Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.
The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of BENZOATE to 4-hydroxybenzoate. It requires IRON and tetrahydropteridine.
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with grasses (POACEAE) and which fix nitrogen as well as species which anaerobically degrade toluene and other mono-aromatic hydrocarbons.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC and EC
A widely used industrial solvent.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
D-Amino-Acid Oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids to their corresponding α-keto acids, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide, playing a crucial role in the metabolism of non-proteinogenic D-amino acids.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Salts and esters of gentisic acid.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals.
Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids are organic compounds consisting of a cyclohexane ring substituted with a carboxylic acid group, typically represented by the structural formula C6H11COOH.
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).
The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Benzoic acid esters or salts substituted with one or more iodine atoms.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
The sole genus in the family Methanospirillaceae whose organisms are progressively motile by means of polar, tufted flagella. They have been isolated from sewage-sludge and pear waste digesters as well as marine and non-marine habitats.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to 2-hydroxymuconate semialdehyde in the carbazole and BENZOATE degradation via HYDROXYLATION pathways. It also catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylcatechol to cis, cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohept-2,4-dienoate in the TOLUENE and XYLENE degradation pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more bromine atoms.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.
An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.
Sexual activities of animals.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of heptanedioic acid with the general formula R-C7H11O4.
Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A urea cycle disorder manifesting in infancy as lethargy, emesis, seizures, alterations of muscle tone, abnormal eye movements, and an elevation of serum ammonia. The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp50-1)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.
'Anaerobic Bacteria' are types of bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth and can often cause diseases in humans, including dental caries, gas gangrene, and tetanus, among others.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.
Benzaldehydes are aromatic organic compounds consisting of a benzene ring connected to a formyl group (-CHO), which is the simplest and most representative compound being benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO).
An order of CRUSTACEA that are parasitic on freshwater fish.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
Coenzyme A is an essential coenzyme that plays a crucial role in various metabolic processes, particularly in the transfer and activation of acetyl groups in important biochemical reactions such as fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, and the citric acid cycle.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.

Separation of molecular species of glucosylceramide by high performance liquid chromatography of their benzoyl derivatives. (1/2141)

The method of separation of glucosylceramide by HPLC was reported. Glucosylceramide was perbenzoylated and separated on a packed muBondapack C18 column, using methanol as eluting solvent. The pattern obtained by HPLC closely resembled that obtained by GLC of the TMS-glucosylceramide, and reflected the molecular species of fatty acid components. This method is reproducible, and sensitive as GLC. This method also can be used for analysis of higher glycolipids.  (+info)

Anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers by methanogenic consortia. (2/2141)

Three methanogenic enrichment cultures, grown on ortho-phthalate, iso-phthalate, or terephthalate were obtained from digested sewage sludge or methanogenic granular sludge. Cultures grown on one of the phthalate isomers were not capable of degrading the other phthalate isomers. All three cultures had the ability to degrade benzoate. Maximum specific growth rates (microseconds max) and biomass yields (YXtotS) of the mixed cultures were determined by using both the phthalate isomers and benzoate as substrates. Comparable values for these parameters were found for all three cultures. Values for microseconds max and YXtotS were higher for growth on benzoate compared to the phthalate isomers. Based on measured and estimated values for the microbial yield of the methanogens in the mixed culture, specific yields for the phthalate and benzoate fermenting organisms were calculated. A kinetic model, involving three microbial species, was developed to predict intermediate acetate and hydrogen accumulation and the final production of methane. Values for the ratio of the concentrations of methanogenic organisms, versus the phthalate isomer and benzoate fermenting organisms, and apparent half-saturation constants (KS) for the methanogens were calculated. By using this combination of measured and estimated parameter values, a reasonable description of intermediate accumulation and methane formation was obtained, with the initial concentration of phthalate fermenting organisms being the only variable. The energetic efficiency for growth of the fermenting organisms on the phthalate isomers was calculated to be significantly smaller than for growth on benzoate.  (+info)

The role of benzoate in anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. (3/2141)

The effects of acetate, benzoate, and periods without substrate on the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate (1, 4-benzene-dicarboxylate) by a syntrophic methanogenic culture were studied. The culture had been enriched on terephthalate and was capable of benzoate degradation without a lag phase. When incubated with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate, subsequent degradation with preference for benzoate was observed. Both benzoate and acetate inhibited the anaerobic degradation of terephthalate. The observed inhibition is partially irreversible, resulting in a decrease (or even a complete loss) of the terephthalate-degrading activity after complete degradation of benzoate or acetate. Irreversible inhibition was characteristic for terephthalate degradation only because the inhibition of benzoate degradation by acetate could well be described by reversible noncompetitive product inhibition. Terephthalate degradation was furthermore irreversibly inhibited by periods without substrate of only a few hours. The inhibition of terephthalate degradation due to periods without substrate could be overcome through incubation of the culture with a mixture of benzoate and terephthalate. In this case no influence of a period without substrate was observed. Based on these observations it is postulated that decarboxylation of terephthalate, resulting in the formation of benzoate, is strictly dependent on the concomitant fermentation of benzoate. In the presence of higher concentrations of benzoate, however, benzoate is the favored substrate over terephthalate, and the culture loses its ability to degrade terephthalate. In order to overcome the inhibition of terephthalate degradation by benzoate and acetate, a two-stage reactor system is suggested for the treatment of wastewater generated during terephthalic acid production.  (+info)

Antagonist activity of alpha-substituted 4-carboxyphenylglycine analogues at group I metabotropic glutamate receptors expressed in CHO cells. (4/2141)

1. We have investigated the antagonist properties of 6 alpha-substituted phenylglycine analogues based on the structure of 4-carboxyphenylglycine (4-CPG) for group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1alpha and mGlu5a) permanently expressed in CHO cells. 2. (S)-4-CPG and (S)-MCPG were the most selective mGlu1alpha receptor antagonists. Longer chain alpha-carbon substitutions resulted in a progressive loss of antagonist affinity at mGlu1alpha receptors but not at mGlu5a receptors. Thus mGlu1alpha receptor antagonists require small aliphatic groups at the alpha-position. Alpha-cyclopropyl-4-CPG showed a tendency towards mGlu5a selectivity, suggesting that bulky groups at this position may favour mGlu5a receptor antagonism. 3. We demonstrate that the mGlu5a receptor displays agonist-dependent antagonism. L-glutamate-induced Ca2+ release in mGlu5a receptor expressing cells was more susceptible to antagonism by cyclic alpha-carbon derivatives than (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG)-induced Ca2+ release in the same cell line. 4. The data presented suggests that mGlu1alpha and mGlu5a receptors have different steric and/or conformational requirements for the binding of antagonists and different amino acids which could interact with agonists. 5. These phenylglycine analogues could provide leads for the development of subtype selective antagonists.  (+info)

Mechanisms involved in the metabotropic glutamate receptor-enhancement of NMDA-mediated motoneurone responses in frog spinal cord. (5/2141)

1. The metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonist trans-(+/-)-1-amino-1,3-cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD) (10-100 microM) depolarized isolated frog spinal cord motoneurones, a process sensitive to kynurenate (1.0 mM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX) (0.783 microM). 2. In the presence of NMDA open channel blockers [Mg2+; (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK801); 3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantanamine hydrochloride (memantine)] and TTX, trans-ACPD significantly potentiated NMDA-induced motoneurone depolarizations, but not alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)- or kainate-induced depolarizations. 3. NMDA potentiation was blocked by (RS)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) (240 microM), but not by alpha-methyl-(2S,3S,4S)-alpha-(carboxycyclopropyl)-glycine (MCCG) (290 microM) or by alpha-methyl-(S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-MAP4) (250 microM), and was mimicked by 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) (30 microM), but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) (100 microM). Therefore, trans-ACPD's facilitatory effects appear to involve group I mGluRs. 4. Potentiation was prevented by the G-protein decoupling agent pertussis toxin (3-6 ng ml(-1), 36 h preincubation). The protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine (2.0 microM) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulphonamide HCI (H9) (77 microM) did not significantly reduce enhanced NMDA responses. Protein kinase C activation with phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (5.0 microM) had no effect. 5. Intracellular Ca2+ depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microM) (which inhibits Ca2+/ATPase), 1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid acetyl methyl ester (BAPTA-AM) (50 microM) (which buffers elevations of [Ca2+]i), and bathing spinal cords in nominally Ca2+-free medium all reduced trans-ACPD's effects. 6. The calmodulin antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide (W7) (100 microM) and chlorpromazine (100 microM) diminished the potentiation. 7. In summary, group I mGluRs selectively facilitate NMDA-depolarization of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca2+]i from the presumed generation of phosphoinositides, binding of Ca2+ to calmodulin, and lessening of the Mg2+-produced channel block of the NMDA receptor.  (+info)

Long-term suppression of synaptic transmission by tetanization of a single pyramidal cell in the mouse hippocampus in vitro. (6/2141)

1. The consequences of stimulating a single pyramidal cell in the CA1 area of the hippocampus for synaptic transmission in the stratum radiatum were investigated. 2. Tetanic activation of single pyramids caused by depolarizing current injection, but not an equal number of distributed action potentials, reduced excitatory transmission by 20 %, with a delayed onset, for more than 1 h. 3. EPSPs in the tetanized pyramidal cells were increased for equally long periods but this was not the cause of the field EPSP reduction. Spontaneous somatic IPSPs were not affected; evoked IPSPs were decreased in the tetanized cell. 4. Paired pulse facilitation of the field EPSPs was unchanged. 5. The field EPSP reduction was markedly diminished by a knife cut along the base of pyramidal cells in CA1. 6. The addition of antagonists of GABA, NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors blocked or diminished the field EPSP slope reduction evoked by intracellular stimulation. 7. Simultaneous recordings revealed long-lasting excitations of interneurons located in the outer oriens layer as a result of single pyramid tetanization. 8. Intense firing of small numbers of pyramidal cells can thus persistently inhibit mass transmission through the hippocampus. This effect involves activation of interneurons by glutamate receptors.  (+info)

Regulation of mitochondrial KATP channel by redox agents. (7/2141)

The ATP-dependent K+ channel (KATP) was purified from the inner mitochondrial membrane and reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes. KATP activity was inhibited by high concentrations of ATP and ADP, but activated by low concentrations (up to 200 microM) of ADP. p-Diethylaminoethylbenzoate (DEB) acted as a KATP opener: at micromolar concentrations, it reversed inhibition by ATP and ADP and it also prevented KATP rundown. Pelargonidine, extracted from flowers of Pelargonium, reduced spontaneous activity of KATP channels and diminished their potentiation by DEB. Their opposite action on KATP corresponded with their opposite redox properties in reactions with free radicals: DEB behaved as an electron donor, whereas pelargonidine acted as an electron acceptor. We hypothesize that thiol groups on mitoKATP are targets for redox-active ligans.  (+info)

BadR, a new MarR family member, regulates anaerobic benzoate degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris in concert with AadR, an Fnr family member. (8/2141)

