Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase: An NADPH-dependent flavin monooxygenase that plays a key role in the catabolism of TRYPTOPHAN by catalyzing the HYDROXYLATION of KYNURENINE to 3-hydroxykynurenine. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.14.1.2 and EC 1.99.1.5.Methylococcaceae: A family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria utilizing only one-carbon organic compounds and isolated from in soil and water.Methylococcus capsulatus: A species of METHYLOCOCCUS which forms capsules and is capable of autotrophic carbon dioxide fixation. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Benzoate 4-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of BENZOATE to 4-hydroxybenzoate. It requires IRON and tetrahydropteridine.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.ButanesParabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Methylosinus trichosporium: A species of METHYLOSINUS which is capable of degrading trichloroethylene and other organic pollutants.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Phenol: An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Camphor 5-Monooxygenase: A soluble cytochrome P-450 enzyme that catalyzes camphor monooxygenation in the presence of putidaredoxin, putidaredoxin reductase, and molecular oxygen. This enzyme, encoded by the CAMC gene also known as CYP101, has been crystallized from bacteria and the structure is well defined. Under anaerobic conditions, this enzyme reduces the polyhalogenated compounds bound at the camphor-binding site.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Nitrosomonas: A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.Chlorobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more chlorine atoms.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Alkane 1-Monooxygenase: A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Benzydamine: A benzyl-indazole having analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. It is used to reduce post-surgical and post-traumatic pain and edema and to promote healing. It is also used topically in treatment of RHEUMATIC DISEASES and INFLAMMATION of the mouth and throat.Azoarcus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria including species which are often associated with grasses (POACEAE) and which fix nitrogen as well as species which anaerobically degrade toluene and other mono-aromatic hydrocarbons.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.Squalene Monooxygenase: The second enzyme in the committed pathway for CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the first oxygenation step in the biosynthesis of STEROLS and is thought to be a rate limiting enzyme in this pathway. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of SQUALENE to (S)-squalene-2,3-epoxide.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.FMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.NADPH-Ferrihemoprotein Reductase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC 1.6.2.4.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Amidine-Lyases: These enzymes catalyze the elimination of ammonia from amidines with the formation of a double bond. EC 4.3.2.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Flavins: Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.Dioxygenases: Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Crotonates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that include a double bond between carbon 2 and 3 of the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.Methylocystaceae: A family of gram-negative methanotrophs in the order Rhizobiales, distantly related to the nitrogen-fixing and phototrophic bacteria.Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.1 and EC 1.99.2.2.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Beijerinckiaceae: A family of aerobic gram-negative rods that are nitrogen fixers. They are highly viscous, and appear as a semitransparent slime in giant colonies.Gentisates: Salts and esters of gentisic acid.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Thauera: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria able to anaerobically oxidize and degrade toluene.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)NADP: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidoreductases, O-Demethylating: Drug metabolizing enzymes which oxidize methyl ethers. Usually found in liver microsomes.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.7-Alkoxycoumarin O-Dealkylase: A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.Pseudomonas mendocina: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, which is found in SOIL and WATER.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Salicylanilides: 2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Dichloroethylenes: Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.Burkholderia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.AcetyleneBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.D-Amino-Acid OxidaseNitrobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.Pseudomonas stutzeri: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS, containing multiple genomovars. It is distinguishable from other pseudomonad species by its ability to use MALTOSE and STARCH as sole carbon and energy sources. It can degrade ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS and has been used as a model organism to study denitrification.PropaneOvariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Acetone: A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.CresolsCopper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Chloroquinolinols: 8-Hydroxyquinolinols chlorinated on the number 5 and/or 7 carbon atom(s). They are antibacterial, antiprotozoal, and antidiarrheal, especially in amebiasis, and have also been used as antiseborrheics. The compounds are mostly used topically, but have been used also as animal feed additives. They may cause optic and other neuropathies and are most frequently administered in combination with other agents.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Tryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Flavin Mononucleotide: A coenzyme for a number of oxidative enzymes including NADH DEHYDROGENASE. It is the principal form in which RIBOFLAVIN is found in cells and tissues.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.4-Hydroxybenzoate-3-Monooxygenase: A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.13.2.Camphor: A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Benzene DerivativesAlcaligenes: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. Some are common inhabitants of the intestinal tract of vertebrates. These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Ralstonia: A genus in the family BURKHOLDERIACEAE, comprised of many species. They are associated with a variety of infections including MENINGITIS; PERITONITIS; and URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Styrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.Testolactone: An antineoplastic agent that is a derivative of progesterone and used to treat advanced breast cancer.Methimazole: A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria found in soil and water. Although considered to be normally nonpathogenic, this bacterium is a causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in debilitated individuals.