Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Benzoate 4-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of BENZOATE to 4-hydroxybenzoate. It requires IRON and tetrahydropteridine.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Azoarcus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with grasses (POACEAE) and which fix nitrogen as well as species which anaerobically degrade toluene and other mono-aromatic hydrocarbons.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Crotonates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Salicylanilides: 2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.D-Amino-Acid OxidaseNitrobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Gentisates: Salts and esters of gentisic acid.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Thauera: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsMandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Cinnamomum zeylanicum: The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Rhodotorula: A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Iodobenzoates: Benzoic acid esters or salts substituted with one or more iodine atoms.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Raccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Trifluralin: A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Methanospirillum: The sole genus in the family Methanospirillaceae whose organisms are progressively motile by means of polar, tufted flagella. They have been isolated from sewage-sludge and pear waste digesters as well as marine and non-marine habitats.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase: Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.2.Bromobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more bromine atoms.Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Trenbolone Acetate: An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Astatine: Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Geobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Pimelic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.Tick Control: Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase I Deficiency Disease: A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Peptococcaceae: A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.Bacteria, AnaerobicDiestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Trialkyltin Compounds: Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.BenzaldehydesArguloida: An order of CRUSTACEA that are parasitic on freshwater fish.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Coenzyme AOperon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

Separation of molecular species of glucosylceramide by high performance liquid chromatography of their benzoyl derivatives. (1/2141)

The method of separation of glucosylceramide by HPLC was reported. Glucosylceramide was perbenzoylated and separated on a packed muBondapack C18 column, using methanol as eluting solvent. The pattern obtained by HPLC closely resembled that obtained by GLC of the TMS-glucosylceramide, and reflected the molecular species of fatty acid components. This method is reproducible, and sensitive as GLC. This method also can be used for analysis of higher glycolipids.  (+info)

Anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers by methanogenic consortia. (2/2141)

Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates (microseconds max) and biomass yields (YXtotS) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for microseconds max and YXtotS were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (KS) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate.  (+info)

The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. (3/2141)

The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.  (+info)

Antagonist activity of alpha-substituted 4-carboxyphenylglycine analogues at group I metabotropic glutamate receptors expressed in CHO cells. (4/2141)

1. We have investigated the antagonist properties of 6 alpha-substituted phenylglycine analogues based on the structure of 4-carboxyphenylglycine (4-CPG) for group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1alpha and mGlu5a) permanently expressed in CHO cells. 2. (S)-4-CPG and (S)-MCPG were the most selective mGlu1alpha receptor antagonists. Longer chain alpha-carbon substitutions resulted in a progressive loss of antagonist affinity at mGlu1alpha receptors but not at mGlu5a receptors. Thus mGlu1alpha receptor antagonists require small aliphatic groups at the alpha-position. Alpha-cyclopropyl-4-CPG showed a tendency towards mGlu5a selectivity, suggesting that bulky groups at this position may favour mGlu5a receptor antagonism. 3. We demonstrate that the mGlu5a receptor displays agonist-dependent antagonism. L-glutamate-induced Ca2+ release in mGlu5a receptor expressing cells was more susceptible to antagonism by cyclic alpha-carbon derivatives than (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced Ca2+ release in the same cell line. 4. The data presented suggests that mGlu1alpha and mGlu5a receptors have different steric and/or conformational requirements for the binding of antagonists and different amino acids which could interact with agonists. 5. These phenylglycine analogues could provide leads for the development of subtype selective antagonists.  (+info)

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (5/2141)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

Long-term suppression of synaptic transmission by tetanization of a single pyramidal cell in the mouse hippocampus in vitro. (6/2141)

1. The consequences of stimulating a single pyramidal cell in the CA1 area of the hippocampus for synaptic transmission in the stratum radiatum were investigated. 2. Tetanic activation of single pyramids caused by depolarizing current injection, but not an equal number of distributed action potentials, reduced excitatory transmission by 20 %, with a delayed onset, for more than 1 h. 3. EPSPs in the tetanized pyramidal cells were increased for equally long periods but this was not the cause of the field EPSP reduction. Spontaneous somatic IPSPs were not affected; evoked IPSPs were decreased in the tetanized cell. 4. Paired pulse facilitation of the field EPSPs was unchanged. 5. The field EPSP reduction was markedly diminished by a knife cut along the base of pyramidal cells in CA1. 6. The addition of antagonists of GABA, NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors blocked or diminished the field EPSP slope reduction evoked by intracellular stimulation. 7. Simultaneous recordings revealed long-lasting excitations of interneurons located in the outer oriens layer as a result of single pyramid tetanization. 8. Intense firing of small numbers of pyramidal cells can thus persistently inhibit mass transmission through the hippocampus. This effect involves activation of interneurons by glutamate receptors.  (+info)

Regulation of mitochondrial KATP channel by redox agents. (7/2141)

