Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
A genus of flagellate intestinal EUKARYOTES parasitic in various vertebrates, including humans. Characteristics include the presence of four pairs of flagella arising from a complicated system of axonemes and cysts that are ellipsoidal to ovoidal in shape.
Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
2-Substituted benzimidazole first introduced in 1962. It is active against a variety of nematodes and is the drug of choice for STRONGYLOIDIASIS. It has CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM side effects and hepatototoxic potential. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p919)
Nematocide used in livestock; also has fungicidal properties.
A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).

Blocking angiotensin II ameliorates proteinuria and glomerular lesions in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. (1/3157)

BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system is thought to be involved in the progression of glomerulonephritis (GN) into end-stage renal failure (ESRF) because of the observed renoprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). However, ACEIs have pharmacological effects other than ACE inhibition that may help lower blood pressure and preserve glomerular structure. We previously reported a new animal model of progressive glomerulosclerosis induced by a single intravenous injection of an anti-Thy-1 monoclonal antibody, MoAb 1-22-3, in uninephrectomized rats. Using this new model of progressive GN, we examined the hypothesis that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and extracellular matrix components. METHODS: We studied the effect of an ACEI (cilazapril) and an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (candesartan) on the clinical features and morphological lesions in the rat model previously reported. After 10 weeks of treatment with equihypotensive doses of cilazapril, cilazapril plus Hoe 140 (a bradykinin receptor B2 antagonist), candesartan, and hydralazine, we examined systolic blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, creatinine clearance, the glomerulosclerosis index, and the tubulointerstitial lesion index. We performed a semiquantitative evaluation of glomerular immunostaining for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III by immunofluorescence study and of these cortical mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Untreated rats developed massive proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, whereas uninephrectomized control rats did not. There was a significant increase in the levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III in untreated rats. Cilazapril and candesartan prevented massive proteinuria, increased creatinine clearance, and ameliorated glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury. These drugs also reduced levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III. Hoe 140 failed to blunt the renoprotective effect of cilazapril. Hydralazine did not exhibit a renoprotective effect. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of Ang II via Ang II type 1 receptor on the production of TGF-beta and collagen types I and III, as well as on intrarenal hemodynamics, but not by either increasing bradykinin activity or reducing blood pressure in this rat model of mesangial proliferative GN.  (+info)

Mibefradil (Ro 40-5967) inhibits several Ca2+ and K+ currents in human fusion-competent myoblasts. (2/3157)

1. The effect of mibefradil (Ro 40-5967), an inhibitor of T-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)(T)), on myoblast fusion and on several voltage-gated currents expressed by fusion-competent myoblasts was examined. 2. At a concentration of 5 microM, mibefradil decreases myoblast fusion by 57%. At this concentration, the peak amplitudes of I(Ca)(T) and L-type Ca2+ current (I(Ca)(L)) measured in fusion-competent myoblasts are reduced by 95 and 80%, respectively. The IC50 of mibefradil for I(Ca)(T) and I(Ca)(L) are 0.7 and 2 microM, respectively. 3. At low concentrations, mibefradil increased the amplitude of I(Ca)(L) with respect to control. 4. Mibefradil blocked three voltage-gated K+ currents expressed by human fusion-competent myoblasts: a delayed rectifier K+ current, an ether-a-go-go K+ current, and an inward rectifier K+ current, with a respective IC50 of 0.3, 0.7 and 5.6 microM. 5. It is concluded that mibefradil can interfere with myoblast fusion, a mechanism fundamental to muscle growth and repair, and that the interpretation of the effect of mibefradil in a given system should take into account the action of this drug on ionic currents other than Ca2+ currents.  (+info)

Binding of Cob(II)alamin to the adenosylcobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase from Lactobacillus leichmannii. Identification of dimethylbenzimidazole as the axial ligand. (3/3157)

The ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase (RTPR) from Lactobacillus leichmannii catalyzes the reduction of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates to 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates and uses coenzyme B12, adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), as a cofactor. Use of a mechanism-based inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-2'-methylenecytidine 5'-triphosphate, and isotopically labeled RTPR and AdoCbl in conjunction with EPR spectroscopy has allowed identification of the lower axial ligand of cob(II)alamin when bound to RTPR. In common with the AdoCbl-dependent enzymes catalyzing irreversible heteroatom migrations and in contrast to the enzymes catalyzing reversible carbon skeleton rearrangements, the dimethylbenzimidazole moiety of the cofactor is not displaced by a protein histidine upon binding to RTPR.  (+info)

Resetting of exaggerated tubuloglomerular feedback activity in acutely volume-expanded young SHR. (4/3157)

One purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of 7-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to reset tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) activity in response to acute volume expansion (VE). Second, we evaluated the contribution of ANG II, via its action on AT1 receptors, to TGF control of glomerular function during VE. TGF was assessed by micropuncture methods and proximal tubular stop-flow pressure (SFP) determinations in SHR, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), and Sprague-Dawley rats (SD). During euvolemia SHR exhibited enhanced TGF activity. In the same animals acute VE was achieved by infusion of saline (5 ml. h-1. 100 g body wt-1). VE led to resetting of TGF in all three strains. Maximal SFP responses, elicited by a 30-40 nl/min loop of Henle perfusion rate, decreased from 19 to 12 mmHg in SHR and, on average, from 11 to 5 mmHg in WKY and SD (P < 0.001). Tubular flow rate producing a half-maximal response (turning point) shifted to higher flow rates during VE, from 12 to 14 nl/min in SHR and from 15 to 19 nl/min in WKY. Administration of the AT1 receptor blocker candesartan (0.05 mg/kg iv) during sustained VE decreased TGF-mediated reductions in SFP in SHR and slightly increased the turning point in WKY. Nevertheless, other parameters of TGF activity were unaffected by AT1 receptor blockade. In conclusion, young SHR possess the ability to reset TGF activity in response to VE to a degree similar to compensatory adjustments in WKY. However, TGF remains enhanced in SHR during VE. ANG II and its action on AT1 receptors are in part responsible for the exaggerated SFP responses in young SHR during VE.  (+info)