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.ortho-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsMandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)BenzaldehydesPyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Methylosinus: A genus of gram-negative rods which form exospores and are obligate methanotrophs.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Cinnamomum zeylanicum: The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.FlavoproteinsSulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 1.14.16.1.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methanococcaceae: A family of anaerobic METHANOCOCCALES whose organisms are motile by means of flagella. These methanogens use carbon dioxide as an electron acceptor.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Methylococcus: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, spherical cells usually occurring in pairs. The resting stage is considered a cyst. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Proadifen: An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.NorbornanesRhodotorula: A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cytochromes b5: Cytochromes of the b group that are found bound to cytoplasmic side of ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. They serve as electron carrier proteins for a variety of membrane-bound OXYGENASES. They are reduced by the enzyme CYTOCHROME-B(5) REDUCTASE.EthaneBenzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Biocatalysis: The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Iodobenzoates: Benzoic acid esters or salts substituted with one or more iodine atoms.Acyl Coenzyme A: S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Raccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.HydroquinonesSpectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.beta-Carotene 15,15'-Monooxygenase: A monooxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of BETA-CAROTENE into two molecules of RETINAL. It was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.11.21 and EC 1.18.3.1.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Pastinaca: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The roots are used as food.Benzopyrene Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC 1.14.14.1.Nitrosomonas europaea: The type species of the genus NITROSOMONAS, a gram-negative chemolithotroph that oxidizes ammonia to nitrite. It is found in soil, sewage, freshwater, and on building walls, and especially in polluted areas where air contains high levels of nitrogen compounds.Trifluralin: A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.Phthalic Acids: A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ferredoxins: Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Methanospirillum: The sole genus in the family Methanospirillaceae whose organisms are progressively motile by means of polar, tufted flagella. They have been isolated from sewage-sludge and pear waste digesters as well as marine and non-marine habitats.Methylomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, straight, curved, or branched rods which are motile by a single polar flagellum. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.

Cytochrome P450rm from Rhodotorula minuta catalyzes 4-hydroxylation of benzoate. (1/1)

Rhodotorula minuta, a red yeast, produces a cytochrome P450, tentatively named P450rm, catalyzing the formation of isobutene from isovalerate. We found that P450rm interacted with benzoate and the dissociation constant of P450rm for benzoate was 36 microM. A reconstituted system that consisted of purified P450rm and cytochrome P450 reductase catalyzed the 4-hydroxylation of benzoate in addition to the formation of isobutene; the turnover rate was approximately 40 nmol/min/nmol P450rm. The P450rm-monooxygenase system was specific for benzoate and did not catalyze hydroxylation of other aromatic carboxylates. Since only a benzoate 4-hydroxylase that requires tetrahydropteridine has been isolated to date, P450rm appears to be the first isolated cytochrome P450 that acts as a benzoate 4-hydroxylase. The P450rm-monooxygenase system in microsomes of R. minuta might function in the degradation of L-phenylalanine on the pathway to beta-ketoadipate.  (+info)

Onychomycosis is a common superficial fungal infection, which usually caused by dermatophytes, yeast and non-dermatophytic moulds. Recently, we isolated a Rhodotorula minuta isolate from a 15-year-old immunocompetent girl student in Hangzhou (China) that was identified using microscopy, culture morphology, histological diagnosis, API 20C AUX Yeast Identification Kit and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region. In vitro, antifungal susceptibility tests showed that this yeast isolate was susceptible to low concentrations of amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and 5-flvoriconaz but that it appeared to be dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole(MIC = 16 μg/ml). Furthermore, the effective result of therapy with itraconazole against R. minuta was consistent with that of susceptibility tests. ...
امنتین-1، آدیپوکاینی است که در بافت چربی احشایی بیان و ترشح می‌شود و حساسیت انسولینی را افزایش می‌دهد اما پاسخ آن به تمرینات مقاومتی و بی‌تمرینی به‌درستی مشخص نیست. هدف پژوهش حاضر، تأثیر هشت هفته تمرین مقاومتی و بی‌تمرینی پس از آن بر مقادیر پلاسمایی امنتین-1 دختران دارای اضافه‌وزن و چاق بود. در این پژوهش نیمه‌تجربی 22 نفر از دختران دارای اضافه‌وزن و چاق به طور تصادفی ساده انتخاب و به دو گروه تجربی (12=n) و کنترل (10=n) تقسیم شدند. گروه تجربی در یک برنامه تمرینی هشت‌هفته‌ای و هر هفته چهار جلسه، طبق برنامۀ تمرینی‌ای با شدت 65 تا 80 درصد 1RM به تمرین پرداختند و پس از
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In enzymology, an amidase (EC 3.5.1.4, acylamidase, acylase (misleading), amidohydrolase (ambiguous), deaminase (ambiguous), fatty acylamidase, N-acetylaminohydrolase (ambiguous)) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an amide: Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are monocarboxylic acid amide and H2O, whereas its two products are monocarboxylate and NH3. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in linear amides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acylamide amidohydrolase. Other names in common use include acylamidase, acylase, amidohydrolase, deaminase, fatty acylamidase, and N-acetylaminohydrolase. This enzyme participates in 6 metabolic pathways: urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups, phenylalanine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, cyanoamino acid metabolism, benzoate degradation via coa ligation, and styrene degradation. Amidases contain a conserved stretch of approximately 130 ...