A cluster of genes for the anaerobic degradation of benzoate has been described for the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Here we provide an initial analysis of the regulation of anaerobic benzoate degradation by examining the contributions of two regulators: a new regulator, BadR, encoded by the benzoate degradation gene cluster, and a previously described regulator, AadR, whose gene lies outside the cluster. Strains with single mutations in either badR or aadR grew slowly on benzoate but were relatively unimpaired in growth on succinate and several intermediates of benzoate degradation. A badR aadR double mutant was completely defective in anaerobic growth on benzoate. Effects of the regulators on transcriptional activation were monitored with an R. palustris strain carrying a chromosomal fusion of 'lacZ to the badE gene of the badDEFG operon. This operon encodes benzoyl-coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) reductase, an unusual oxygen-sensitive enzyme that catalyzes the benzene ring reduction reaction that is the rate-limiting step in anaerobic benzoate degradation. Expression of badE::'lacZ was induced 100-fold when cells grown aerobically on succinate were shifted to anaerobic growth on succinate plus benzoate. The aadR gene was required for a 20-fold increase in expression that occurred in response to anaerobiosis, and badR was responsible for a further 5-fold increase in expression that occurred in response to benzoate. Further studies with the badE::'lacZ fusion strain grown with various kinds of aromatic acids indicated that BadR probably responds to benzoyl-CoA acting as an effector molecule. Sequence information indicates that BadR is a member of the MarR family of transcriptional regulators. These studies expand the range of functions regulated by MarR family members to include anaerobic aromatic acid degradation and provide an example of a MarR-type protein that acts as a positive regulator rather than as a negative regulator, as do most MarR family members. AadR resembles the Escherichia coli Fnr regulator in sequence and contains cysteine residues that are spaced appropriately to serve in the capacity of a redox-sensing protein.  (+info)

Benzoates are the salts and esters of benzoic acid. They are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals to prevent the growth of microorganisms. The chemical formula for benzoic acid is C6H5COOH, and when it is combined with a base (like sodium or potassium), it forms a benzoate salt (e.g., sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate). When benzoic acid reacts with an alcohol, it forms a benzoate ester (e.g., methyl benzoate or ethyl benzoate).

Benzoates are generally considered safe for use in food and cosmetics in small quantities. However, some people may have allergies or sensitivities to benzoates, which can cause reactions such as hives, itching, or asthma symptoms. In addition, there is ongoing research into the potential health effects of consuming high levels of benzoates over time, particularly in relation to gut health and the development of certain diseases.

In a medical context, benzoates may also be used as a treatment for certain conditions. For example, sodium benzoate is sometimes given to people with elevated levels of ammonia in their blood (hyperammonemia) to help reduce those levels and prevent brain damage. This is because benzoates can bind with excess ammonia in the body and convert it into a form that can be excreted in urine.

Benzoic acid is an organic compound with the formula C6H5COOH. It is a colorless crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. Benzoic acid occurs naturally in various plants and serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of other chemical compounds.

In medical terms, benzoic acid and its salts (sodium benzoate, potassium benzoate) are used as preservatives in food, beverages, and cosmetics to prevent bacterial growth. They work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria, particularly gram-positive bacteria, through the disruption of their energy production processes.

Additionally, sodium benzoate is sometimes used as a treatment for hyperammonemia, a condition characterized by high levels of ammonia in the blood. In this case, sodium benzoate acts as a detoxifying agent by binding to excess ammonia and converting it into a more easily excreted compound called hippuric acid.

It is important to note that benzoic acid and its salts can cause allergic reactions or skin irritation in some individuals, particularly those with pre-existing sensitivities or conditions. As with any medication or chemical substance, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Sodium benzoate is a chemical compound with the formula NaC7H5O2. It is a white crystalline powder that is readily soluble in water and alcohol. Sodium benzoate is a preservative commonly added to foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals to inhibit microbial growth.

In medical terms, sodium benzoate may also be used as a medication to treat certain metabolic disorders such as hyperammonemia, which can occur in conditions like urea cycle disorders or liver disease. In these cases, sodium benzoate acts by binding with excess ammonia in the body and converting it into a compound that can be excreted through the kidneys.

It is important to note that people with a rare genetic disorder called benzoic aciduria should avoid foods or medications containing sodium benzoate, as they are unable to metabolize this compound properly.

Benzoate 4-Monooxygenase is an enzyme found in certain bacteria that catalyzes the conversion of benzoate to 4-hydroxybenzoate using molecular oxygen. This reaction is part of the pathway for the bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds. The enzyme requires NADH and FAD as cofactors. Its systematic name is benzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating).

Parabens are a group of synthetic preservatives that have been widely used in the cosmetics and personal care product industry since the 1920s. They are effective at inhibiting the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds, which helps to prolong the shelf life of these products. Parabens are commonly found in shampoos, conditioners, lotions, creams, deodorants, and other personal care items.

The most commonly used parabens include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. These compounds are often used in combination to provide broad-spectrum protection against microbial growth. Parabens work by penetrating the cell wall of microorganisms and disrupting their metabolism, which prevents them from multiplying.

Parabens have been approved for use as preservatives in cosmetics and personal care products by regulatory agencies around the world, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). However, there has been some controversy surrounding their safety, with concerns raised about their potential to mimic the hormone estrogen in the body and disrupt normal endocrine function.

While some studies have suggested that parabens may be associated with health problems such as breast cancer and reproductive toxicity, the evidence is not conclusive, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential risks. In response to these concerns, many manufacturers have begun to remove parabens from their products or offer paraben-free alternatives. It's important to note that while avoiding parabens may be a personal preference for some individuals, there is currently no scientific consensus on the need to avoid them entirely.

Chlorobenzoates are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a benzene ring substituted with one or more chlorine atoms and a carboxylate group. They are derivatives of benzoic acid, where one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring have been replaced by chlorine atoms.

Chlorobenzoates can be found in various industrial applications, such as solvents, plasticizers, and pesticides. Some chlorobenzoates also have medical uses, for example, as antimicrobial agents or as intermediates in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals.

However, some chlorobenzoates can be toxic and harmful to the environment, so their use is regulated in many countries. It's important to handle and dispose of these substances properly to minimize potential health and environmental risks.

Azoarcus is a genus of bacteria that have the ability to degrade aromatic compounds, including toluene and benzene. These bacteria are found in various environments such as soil, water, and the rhizosphere of plants. They are gram-negative, motile rods that are capable of denitrification, which means they can use nitrate as an electron acceptor during respiration instead of oxygen. Some species of Azoarcus can also fix nitrogen, making them important contributors to the nitrogen cycle in their environments.

The name "Azoarcus" comes from the Greek word "azo," meaning nitrogen, and the Latin word "arcus," meaning bow or arc, referring to the shape of the nitrate reduction pathway in these bacteria.

It's worth noting that while Azoarcus species have potential applications in bioremediation and wastewater treatment, some strains can also cause disease in plants, so their use in certain environments must be carefully considered.

Catechols are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to it in the ortho position. The term "catechol" is often used interchangeably with "ortho-dihydroxybenzene." Catechols are important in biology because they are produced through the metabolism of certain amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, and are involved in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters and hormones. They also have antioxidant properties and can act as reducing agents. In chemistry, catechols can undergo various reactions, such as oxidation and polymerization, to form other classes of compounds.

Hydroxybenzoates are the salts or esters of hydroxybenzoic acids. They are commonly used as preservatives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products due to their antimicrobial and antifungal properties. The most common examples include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. These compounds work by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi, thereby increasing the shelf life and safety of various products. However, there has been some concern about their potential health effects, including possible hormonal disruption, and their use in certain applications is being re-evaluated.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

Oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of many natural products, as well as the detoxification and degradation of xenobiotics (foreign substances).

There are two main types of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Monooxygenases introduce one atom of molecular oxygen into a substrate while reducing the other to water. An example of this type of enzyme is cytochrome P450, which is involved in drug metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis. Dioxygenases, on the other hand, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen into their substrates, often leading to the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds or the cleavage of existing ones.

It's important to note that while oxygenases are essential for many life-sustaining processes, they can also contribute to the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism. An imbalance in ROS levels can lead to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, which has been linked to various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease.

Crotonates are a group of organic compounds that contain a carboxylic acid functional group (-COOH) attached to a crotyl group, which is a type of alkyl group with the structure -CH=CH-CH\_{2}-. Crotyl groups are derived from crotonic acid or its derivatives.

Crotonates can be found in various natural and synthetic compounds, including some pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other industrial chemicals. They can exist as salts, esters, or other derivatives of crotonic acid.

In medical contexts, crotonates may refer to certain medications or chemical compounds used for research purposes. For example, sodium crotylate is a salt of crotonic acid that has been studied for its potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, it is not widely used in clinical practice.

It's worth noting that the term "crotonates" may not have a specific medical definition on its own, as it refers to a broad class of compounds with varying properties and uses.

Deltaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, which are a group of gram-negative bacteria. Deltaproteobacteria are characterized by their unique arrangement of flagella and their ability to perform anaerobic respiration, which means they can grow without oxygen. They play important roles in various environments such as soil, freshwater, and marine ecosystems, where they are involved in processes like sulfur cycling and denitrification. Some members of this class are also known to cause diseases in humans, such as the genera Myxococcus, Bdellovibrio, and Desulfovibrio.

Sorbic acid is a chemical compound that is commonly used as a preservative in various food and cosmetic products. Medically, it's not typically used as a treatment for any specific condition. However, its preservative properties help prevent the growth of bacteria, yeast, and mold, which can improve the safety and shelf life of certain medical supplies such as ointments and eye drops.

The chemical structure of sorbic acid is that of a carboxylic acid with two double bonds, making it a unsaturated fatty acid. It's naturally found in some fruits like rowanberries and serviceberries, but most commercial sorbic acid is synthetically produced.

Food-grade sorbic acid is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and it has a wide range of applications in food preservation, including baked goods, cheeses, wines, and fruit juices. In cosmetics, it's often used to prevent microbial growth in products like creams, lotions, and makeup.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to sorbic acid or its salts (sorbates), so caution should be exercised when introducing new products containing these substances into personal care routines or diets.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Hippurates" is not a medical term or condition. It might refer to Hippocrates, who is often referred to as the "Father of Medicine." However, if you have a different context in mind, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

Rhodopseudomonas is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of photosynthesis. These bacteria contain bacteriochlorophyll and can use light as an energy source in the absence of oxygen, which makes them facultative anaerobes. They typically inhabit freshwater and soil environments, and some species are able to fix nitrogen gas. Rhodopseudomonas species are known to cause various infections in humans, including bacteremia, endocarditis, and respiratory tract infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. However, such infections are relatively rare.

Aromatic hydrocarbons, also known as aromatic compounds or arenes, are a class of organic compounds characterized by a planar ring structure with delocalized electrons that give them unique chemical properties. The term "aromatic" was originally used to describe their distinctive odors, but it now refers to their characteristic molecular structure and stability.

Aromatic hydrocarbons contain one or more benzene rings, which are cyclic structures consisting of six carbon atoms arranged in a planar hexagonal shape. Each carbon atom in the benzene ring is bonded to two other carbon atoms and one hydrogen atom, forming alternating double and single bonds between the carbon atoms. However, the delocalized electrons in the benzene ring are evenly distributed around the ring, leading to a unique electronic structure that imparts stability and distinctive chemical properties to aromatic hydrocarbons.

Examples of aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene, toluene, xylene, and naphthalene. These compounds have important uses in industry, but they can also pose health risks if not handled properly. Exposure to high levels of aromatic hydrocarbons has been linked to various health effects, including cancer, neurological damage, and respiratory problems.