The ATP-dependent K+ channel (KATP) was purified from the inner mitochondrial membrane and reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes. KATP activity was inhibited by high concentrations of ATP and ADP, but activated by low concentrations (up to 200 microM) of ADP. p-Diethylaminoethylbenzoate (DEB) acted as a KATP opener: at micromolar concentrations, it reversed inhibition by ATP and ADP and it also prevented KATP rundown. Pelargonidine, extracted from flowers of Pelargonium, reduced spontaneous activity of KATP channels and diminished their potentiation by DEB. Their opposite action on KATP corresponded with their opposite redox properties in reactions with free radicals: DEB behaved as an electron donor, whereas pelargonidine acted as an electron acceptor. We hypothesize that thiol groups on mitoKATP are targets for redox-active ligans.  (+info)

BadR, a new MarR family member, regulates anaerobic benzoate degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris in concert with AadR, an Fnr family member. (8/2141)

A cluster of genes for the anaerobic degradation of benzoate has been described for the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Here we provide an initial analysis of the regulation of anaerobic benzoate degradation by examining the contributions of two regulators: a new regulator, BadR, encoded by the benzoate degradation gene cluster, and a previously described regulator, AadR, whose gene lies outside the cluster. Strains with single mutations in either badR or aadR grew slowly on benzoate but were relatively unimpaired in growth on succinate and several intermediates of benzoate degradation. A badR aadR double mutant was completely defective in anaerobic growth on benzoate. Effects of the regulators on transcriptional activation were monitored with an R. palustris strain carrying a chromosomal fusion of 'lacZ to the badE gene of the badDEFG operon. This operon encodes benzoyl-coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) reductase, an unusual oxygen-sensitive enzyme that catalyzes the benzene ring reduction reaction that is the rate-limiting step in anaerobic benzoate degradation. Expression of badE::'lacZ was induced 100-fold when cells grown aerobically on succinate were shifted to anaerobic growth on succinate plus benzoate. The aadR gene was required for a 20-fold increase in expression that occurred in response to anaerobiosis, and badR was responsible for a further 5-fold increase in expression that occurred in response to benzoate. Further studies with the badE::'lacZ fusion strain grown with various kinds of aromatic acids indicated that BadR probably responds to benzoyl-CoA acting as an effector molecule. Sequence information indicates that BadR is a member of the MarR family of transcriptional regulators. These studies expand the range of functions regulated by MarR family members to include anaerobic aromatic acid degradation and provide an example of a MarR-type protein that acts as a positive regulator rather than as a negative regulator, as do most MarR family members. AadR resembles the Escherichia coli Fnr regulator in sequence and contains cysteine residues that are spaced appropriately to serve in the capacity of a redox-sensing protein.  (+info)

*Benzyl benzoate

... is produced industrially by the reaction of sodium benzoate with benzyl alcohol in the presence of a base, or ... Benzyl benzoate is used as a topical acaricide, scabicide, and pediculicide in veterinary hospitals. Benzyl benzoate is used as ... Benzyl benzoate can be a skin irritant when used as a topical scabicide. Overdose can result in blistering and hives or a rash ... Benzyl benzoate is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.21 to 0.53 USD per ...

*Potassium benzoate

... is also used in the whistle in many fireworks. One very common way to make potassium benzoate is by ... Another way to synthesize potassium benzoate in the lab setting is by hydrolyzing methyl benzoate with potassium hydroxide. The ... 1610: C=O from carbonyl 1580: C=C from benzene ring Sodium benzoate "Potassium Benzoate". Emerald Kalama Chemical. Retrieved ... Its Synthesis and Characterization as an Anhydrous Salt Preparation of potassium benzoate, US 3867439 "Benzoates" (PDF). United ...

*Sodium benzoate

... is used to treat hyperammonemia. Sodium benzoate is also used in fireworks as a fuel in whistle mix, a powder ... Sodium benzoate has been replaced by potassium sorbate in the majority of soft drinks in the United Kingdom. Sodium Benzoate is ... Sodium benzoate is a preservative. As a food additive, sodium benzoate has the E number E211. It is bacteriostatic and ... Sodium benzoate is produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium hydroxide. Sodium benzoate can also be prepared ...

*Methyl benzoate

... is an organic compound. It is an ester with the chemical formula C6H5CO2CH3. It is a colorless liquid that is ... Methyl benzoate has a pleasant smell, strongly reminiscent of the fruit of the feijoa tree, and it is used in perfumery. It ... Methyl benzoate can be isolated from the freshwater fern Salvinia molesta. It is one of many compounds that is attractive to ... It also undergoes hydrolysis with addition of aqueous NaOH to give methanol and sodium benzoate, which can be acidified with ...

*Calcium benzoate

... refers to the calcium salt of benzoic acid. When used in the food industry as a preservative, its E number is ...

*Copper benzoate

... copper benzoate can be made by combining aqueous solutions of potassium benzoate with copper sulfate. Copper benzoate ... Copper benzoate made from sodium benzoate for use in fireworks may result in strong yellow dilution of the flame unless the ... Copper(II) benzoates exists in at least two structural forms, depending on the degree of hydration. As of copper(II) acetate, ... Copper benzoate is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(C6H5CO2)2. This coordination complex is derived from the cupric ...

*Propyl benzoate

... can be synthesized by the transesterification of methyl benzoate with propanol. Propyl benzoate can also be ... Propyl benzoate is an organic chemical compound used as a food additive. It is an ester. Propyl benzoate has a nutty odor and ...