In enzymology, a hippurate hydrolase (EC 3.5.1.32) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction hippurate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } benzoate + glycine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are hippurate and H2O, whereas its two products are benzoate and glycine. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in linear amides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-benzoylamino-acid amidohydrolase. This enzyme participates in phenylalanine metabolism. Tsoi E, Akmal S, Geerts L, Jeffery B, Nicolaides KH (2006). "Sonographic measurement of cervical length and fetal fibronectin testing in threatened preterm labor". Ultrasound. Obstet. Gynecol. 27 (4): 368-72. doi:10.1002/uog.2723. PMID 16526097. Tsoi E, Akmal S, Geerts L, Jeffery B, Nicolaides KH (2006). "Sonographic measurement of cervical length and fetal fibronectin testing in threatened preterm labor". Ultrasound. ...
... (INN) or monosulfiram, trade name Tetmosol, is an ectoparasiticide used in the treatment and prevention of scabies. It is usually sold as a solution or medicated soap, sometimes in combination with benzyl benzoate. Sulfiram is now rarely used, but, as of 2015[update], is still available in Brazil, India, and South Africa (as monotherapy). Dizziness, headache, fatigue and erythematous rash may occur. A single case of toxic epidermal necrolysis was reported in 1968. Sulfiram is structurally related to disulfiram (Antabuse), and readily converts to disulfiram when exposed to light. Like disulfiram, it can produce an unpleasant reaction when consumed with alcohol. Sweetman, Sean C., ed. (2009). "Pesticides and repellents". Martindale: the complete drug reference (36th ed.). London: Pharmaceutical Press. p. 2050. ISBN 978-0-85369-840-1. [No authors listed] (2009). "Sarfiram - Bula". Bulário de Remédios Comerciais (in Portuguese). MedicinaNET. Retrieved 2010-08-11. Copeman PW (March 1968). ...
... (FMO3), also known as dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3 and trimethylamine monooxygenase, is a flavoprotein enzyme (EC 1.14.13.148) that in humans is encoded by the FMO3 gene. This enzyme catalyzes the following chemical reaction: N,N,N-trimethylamine + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N,N,N-trimethylamine N-oxide + NADP+ + H2O FMO3 is the main flavin-containing monooxygenase isoenzyme that is expressed in the liver of adult humans. The human FMO3 enzyme catalyzes several types of reactions, including: the N-oxygenation of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines; the S-oxygenation of nucleophilic sulfur-containing compounds; and the 6-methylhydroxylation of DMXAA. FMO3 is the primary enzyme in humans which catalyzes the N-oxidation of trimethylamine into trimethylamine N-oxide; FMO1 also N-oxygenates trimethylamine, but to a much lesser extent than FMO3. Genetic deficiencies of the FMO3 enzyme cause primary ...
... (also called squalene epoxidase) is an enzyme that uses NADPH and molecular oxygen to oxidize squalene to 2,3-oxidosqualene (squalene epoxide). Squalene epoxidase catalyzes the first oxygenation step in sterol biosynthesis and is thought to be one of the rate-limiting enzymes in this pathway. In humans, squalene epoxidase is encoded by the SQLE gene. Squalene monooxygenase (SqMO) was formerly referred to as squalene epoxidase (SqE) in the literature. Squalene monooxygenase is a flavoprotein monooxygenase. Flavoprotein monooxygenase form flavin hydroperoxides at the enzyme active site, which then transfer the terminal oxygen atom of the hydroperoxide to the substrate. Squalene monooxygenase differs from other flavin monooxygenases in that the oxygen is inserted as an epoxide rather than as a hydroxyl group. Squalene monooxygenase contains a loosely bound FAD flavin and obtains electrons ...
The flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) protein family specializes in the oxidation of xeno-substrates in order to facilitate the excretion of these compounds from living organisms. These enzymes can oxidize a wide array of heteroatoms, particularly soft nucleophiles, such as amines, sulfides, and phosphites. This reaction requires an oxygen, an NADPH cofactor, and an FAD prosthetic group. FMOs share several structural features, such as a NADPH binding domain, FAD binding domain, and a conserved arginine residue present in the active site. Recently, FMO enzymes have received a great deal of attention from the pharmaceutical industry both as a drug target for various diseases and as a means to metabolize pro-drug compounds into active pharmaceuticals. These monooxygenases are often misclassified because they share activity profiles similar to those of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), which is the major contributor to oxidative xenobiotic metabolism. However, a key difference ...
A styrene monooxygenase (SMO; EC 1.14.14.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction styrene + FADH2 + O2 ↔ (S)-2-phenyloxirane + FAD + H2O as the first step of the aerobic styrene degradation pathway. The product 2-phenyloxirane is also known as styrene oxide and can be converted by a styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) to obtain phenylacetaldehyde, which can be transformed into the key-intermediate phenylacetic acid by a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PAD). The enzyme belongs to the group of oxidoreductases according EC classification and is dependent on FAD as cofactor, thus it was classified as an external flavoprotein monooxygenase (designated as type E). It forms a two-component system with a reductase (StyB, StyA2B). The reductase utilizes solely NADH to reduce the FAD, which is then transferred to the styrene monooxygenase (StyA, StyA1). Two types of that enzyme are described so far: StyA/StyB (designated E1), first described from Pseudomonas ...
... (EC 1.14.14.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4-hydroxyphenylacetate + FADH2 + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate + FAD + H2O This reaction is the first step in a pathway found in enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli and soil bacteria such as Pseudomonas putida which degrades 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (4-HPA), allowing these bacteria to use 4-HPA and other aromatic compounds found in mammalian digestive tracts or in soil as a carbon source. While most known flavin monooxygenases use NADH or NADPH as substrates (and use the flavins FAD or FMN as prosthetic groups ), this enzyme is part of a two-component system, in which a flavin oxidoreductase partner (EC 1.5.1.37) regenerates FADH2 by oxidizing NADH to NAD+. hpaB and hpaC, the 4-HPA oxygenase and reductase partner proteins (respectively) of E. coli strain W, were the first two-component flavin monoxygenase system identified. While known examples of ...
Neutrophil cytosol factor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCF4 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a cytosolic regulatory component of the superoxide-producing phagocyte NADPH-oxidase, a multicomponent enzyme system important for host defense. This protein is preferentially expressed in cells of myeloid lineage. It interacts primarily with neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF2/p67-phox) to form a complex with neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 (NCF1/p47-phox), which further interacts with the small G protein RAC1 and translocates to the membrane upon cell stimulation. This complex then activates flavocytochrome b, the membrane-integrated catalytic core of the enzyme system. The PX domain of this protein can bind phospholipid products of the PI(3) kinase, which suggests its role in PI(3) kinase-mediated signaling events. The phosphorylation of this protein was found to negatively regulate the enzyme activity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have ...
In enzymology, a hydroperoxide dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.92) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (9Z,11E,14Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,14-trienoate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } (9Z)-(13S)-12,13-epoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoate + H2O Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (9Z,11E,14Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,14-trienoate, and two products, (9Z)-(13S)-12,13-epoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoate and H2O. This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the hydro-lyases, which cleave carbon-oxygen bonds. The systematic name of this enzyme class is (9Z,11E,14Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,14-trienoate 12,13-hydro-lyase [(9Z)-(13S)-12,13-epoxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoate-forming]. Other names in common use include hydroperoxide isomerase, linoleate hydroperoxide isomerase, linoleic acid hydroperoxide isomerase, HPI, (9Z,11E,14Z)-(13S)-hydroperoxyoctadeca-9,11,14-trienoate, and 12,13-hydro-lyase. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of enzymes, with ...
... (SPM, also termed specialized proresolving mediators) are a large and growing class of cell signaling molecules formed in cells by the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) by one or a combination of lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes. Pre-clinical studies, primarily in animal models and human tissues, implicate SPM in orchestrating the resolution of inflammation. SPM join the long list of other physiological agents which tend to limit inflammation (see Inflammation § Resolution of inflammation) including glucocorticoids, interleukin 10 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (an inhibitor of the action of pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1), annexin A1 (an inhibitor of formation of pro-inflammatory metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids), and the gaseous resolvins, carbon monoxide (see Carbon monoxide § Normal human physiology), nitric oxide (see Nitric oxide § Biological ...