"Pseudomonas putida" is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in soil and water environments. It is a non-pathogenic, opportunistic microorganism that is known for its versatile metabolism and ability to degrade various organic compounds. This bacterium has been widely studied for its potential applications in bioremediation and industrial biotechnology due to its ability to break down pollutants such as toluene, xylene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons. It is also known for its resistance to heavy metals and antibiotics, making it a valuable tool in the study of bacterial survival mechanisms and potential applications in bioremediation and waste treatment.

Salicylanilides are a group of synthetic compounds that contain a salicylic acid moiety (a phenolic ring with a hydroxyl and a carboxyl group) linked to an aniline part through a carbon chain. They are known for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Some common representatives of this class include salicylanilide, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid methyl ester, and 3-amino-5-chlorosalicylanilide. These compounds have been used in various medical and veterinary applications, such as topical antimicrobial agents, ovicides (agents that kill the eggs of parasites), and anthelmintics (agents that expel or destroy parasitic worms). However, due to concerns about potential toxicity and environmental persistence, their use has been limited in recent years.

Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of catechols to muconic acids as part of the meta-cleavage pathway in the breakdown of aromatic compounds in bacteria. The enzyme requires iron as a cofactor and functions by cleaving the aromatic ring between the two hydroxyl groups in the catechol molecule. This reaction is an important step in the degradation of various environmental pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lignin, by certain bacterial species.

Toluene is not a medical condition or disease, but it is a chemical compound that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications. Medically, toluene can be relevant as a substance of abuse due to its intoxicating effects when inhaled or sniffed. It is a colorless liquid with a distinctive sweet aroma, and it is a common solvent found in many products such as paint thinners, adhesives, and rubber cement.

In the context of medical toxicology, toluene exposure can lead to various health issues, including neurological damage, cognitive impairment, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, and hearing and vision problems. Chronic exposure to toluene can also cause significant harm to the developing fetus during pregnancy, leading to developmental delays, behavioral problems, and physical abnormalities.

Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, is an organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and has a melting point of 40-42°C. Phenol is a weak acid, but it is quite reactive and can be converted into a variety of other chemicals.

In a medical context, phenol is most commonly used as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It has a characteristic odor that is often described as "tarry" or " medicinal." Phenol is also used in some over-the-counter products, such as mouthwashes and throat lozenges, to help kill bacteria and freshen breath.

However, phenol is also a toxic substance that can cause serious harm if it is swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. It can cause irritation and burns to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes, and it can damage the liver and kidneys if ingested. Long-term exposure to phenol has been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

Because of its potential for harm, phenol is regulated as a hazardous substance in many countries, and it must be handled with care when used in medical or industrial settings.

D-amino-acid oxidase (DAAO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-amino acids to their corresponding α-keto acids, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism of D-amino acids in various organisms, including humans. In humans, DAAO is primarily expressed in the brain and contributes to the regulation of neurotransmitter levels and other physiological processes. Genetic variations and dysregulation of DAAO have been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Nitrobenzoates are a type of organic compound that consists of a benzoate group (a carboxylate derived from benzoic acid) with a nitro group (-NO2) attached to the benzene ring. They are often used in chemical synthesis and have also been studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, they are not commonly used in modern medicine as therapeutic agents.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

Ivermectin is an anti-parasitic drug that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by parasites such as roundworms, threadworms, and lice. It works by paralyzing and killing the parasites, thereby eliminating the infection. Ivermectin is available in various forms, including tablets, creams, and solutions for topical use, as well as injections for veterinary use.

Ivermectin has been shown to be effective against a wide range of parasitic infections, including onchocerciasis (river blindness), strongyloidiasis, scabies, and lice infestations. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as COVID-19, although its effectiveness for this use has not been proven.

Ivermectin is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects in some people, including skin rashes, nausea, and diarrhea. It should be used with caution in pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease.

Xylenes are aromatic hydrocarbons that are often used as solvents in the industrial field. They are composed of two benzene rings with methyl side groups (-CH3) and can be found as a mixture of isomers: ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, and para-xylene.

In a medical context, xylenes may be relevant due to their potential for exposure in occupational settings or through environmental contamination. Short-term exposure to high levels of xylenes can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, as well as symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and nausea. Long-term exposure has been linked to neurological effects, including memory impairment, hearing loss, and changes in behavior and mood.

It is worth noting that xylenes are not typically considered a direct medical diagnosis, but rather a potential exposure hazard or environmental contaminant that may have health impacts.

Dioxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They are classified based on the type of reaction they catalyze and the number of iron atoms in their active site. The two main types of dioxygenases are:

1. Intradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting both atoms of O2 into a single bond between two carbon atoms, leading to the formation of an unsaturated diol (catechol) intermediate and the release of CO2. They contain a non-heme iron(III) center in their active site.

An example of intradiol dioxygenase is catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of catechol to muconic acid.

2. Extradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting one atom of O2 at a position adjacent to the hydroxyl group and the other atom at a more distant position, leading to the formation of an unsaturated lactone or cyclic ether intermediate. They contain a non-heme iron(II) center in their active site.

An example of extradiol dioxygenase is homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of homogentisate to maleylacetoacetate in the tyrosine degradation pathway.

Dioxygenases play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of aromatic compounds, the biosynthesis of hormones and signaling molecules, and the detoxification of xenobiotics.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gentisates" does not appear to be a recognized term in medical or physiological sciences. It is possible that you may have misspelled or misremembered the term. If you meant "Gentiates," then it refers to a class of enzymes (also known as beta-galactosidases) that can break down certain complex carbohydrates, such as the disaccharide melibiose into galactose and glucose. However, I would recommend double-checking the spelling or context to ensure you have the correct term, as my response is based on the assumption that "Gentiates" was the intended word.

Food preservatives are substances added to foods to prevent or slow down spoilage caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds, or to retard quality deterioration due to oxidation or other chemical reactions. They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms, preventing enzymatic reactions that cause spoilage, or scavenging oxygen that can lead to food degradation. Examples of commonly used food preservatives include sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, sulfites, and nitrites. It is important to note that while food preservatives play a crucial role in maintaining the safety and quality of our food supply, excessive consumption of certain preservatives may have adverse health effects.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

"Thauera" is a genus of bacteria that belongs to the family of Comamonadaceae. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and wastewater treatment systems. They have the ability to degrade various organic compounds, including aromatic hydrocarbons and ammonia, making them important players in bioremediation processes.

The name "Thauera" is derived from the Greek word "thauema," which means "wonder" or "marvel." This name reflects the remarkable abilities of these bacteria to break down complex organic compounds.

It's worth noting that "Thauera" is a taxonomic category, and individual species within this genus may have additional characteristics or properties that are not shared by all members of the group.

'Acinetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. They are known for their ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels, as well as their resistance to many antibiotics.

Some species of Acinetobacter can cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or have been exposed to medical devices such as ventilators or catheters. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and meningitis.

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most common species associated with human infection and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it a significant public health concern. Infections caused by Acinetobacter can be difficult to treat and may require the use of last-resort antibiotics.

Preventing the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings is important and includes practices such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and contact precautions for patients with known or suspected infection.

Coenzyme A (CoA) ligases, also known as CoA synthetases, are a class of enzymes that activate acyl groups, such as fatty acids and amino acids, by forming a thioester bond with coenzyme A. This activation is an essential step in various metabolic pathways, including fatty acid oxidation, amino acid catabolism, and the synthesis of several important compounds like steroids and acetylcholine.

CoA ligases catalyze the following reaction:

acyl group + ATP + CoA ↔ acyl-CoA + AMP + PP~i~

In this reaction, an acyl group (R-) from a carboxylic acid is linked to the thiol (-SH) group of coenzyme A through a high-energy thioester bond. The energy required for this activation is provided by the hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate (PP~i~).

CoA ligases are classified into three main types based on the nature of the acyl group they activate:

1. Acyl-CoA synthetases (or long-chain fatty acid CoA ligases) activate long-chain fatty acids, typically containing 12 or more carbon atoms.
2. Aminoacyl-CoA synthetases activate amino acids to form aminoacyl-CoAs, which are essential intermediates in the catabolism of certain amino acids.
3. Short-chain specific CoA ligases activate short-chain fatty acids (up to 6 carbon atoms) and other acyl groups like acetate or propionate.

These enzymes play a crucial role in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis, metabolism, and the synthesis of various essential biomolecules.

'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' is a species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, such as in soil and water. It is a non-motile, oxidase-negative organism that can form biofilms and has the ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels.

While 'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' itself is generally considered to be a low-virulence bacterium, it is closely related to other species within the genus 'Acinetobacter' that are known to cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients or those with underlying medical conditions. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and wound infections.

It is important to note that the identification of 'Acinetobacter calcoaceticus' can be challenging due to its tendency to form mixed cultures with other 'Acinetobacter' species, as well as its ability to undergo genetic changes that can make it difficult to distinguish from other members of the genus. Accurate identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are critical for appropriate treatment and infection control measures.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids are a type of organic compound that consists of a cyclohexane ring, which is a six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon, substituted with a carboxylic acid group (-COOH). This group contains a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

The cyclohexane ring can be in various forms, including the chair, boat, or twist-boat conformations, depending on the orientation of its constituent atoms. The carboxylic acid group can ionize to form a carboxylate anion, which is negatively charged and has a deprotonated hydroxyl group.

Cyclohexanecarboxylic acids have various applications in industry and research, including as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. They can also be found naturally in some plants and microorganisms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mandelic Acids" is not a recognized medical term or concept in dermatology or medicine. Mandelic acid, however, is a type of chemical compound used in skincare products for various purposes such as exfoliation and reducing hyperpigmentation. It is an aromatic hydroxyacetic acid derived from mandelic almonds. If you have any questions about skincare ingredients or treatments, I'd be happy to help clarify those for you!

'Cinnamomum zeylanicum' is the botanical name for true cinnamon, also known as Sri Lanka cinnamon or Ceylon cinnamon. It is a species of tree native to Sri Lanka and southern India, which is cultivated for its aromatic bark that is used as a spice. The bark is harvested by cutting down the branches of the tree and removing the outer bark, revealing the inner bark which is then cut into lengths and left to dry. As it dries, it curls up into rolls known as quills.

True cinnamon has a lighter color, a more delicate flavor, and a less bitter taste than cassia cinnamon, which comes from a related species 'Cinnamomum cassia'. Both forms of cinnamon contain similar compounds, including cinnamaldehyde, which is responsible for their characteristic aroma and health benefits. However, true cinnamon has been found to have lower levels of coumarin, a compound that can be harmful in large amounts, making it a preferred choice for some consumers.

Castration is a surgical procedure to remove the testicles in males or ovaries in females. In males, it is also known as orchiectomy. This procedure results in the inability to produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm in men and eggs in women), and can be done for various reasons such as medical treatment for certain types of cancer, to reduce sexual urges in individuals with criminal tendencies, or as a form of birth control in animals.

Acetates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to compounds that contain the acetate group, which is an functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom (-COO-). An example of an acetate is sodium acetate (CH3COONa), which is a salt formed from acetic acid (CH3COOH) and is often used as a buffering agent in medical solutions.

Acetates can also refer to a group of medications that contain acetate as an active ingredient, such as magnesium acetate, which is used as a laxative, or calcium acetate, which is used to treat high levels of phosphate in the blood.