*Estradiol benzoate

... is the generic name of the drug and its INN, BANM, and JAN, while oestradiol benzoate was formerly its BANM ... It is also known as estradiol 3-benzoate or as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol 3-benzoate. Two estradiol esters that are ... Estradiol benzoate is a synthetic estrane steroid and the C3 benzoate (phenylcarboxylate) ester of estradiol. ... and they proceeded to synthesize estradiol benzoate from estradiol the same year. Estradiol benzoate was patented by Schering- ...

*Magnesium benzoate

... is a chemical compound formed from magnesium and benzoic acid. It was once used to treat gout and arthritis ...

*Cholesteryl benzoate

... , also called 5-cholesten-3-yl benzoate, is an organic chemical, an ester of cholesterol and benzoic acid. ... Cholesteryl benzoate was the first material in which liquid crystal properties were discovered. In the late 1880s Friedrich ... Reinitzer, an Austrian botanist, while studying the chemicals in plants, heated cholesteryl benzoate. At 145 °C the material ...

*Ethyl benzoate

... , C9H10O2, is the ester formed by the condensation of benzoic acid and ethanol. It is a colorless liquid that is ... A simple and commonly used method for the preparation of ethyl benzoate in laboratory is the acidic esterification of benzoic ... As with many volatile esters, ethyl benzoate has a pleasant odor described as sweet, wintergreen, fruity, medicinal, cherry, ... acid with ethanol and sulfuric acid as catalyst: Ethyl benzoate, thegoodscentscompany.com Arthur Israel Vogel. Rev. by Brian S ...

*Androstanolone benzoate

... also known as stanolone benzoate or dihydrotestosterone benzoate (DHTB), as well as 5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one 17β-benzoate, is ... Androstanolone benzoate (brand names Ermalone-Amp, Hermalone, Sarcosan), ...

*Testosterone benzoate

... , or testosterone 17β-benzoate, also known as androst-4-en-17β-ol-3-one 17β-benzoate, is a synthetic, ... injected anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and an androgen ester - specifically, the benzoate C17β ester of testosterone - ...

*Estradiol butyrate benzoate

... , or estradiol 3-benzoate 17β-n-butyrate, also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol 3-benzoate ... Under the tentative brand name Unimens, estradiol butyrate benzoate was studied in combination with the progestogen algestone ... Estradiol benzoate Estradiol butyrylacetate Toppozada M (1977). "The clinical use of monthly injectable contraceptive ... 17β-n-butyrate, is a semisynthetic, steroidal estrogen and an estrogen ester - specifically, the 3-benzoate 17β-n-butyrate ...

*Benzyl benzoate/disulfiram

... (trade name Tenutex) is a combination drug used in the treatment of scabies. It consists of the ... Landegren J, Borglund E, Storgårds K (1979). "Treatment of scabies with disulfiram and benzyl benzoate emulsion: a controlled ...

*Benzoate-CoA ligase

In enzymology, a benzoate-CoA ligase (EC 6.2.1.25) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + benzoate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is benzoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include benzoate- ... Hutber GN; Ribbons DW (1983). "Involvement of coenzyme-A esters in the metabolism of benzoate and cyclohexanecarboxylate by ... Schennen U, Braun K, Knackmuss HJ (1985). "Anaerobic degradation of 2-fluorobenzoate by benzoate-degrading, denitrifying ...

*Benzoate:H symporter

The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by BenE of A. calcoaceticus is: Benzoate (out) + H+ (out) → Benzoate (in) + H+ (in ... The benzoate:H symporter (BenE) family (TC# 2.A.46) is a member of the APC Superfamily. The BenE family contains only two ... "2.A.46 The Benzoate:H Symporter (BenE) Family". Transporter Classification Database. Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group @ UCSD / ... functionally characterized and sequenced members, the benzoate permeases of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and E. coli. These ...

*Benzoate 4-monooxygenase

In enzymology, a benzoate 4-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction benzoate + NADPH + ... This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and benzoate degradation via coa ligation. It has 3 ... benzoate 4-hydroxylase, benzoic 4-hydroxylase, benzoate-p-hydroxylase, and p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is benzoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). Other names in common use ...

*Estriol acetate benzoate

... (JAN) (brand name Holin-Depot), or oestriol diacetate benzoate (BAN), is a semisynthetic, steroidal ...

*Diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate

... (INCI) is an organic compound used in sunscreens to absorb UVA radiation. It is ...

*Benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase

... benzoate hydroxylase, benzoic hydroxylase, benzoate dioxygenase, benzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating,, and ... In enzymology, a benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase (EC 1.14.12.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction benzoate + NADH + ... This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and benzoate degradation via coa ligation. It has 3 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is benzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating). Other names in common use ...

*Fungistatics

Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are both examples of fungistatic substances that are widely used in the preservation of ... "Sodium Benzoate". FBC Industries, Inc. Retrieved 19 February 2015. "Toxicological evaluation of some antimicrobials, ...

*Naari

Estradiol Benzoate • Estradiol Valerate • Ethinylestradiol • Estriol • Levonorgestrel • Lynestrenol • Nandrolone Decanoate • ...