... s (sometimes called methanophiles) are prokaryotes that metabolize methane as their only source of carbon and energy. They can grow aerobically or anaerobically and require single-carbon compounds to survive. These Methanotrophs are currently being modified to absorb methane from the atmosphere, because methane released into the atmosphere contributes to greenhouse gasses, which heat up the earth and cause global warming. Under aerobic conditions, they combine oxygen and methane to form formaldehyde, which is then incorporated into organic compounds via the serine pathway or the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway. Type I methanotrophs are part of the Gammaproteobacteria and they use the RuMP pathway to assimilate carbon. Type II methanotrophs are part of the Alphaproteobacteria and utilize the Serine pathway of carbon assimilation. They also characteristically have a system of internal membranes within which methane oxidation occurs. Methanotrophs occur mostly in soils, and are ...
Saito, K., Kobayashi, M., Gong, Z., Tanaka, Y. and Yamazaki, M. (1999). "Direct evidence for anthocyanidin synthase as a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase: molecular cloning and functional expression of cDNA from a red forma of Perilla frutescens". Plant J. 17: 181-190. PMID 10074715. ...
This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and benzoate degradation via coa ligation. It has 3 ... In enzymology, a benzoate 4-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction benzoate + NADPH + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is benzoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating). Other names in common use ... Reddy CC, Vaidyanathan CS (1975). "Purification, properties and induction of a specific benzoate-4-hydroxylase from Aspergillus ...
Cell extracts contained both (1R)-(iso-)dihydrocarvone 1,2-monooxygenase and (1S)-(iso)-dihydrocarvone 2,3-monooxygenase ... Regulation of expression of the Aspergillus niger benzoate para-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 system article. 2000 ... NADPH-dependent dihydrocarvone monooxygenase (Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase), ε-lactone hydrolase and an NAD+-dependent 6- ... Chemicals/CAS: benzoate 4-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.13.12; Benzoates; biphenyl-2,3-dioxygenase, EC 1.14.99.-; Mixed Function ...
Benzoate 4-monooxygenase is an enzyme that utilizes benzoate, NADPH, H+ and O2 to produce 4-hydroxybenzoate, NADP+ and H2O. ... This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via coenzyme A (CoA) ligation. It can be found in Klebsiella aerogenes ( ... This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate degradation. It can be found in ... This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate degradation. It can be found in ...
Benzoate 4-monooxygenase (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Benzoate 4-monooxygenase (substance). ...
... benzoate 4-monooxygenase cytochrome P450 (BMC), ABC multidrug transporter (ABC), and trichothecene efflux pump (TEP). The ... 4). A similar result was observed for thioridazine (50) and oenotein B (38), compounds that inhibit the growth of P. ... FIG 4 Quantification of cell wall polymers from P. brasiliensis. The levels of total carbohydrates, N-acetylglucosamine, and β- ... The cells then were centrifuged and washed with phosphate-buffered saline (0.09% Na2HPO4, 0.02% KH2PO4, 0.8% NaCl, 0.02% KCl, ...
Benzoate Para Hydroxylase .. An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of BENZOATE to 4-hydroxybenzoate. It requires IRON and ... Benzoate 4-Monooxygenase .. Benzoate 4-Hydroxylase .. Benzoate-Para-Hydroxylase .. 4-Hydroxylase, Benzoate .. 4-Monooxygenase, ... D08.811.682.690.708.062 Benzoate 4-Monooxygenase .. D08.811.682.690.708.826 Trans-Cinnamate 4-Monooxygenase .. ... Trans Cinnamate 4 Monooxygenase .. Trans Cinnamate 4 Monooxygenase CYP73 .. Trans Cinnamic Acid 4 Hydroxylase .. A member of ...
Vatsyayan P, Kamur AK, Goswami P, Goswami P. Broad substrate cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity in the cells of Aspergillus ... Most of the genes were mapped to the benzoate and its derivate compounds as aminobenzoate and fluorobenzoate ... Disruption of phacA, an Aspergillus nidulans gene encoding a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing phenylacetate 2- ... Sheng D, Ballou DP, Massey V. Mechanistic studies of cyclohexanone monooxygenase: chemical properties of intermediates involved ...
Phenol 2-monooxygenase (NADPH) 1.14.13.8 Flavin-containing monooxygenase 1.14.13.9 Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase 1.14.13.10 2,6- ... Benzoate 4-monooxygenase 1.14.13.13 Transferred entry: 1.14.15.18 1.14.13.14 Trans-cinnamate 2-monooxygenase 1.14.13.15 ... Dihydrochelirubine 12-monooxygenase 1.14.13.58 Benzoyl-CoA 3-monooxygenase 1.14.13.59 L-lysine N(6)-monooxygenase (NADPH) 1.14. ... 5-monooxygenase 1.14.13.224 Violacein synthase 1.14.13.225 F-actin monooxygenase 1.14.13.226 Acetone monooxygenase (methyl ...
Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase. *Phenylalanine Hydroxylase. *Procollagen-Lysine, 2-Oxoglutarate 5-Dioxygenase. *Procollagen-Proline ... Benzoate 4-Monooxygenase. *Catechol Oxidase. *Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System. *Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase ... Influence of toll-like receptor 4 gene variants and plasma fatty acid profile on systemic inflammation: A population-based ...
The crystal structure of the oxygenase component of 2-oxoquinoline 8-monooxygenase shows a ring-shaped, C3-symmetric ... 2-Oxoquinoline 8-monooxygenase is a Rieske non-heme iron oxygenase that catalyzes the NADH-dependent oxidation of the N- ... Rate-Determining Attack on Substrate Precedes Rieske Cluster Oxidation during Cis-Dihydroxylation by Benzoate Dioxygenase.. * ... Dicamba monooxygenase: structural insights into a dynamic Rieske oxygenase that catalyzes an exocyclic monooxygenation.. * ...
A benzoate-coenzyme A ligase from Rhodopseudomonas palustris was also included in some constructs. Fermentations with the ... The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase Ema1 from Streptomyces tubercidicus R-922 and its homologs from closely related Streptomyces ... lividans strains in the presence of benzoate and/or cinnamate yielded soraphen A. Further feeding experiments were used to ... cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases). The genes for these enzymes have been cloned, sequenced and compared to reveal a new ...
... 38 valine N-monooxygenase. EC 1.14.14.39 isoleucine N-monooxygenase. EC 1.14.14.40 phenylalanine N-monooxygenase. EC ... EC 1.14.14.92 benzoate 4-monooxygenase. EC 1.14.14.93 3,9-dihydroxypterocarpan 6a-monooxygenase. EC 1.14.14.94 leukotriene-B4 ... monooxygenase. EC 1.14.14.16 steroid 21-monooxygenase. EC 1.14.14.17 squalene monooxygenase. EC 1.14.14.18 heme oxygenase ( ... monooxygenase. EC 1.14.14.97 methyltetrahydroprotoberberine 14-monooxygenase. EC 1.14.14.98 protopine 6-monooxygenase. EC 1.14. ...
The N-terminal domain of the bifunctional ferredoxin/ferredoxin reductase electron transfer component of the benzoate 1,2- ... The N-terminal domain of methane monooxygenase component C (gene mmoC) from Methylococcus capsulatus . ... The N-terminal domain of CDP-6-deoxy-3,4-glucoseen reductase (gene ascD) from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. ... 4]. The two Fe atoms are coordinated tetrahedrally by the two inorganic S atoms and four cysteinyl S atoms. ...
I. Evidence for the Participation of NADH-Cytochrome c Reductase in the Reaction of Benzoate 1,2-Dioxygenase (Benzoate ... On the Mechanism of Oxygen by Tetrahydropterin and Dihydroflavin-dependent Mono-oxygenases. Bioorg. Chem. 6, 421 (1977).Google ... 4.. Hamilton, G. A.: In "Progress in Bioorganic Chemistry", Vol. 1 ( E. T. Kaiser and F. J. Kézdy, eds.), pp. 83-157. New York- ... 4 ( E. S. Huyser, ed.), pp. 2-131. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1973.Google Scholar ...
Gene pqsH encodes a putative FAD-dependent monooxygenase that may be responsible for the addition of the hydroxyl group to PQS. ... Gene pqsA encodes a product homologous to benzoate coenzyme A ligase, which may be involved in activating anthranilate for PQS ... 4. PQS synthesis and regulation. The genomic organization of the pqs genes and a model for PQS biosynthesis and regulation are ... 3 and Table 5). phnA and phnB encode an anthranilate synthase (10), and anthranilate is a precursor of PQS (4). Since there are ...
We discuss the ability of the central PaaABCE monooxygenase to reversibly oxygenate PA, the controlling mechanisms of epoxide ... concentration by the pathway enzymes, and the similarity of the PA utilization pathway to the benzoate utilization Box pathway ... We discuss the ability of the central PaaABCE monooxygenase to reversibly oxygenate PA, the controlling mechanisms of epoxide ... 2015; 4(2):424-442. Chicago/Turabian Style. Grishin, Andrey M.; Cygler, Miroslaw. 2015. "Structural Organization of Enzymes of ...
4-hydroxybenzoate [CPD:C00156];. NADH [CPD:C00004];. NADPH [CPD:C00005];. H+ [CPD:C00080];. O2 [CPD:C00007]. ... 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate [CPD:C00230];. NAD+ [CPD:C00003];. NADP+ [CPD:C00006];. H2O [CPD:C00001]. ... 4-hydroxybenzoate + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate + NAD(P)+ + H2O [RN:R01296 R01298]. ... 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase [NAD(P)H];. 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ( ...