In addition, acetates can also refer to a process called acetylation, which is the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) to a molecule. This process can be important in the metabolism and regulation of various substances within the body.

Rhodotorula is a genus of unicellular, budding yeasts that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in damp and nutrient-rich places such as soil, water, and vegetation. They are characterized by their ability to produce carotenoid pigments, which give them a distinctive pinkish-red color.

While Rhodotorula species are not typically associated with human disease, they can occasionally cause infections in people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin.

Rhodotorula infections are usually treated with antifungal medications, such as fluconazole or amphotericin B. Preventing exposure to sources of Rhodotorula, such as contaminated medical equipment or water supplies, can also help reduce the risk of infection.

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant odor and is used as a solvent and preservative in cosmetics, medications, and other products. Benzyl alcohol can also be found as a natural component of some essential oils, fruits, and teas.

Benzyl alcohol is not typically considered a "drug" or a medication, but it may have various pharmacological effects when used in certain medical contexts. For example, it has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as a preservative in injectable medications to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It can also be used as a local anesthetic or analgesic in some topical creams and ointments.

It's important to note that benzyl alcohol can be harmful or fatal to infants and young children, especially when it is used in high concentrations or when it is introduced into the body through intravenous (IV) routes. Therefore, it should be used with caution in these populations and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Iodobenzoates are organic compounds that consist of a benzoic acid molecule with an iodine atom substituted at the carboxyl group. Specifically, an iodobenzoate is an ester derived from benzoic acid and iodine, in which the hydrogen atom of the carboxylic acid group (-COOH) has been replaced by an iodine atom.

The general formula for an iodobenzoate can be represented as C6H4(IO)CO2R, where R represents an alkyl or aryl group. Iodobenzoates have various applications in organic synthesis and pharmaceuticals, including the production of dyes, drugs, and other chemical intermediates.

It's worth noting that iodobenzoates are not a medical condition or diagnosis but rather a class of chemical compounds with potential uses in medical research and therapeutics.

Acyl Coenzyme A (often abbreviated as Acetyl-CoA or Acyl-CoA) is a crucial molecule in metabolism, particularly in the breakdown and oxidation of fats and carbohydrates to produce energy. It is a thioester compound that consists of a fatty acid or an acetate group linked to coenzyme A through a sulfur atom.

Acyl CoA plays a central role in several metabolic pathways, including:

1. The citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle): In the mitochondria, Acyl-CoA is formed from the oxidation of fatty acids or the breakdown of certain amino acids. This Acyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle to produce high-energy electrons, which are used in the electron transport chain to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main energy currency of the cell.
2. Beta-oxidation: The breakdown of fatty acids occurs in the mitochondria through a process called beta-oxidation, where Acyl-CoA is sequentially broken down into smaller units, releasing acetyl-CoA, which then enters the citric acid cycle.
3. Ketogenesis: In times of low carbohydrate availability or during prolonged fasting, the liver can produce ketone bodies from acetyl-CoA to supply energy to other organs, such as the brain and heart.
4. Protein synthesis: Acyl-CoA is also involved in the modification of proteins by attaching fatty acid chains to them (a process called acetylation), which can influence protein function and stability.

In summary, Acyl Coenzyme A is a vital molecule in metabolism that connects various pathways related to energy production, fatty acid breakdown, and protein modification.

Salicylates are a group of chemicals found naturally in certain fruits, vegetables, and herbs, as well as in some medications like aspirin. They are named after willow bark's active ingredient, salicin, from which they were derived. Salicylates have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and antipyretic (fever-reducing) properties.

In a medical context, salicylates are often used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. High doses of salicylates can have blood thinning effects and may be used in the prevention of strokes or heart attacks. Commonly prescribed salicylate medications include aspirin, methylsalicylate, and sodium salicylate.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to salicylates, and overuse can lead to side effects such as stomach ulcers, ringing in the ears, and even kidney or liver damage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "raccoons" are not a medical term. They are a species of nocturnal mammals native to North America, known for their distinctive black facial mask and ringed tails. If you have any questions about animals or a medical condition, feel free to ask!

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Trifluralin is a selective, pre-emergence herbicide that is primarily used to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in various crops such as corn, soybeans, vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals. It works by inhibiting the germination of weed seeds and preventing their growth by disrupting the cell division process. Trifluralin is a dinitroaniline compound and its chemical formula is C12H16F3N3O4.

In a medical context, trifluralin may be relevant in cases of accidental or intentional ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact, which can result in toxicity or other adverse health effects. Symptoms of trifluralin exposure may include irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, tremors, and seizures. Chronic exposure to trifluralin has been linked to reproductive and developmental toxicity in animals, but its effects on human health are not well-studied.

It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of the potential health hazards associated with trifluralin exposure and to take appropriate measures to protect themselves and their patients. This may include using personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling trifluralin, providing proper ventilation in areas where it is used or stored, and seeking medical attention promptly in cases of suspected exposure.

Phthalic acids are organic compounds with the formula C6H4(COOH)2. They are white crystalline solids that are slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. Phthalic acids are carboxylic acids, meaning they contain a functional group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a hydroxyl group (-OH).

Phthalic acids are important intermediates in the chemical industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, and personal care products. They are also used as solvents and as starting materials for the synthesis of other chemicals.

Phthalic acids can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin. They can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects. Some phthalates, which are compounds that contain phthalic acid, have been linked to reproductive and developmental problems in animals and are considered to be endocrine disruptors. As a result, the use of certain phthalates has been restricted in some countries.

Estrus synchronization is a veterinary medical procedure used in the management of domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep. It is a process of coordinating the estrous cycles of animals so that they can be bred at the same time or have their fertility treatments performed simultaneously. This is achieved through the use of various hormonal therapies, including progestins, prostaglandins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH).

The goal of estrus synchronization is to improve reproductive efficiency in animal production systems by ensuring that a larger number of animals become pregnant during a shorter breeding season. This can lead to more uniform calf or lamb crops, reduced labor and management costs, and increased profitability for farmers and ranchers.

Estrus synchronization is a complex process that requires careful planning and implementation, as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the animals' reproductive performance. It is typically performed under the guidance of a veterinarian or animal reproduction specialist.

Hydroxides are inorganic compounds that contain the hydroxide ion (OH−). They are formed when a base, which is an electron pair donor, reacts with water. The hydroxide ion consists of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, and it carries a negative charge. Hydroxides are basic in nature due to their ability to donate hydroxide ions in solution, which increases the pH and makes the solution more alkaline. Common examples of hydroxides include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). They have various applications in industry, medicine, and research.

"Methanospirillum" is a genus of archaea that belongs to the order Methanosarcinales and the family Methanosarcinaceae. These microorganisms are methanogens, which means they are capable of producing methane as a metabolic byproduct. They are typically found in anaerobic environments, such as sediments, waterlogged soils, and the digestive tracts of animals.

The cells of "Methanospirillum" species are long and slender, with a spiral or curved shape, and they can exist either individually or in pairs. They are able to grow autotrophically, using carbon dioxide as their carbon source, and they obtain energy by reducing methanol, methylamines, or acetate to methane.

It's important to note that "Methanospirillum" is a specific genus of archaea, and there are other genera of methanogens that exist as well. Each genus has its own distinct characteristics and metabolic capabilities.

Rhodococcus is a genus of gram-positive, aerobic, actinomycete bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including soil and water. Some species of Rhodococcus can cause opportunistic infections in humans and animals, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. These infections can affect various organs and tissues, such as the lungs, skin, and brain, and can range from mild to severe.

Rhodococcus species are known for their ability to degrade a wide variety of organic compounds, including hydrocarbons, making them important players in bioremediation processes. They also have complex cell walls that make them resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants, which can complicate treatment of Rhodococcus infections.

Aerobiosis is the process of living, growing, and functioning in the presence of oxygen. It refers to the metabolic processes that require oxygen to break down nutrients and produce energy in cells. This is in contrast to anaerobiosis, which is the ability to live and grow in the absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, aerobiosis is often used to describe the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that require oxygen to survive and multiply. These organisms are called aerobic organisms, and they play an important role in many biological processes, including decomposition and waste breakdown.

However, some microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen and are instead restricted to environments where oxygen is absent or limited. These organisms are called anaerobic organisms, and their growth and metabolism are referred to as anaerobiosis.

Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of catechols to muconic acids as part of the meta-cleavage pathway in the breakdown of aromatic compounds. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the degradation of various aromatic hydrocarbons, including lignin and environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase requires Fe(II) as a cofactor for its activity. The gene that encodes this enzyme is often used as a bioremediation marker to monitor the degradation of aromatic pollutants in the environment.

Bromobenzoates are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a benzene ring substituted with one or more bromine atoms and a carboxylic acid group. They are used in various applications, including as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and intermediates in organic synthesis.

In the medical field, some bromobenzoates have been used as antimicrobial agents, while others have been investigated for their potential therapeutic benefits in treating conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, and epilepsy. However, many of these compounds have fallen out of use due to their side effects or the development of safer and more effective treatments.

It's important to note that bromobenzoates can be harmful if ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin, and they may pose environmental hazards as well. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used only under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Burkholderia is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including soil, water, and associated with plants. Some species of Burkholderia are opportunistic pathogens, meaning they can cause infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

One of the most well-known species of Burkholderia is B. cepacia, which can cause respiratory infections in people with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease. Other notable species include B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially serious infection that primarily affects the respiratory system; and B. mallei, which causes glanders, a rare but severe disease that can affect humans and animals.

Burkholderia species are known for their resistance to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat in some cases. Proper identification of the specific Burkholderia species involved in an infection is important for determining the most appropriate treatment approach.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Methane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is often mentioned in the context of medicine and health. Medically, methane is significant because it is one of the gases produced by anaerobic microorganisms during the breakdown of organic matter in the gut, leading to conditions such as bloating, cramping, and diarrhea. Excessive production of methane can also be a symptom of certain digestive disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).

In broader terms, methane is a colorless, odorless gas that is the primary component of natural gas. It is produced naturally by the decomposition of organic matter in anaerobic conditions, such as in landfills, wetlands, and the digestive tracts of animals like cows and humans. Methane is also a potent greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year time frame.

Ectoparasitic infestations refer to the invasion and multiplication of parasites, such as lice, fleas, ticks, or mites, on the outer surface of a host organism, typically causing irritation, itching, and other skin disorders. These parasites survive by feeding on the host's blood, skin cells, or other bodily substances, leading to various health issues if left untreated.

Ectoparasitic infestations can occur in humans as well as animals and may require medical intervention for proper diagnosis and treatment. Common symptoms include redness, rash, inflammation, and secondary bacterial or viral infections due to excessive scratching. Preventive measures such as personal hygiene, regular inspections, and avoiding contact with infested individuals or environments can help reduce the risk of ectoparasitic infestations.

Trenbolone Acetate is an esterified form of the synthetic steroid hormone Trenbolone. It is a potent anabolic and androgenic steroid, which is used in veterinary medicine for promoting muscle growth and appetite stimulation in cattle. In human medicine, it is not approved for use but is sometimes misused for its anabolic effects, such as increasing muscle mass, strength, and reducing body fat. It is important to note that the use of Trenbolone Acetate in humans is considered off-label and can lead to serious health consequences, including liver toxicity, cardiovascular issues, and hormonal imbalances.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

Astatine is a naturally occurring, radioactive, semi-metallic chemical element with the symbol At and atomic number 85. It is the rarest naturally occurring element in the Earth's crust, and the heaviest of the halogens. Astatine is not found free in nature, but is always found in combination with other elements, such as uranium and thorium.