*Tishchenko reaction

in Russian) Kamm, O.; Kamm, W. F. (1941). "Benzyl benzoate". Org. Synth. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ; Coll ... Benzaldehyde reacts with sodium benzyloxide (generated from sodium and benzyl alcohol) to generate benzyl benzoate. The ...

*Emamectin

The benzoate salt of emamectin in particular has found widespread use as an insecticide and is approved by the EPA for use in ... "Emamectin Benzoate" (pdf). SERA TR-052-23-03b Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment. Atlanta GA: USDA/Forest Service. ... "Emamectin benzoate Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment FINAL REPORT." SESA, USDA Forest Services, 28 Oct. 2010. Yen, T ... It is generally prepared as the salt with benzoic acid, emamectin benzoate, which is a white or faintly yellow powder. ...
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According to a new market report published by Credence Research "Global Benzyl Benzoate Market Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global benzyl benzoate market is expected to reach over US$ 80.7 Mn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 4.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full Global Benzyl Benzoate Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/benzyl-benzoate-market. Market Insights. On the basis of type, the global benzyl benzoate market is segmented into pharmaceutical grade, industrial grade and flavors & fragrance grade. In 2016, industrial grade was observed to the largest segment for the benzyl benzoates accounting for more than 50% revenue share in global benzyl benzoates market. Increasing use of benzyl benzoates in textile auxiliaries and plasticizer is projected to drive the demand for industrial grade benzyl benzoates during the forecast period. Industrial grade segment is also ...
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According to a new market report published by Credence Research "Global Benzyl Benzoate Market Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025," the global benzyl benzoate market is expected to reach over US$ 80.7 Mn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 4.4% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full Global Benzyl Benzoate Market by product type, pharmaceutical grade, industrial grade and flavors & fragrance grade; by Application, pharmaceuticals (in scabies therapy), textile auxiliaries (dye carrier, leveling agent, healant), flavors & fragrance (the sole solvent of musk) and plasticizer; and by geography North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East & Africa - Market Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 - 2025 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/benzyl-benzoate-market. Market Insights. On the basis of type, the global benzyl benzoate market is segmented into pharmaceutical grade, industrial grade and flavors & fragrance grade. In 2016, ...
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Results Compared with baseline value, AngII (0.1μmol/l), Telmisartan (0.01 μmol/l) and AngII plus Telmisartan group significantly decreased the peak density of Ito in SD rat atrial myocytes (22.48±2.75 vs 15.71±2.06 pA/pF, p,0.01), (24.16±2.36 vs 16.15±1.82 pA/pF, p,0.01) and (24.41±2.27 vs 21.35±1.46 pA/pF, p,0.05), respectively. AngII (0.1 μmol/l) significantly increased the peak density of ICa-L in SD rat atrial myocytes (−4.51±0.38 vs −5.16±0.29 pA/pF, p,0.01). Telmisartan (0.01 μmol/l) had no significant effect on ICa-L in the rat atrial myocytes (−4.35±0.27 vs −4.29±0.34 pA/pF, p,0.05), but it could antagonise the effects of AngII. In the Ang IIcombined telmisartan group, the peak density of ICa-L was (−4.08±0.28 vs −4.20±0.31 pA/pF, p,0.05), which was significantly different from that of AngII group (p,0.05).. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Microarray immunoassay for phenoxybenzoic acid using polymer encapsulated Eu. T2 - Gd2O3 nanoparticles as fluorescent labels. AU - Nichkova, Mikaela. AU - Dosev, Dosi. AU - Gee, Shirley J.. AU - Hammock, Bruce D.. AU - Kennedy, Ian M.. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Currently, detection in microarray bioanalysis is based mainly on the use of organic dyes. To overcome photobleaching and spectral overlaps we applied a new type of fluorophore, crystalline europium-doped gadolinium oxide (Eu:Gd 2O3) nanoparticles, as labels in immunoassay microarrays. The Eu:Gd2O3 nanoparticles synthesized by spray pyrolysis offer narrow red emission, large Stokes shift, photostable laser-induced fluorescence with a long lifetime (1 ms). The amino functionalization of the particles was achieved by poly(L-lysine) (PL) encapsulation. The formation of a stable PL shell was confirmed by TEM analysis, colloidal stability studies, and quantification of the surface reactive amino groups. The ...
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This was a multicenter, randomized, open label, phase IIb, two-arm study to evaluate the effects of telmisartan on fibrotic and inflammatory contributors to end-organ disease in HIV-infected subjects well controlled on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants were randomized 2:1 to the telmisartan and control arms. The participants on telmisartan took 40 mg telmisartan daily during weeks 0-4 followed by telmisartan 80 mg daily during weeks 5-48. The participants in the control arm did not take any study medication, but did undergo all evaluations. All participants were followed for 48 weeks after randomization.. The study clinic visits included Step 1 entry, Step 2 entry, and weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, 48. Biopsies for the primary outcomes were collected at Step 1 entry and Week 48. The evaluations of safety (clinical assessment for signs and symptoms, diagnoses, laboratory tests) were done at Step 2 entry and weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, 48.. The co-primary objectives assessed the effects of telmisartan ...
J Hypertens. 2014 Jun;32(6):1334-41. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000154. Observational Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
