, side effects, health benefits, interactions, safety concerns, and effectiveness.
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phdthesis{4347398, author = {Ingels, Ann-Sofie}, keywords = {mass spectrometry,Gas Chromatography,dried blood spots,headspace-trap,Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid}, language = {eng}, pages = {XIV, 265}, publisher = {Ghent University. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences}, school = {Ghent University}, title = {Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in microvolumes of biological fluids following direct derivatization and gas chromatography mass spectrometry}, year = {2013 ...
Ketotifen Fumarate Synonyms:10h-Benzo(4,5)Cyclohepta(1,2-b)Thiophen-10-One,4,9-Dihydro-4-(1-Methyl-4-Pipe;Hc20-511fumarate;Zaditen;4-(1-Methyl-4-Piperidylidene)-4h-Benzo[4,5]Cyclohepta[1,2-b]Thiophen-10(9h)-One Hydrogen...
Five days of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) administration (3 x 500 mg kg(-1) day(-1) i.p.) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in the density of GHB receptors measured in the whole rat brain without modification of their corresponding affinity. Similar administration of (-)-sulpiride (2 X 100 m …
They are named using the alkane, followed by -oic acid, for example; CH3CH2COOH is ethanoic acid, as it has two carbons attached to the carboxyl group. For acids with two carboxyl groups, the suffix -dioic acid is added instead ...
ethanoate (acetate) Salt or ester of ethanoic acid. A compound containing the ion CH3COO− or the group CH3COO-. It is used in synthetic fibres, lacquers and acetate film. Source for information on ethanoate: World Encyclopedia dictionary.
The global demand of Acetic Acid is around 6.5 million tonnes per year. The name is derived from acetum, the Latin name for Vinegar. Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic acid that gives vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell.
546-89-4 Lithium acetate testing. Laboratory testing for CAS number 546-89-4. acetic acid lithium salt, ethanoic acid lithium salt,. This chemical is solid
3-Ethyl-2-[[3-[3-[3-[(3-ethyl-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylidene)methyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidene]prop-1-enyl]-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-ylidene]methyl]-1,3-benzothiazol-3-ium iodide/ACM15979198 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
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The CDMA Development Group (CDG) and the Third Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) welcomed the latest member of the CDMA2000 family on Monday, with the publication of the Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) air interface specification.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 3-[5-[(e)-[(5e)-5-[[5-[(e)-[4-(2-carboxyethyl)-3-methyl-5-oxo-pyrrol-2-ylidene]methyl]-3-methyl-4-vinyl-1h-pyrrol-2-yl]methylene]-4-methyl-3-vinyl-pyrrol-2-ylidene]methyl]-4-methyl-2-oxo-pyrrol-3-yl]propanoic acid (C33H26N4O6) from the PQR.
The chemical name for HC2H3O2 is acetic acid. Most people recognize acetic acid, when it is diluted with water, as vinegar. Acetic acid is also known as ethanoic...
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: Isopropyl [(2-hexyl-6-oxo-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[c]chromen-3-yl)oxy]acetate.
1,3-Dihydroxy-2,4-bis(2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-8-hydroxy-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-1H,5H-benzo[ij]quinolizin-9-yl)-cyclobutenediylium bis(inner salt ...
Z)-2-hydroxy-2-((8S,9S,10R,11S,13S,14S)-11-hydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-3-oxo-1,2,3,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16-tetradecahydro-17H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-ylidene)acetaldehyde ...
8-methoxy-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-beta-carbolin-1-one - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
2-[(8Z,10Z)-8,10-dodecadienyloxy]tetrahydro-2H-pyran - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
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Benzocycloheptenes. *Azatadine (loratidine minus chlorine atom and ester). References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h "Loratadine". ...
Benzocycloheptene Cyproheptadine Ketotifen Stark RJ, Valenti L, Miller GC. Management of migraine in Australian general ... Pizotifen (INN) or pizotyline (USAN), trade name Sandomigran, is a benzocycloheptene-based drug used as a medicine, primarily ...
... -. *Formula: C15H24 ... Other names: «beta»-Himachalene; 1H-Benzocycloheptene, 2,4a«beta»,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-, (+)-; (+)-«beta»- ... Himachalene; 3,5,5,9-Tetramethyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1H-benzo[a]cycloheptene-, (R)-; 1H-Benzocycloheptene, 2,4a,5,6,7,8- ...
Benzocycloheptenes. *Azatadine (loratidine minus chlorine atom and ester). References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h "Loratadine". ...
Strategies for Functionalized Benzocycloheptene Amines Synthesis. , 19(2): 179 - 196. Abha Chaudhary and Pralay Das. DOI: ...
All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryPolycyclic CompoundsPolycyclic Aromatic HydrocarbonsBenzocycloheptenes ... AromaticPolycyclic Aromatic HydrocarbonsBenzocycloheptenesDibenzocycloheptenesDizocilpine Maleate ...