Astatine is a highly reactive element that exists in several allotropic forms and is characterized by its metallic appearance and chemical properties similar to those of iodine. It has a short half-life, ranging from a few hours to a few days, depending on the isotope, and emits alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.

Due to its rarity, radioactivity, and short half-life, astatine has limited practical applications. However, it has been studied for potential use in medical imaging and cancer therapy due to its ability to selectively accumulate in tumors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Foxes" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. The common fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a species of small omnivorous mammals, and while there can be medical issues related to foxes or other animals in certain contexts, such as zoonotic diseases, "Foxes" itself does not have a medical connotation. If you have any specific medical query, I'd be happy to try and help with that.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

Geobacter is not a medical term, but a genus of delta-proteobacteria that are capable of metal reduction and play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycling of metals in the environment. They are commonly found in soil, freshwater sediments, and groundwater, where they can facilitate the remediation of contaminants such as uranium, technetium, and petroleum products. While Geobacter species have no direct relevance to human medical conditions, understanding their metabolic capabilities and ecological roles can contribute to broader knowledge in microbiology, environmental science, and bioremediation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pimelic Acids" is not a recognized medical term or concept in physiology, pathology, or pharmacology. It appears to be a term used in chemistry and biochemistry, referring to a specific type of organic compound known as a dicarboxylic acid with a seven-carbon backbone.

In biochemistry, pimelic acid may be involved in various metabolic processes, such as the synthesis of certain amino acids and lipids. However, it is not typically considered a medical term or diagnostic marker in clinical settings. If you're looking for information related to a specific medical condition or treatment, I would be happy to help if you could provide more context!

"Tick control" is not a medical term per se, but it is a common term used in public health and medicine to refer to the methods and practices aimed at reducing or preventing the population of ticks in a given area. This can include various strategies such as:

1. Landscape management: Modifying the environment to make it less tick-friendly, for example, by clearing leaf litter, brush, and tall grasses around homes and recreational areas.
2. Chemical control: Using pesticides to kill ticks in the environment or on animals. This can include treating vegetation, animal feed and bedding, or using tick repellents on human skin or clothing.
3. Biological control: Using natural predators or pathogens of ticks to reduce their populations.
4. Personal protection: Using protective clothing, insect repellent, and other measures to prevent tick bites when spending time outdoors.
5. Public education: Informing the public about the risks associated with ticks and how to protect themselves, as well as the importance of reporting tick bites and removing ticks promptly and properly.

Tick control is an important aspect of preventing tick-borne diseases, which can have serious health consequences for humans and animals.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase I (CPS1) deficiency disease is a rare inherited disorder of urea synthesis, which can lead to hyperammonemia (elevated blood ammonia levels) and life-threatening neurological symptoms. CPS1 is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the first step of the urea cycle, where it catalyzes the conversion of ammonia and bicarbonate into carbamoyl phosphate.

In CPS1 deficiency disease, mutations in the CPS1 gene lead to reduced or absent enzyme activity, impairing the body's ability to detoxify ammonia. As a result, toxic levels of ammonia accumulate in the blood and can cause irreversible brain damage, intellectual disability, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

Symptoms of CPS1 deficiency disease may include poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, hypotonia (low muscle tone), seizures, and developmental delays. The severity of the disorder can vary widely, from a severe neonatal-onset form with early symptoms appearing within the first few days of life to a milder late-onset form that may not become apparent until later in infancy or childhood.

Treatment typically involves a combination of dietary restrictions, medications to lower ammonia levels and support liver function, and, in some cases, liver transplantation. Early diagnosis and intervention are critical for improving outcomes and minimizing the risk of long-term neurological complications.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Peptococcaceae is a family of obligately anaerobic, non-spore forming, gram-positive cocci that are found as normal flora in the human gastrointestinal tract. These bacteria are commonly isolated from feces and are known to be associated with various human infections, particularly intra-abdominal abscesses, bacteremia, and brain abscesses. The genus Peptococcus includes several species, such as Peptococcus niger and Peptococcus saccharolyticus, which are known to be associated with human infections. However, it is important to note that the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant revisions in recent years, and some species previously classified as Peptococcaceae have been reassigned to other families.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Succinates, in a medical context, most commonly refer to the salts or esters of succinic acid. Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid that is involved in the Krebs cycle, which is a key metabolic pathway in cells that generates energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

Succinates can also be used as a buffer in medical solutions and as a pharmaceutical intermediate in the synthesis of various drugs. In some cases, succinate may be used as a nutritional supplement or as a component of parenteral nutrition formulations to provide energy and help maintain acid-base balance in patients who are unable to eat normally.

It's worth noting that there is also a condition called "succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency" which is a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of the amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This condition can lead to an accumulation of succinic semialdehyde and other metabolic byproducts, which can cause neurological symptoms such as developmental delay, hypotonia, and seizures.

Benzocaine is a local anesthetic agent that works by numbing the skin or mucous membranes to block pain signals from reaching the brain. It is commonly used as a topical medication in the form of creams, gels, sprays, lozenges, and ointments to relieve pain associated with minor cuts, burns, sunburn, sore throat, mouth ulcers, and other conditions that cause discomfort or irritation.

Benzocaine works by temporarily reducing the sensitivity of nerve endings in the affected area, which helps to alleviate pain and provide a soothing effect. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can have some side effects such as skin irritation, stinging, burning, or allergic reactions.

It's important to note that benzocaine products should not be used on deep wounds, puncture injuries, or serious burns, and they should not be applied to large areas of the body or used for prolonged periods without medical supervision. Overuse or misuse of benzocaine can lead to rare but serious side effects such as methemoglobinemia, a condition that affects the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

Anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. Instead, they can grow in environments that have little or no oxygen. Some anaerobic bacteria can even be harmed or killed by exposure to oxygen. These bacteria play important roles in many natural processes, such as decomposition and the breakdown of organic matter in the digestive system. However, some anaerobic bacteria can also cause disease in humans and animals, particularly when they infect areas of the body that are normally oxygen-rich. Examples of anaerobic bacterial infections include tetanus, gas gangrene, and dental abscesses.

Diestrus is a stage in the estrous cycle of animals, which is similar to the menstrual cycle in humans. It follows the phase of estrus (or heat), during which the animal is receptive to mating. Diestrus is the period of relative sexual quiescence and hormonal stability between cycles. In this phase, the corpus luteum in the ovary produces progesterone, preparing the uterus for potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a drop in progesterone levels and the onset of the next estrous cycle. The duration of diestrus varies among species.

In humans, this phase is analogous to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, since humans do not exhibit estrous behavior, the term 'diestrus' is typically not used in human reproductive physiology discussions.

Guaifenesin is a medication that belongs to the class of expectorants. According to the Medical Dictionary by Farlex, guaifenesin is defined as:

"A salicylate-free agent with expectorant properties; it increases respiratory secretions and decreases their viscosity, making coughs more productive. It is used as an antitussive in bronchitis and other respiratory tract infections."

Guaifenesin works by helping to thin and loosen mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways of bothersome mucus and phlegm. It is commonly available as an over-the-counter medication for relieving symptoms associated with a common cold, flu, or other respiratory infections.

Guaifenesin can be found in various forms, such as tablets, capsules, liquid, or extended-release products. Common brand names of guaifenesin include Mucinex and Robitussin. It is important to follow the recommended dosage on the product label and consult a healthcare professional if you have any questions about its use or if your symptoms persist for more than one week.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Trialkyltin compounds are a category of organotin (oceanic) chemicals, characterized by the presence of three alkyl groups bonded to a tin atom. The general formula for these compounds is (CnH2n+1)3Sn, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in each alkyl group.

These compounds have been used in various industrial applications such as biocides, heat stabilizers, and PVC plasticizers. However, due to their high toxicity, environmental persistence, and potential bioaccumulation, their use has been restricted or banned in many countries.

Examples of trialkyltin compounds include tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT). TBT was widely used as an antifouling agent in marine paints to prevent the growth of barnacles, algae, and other organisms on ship hulls. However, due to its detrimental effects on marine life, particularly on shellfish and mollusks, its use has been largely phased out.

Trialkyltin compounds can have toxic effects on both aquatic and terrestrial organisms, including humans. They can cause neurological damage, impaired immune function, reproductive issues, and developmental abnormalities in various species.

Benzaldehyde is an organic compound with the formula C6H5CHO. It is the simplest aromatic aldehyde, and it consists of a benzene ring attached to a formyl group. Benzaldehyde is a colorless liquid with a characteristic almond-like odor.

Benzaldehyde occurs naturally in various plants, including bitter almonds, cherries, peaches, and apricots. It is used in many industrial applications, such as in the production of perfumes, flavorings, and dyes. In addition, benzaldehyde has been used in medical research for its potential therapeutic effects, such as its anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.

However, it is important to note that benzaldehyde can be toxic in high concentrations and may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Therefore, it should be handled with care and used in accordance with appropriate safety guidelines.

I apologize, but "Arguloida" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category used in biology to classify certain types of crustaceans, specifically those that are parasitic and have a segmented body and multiple legs. They are also known as fish lice or sea lice.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Aminobenzoates are a group of chemical compounds that contain an amino (NH2) group and a benzoate (C6H5COO-) group in their structure. They are widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to their various properties, such as ultraviolet light absorption, antimicrobial activity, and anti-inflammatory effects.

One of the most well-known aminobenzoates is para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is a naturally occurring compound found in some foods and also synthesized by bacteria in the human gut. PABA has been used as a topical sunscreen agent due to its ability to absorb ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, but its use as a sunscreen ingredient has declined in recent years due to concerns about skin irritation and potential allergic reactions.

Other aminobenzoates have various medical uses, such as:

* Antimicrobial agents: Some aminobenzoates, such as benzalkonium chloride and cetylpyridinium chloride, are used as antiseptics and disinfectants due to their ability to disrupt bacterial cell membranes.
* Analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents: Aminobenzoates such as methyl salicylate and acetaminophen (paracetamol) are commonly used as pain relievers and fever reducers.
* Vitamin B supplements: PABA is a component of folic acid, which is an essential vitamin for human health. Some people take PABA supplements to treat or prevent various conditions, such as graying hair, rheumatoid arthritis, and vitiligo, although there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses.

It's important to note that some aminobenzoates can be toxic in high doses or with prolonged exposure, so they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Ortho-Aminobenzoates are chemical compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with an amino group in the ortho position and an ester group in the form of a benzoate. They are often used as pharmaceutical intermediates, plastic additives, and UV stabilizers. In medical contexts, one specific ortho-aminobenzoate, para-aminosalicylic acid (PABA), is an antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis. However, it's important to note that "ortho-aminobenzoates" in general do not have a specific medical definition and can refer to any compound with this particular substitution pattern on a benzene ring.

A hydroxyl radical is defined in biochemistry and medicine as an extremely reactive species, characterized by the presence of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (OH-). It is formed when a water molecule (H2O) is split into a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+) in the process of oxidation.