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Methods We enrolled 120 patients with CHF, NYHAI--III, age 30-79 (61.25±10.18) years. All the patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: standard therapy group (n=60, receiving ACEI, digoxin, diuretic, β-blcoks), telmasartan treatment group (n=60 receiving telmasartan in addition to the standard therapy). These patients were treated for 1 years, and plasma levels of BNP and left ventiricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured before and after treartments.. ...
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Benzyl benzoate is the organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2O2CC6H5. It is the ester of benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid. It forms either a viscous liquid or…
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A novel deconvolution method for energy-resolved reaction cross sections is applied to determine intrinsic gas-phase dissociation energies for non-covalent α-cyclodextrin host-guest complexes. M06-2X//M06-L/6-31+G(d,p) calculations reproduce the experimental results and enable us to quantify the contribution
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Accepted name: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase. Reaction: benzoate + NADH + H+ + O2 = (1R,6S)-1,6-dihydroxycyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-carboxylate + NAD+. For diagram click here (another example).. Other name(s): benzoate hydroxylase; benzoate hydroxylase; benzoic hydroxylase; benzoate dioxygenase; benzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating, decarboxylating) [incorrect]. Systematic name: benzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating). Comments: A system, containing a reductase which is an iron-sulfur flavoprotein (FAD), and an iron-sulfur oxygenase. Requires Fe2+.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9059-18-1. References:. 1. Yamaguchi, M. and Fujisawa, H. Characterization of NADH-cytochrome c reductase, a component of benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase system from Pseudomonas arvilla C-1. J. Biol. Chem. 253 (1978) 8848-8853. [PMID: 214433]. 2. Yamaguchi, M. and Fujisawa, H. Purification and characterization of an oxygenase component in ...
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Does telmisartan therapy after stroke prevent recurrence and adverse cardiovascular events? Despite lowering blood pressure, telmisartan did not provide preventative benefit. This study reflects problems with publication bias and that surrogate markers, such as blood pressure control, may not reflect patient outcomes.
Chemical Equation Presented) The effect of modification of the electrophilic center from C=O to P=O on reactivity and reaction mechanism has been investigated for aminolysis of Y-substituted phenyl diphenylphosphinates (1a-j) and benzoates (2a-i). The phosphinates 1a-j are less reactive than the benzoates 2a-i. The reactions of 2,4-dinitrophenyl diphenylphosphinate (1a) with alicyclic secondary amines resulted in a linear Brønsted-type plot with a β nuc value of 0.38, while the corresponding reactions of 2,4-dinitrophenyl benzoate (2a) yielded a curved Brønsted-type plot. Similarly, a linear Brønsted-type plot with a β 1g value of -0.66 was obtained for the reactions of 1a-j with piperidine, while the corresponding reactions of 2a-i gave a curved Brønsted-type plot. The linear Brønsted-type plots for the reactions of 1a-j have been taken as evidence for a concerted mechanism, while the curved Brønsted-type plots for the reactions of 2a-i have been suggested to indicate a change in the ...
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The purpose of this observational study is to survey the safety and effectiveness of the product under the real condition of usual practice in Taiwanese hypertensive patients. During the 8-week observation, the safety profiles and the clinical evaluation in between doses through blood pressure (BP) measurement for overall effectiveness of telmisartan therapy will be concluded ...
Boehringer, seeking to protect its Telmisartan franchise, has also filed SPC applications for its Telmisartan-HCTZ and Telmisartan-Amlodipine products, for the basic patent 314, in France, Germany, Spain and the UK, potentially extending protection until January 2017 (see Figure 3). GenericsWebs proprietary SPC analyser has identified the basic patent as a C3 category, suggesting the claims of the basic patent do not protect the combinations and therefore the SPC may be invalid. The response by the national IPOs in respect to the invalidity of SPCs for the Telmisartan combinations has varied. The French SPC application (FR02C0028) for Telmisartan-HCTZ was initially rejected by the Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle (INPI) in December 2010, finding the claims of the basic patent did not protect a medicine comprising Telmisartan in association with HCTZ. The Paris Court of Appeal upheld INPIs decision in June 2012, denying Boehringers request for appeal. Similarly, on June ...
Because it offers occlusion without heaviness, using C12-15 alkyl benzoate is a good way of getting the occlusive powers of something like shea butter in a lighter feeling lotion. I had planned to leave the butters out of this recipe - the trying new things out lotion - because I was in the mood for a very light, easily spreadable lotion, but the lure of my new matcha green tea butter was too much and I included it in the end. But the C12-15 alkyl benzoate would have been enough for the intended purpose - a light, spreadable lotion that offered an occlusive layer. And I used it in the complicated balm to offer a nice level of emolliency without adding a ton of weight ...
Because it offers occlusion without heaviness, using C12-15 alkyl benzoate is a good way of getting the occlusive powers of something like shea butter in a lighter feeling lotion. I had planned to leave the butters out of this recipe - the trying new things out lotion - because I was in the mood for a very light, easily spreadable lotion, but the lure of my new matcha green tea butter was too much and I included it in the end. But the C12-15 alkyl benzoate would have been enough for the intended purpose - a light, spreadable lotion that offered an occlusive layer. And I used it in the complicated balm to offer a nice level of emolliency without adding a ton of weight ...