Benzocycloheptenes [D02.455.426.559.847.181]. *Dibenzocycloheptenes [D02.455.426.559.847.181.384]. *Cyproheptadine [D02.455. ...
1H-Benzocycloheptene, 2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-, (R)- (C15H24) ...
1H-Benzocycloheptene, 2,4a,5,6,7,9a-hexahydro-3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-, (4aS-cis)-Benzocycloheptene, 2,4a,5,6,7,9a-hexahydro-3,5,5,9-tetramethyl-, (4aS-cis)-. ...
Benzocycloheptenes and heterocyclic analogues as potential drugs. V. 2-(2-Aminoethyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene ... Benzocycloheptenes and heterocyclic analogues as potential drugs. I. N-Substituted derivatives of 5-amino-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H ... Benzocycloheptenes and heterocyclic analogues as potential drugs. X. Derivatives of 2-amino- and 2-hydroxy-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5 ... Benzocycloheptenes and heterocyclic analogues as potential drugs. IX. Amines derived from 2-benzyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H- ...
Benzocycloheptene derivatives LU90227I2 (en) 1998-05-13. tazarotene MA20499A1 (en) 1986-04-01. indole derivatives ...
... stationary equilibrium of benzocycloheptene (BC7) so as to favor of the alkene-azide click process. While this report is ...
Benzocycloheptene has antioxidant properties that make the compound important for humans and animals ([19], [27]). ... different benzocycloheptene compounds were extracted from untreated and thermo-treated samples with only organic solvents. ...
Benzocycloheptenes and heterocyclic analogues as potential drugs. V. 2-(2-Aminoethyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene ... Benzocycloheptenes and heterocyclic analogues as potential drugs. I. N-Substituted derivatives of 5-amino-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H ... Benzocycloheptenes and heterocyclic analogues as potential drugs. X. Derivatives of 2-amino- and 2-hydroxy-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5 ... Benzocycloheptenes and heterocyclic analogues as potential drugs. IX. Amines derived from 2-benzyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H- ...
... calcium channel blocker/benzocycloheptene, antidepressants, anticonvulsants). Overall, 19% of the patients had previously used ... calcium channel blocker/benzocycloheptene, antidepressants, anticonvulsants). Overall, 30% of the patients had previously used ... calcium channel blocker/benzocycloheptene, antidepressants, anticonvulsants), use of topiramate or onabotulinumtoxin A for ...
The title compound, C16H25Cl2N, was synthesized from β-himachalene (3,5,5,9-tetra-methyl-2,4a,5,6,7,8-hexa-hydro-1H-benzocyclo- ...
Benzocycloheptene (substance) {438934001 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Dibenzocycloheptene (substance) { ...
Sandomigran (pizotifen) is benzocycloheptene-based drug that is often used to treat migraine headaches ...
5-cyclo-benzocycloheptene (5), and 3-(3-Butynyl)-2-cycloocten-1- valerenol (6). (14) ...
Cyproheptadine is a tricyclic benzocycloheptene and is closely cheapest generic clonazepam 1mg online legitimate related to ...
2-(4-Acetylpiperazinomethyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene hydrogen maleate ...
This article is issued from Wikipedia. The text is licensed under Creative Commons - Attribution - Sharealike. Additional terms may apply for the media files ...
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Benzocycloheptenes/therapeutic use*. *Cells, Cultured. *Humans. *Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy. *Liver Neoplasms/genetics ...
D04.615.181 Benzocycloheptenes .. D04.615.181.384 Dibenzocycloheptenes .. D04.615.181.384.535 Nortriptyline .. Terms. ... D02.455.426.559.847.181 Benzocycloheptenes .. D02.455.426.559.847.181.384 Dibenzocycloheptenes .. D02.455.426.559.847.181. ...
Cyproheptadine is a tricyclic benzocycloheptene and is closely related to pizotifen and ketotifen as well as to where to ... Cyproheptadine is a tricyclic benzocycloheptene and is closely related to pizotifen and ketotifen as well as to where to ...
2-benzocycloheptene (2d), Rehm-Weller equation, 2-methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone, ketonization, fluorescence, UV_vis spectroscopy ... 2-benzocycloheptene (2d), Rehm-Weller equation, 2-methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone, ketonization, fluorescence, UV_vis spectroscopy ...
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6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-Benzocycloheptene. 1450666-42-8 1-[(S)-benzosuber-1-yloxycarbonyloxy]ethyl (1R,5S,6S)-2-{[(3S,5S)-5-(N,N- ... 1-benzosuberol; 5H-BENZOCYCLOHEPTEN-5-OL,6,7,8,9-TETRAHYDRO; 5-Hydroxy-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene; 5,6,7,8- ... 5-Hydroxy-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene. 1.3 Recommended use of the chemical and restrictions on use Identified uses ... 6,7,8,9-tetrahydrobenzo[7]annulen-5-one 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-Benzocycloheptene 1-[(S)-benzosuber-1-yloxycarbonyloxy]ethyl (1R, ...
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