In medical terms, hydroxyl radicals are important in understanding free radical damage and oxidative stress, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. They are also involved in the body's natural defense mechanisms against pathogens. However, an overproduction of hydroxyl radicals can cause damage to cellular components such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, leading to cell dysfunction and death.

Coenzyme A, often abbreviated as CoA or sometimes holo-CoA, is a coenzyme that plays a crucial role in several important chemical reactions in the body, particularly in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. It is composed of a pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) derivative called pantothenate, an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule, and a terminal phosphate group.

Coenzyme A functions as a carrier molecule for acetyl groups, which are formed during the breakdown of carbohydrates, fatty acids, and some amino acids. The acetyl group is attached to the sulfur atom in CoA, forming acetyl-CoA, which can then be used as a building block for various biochemical pathways, such as the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) and fatty acid synthesis.

In summary, Coenzyme A is a vital coenzyme that helps facilitate essential metabolic processes by carrying and transferring acetyl groups in the body.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

... (salts of benzoic acid) can refer to: Ammonium benzoate Calcium benzoate Magnesium benzoate Potassium benzoate Sodium ... benzoate This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you ...
... , or estrone 3-benzoate, is a synthetic estrogen and estrogen ester - specifically, the C3 benzoate ester of ... It led to the development in 1933 of the more active estradiol benzoate, the first estradiol ester to be introduced for medical ... Benzoate esters, Estrone esters, Ketones, Prodrugs, Synthetic estrogens, All stub articles, Steroid stubs, Genito-urinary ...
... copper benzoate can be made by combining aqueous solutions of potassium benzoate with copper sulfate. Copper benzoate ... Copper benzoate made from sodium benzoate for use in fireworks may result in strong yellow dilution of the flame unless the ... Copper(II) benzoates exists in at least two structural forms, depending on the degree of hydration. As of copper(II) acetate, ... Copper benzoate is the chemical compound with the formula Cu(C6H5CO2)2. This coordination complex is derived from the cupric ...
... is also used in the whistle in many fireworks. One very common way to make potassium benzoate is by ... 1610: C=O from carbonyl 1580: C=C from benzene ring Sodium benzoate Benzoic acid "Potassium Benzoate". Emerald Kalama Chemical ... Potassium benzoate, like sodium benzoate, can be decarboxylated with a strong base and heat: C 6 H 5 COOK + KOH ⟶ C 6 H 6 + K 2 ... "Preparation of potassium benzoate", published 1975-02-18, assigned to The Dow Chemical Company "Benzoates" (PDF). United ...
... also known as benzoate of soda is the sodium salt of benzoic acid, widely used as a food preservative (with an ... Sodium benzoate, along with phenylbutyrate, is used to treat hyperammonemia. Sodium benzoate, along with caffeine, is used to ... In combination with ascorbic acid (vitamin C, E300), sodium benzoate and potassium benzoate may form benzene. In 2006, the Food ..., Caffeine And Sodium Benzoate (Injection Route), CHEBI:32140 - sodium caffeine benzoate Krebs H. A.; ...
... , C9H10O2, is an ester formed by the condensation of benzoic acid and ethanol. It is a colorless liquid that is ... A simple and commonly used method for the preparation of ethyl benzoate in laboratory is the acidic esterification of benzoic ... As with many volatile esters, ethyl benzoate has a pleasant odor described as sweet, wintergreen, fruity, medicinal, cherry and ... Benzoate esters, Perfume ingredients, Flavors, Sweet-smelling chemicals). ...
... also known as stanolone benzoate or dihydrotestosterone benzoate (DHTB), as well as 5α-androstan-17β-ol-3-one 17β-benzoate, is ... Androstanolone benzoate (brand names Ermalone-Amp, Hermalone, Sarcosan), ... Benzoate esters, Dihydrotestosterone esters, Androgen esters, All stub articles, Genito-urinary system drug stubs, Steroid ...
... can be synthesized by the transesterification of methyl benzoate with propanol. Propyl benzoate can also be ... Propyl benzoate is an organic chemical compound used as a food additive. It is an ester. Propyl benzoate has a nutty odor and ... Benzoate esters, All stub articles, Ester stubs). ...
... , also called 5-cholesten-3-yl benzoate, is an organic chemical, an ester of cholesterol and benzoic acid. ... Cholesteryl benzoate was the first material in which liquid crystal properties were discovered. In the late 1880s Friedrich ... Cholesteryl benzoate at the National Library of Medicine "Introduction to Liquid Crystals". CWRU Polymers and Liquid Crystals. ... Reinitzer, an Austrian botanist, while studying the chemicals in plants, heated cholesteryl benzoate. At 145 °C the material ...
... is of about 38% higher molecular weight than estradiol due to the presence of its C3 benzoate ester. Because ... Estradiol benzoate is a synthetic estrane steroid and the C3 benzoate (benzenecarboxylate) ester of estradiol. It is also known ... The medical uses of estradiol benzoate are the same as those of estradiol and other estrogens. Estradiol benzoate is used in ... The full endometrial transformation dosage of estradiol benzoate/progesterone in oil solution is 1 to 2 mg estradiol benzoate ...
... is a chemical compound formed from magnesium and benzoic acid. It was once used to treat gout and arthritis ... Benzoates, Magnesium compounds, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
... is formed by the condensation of methanol and benzoic acid, in presence of a strong acid. Methyl benzoate ... illustrated by hydrolysis with addition of aqueous NaOH to give methanol and sodium benzoate. Methyl benzoate can be isolated ... Methyl benzoate is an organic compound. It is an ester with the chemical formula C6H5CO2CH3. It is a colorless liquid that is ... Methyl benzoate has a pleasant smell, strongly reminiscent of the fruit of the feijoa tree, and it is used in perfumery. It ...
Sodium benzoate Potassium benzoate UK Food Standards Agency: "Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers". Retrieved ... Calcium benzoate refers to the calcium salt of benzoic acid. When used in the food industry as a preservative, its E number is ... Benzoates, Calcium compounds, E-number additives, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
... can be dehydrated to form benzamide. Yang, Wei-Wei; Di, You-Ying; Kong, Yu-Xia; Guo, Xiao-Yang; Tan, Zhi- ... Ammonium benzoate, a white powder-like substance, is the ammonium salt of benzoic acid. This compound is prepared by the ... Cheng (2010). "Synthesis, characterization, and thermodynamic study of ammonium benzoate C7H5O2NH4(s)". Thermochimica Acta. 502 ... Benzoates, All stub articles, Aromatic compound stubs). ...
... , or testosterone 17β-benzoate, also known as androst-4-en-17β-ol-3-one 17β-benzoate, is a synthetic, ... Benzoate esters, Enones, Testosterone esters, All stub articles, Steroid stubs, Genito-urinary system drug stubs). ... injected anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and an androgen ester - specifically, the benzoate C17β ester of testosterone - ...
... , or 17α-ethynylestradiol 3-benzoate, is a synthetic estrogen and estrogen ester - specifically, the ... Benzoate esters, Tertiary alcohols, Estranes, Estrogen esters, Prodrugs, Synthetic estrogens, All stub articles, Steroid stubs ... C3 benzoate ester of ethinylestradiol - which was first described in the late 1930s and was never marketed. List of estrogen ...
... is produced industrially by the reaction of sodium benzoate with benzyl chloride in the presence of a base, or ... Benzyl benzoate is used as a topical acaricide, scabicide, and pediculicide in veterinary hospitals. Benzyl benzoate is used as ... Benzyl benzoate is an organic compound which is used as a medication and insect repellent. As a medication it is used to treat ... Benzyl benzoate can be a skin irritant when used as a topical scabicide. Overdose can result in blistering and hives or a rash ...
This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and benzoate degradation via coa ligation. It has 3 ... benzoate 4-hydroxylase, benzoic 4-hydroxylase, benzoate-p-hydroxylase, and p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. ... In enzymology, a benzoate 4-monooxygenase (EC, Formerly EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is benzoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). Other names in common use ...
It is also known as estradiol 3-benzoate 17β-n-butyrate or as estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol 3-benzoate 17β-n-butyrate. The ... Estradiol benzoate butyrate (EBB), sold under the brand names Neolutin N, Redimen, Soluna, and Unijab and formerly known under ... "Β-Estradiol-3-benzoate 17-N-butyrate , C29H34O4 , ChemSpider". Korenchevsky V, Burbank R, Hall K (March 1939). "The action of ... The oestradiol benzoate butyrate and dipropionate were supplied by Dr. Miescher (of Ciba Ltd.) who recently described their ...
... (JANTooltip Japanese Accepted Name) (brand name Holin-Depot), or oestriol diacetate benzoate ( ... Benzoate esters, Estriol esters, Estrogens, Phenols, Triols, All stub articles, Genito-urinary system drug stubs, Steroid stubs ...
In enzymology, a benzoate-CoA ligase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + benzoate + CoA ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is benzoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include benzoate- ... Hutber GN; Ribbons DW (1983). "Involvement of coenzyme-A esters in the metabolism of benzoate and cyclohexanecarboxylate by ... Schennen U, Braun K, Knackmuss HJ (1985). "Anaerobic degradation of 2-fluorobenzoate by benzoate-degrading, denitrifying ...
The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by BenE of A. calcoaceticus is: Benzoate (out) + H+ (out) → Benzoate (in) + H+ (in ... The benzoate:H symporter (BenE) family (TC# 2.A.46) is a member of the APC Superfamily. The BenE family contains only two ... "2.A.46 The Benzoate:H Symporter (BenE) Family". Transporter Classification Database. Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group @ UCSD / ... functionally characterized and sequenced members, the benzoate permeases of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and E. coli. These ...
... (E2-17B) is an estrogen and an estrogen ester-specifically, the C17β benzoate ester of estradiol-which ... estradiol 3-benzoate; Progynon-B). Estradiol 17β-benzoate was first described in the 1930s. List of estrogen esters § Estradiol ... It is the C17β positional isomer of the better-known and clinically used estradiol ester estradiol benzoate ( ... Benzoate esters, Estradiol esters, Secondary alcohols, Synthetic estrogens, All stub articles, Steroid stubs, Genito-urinary ...
... benzoate hydroxylase, benzoic hydroxylase, benzoate dioxygenase, benzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating,, and ... In enzymology, a benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction benzoate + NADH + ... This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and benzoate degradation via coa ligation. It has 3 ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is benzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating). Other names in common use ...
... (EBCO), or estradiol 3-benzoate 17β-cyclooctenyl ether, is a synthetic estrogen as well ... Benzoate esters, Estradiol esters, Estrogen ethers, Synthetic estrogens, All stub articles, Steroid stubs, Genito-urinary ... "Oral long-lasting estrogenic activity of estradiol 3-benzoate 17-cyclooctenyl ether". Steroids. 20 (5): 627-38. doi:10.1016/ ... as estrogen ester and ether - specifically, the C3 benzoate ester and C17β cyclooctenyl ether of estradiol - which was ...
... is an enzyme-catalyzed, bacterial chemical reaction. Benzoate is degraded aerobically ... "Bacterial Degradation of Benzoate". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (13): 10494-10508. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.309005. PMC ...
... (INCI) is an organic compound used in sunscreens to absorb UVA radiation. It is ... Benzoate esters, Phenols, Benzophenones, Anilines, Diethylamino compounds). ...