Hot melt adhesive compositions are prepared from a water sensitive or biodegradeable thermoplastic adhesive polymer using sucrose benzoate as a tackifier. More particularly, hot melt adhesive compositions are prepared from 10 to 90% by weight of a biodegradable or water sensitive thermoplastic polymer, 5 to 80% by weight sucrose benzoate, 0 to 80% by weight plasticizing diluent, 0 to 50% by weight wax and 0 to 3% by weight antioxidant.
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Johannes F.E. Mann, MD; Roland E. Schmieder, MD; Leanne Dyal, MSc; Matthew J. McQueen, MD; Helmut Schumacher, MD; Janice Pogue, PhD; Xingyu Wang, PhD; Jeffrey L. Probstfield, MD; Alvaro Avezum, MD, PhD; Ernesto Cardona-Munoz, PhD; Gilles R. Dagenais, MD; Rafael Diaz, MD; George Fodor, MD, PhD; Jean M. Maillon, MD; Lars Rydén, MD; Cheuk M. Yu, MD; Koon K. Teo, MD; Salim Yusuf, DPh, MD; TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomised Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease) Investigators ...
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Micardis tablets contain the active ingredient telmisartan, which is a type of medicine called an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. It works by preventing the action of a hormone in the body called angiotensin II.
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PubMed journal article Erectile dysfunction predicts cardiovascular events in high-risk patients receiving telmisartan, ramipril, or both: The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial/Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (ONTARGET/TRANSCEND) Trial were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
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The results of the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) study were unexpected, demonstrating no cardiovascular or renal benefit but substantial adverse effects of adding an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), telmisartan 80 mg/day, to an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril 10 mg/day (dual therapy) vs ramipril alone [1,2]. Those results stirred up a number of commentaries especially from the nephrological community and in most major nephrological journals [3-11]. In this journal, Dr. Abutaleb [10] brings up a number of concerns related to the design and the renal results of ONTARGET, and we will reply to those concerns in the following. From the beginning, we would like to stress that ONTARGET is the only reliable outcome trial at present to build our judgment on dual therapy outside heart failure and one flawed renal study [13,14]. All other evidence comes from randomized controlled studies with only surrogate endpoints and
The mechanisms of the improvement of glucose homeostasis through angiotensin receptor blockers are not fully elucidated in hypertensive patients. We investigated the effects of telmisartan on insulin signaling and glucose uptake in cultured myotubes and skeletal muscle from wild-type and muscle-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ knockout (MCK-PPARδ−/−) mice. Telmisartan increased PPARδ expression and activated PPARδ transcriptional activity in cultured C2C12 myotubes. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes, telmisartan enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt and Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation as well as Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These effects were inhibited by antagonizing PPARδ or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, but not by PPARγ and PPARα inhibition. Palmitate reducing the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes could be restored by telmisartan. In vivo experiments showed that telmisartan treatment ...
The mechanisms of the improvement of glucose homeostasis through angiotensin receptor blockers are not fully elucidated in hypertensive patients. We investigated the effects of telmisartan on insulin signaling and glucose uptake in cultured myotubes and skeletal muscle from wild-type and muscle-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ knockout (MCK-PPARδ−/−) mice. Telmisartan increased PPARδ expression and activated PPARδ transcriptional activity in cultured C2C12 myotubes. In palmitate-induced insulin-resistant C2C12 myotubes, telmisartan enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt and Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) phosphorylation as well as Glut4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These effects were inhibited by antagonizing PPARδ or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, but not by PPARγ and PPARα inhibition. Palmitate reducing the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes could be restored by telmisartan. In vivo experiments showed that telmisartan treatment ...
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
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INTRODUCTION. Telmisartan, a nonpeptide molecule, is chemically 4-[(1,4-dimethyl-2-propyl [2,6-1H-benzimidazol]-1-yl) methyl]-[1,1-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid and Hydrochlorothiazide is chemically [2S,3aS,6aS]-1-[(2S)-2-[[(1S)-1-(Ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenylpropyl]amino]-1-oxopropyl] octahydrocyclopenta[b]pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid1. Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist that is highly selective for type 1 angiotensin II receptor. Angiotensin II is the principle pressor agent of the rennin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, stimulation of synthesis and release of aldosterone, cardiac stimulation, and renal reabsorbtion of sodium. Hydrochlorothiazide is a highly lipophilic, long acting ACE inhibitor. The drug is used for treating blood pressure and congestive heart failure. It effectively reduces both supine and standing blood pressure without significant alteration in the pulse rate. A combination of 40 mg of telmisartan and 5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide ...