Genomic DNA of Rhodopseudomonas palustris (α-proteobacterium; anaerobic toluene, phenol, and benzoate degrader) was a gift of C ... and alkane monooxygenase) (3, 31, 34, 50). Thus, the developed microarray should be useful for assessing possible horizontal ... The genes involved in anaerobic benzoate degradation (4-hydroxylbenzoyl-coenzyme A [CoA] reductase, 3-hydroxylbenzoate CoA ... and benzoate degrader) used in this study were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and the German Collection of ...
The draft genome sequence of strain MBES04 showed the existence of benzoate degrading gene cluster and also genes coding for ... YS-1r strain also codes for enzymes like phenol 2 monooxygenase, 4-hydroxybenzoate-3-monooxygenase, catechol-2,3-dioxygenase, ... Enzymes involved in aromatic ring oxidation and cleavage such as phenol 2-monooxygenase, 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase, ... the genes involved in the aromatic compound degradation such as p-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase and vanillate monooxygenase. ...
In fact, BZS is described as an intermediate in benzoate degradation, which can be converted to benzylsuccinyl-CoA via the ... 1998). Mutations of the flavin-containing monooxygenase gene (FMO3) cause trimethylaminuria, a defect in detoxication. Hum. Mol ... an oxidation product of trimethylamine catalyzed by the enzyme dimethylaniline monooxygenase (Treacy et al., 1998) (EC 1), ... 4. −. ), solvents (e.g., water, MES, DMSO, 2-mercaptanol, glycerol), chemical fragments or clusters were removed from the ...
3). A benzothiazole (BT) is first hydroxylated by a monooxygenase, producing 2-hydroxybenzothiazole (OBT). OBT is also ... benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-ketosteroid-9α-hydroxylase, 3-ketosteroid-σ-dehydrogenase, and so on. Some of these enzymes seem to ... 4.Gary Ginsberg, Brian Toal & Tara Kurland. 2011. Bezothialzole Toxicity Assessment in Support of Synthetic Turf Field Human ... Glycosyl is present as the acyl type in the beta-1,4-N acetylmuramic acid. These distinctive chemotaxonomic markers have ...
Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be ... Genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation pathways, such as benzoate, xylene, toluene, and benzene were observed to be ... A pathway map of benzoate degradation showing the observed KOs (highlighted in red) in this dataset. Benzoate is degraded and ... Methane is oxidized to methanol via methane monooxygenase and converted to formaldehyde with the help of methanol dehydrogenase ...
Butyl benzoate n_Butyl benzoate ; Benz. 1g. 30-956. Autophagy is the major intracellular degradation system delivering ... Rizatriptan Benzoate Rizatriptan Benzoate(Maxalt) is a 5-HT1 agonist triptan drug for the treatment of migraine headaches. For ... Benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase alpha subunit) (Benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase large subunit) (Benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, large subunit) (EC ... Benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit) (EC 1.14.12.10) (Benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase small subunit) (Benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, ...
... formed upon its growth on salicylate and benzoate, each as a sole carbon source. When grown on salicyla ... Nakazawa T, Yokota T (1973) Benzoate metabolism in Pseudomonas putida (arvilla) mt-2: demonstration of two benzoate pathways. J ... Massey V, Hemmerich P (1975) Flavin and pteridine monooxygenases. In: Boyer PD (ed) The enzymes, vol 12. Part B. Academic Press ... Evidence for participation of NADH-cytochrome c reductase in the reaction of benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase (benzoate hydroxylase). ...
3A). Monooxygenase is known to be engaged in hydroxylation of the aromatic ring of 4-hydroxybenzoate to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic ... S5 in cometabolic systems and changes of microbial biomass monitored as optical density at 600 nm (a - with 3 mM benzoate; b - ... Enzyme assays. Monooxygenase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring NADH oxidation (ε340 = 6.220/M cm) ( ... As we demonstrated previously, strain S5 is able to grow on salicylate, benzoate or phenol and express either catechol 1,2- ...