Estradiol benzoate/estradiol enanthate/testosterone enanthate (Uni-Bol) Estradiol benzoate § Available forms Estradiol benzoate ... Estradiol Benzoate Astar (Astar; Taiwan) Estradiol Benzoate Tai Yu (Tai Yu; Taiwan) Estradiol Benzoato Pharma Arte (Pharma Arte ... Estradiol benzoate/estradiol valerate/hydroxyprogesterone caproate (Sin-Ol) Estradiol benzoate/monalazone (Malun 25) [vaginal ... Estradiol benzoate/estradiol phenylpropionate (Dimenformon Prolongatum) Estradiol benzoate/estradiol dienanthate/testosterone ...
Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are both examples of fungistatic substances that are widely used in the preservation of ... "Sodium Benzoate". FBC Industries, Inc. Retrieved 19 February 2015. "Toxicological evaluation of some antimicrobials, ...
Estradiol Benzoate • Estradiol Valerate • Ethinylestradiol • Estriol • Levonorgestrel • Lynestrenol • Nandrolone Decanoate • ...
Benzoates (salts of benzoic acid) can refer to: Ammonium benzoate Calcium benzoate Magnesium benzoate Potassium benzoate Sodium ... benzoate This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. If an internal link led you ...
... β-Oestradiol benzoate; β-Oestradiol 3-benzoate; 17-β-Oestradiol 3-benzoate; 1,3,5(10)-Oestratriene-3,17-β-diol 3-benzoate; ... 3-benzoate; Estradiol-17β benzoate; Estradiol-17β 3-benzoate; EBZ; Follicormon; Follidrin; Hydroxyestrin benzoate; MEE; ... 17β-diol 3-benzoate; 17β-Estradiol benzoate; 17β-Estradiol 3-benzoate; Benzoestrofol difolliculin; Dihydroestrin benzoate; ... Other names: Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol (17β)-, 3-benzoate; Estradiol, 3-benzoate; β-Estradiol benzoate; β-Estradiol 3- ...
... Molecular Formula: C25H23N3O4 InChI: InChI=1/C25H23N3O4/c29-23( ... 4-[(4-benzamidobutanoylhydrazinylidene)methyl]phenyl] benzoate Registries: PubChem CID 4492631 PubChem ID 6615414 ...
Crystal structure of ethyl 4-[(4-methyl-benz-yl)-oxy]benzoate
... benzoate , C15H14INO2 , CID 43773315 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
Toxicity. It cannot be excluded that benzyl benzoate is toxic, due to the lack of data.. Risk. Risk of environmental impact of ... Persistence. It cannot be excluded that benzyl benzoate is persistent, due to the lack of data.. Bioaccumulation. It cannot be ... Environmental information is missing on for benzyl benzoate (2022-08-17). It is voluntary for manufacturers to provide ... benzyl benzoate cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. ...
Probenz SP Powder sodium benzoate is primarily used as a preservative in the food and beverage industries. ... Probenz™ SP Powder sodium benzoate is primarily used as a preservative in the food and beverage industries. It is also used as ...
Active ingredient in rizatriptan benzoate tablets: Rizatriptan benzoate, USP.. Inactive ingredients in rizatriptan benzoate ... Benzoate. Tablets 5 mg. (N = 977) Rizatriptan. Benzoate. Tablets 10 mg (N = 1,167) Placebo. (N =627). ... What is rizatriptan benzoate? Rizatriptan benzoate is a prescription medicine that belongs to a class of medicines called ... Rizatriptan benzoate is not to be used to prevent migraine attacks.. Rizatriptan benzoate is not for the treatment of ...
... benzoate)including article title,journal number and time,Doi number of the article,article content,suppliers and manufacturers ... benzoate),lookchem offer free article of 866821-31-0(methyl 3,5-dimethoxy-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl) ... Product name:methyl 3,5-dimethoxy-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)benzoate ...
Tert-Butyl Peroxy Benzoate,Di-Benzoyl Peroxide-Zibo Huibo Chemical Co.,Ltd. ...
Sodium benzoates primary role in skincare is to extend the shelf life of products by preventing microbial growth, thereby ... Sodium Benzoate Preservative. Sodium Benzoate. Extends the shelf life of products by preventing microbial growth, thereby ... Sodium benzoates primary role in skincare is to extend the shelf life of products by preventing microbial growth, thereby ... Sodium benzoate works by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms by altering their cellular functions. Its inclusion allows ...
v kosmetice se může používat až do maximální koncentrace 0,5%, vyjádřeno jako kyselina- (dále ve výši 2,5% v přípravcích které se oplachují (kromě výrobků pro ústní hygienu) a 1,7% v produtech péče o dutinu ústní). ...
Peak inhibition of DPP-4 occurs within 2-3 hours after a single-dose administration to healthy subjects. The peak inhibition of DPP-4 exceeded 93% across doses of 12.5 mg to 800 mg. Inhibition of DPP-4 remained above 80% at 24 hours for doses greater than or equal to 25 mg. Alogliptin also demonstrated decreases in postprandial glucagon while increasing postprandial active GLP-1 levels compared to placebo over an 8-hour period following a standardized meal. Alogliptin does not affect the QTc interval.. ...
INCI: Sodium Benzoate. Sodium Benzoate is the sodium salt of benzoic acid. Sodium benzoate should not be used in combination ... Uses: Sodium Benzoate is primarily used as a preservative to extend the shelf life of cosmetics and skincare products. It helps ... ":"Sodium Benzoate - 1Kg","public_title":"1Kg","options":["1Kg"],"price":745,"weight":1100,"compare_at_price":null,"inventory_ ... ":"Sodium Benzoate - 5Kg","public_title":"5Kg","options":["5Kg"],"price":2495,"weight":5500,"compare_at_price":null,"inventory_ ...
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C12-15 ALKYL BENZOATE. Concerns: Allergies/immunotoxicity (low), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low) ... C12-15 Alkyl Benzoate, Ethylhexylglycerin, Steareth-100, Aluminum Starch Octenylsuccinate, Phenoxyethanol, Caprylyl Glycol, ...
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... other names and ingredient information for Denatonium Benzoate. ... Products That Dont Contain Denatonium Benzoate See All ... This Denatonium Benzoate Ingredient Allergy Safety Information page on SkinSAFE works best with javascript enabled in your ... Myroxylon pereirae (Products will not contain Fragrance, Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, Sodium Benzoate, Cinnamates, Octocrylene ...
... and emamectin benzoate, which has powerful transloctaion propety, it eliminates all hidden insects inside leaves or buds ... Emamectin benzoate + Acetamiprid CEASER it contains acetamiprid, which has outstanding systemic property, ... Increase quantity for CEASER "Emamectin benzoate + Acetamiprid" 200ml Products will be delivered in default nursery ... CEASER "Emamectin benzoate + Acetamiprid". CEASER it contains acetamiprid, which has outstanding systemic property, and ...
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Buy Alogliptin Benzoate S-Isomer from Daicel Pharma Standards , the leading Pharmaceutical Impurities Manufacturer and Supplier ... MOLECULAR FORMULA C18H21N5O2.C7H6O2(Benzoate salt); C18H21N5O2 (Free base) * MOLECULAR WEIGHT 339.40 (Free base); 461.52 ( ... S)-2-((6-(3-aminopiperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)methyl)benzonitrile benzoate. ...
All you need to know about sodium benzoate, its properties and its uses in skin care and cosmetics ... Sodium benzoate is considered safe for use in cosmetics, although when combined with Vitamin C in a formulation, a chemical ... Sodium benzoate and benzoic acid are naturally found in many foods such as cranberries, plums, cinnamon, apples, milk, cheese, ... This could be using sodium benzoate at a low concentration and vitamin C at a very concentration this due to vitamin acting as ...
Sodium Benzoate, a common food preservative that is added to foods for its antimicrobial properties, prevents foods from ... sodium benzoate, sodium benzoate in food, Sodium Benzoate preservative, sodium benzoate side effects, trudrink. ... Sodium Benzoate as a food preservative. But there are studies that show the permissibility of Sodium Benzoate. The following ... The function of Sodium benzoate is protecting the ingredients from invasion by fungi. Sodium benzoate creates an environment in ...
Alogliptin Benzoate) online from a certified Canadian Pharmacy? Call us at 1-877-385-8998 and save up to 80% on your ... Before taking this medication, it is best to advise your doctor if you are allergic to Alogliptin Benzoate; or to any other ... What is Nesina (Alogliptin Benzoate) prescribed for?. With a proper diet and exercise program, this medication can control high ...
Mixing Effect on Stoichiometric Diversity in Benzoic Acid-Sodium Benzoate Cocrystals. Tzu Hsuan Chen, Kuan Lin Yeh, Chih Wei ... 深入研究「Mixing Effect on Stoichiometric Diversity in Benzoic Acid-Sodium Benzoate Cocrystals」主題。共同形成了獨特的指紋。 ... Mixing Effect on Stoichiometric Diversity in Benzoic Acid-Sodium Benzoate Cocrystals. 於: Crystal Growth and Design. 2019 ; 卷 19 ... Mixing Effect on Stoichiometric Diversity in Benzoic Acid-Sodium Benzoate Cocrystals. Crystal Growth and Design. 2019 3月 6;19(3 ...
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  • Benzoates (salts of benzoic acid) can refer to: Ammonium benzoate Calcium benzoate Magnesium benzoate Potassium benzoate Sodium benzoate This set index article lists chemical compounds articles associated with the same name. (
  • The manufacturing of Sodium Benzoate occurs through a chemical process that involves reacting benzoic acid with sodium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate. (
  • Sodium Benzoate is the sodium salt of benzoic acid. (
  • Details for: Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate. (
  • Probenz™ SP Powder sodium benzoate is primarily used as a preservative in the food and beverage industries. (
  • Sodium benzoate works by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms by altering their cellular functions. (
  • Preservative ingredients like sodium benzoate are indispensable in safeguarding consumer health. (
  • Sodium Benzoate - What is it? (
  • Sodium Benzoate is a common food additive used as a preservative to prevent the growth of bacteria, yeast, and fungi in various applications. (
  • Sodium Benzoate is effective in acidic environments and is commonly used in acidic food and beverage products, such as soft drinks, pickles, and salad dressings, to increase their shelf life. (
  • The manufacturing process of Sodium Benzoate involves stringent quality control measures to ensure the final product is of high purity and quality. (
  • Sodium Benzoate, has various applications as a preservative in the UK across different industries. (
  • Finally, margarine and other fat spreads use Sodium Benzoate to prevent spoilage. (
  • The pharmaceutical industry uses Sodium Benzoate as a preservative to prevent the growth of microorganisms in medications, creams, and ointments. (
  • In the cosmetic industry, Sodium Benzoate is used as a preservative in skincare products, shampoos, and conditioners to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. (
  • Additionally, Sodium Benzoate in industrial applications becomes a rust and corrosion inhibitor and a dye intermediate in certain dyes and pigments. (
  • Sodium Benzoate at Kilo Ltd. (
  • At Kilo, we partner with top manufacturers of Sodium Benzoate to offer this product to our clients in the UK and Ireland. (
  • We supply Sodium Benzoate in quantities as small as 25kg and up to bulk quantities, delivered directly to your preferred location. (
  • Contact us for information, pricing, and support for Sodium Benzoate and other products. (
  • Sodium benzoate should not be used in combination with certain other food additives, such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C), as it can form benzene, a potentially harmful compound, under certain conditions. (
  • Uses: Sodium Benzoate is primarily used as a preservative to extend the shelf life of cosmetics and skincare products. (
  • CEASER it contains acetamiprid, which has outstanding systemic property, and emamectin benzoate, which has powerful transloctaion propety, it eliminates all hidden insects inside leaves or buds efficiently. (
  • It cannot be excluded that benzyl benzoate is persistent, due to the lack of data. (
  • Risk of environmental impact of benzyl benzoate cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. (
  • Environmental information is missing on for benzyl benzoate (2022-08-17). (
  • Formula, Properties & Application,Benzyl benzoate has found extensive use in the pharmaceutical sector due to its medicinal properties. (