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Verdecchia, Paolo; Dagenais, Gilles; Healey, Jeff; Gao, Peggy; Dans, Antonio L.; Chazova, Irina; Binbrek, Azan S.; Iacobellis, Gianluca; Ferreira, Rafael; Holwerda, Nicolaas; Karatzas, Nicholas; Keltai, Matyas; Mancia, Giuseppe; Sleight, Peter; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim; on behalf of Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination With Ramipril Global Endpoint TrialTelmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant Less ...
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Telmisartan amongst ARBs, acts as a partial agonist of PPAR- γ (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor- Gamma) receptor, helps in improving blood glucose and lipid profile. Cilnidipine improve GLUT-4 receptor, which lead to increase in glucose uptake. Thus, improve insulin sensitivity. Thus, combination of Telmisartan with Cilnidipine improves glucose levels and insulin sensitivity along with decrease in blood pressure. In Renally compromised patients Telmisartan which is mainly excreted through hepatic route can be safely given to hypertensive patients who suffer from nephropathy and there is no need to reduce the dose. N-type Ca2+ channels are present in both afferent and efferent arterioles. Their inhibition by Cilnidipine elicits vasodilation of both arterioles, leading to the reduction in glomerular pressure. This results in decrease in proteinuria. Thus, combination of telmisartan and Cilnidipine is beneficial in the hypertensives with kidney disease ...
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The goal of this clinical research study is to study the effectiveness of the drug Exjade® (deferasirox) in controlling MDS. Researchers will also study the effect of the study drug/placebo on the heart, kidneys, and liver.
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Benzyl benzoate is an ester created from benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol. This compound is denoted by the organic formula C6H5CH2O2CC6H5. It emits a faint sweet balsamic odor. It appears as solid flakes or a viscous liquid. It is present naturally in hyacinth, Narcissus Jonquilla L, dianthus caryophillus, and tuberose flowers. It forms an important component of Tolu balsam and Balsam of Peru.. For further inquiries, about Benzyl benzoate Industry, click on this link - http://www.radiantinsights.com/research/global-and-chinese-benzyl-benzoate-industry-2015. Manufacturing process includes increasing the density of benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium to form benzyl benzoate. Another method includes using sodium benzoate and benzyl alcohol in the presence of triethylamine or an alkali benzyl oxide.. Benzyl benzoate has applications in fragrance and repellents for mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks. It forms a part of an inexpensive procedure to treat human scabies. It is also used as a pediculide, ...
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Sodium Benzoate, E211, CAS no.532-32-1, food preservative, sodium salt of benzoic acid, manufacturing process via chemical synthesis, Benzoic acid and sodium hydroxide as raw materials. Sodium Benzoate is safe food preservative used as antimicrobial agent, flavoring agent and adjuvant in food, cosmetics, shampoo, skin care, soda water, food preservation, toothpaste ...
Background Thalassaemia is a hereditary anaemia due to a defect in the production of haemoglobin. Regular red blood cell transfusions are needed, particularly for the severe form of the disease, thalassaemia major. This results in iron overload. Since the human body has no means of actively getting rid of excessive iron, drug treatment (iron-chelating drugs) is needed. Several years ago, a newer oral iron chelator, deferasirox, was introduced.. Review question Does deferasirox offer advantages compared to placebo or to the other iron chelators deferoxamine or deferiprone in people with thalassaemia with regard to effectiveness and safety?. Study characteristics The evidence is current to 12 August 2016. This updated review includes 16 randomised controlled studies (1807 participants) containing 20 comparisons of deferasirox versus another treatment.. In people with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia, two studies compared deferasirox with placebo and nine studies (1251 participants) compared ...
Evaluation of a new tablet formulation of deferasirox to reduce chronic iron overload after long-term blood transfusions Anna W Chalmers, Jamile M Shammo Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Transfusion-dependent anemia is a common feature in a wide array of hematological disorders, including thalassemia, sickle cell disease, aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis, and myelodysplastic syndromes. In the absence of a physiological mechanism to excrete excess iron, chronic transfusions ultimately cause iron overload. Without correction, iron overload can lead to end-organ damage, resulting in cardiac, hepatic, and endocrine dysfunction/failure. Iron chelating agents are utilized to reduce iron overload, as they form a complex with iron, leading to its clearance. Iron chelation has been proven to decrease organ dysfunction and improve survival in certain transfusion-dependent anemias, such as β-thalassemia. Several
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about endocrine function, bone mineral health, and growth during oral iron chelation therapy in β-thalassemia major patients (TM) on treatment with deferasirox. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To study the frequency of endocrine complications, IGF-1 levels and final adult standing height (FA-Ht) in patients with BTM in two groups of adult patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first group (Group A; 15 patients, 6 females and 9 males) received oral iron chelation therapy (OIC) with deferasirox for 6 years before puberty; the second group (Group B;40 patients) attained the FA-Ht before the use of OIC (iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine (DFO) given subcutaneously, since the age of 2 years ...
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
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Lithium benzoate | Sigma-AldrichLithium benzoate | Sigma-Aldrich