  • Moreover, in the presence of naproxen activity of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, enzyme engaged in 4-hydroxybenzoate metabolism, was completely inhibited. (pjmonline.org)
  • Mushiroda T, Douya R, Takahara E, Nagata O: The involvement of flavin-containing monooxygenase but not CYP3A4 in metabolism of itopride hydrochloride, a gastroprokinetic agent: comparison with cisapride and mosapride citrate. (drugbank.ca)
  • 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, also known as p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), is a monohydroxybenzoic acid, a phenolic derivative of benzoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid is primarily known as the basis for the preparation of its esters, known as parabens, which are used as preservatives in cosmetics and some ophthalmic solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid can be found naturally in Cocos nucifera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthetically, alkannin is produced in plants from the intermediates 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and geranyl pyrophosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosyl is present as the acyl type in the beta-1,4-N acetylmuramic acid. (kenyon.edu)
  • Most of the 2,4-D plasmids were found in strains isolated by enrichment on 2,4-D as the sole source of carbon and energy, and some of them were found to take part in the degradation of a herbicide with a similar structure, 2-methyI-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid. (asmscience.org)
  • The enzyme 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase uses 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, NAD+ and H2O to produce 4-hydroxybenzoate, NADH and H+. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fungi, lanosterol 14- α -demethylase (CYP51) belongs to a superfamily of monooxygenases called cytochrome P450, which catalyzes the oxidative removal of the 14-methyl group (C-32) of lanosterol to give 14,15-desaturated intermediates in ergosterol biosynthesis. (hindawi.com)
  • While the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) from the CYP79 family forming aldoximes as biosynthetic intermediates have been intensively studied, little is known about the enzymology of volatile aldoxime formation. (plantcell.org)
  • In humans, amphetamine is metabolized to 4-hydroxyamphetamine by CYP2D6 , which is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily and is found in the liver. (rug.nl)
  • SILVA, L. Application of Agaricus bisporus Extract for Benzoate Sodium Detection Based on Tyrosinase Inhibition for Biosensor Development. (blucher.com.br)
  • cis -[2(bromomethyl)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl] methyl benzoate and the sodium salt of triazole, created by mixing triazole with sodium hydride . (rug.nl)
  • Make sure to use Cafcit, or an injection NOT containing sodium benzoate. (pdr.net)
  • 1R)-(iso-)dihydrocarvone was converted to 4-isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone, while (1S)-(iso)-dihydrocarvone, which in vivo is isomerized to (1R)-(iso-)dihydrocarvone, was converted to 6-isopropenyl-3-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone. (tudelft.nl)
  • 4-Isopropenyl-7-methyl-2-oxo-oxepanone is hydrolysed to 6-hydroxy-3-isopropenylheptanoate. (tudelft.nl)
  • We used a mouse model of parkinsonism induced by the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and co-administration of the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 to study the role of PPAR-γ activation. (nih.gov)
  • The chemical name for terconazole is 1-{[(2 S ,4 S )-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-{[ p -(4-isopropyl-1-piperazinyl)phenoxy]methyl}-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl}-1 H -1,2,4-triazole. (rug.nl)
  • Chemical inhibition studies and assays with recombinant human cytochromes P450 (P450s) indicated that 4″-hydroxycephalomannine was generated predominantly by CYP3A4 and 6α-hydroxycephalomannine by CYP2C8. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Renton kw, mannering gj (1974) depression of hepatic cytochrome p-480-dependent monooxygenase systems with a considerable risk of delirium and wiens clinicians to primary alco- yields the spreading capacity. (wisc.edu)
  • Fungal CYP monooxygenases, FoCYP539A7 and FoCYP655C2 with its homologous redox partner, FoCPR constitutes a promising catalyst due to its high regio- and stereo-selectivity in the hydroxylation of fatty acids and in the substantial production of industrially valuable ω-hydroxy fatty acids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the terminal oxygenation of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids for the synthesis of ω-OHFAs is intricate to accomplish through chemo catalysis, due to the selectivity and controlled reactivity in C-H oxygenation reactions [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Acts on fatty acids from C 4 to C 11 and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Posted on August , 2017 in All of these farmers can remove 2,4-D years while you are becoming them, and, to some online rosalynd 1998, when they have reported. (beyond-the-void.com)
  • Due to its high therapeutic index, azoles are first-line drugs for the treatment of invasive fungal infections [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The N-terminal domain of CDP-6-deoxy-3,4-glucoseen reductase (gene ascD) from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. (expasy.org)
  • The enzyme 4-methoxybenzoate monooxygenase (O-demethylating) transforms 4-methoxybenzoate, an electron acceptor AH2 and O2 into 4-hydroxybenzoate, formaldehyde, the reduction product A and H2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular docking by AutoDock suggested that cephalomannine adopted an orientation in favor of 4″-hydroxylation, whereas paclitaxel adopted an orientation favoring 3′- p -hydroxylation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cryptanaerobacter phenolicus is a bacterium species that produces benzoate from phenol via 4-hydroxybenzoate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This strain is the first bacterium which is able to degrade both octylphenol polyethoxylates (OPEOn) and 4-t-octylphenol to be reported. (ncu.edu.tw)