  • Textile Dyeing Carrier DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIBENZOATE(DEGDB) To Replace,Better color,better odor and low residue odor after fabrics¡¯ dying process compared with Benzyl Benzoate. (
  • All salts were non-hygroscopic and the hydrated benzoate and nicotinate salts were stable to dehydration. (
  • The solubilities of the newly synthesized benzoate, hydrochloride, nicotinate, and malonate salts of bedaquiline were elucidated, and the plausible reasons for the differences observed in their experimental aqueous solubilities were highlighted. (
  • The general solubility equation [GSE], fairly predicted the solubilities for the benzoate and malonate salts, but the ideal solubility equations provided poor estimates of their experimental values. (
  • The selection of phenyl carboxylate side groups included benzoate, p -cyanobenzoate, meta/para-methoxybenzoates, and different vanillic acid esters. (
  • High Mountain specializes in the production of high-quality Tert-Butyl Benzoate Peroxide, serving as the backbone for various industries such as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and specialty chemicals. (
  • Our Tert-Butyl Benzoate Peroxide are synthesized under stringent regulations, ensuring they meet the highest international standards. (
  • 1. What Is Tert-Butyl Benzoate Peroxide? (
  • Tert-Butyl Benzoate Peroxide, with its chemical structure delineated as C11H14O3, is a specialized organic peroxide widely utilized as a radical initiator in polymerization processes and as a curing agent in various resin systems. (
  • Tert-Butyl Benzoate Peroxide is characterized by its ability to decompose at moderate temperatures, releasing free radicals that initiate polymerization. (
  • HighMountainChem prioritizes environmental and safety standards in the production of Tert-Butyl Benzoate Peroxide. (
  • The primary use of Tert-Butyl Benzoate Peroxide lies in its role as a polymerization initiator and curing agent in the production of coatings, adhesives, and composite materials. (
  • Innovation at HighMountainChem includes exploring new applications for Tert-Butyl Benzoate Peroxide in biotechnology and advanced materials science. (
  • Selecting HighMountainChem for your Tert-Butyl Benzoate Peroxide needs guarantees access to premium quality chemicals, expert support, and innovative solutions. (
  • Our advanced production techniques, stringent quality control measures, and commitment to innovation place us at the forefront of supplying Tert-Butyl Benzoate Peroxide. (
  • benzoate [0.0004 mg/mL], showed improved aqueous solubility over the free base. (
  • The benzoate salt exhibited the lowest tendency to lose its chemical potency. (
  • This compound combines the robust oxidizing capabilities of peroxides with the unique properties of benzoate esters, offering controlled reactivity for a range of industrial applications. (
  • Benzoates / Dibenzoates - Plasticisers - Information Center,Benzoates / Dibenzoates. (
  • Safety and effectiveness of rizatriptan benzoate tablets has not been established for cluster headache. (
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use RIZATRIPTAN BENZOATE TABLETS safely and effectively. (
  • The preparation contains 100 mg/mL each of sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate and is supplied as 50-mL vials. (
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use SODIUM PHENYLACETATE AND SODIUM BENZOATE INJECTION safely and effectively. (
  • Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate Injection is a nitrogen binding agent indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of acute hyperammonemia and associated encephalopathy in pediatric and adult patients with deficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle. (
  • Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate Injection must be diluted with sterile 10% Dextrose Injection (D10W) before administration. (
  • Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate Injection is administered intravenously as a loading dose infusion administered over 90 to 120 minutes, followed by an equivalent maintenance dose infusion administered over 24 hours. (
  • Injection: 10% per 10% sterile, concentrated, aqueous solution of sodium phenylacetate and sodium benzoate. (
  • Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate Injection contains 30.5 mg of sodium per mL of undiluted product. (
  • Caution should be used if Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate Injection is administered to patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency, or with conditions in which there is sodium retention with edema. (
  • Extravasation of Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate Injection into the perivenous tissues during high flow bolus infusion may lead to skin necrosis, especially in infants. (
  • Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate Injection may cause side effects typically associated with salicylate overdose, such as hyperventilation and metabolic acidosis. (
  • Valproic acid given to patients with urea cycle disorders may exacerbate their condition and antagonize the efficacy of Sodium Phenylacetate and Sodium Benzoate Injection through inhibition of the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate, a co-factor for carbamyl phosphate synthetase. (
  • Denatonium Benzoate is rated as the world's most bitter substance. (
  • Instructions to make the OSHA-approved fit test and threshold check solutions for Saccharin Solution Aerosol Protocol, Bitrex TM (Denatonium Benzoate) Solution Aerosol Qualitative Fit Test Protocol, and Isoamyl Acetate Protocol are provided below. (
  • A Bitrex is a Denatonium benzoate solution. (
  • The organic compound benzoic acid, also known as sodium benzoate or benzene carboxylic acid, has the formula C7H6O2. (
  • Sodium Benzoate is the sodium salt of benzoic acid. (
  • To create sodium benzoate from benzoic acid, oleum is made by mixing an alkaline solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide with strong sulfuric acid. (
  • When it reacts with benzoic acid, which is a salt in water and alcohol solvents, it creates benzoates. (
  • Estradiol benzoate was introduced in 1936 and was one of the first forms of estrogen to be marketed. (
  • However, Estradiol benzoate is now little used, having largely been superseded by longer-acting esters of estradiol like estradiol valerate and estradiol cypionate that require less frequent administration. (
  • The medical uses of estradiol benzoate are the same as those of estradiol and other estrogens. (
  • Study to Determine the Equivalence of Three Products Containing Metronidazole Benzoate. (
  • The advantage of sodium benzoate is that it is a low-cost preservative. (
  • Sodium benzoate is widely used as a preservative in a range of industries, including food and beverage, cosmetics, and medications, to maintain product quality, boost product safety, and extend product shelf life. (
  • Sodium Benzoate is a preservative used in acidic foods such as salad dressings, carbonated drinks, jams, pickles, and condiments. (
  • The sodium benzoate is a preservative incorporated into some soft drinks, packaged foods and personal care products, whose objective is to lengthen the expiration date. (
  • Sodium benzoate is a food preservative used in processed products and beverages with the aim of extending its shelf life, although it also offers other interesting uses. (
  • Liquid medicines, such as cough syrups, they can carry preservative agents to guarantee a longer shelf life, and therefore they can carry sodium benzoate among their components. (
  • Phenylbutyrate and sodium benzoate are orphan drugs approved for the treatment of hyperammonemia in patients with urea cycle disorders, a series of at least 8 rare genetic enzyme deficiencies. (
  • Both phenylbutyrate and sodium benzoate act by promoting an alternative pathway of nitrogen elimination. (
  • Neither phenylbutyrate nor sodium benzoate have been linked to cases of liver injury either in the form of serum enzyme elevations during therapy or clinically apparent acute liver injury. (
  • Phenylbutyrate is administered in conjunction with a low protein diet, often combined with sodium benzoate (another ammonia "sink") and essential amino acids (such as citrulline or arginine). (
  • Sodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetate (Ammonul) is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of hyperammonemia caused by urea-cycle defects. (
  • Sodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetate may be effective for treatment of hyperammonemia, though hemodialysis is preferred for ammonia levels higher than 500-600 µg/dL. (
  • It's also used to make other chemicals including methyl salicylate, sodium benzoate, and toluene sulfonic acid as a precursor. (
  • 1 mole of benzoate removes 1 mole of nitrogen. (
  • PTC and thiourea share the thiocarbamide structures while PTC and sodium benzoate share the 6 ring phenyl group (similar to benzene). (
  • A major concern in the population is the possible transformation of sodium benzoate into benzene-related substances, a potential carcinogen. (
  • Benzyl Benzoate is soluble in alcohol, oils, and other organic solvents. (
  • For highly elevated ammonia levels, hemodialysis may be the appropriate initial treatment if it is readily available, and it is also recommended for patients whose condition fails to respond to initial course of sodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetate. (
  • At the health level, sodium benzoate is used in higher concentrations when it exists blood ammonia toxicity , a fact that occurs when protein decomposition occurs due to a previous problem. (
  • The only combination of tastes not observed for PTC-Na Benzoate is tasteless-bitter. (
  • Also record whether sodium benzoate tastes, salty, bitter, or sweet to you (if a taster). (
  • Individuals who find PTC bitter and sodium benzoate salty tend to be devotees of sauerkraut, buttermilk, spinach, and other slightly bitter or salty foods. (
  • Other creams include benzyl benzoate, sulfur in petrolatum, and crotamiton. (
  • The level of rRNA targeted by the Syntrophus -specific probe tracked with the formation of benzoate during metabolism of the parent compounds. (
  • Benzyl benzoate is the organic compound with the formula C 6 H 5 CH 2 O 2 CC 6 H 5 . (
  • Solvent: Benzyl Benzoate acts as a solvent, helping to dissolve and stabilize other ingredients in formulations. (
  • In addition to the food use that is given to sodium benzoate, it is also used to stabilize some medications, cosmetic products , for personal care and industrial products. (
  • However, sodium benzoate is not produced naturally, although it is obtained from a large number of plants such as cinnamon , tomato, cloves, some berries, plums, apples and Blueberries . (
  • The global sodium benzoate market is expected to grow fast over the forecast period, owing to increased demand for convenience meals and food products with long shelf lives. (
  • Sodium benzoate can be present in practically all diet soft drinks, as well as a variety of wine coolers and fruit juices. (
  • Benzyl Benzoate is a colorless liquid used in skincare and beauty products for its solvent, fragrance, and skin-conditioning properties. (
  • Benzyl Benzoate is a versatile compound commonly used in skincare and beauty products. (
  • Continuing the administration of sodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetate during hemodialysis may be considered. (
  • Off-label use of ondansetron may be considered to control nausea and vomiting associated with Reye syndrome and with IV administration of sodium benzoate/sodium phenylacetate. (
  • tobramycin inhaled and sodium benzoate both increase nephrotoxicity and/or ototoxicity. (
  • Even though PTC and sodium benzoate taste are inherited independently, they interact to determine a person's taste sensations. (
  • Benzyl Benzoate is known for its multiple functions, including being used as a solvent, fragrance ingredient, and skin-conditioning agent. (
  • Sodium benzoate taste: Obtain a sodium benzoate taste strip and chew it. (
  • A different pair of alleles determines the ability to taste sodium benzoate (as opposed to PTC taste). (
  • Benzyl benzoate is irritant to the skin. (
  • Skin-Conditioning: Benzyl Benzoate has skin-conditioning properties, helping to moisturize and soften the skin. (