View information & documentation regarding Lithium benzoate, including CAS, MSDS & more. ... Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Lithium benzoate products. ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/substance/lithiumbenzoate1280555354811?lang=en®ion=US

Potassium BenzoatePotassium Benzoate

... is the potassium salt of benzoic acid. Benzoic acids are weak acids that are used as food preservatives. ... Potassium Benzoate. Potassium benzoate is the potassium salt of benzoic acid. Benzoic acids are weak acids that are used as ... Making Potassium Benzoate. There are a few ways to make potassium benzoate. The first and main way of making it is to oxidize ... The Dangers of Potassium Benzoate. Potassium benzoate (on its own) is not very dangerous so long as the bottles that hold the ...
more infohttps://www.tech-faq.com/potassium-benzoate.html

Sodium benzoateSodium benzoate

... benzoate of soda Identifiers CAS number 532-32-1 SMILES O=C([O-])C1=CC=CC=C1.[Na+] ... Sodium benzoate Sodium benzoate IUPAC name Sodium benzoate Other names E211, ... Sodium benzoate (E211), also called benzoate of soda, has chemical formula C6H5COONa. It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and ... Sodium benzoate is used in many soft drinks and can be identified on the label of the bottle or can as sodium benzoate or ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Sodium_benzoate.html

POTASSIUM BENZOATE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGPOTASSIUM BENZOATE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

About POTASSIUM BENZOATE: Potassium Benzoate is a potassium salt of Benzoic Acid (q.v.).. Function(s): Preservative ...
more infohttps://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/705184/POTASSIUM_BENZOATE/

SODIUM BENZOATE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWGSODIUM BENZOATE || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

About SODIUM BENZOATE: Sodium benzoate is a preservative commonly used in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.. Function(s): ... Synonym(s): BENZOIC ACID, SODIUM SALT; SODIUM SALT BENZOIC ACID; ANTIMOL; BENZOAN SODNY (CZECH) ; BENZOATE OF SODA; BENZOATE ...
more infohttps://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/705989/SODIUM_BENZOATE/

[current-page:url] Properties[current-page:url] Properties

Potassium Benzoate C6H5COOK bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term ... About Potassium Benzoate. Potassium Benzoate is generally immediately available in most volumes. High purity, submicron and ... Related Applications, Forms & Industries for Potassium Benzoate. Benzoates. Chemical Manufacturing. Research & Laboratory. ... Chemicals & Salts Acetates Aluminides Ammonium Sulfates Antimonides Arsenates Benzoate Bromates Bromides Carbonates Chlorides ...
more infohttps://www.americanelements.com/potassium-benzoate-582-25-2

Ingredients -- Denatonium benzoateIngredients -- Denatonium benzoate

Specially Denatured alcohol 40, or SD-40, is ethanol denatured (made unfit for drinking) by a tiny amount denatonium benzoate. ... Denatonium benzoate gets its name from "denatured alcohol", and that is where it is often used. It is the bitterest tasting ... Denatonium benzoate is an ester of PABA, and is related to lidocaine, benzocaine, novocaine, and cocaine. ...
more infohttps://sci-toys.com/ingredients/denatonium_benzoate.html

Benzoates - Exposure Studies | CTDBenzoates - Exposure Studies | CTD

air freshener , air freshener, car , baking soda , bar soap , body lotion , body wash , Borax , car interior cleaner , carpet cleaner , cat litter , conditioner , deodorant , diaper , dish liquid , dishwasher detergent , dryer sheet , fabric refresher , facial cleanser , facial lotion , floor cleaner , foundation , fragrance or perfume , glass cleaner , hair gel , hair spray or mousse or gel , hand sanitizer , hand soap , laundry bleach , laundry detergent , lip balm , lipstick , mascara , nail polish , pillow protector , polish or wax , scrubbing powder , shampoo , shaving cream , shower curtain, vinyl , stain remover , sunscreen , sunscreen composite , surface cleaner , toilet bowl cleaner , toothpaste , tub and tile cleaner , wet ...
more infohttp://ctd.mdibl.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D001565&view=expStudies

Sodium benzoate | C7H5O2Na - PubChemSodium benzoate | C7H5O2Na - PubChem

Sodium benzoate , C7H5O2Na or NaC6H5COO or C6H5COONa or C7H5NaO2 , CID 517055 - structure, chemical names, physical and ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/sodium_benzoate

Benzyl Benzoate (Topical Route) Precautions - Mayo ClinicBenzyl Benzoate (Topical Route) Precautions - Mayo Clinic

Washing in very hot water all recently worn clothing and used bed linens and towels, and drying them in a hot dryer for at least 20 minutes. Articles that cannot be washed may be dry-cleaned, pressed with a hot iron, or just placed in a hot dryer ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/benzyl-benzoate-topical-route/precautions/drg-20062209
  • ammonia in the presence of benzoate will conjugate with glycine to form hippurate which is secreted by the kidney. (healthtap.com)
  • A study conducted by Peter Piper, a professor at Sheffield University in the UK and an expert in molecular biology and biotechnology, found that sodium benzoate damages cells, in an adverse way. (healthtap.com)
  • The taste of sodium benzoate cannot be detected by around 25 percent of the population, but for those who can taste the chemical, it tends to be perceived as sweet, salty, or sometimes bitter. (bionity.com)
  • Under acidic conditions, sodium benzoate inhibits growth of bacteria, mold and yeast, extending a product's shelf life, says Randy Worobo, associate professor of food microbiology at Cornell University in New York. (latimes.com)
  • The cost is significantly higher than that of sodium benzoate," he adds, which is probably why most food manufacturers go with the non-natural stuff. (latimes.com)
  • Sodium benzoate is, however, allowed as an animal food additive at up to 0.1%, according to AFCO's official publication. (bionity.com)
  • Sodium benzoate is a common food additive which is used as an anti-spoilage agent, especially against molds. (nih.gov)