Effect of 5-HT4 receptor stimulation on the pacemaker current I(f) in human isolated atrial myocytes. (5/3157)

OBJECTIVE: 5-HT4 receptors are present in human atrial cells and their stimulation has been implicated in the genesis of atrial arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation. An I(f)-like current has been recorded in human atrial myocytes, where it is modulated by beta-adrenergic stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on I(f) electrophysiological properties, in order to get an insight into the possible contribution of I(f) to the arrhythmogenic action of 5-HT in human atria. METHODS: Human atrial myocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion from samples of atrial appendage of patients undergoing coeffective cardiac surgery. Patch-clamped cells were superfused with a modified Tyrode's solution in order to amplify I(f) and reduce overlapping currents. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A time-dependent, cesium-sensitive increasing inward current, that we had previously described having the electrophysiological properties of the pacemaker current I(f), was elicited by negative steps (-60 to -130 mV) from a holding potential of -40 mV. Boltzmann fit of control activation curves gave a midpoint (V1/2) of -88.9 +/- 2.6 mV (n = 14). 5-HT (1 microM) consistently caused a positive shift of V1/2 of 11.0 +/- 2.0 mV (n = 8, p < 0.001) of the activation curve toward less negative potentials, thus increasing the amount of current activated by clamp steps near the physiological maximum diastolic potential of these cells. The effect was dose-dependent, the EC50 being 0.14 microM. Maximum current amplitude was not changed by 5-HT. 5-HT did not increase I(f) amplitude when the current was maximally activated by cAMP perfused into the cell. The selective 5-HT4 antagonists, DAU 6285 (10 microM) and GR 125487 (1 microM), completely prevented the effect of 5-HT on I(f). The shift of V1/2 caused by 1 microM 5-HT in the presence of DAU 6285 or GR 125487 was 0.3 +/- 1 mV (n = 6) and 1.0 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 5), respectively (p < 0.01 versus 5-HT alone). The effect of 5-HT4 receptor blockade was specific, since neither DAU 6285 nor GR 125487 prevented the effect of 1 microM isoprenaline on I(f). Thus, 5-HT4 stimulation increases I(f) in human atrial myocytes; this effect may contribute to the arrhythmogenic action of 5-HT in human atrium.  (+info)

Differential effects of pinacidil, cromakalim, and NS 1619 on electrically evoked contractions in rat vas deferens. (6/3157)

AIM: To compare the inhibitory action of electrically evoked contractions of rat epididymal vas deferens by pinacidil (Pin), cromakalim (Cro), and NS 1619. METHODS: Monophasic contractions were evoked by electric field stimulation in rat isolated epididymal half of vas deferens. RESULTS: Newly developed ATP-sensitive K+ channel openers, Pin and Cro, concentration-dependently reduced the electrically evoked (0.3 Hz, 1 ms pulse duration, 60 V) contractions and glibenclamide but not charybdotoxin antagonized the inhibitory effects of both agents. Pin shifted the concentration-response curve for norepinephrine to the right with reducing the magnitude of the maximum contraction in a glibenclamide-sensitive fashion. The large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel opener, NS 1619, inhibited the electrically evoked contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. Charybdotoxin (100 nmol.L-1) partially reduced the effect of NS 1619 but glibenclamide (10 mumol.L-1) showed no effect. None of these 3 agents affected the basal tension. CONCLUSION: Both ATP-sensitive and Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels presented in vas deferens smooth muscles involved in regulation of muscle contractility.  (+info)

Development of nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic rabbit embryos activated with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. (7/3157)

The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of different activation protocols, enucleation methods, and culture media on the development of parthenogenetic and nuclear transfer (NT) rabbit embryos. Electroporation of 25 mM inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) in calcium- and magnesium-free PBS immediately induced a single intracellular calcium transient in 6 out of 14 metaphase II-stage rabbit oocytes evaluated during a 10-min recording period. The percentage of oocytes treated with IP3 followed by 6-dimethylaminopurine (IP3 + DMAP) that cleaved (83.9%) and reached the blastocyst stage (50%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those activated with multiple pulses (61.6% and 30.1%, respectively) or treated with ionomycin + DMAP (52.9% and 5.7%, respectively). Development of IP3 + DMAP-activated rabbit oocytes and in vivo-fertilized zygotes in different culture media was studied. Development of activated oocytes to the blastocyst stage in Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) supplemented with MEM nonessential amino acids, basal medium Eagle amino acids, 1 mM L-glutamine, 0.4 mM sodium pyruvate, and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (EBSS-complete) (40.6%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those that developed in either Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/RPMI + 10% FBS (15.5%) or CR1aa + 10% FBS (4%) medium. In addition, 100% of in vivo-fertilized rabbit zygotes developed to the blastocyst stage in EBSS-complete. A third set of experiments was carried out to study the efficiency of blind versus stained (Hoechst 33342) enucleation of oocytes. Twenty-nine of 48 blind enucleated and IP3 + DMAP-activated oocytes cleaved (60.4%), and 15 (31.2%) subsequently reached the blastocyst stage, whereas 9 of 52 oocytes enucleated using epifluorescence (17.3%) cleaved, and none of these reached the blastocyst stage. When the above parameters that yielded the highest blastocysts were combined in an NT experiment using adult rabbit fibroblast nuclei, 72.2% (39 of 54) of the fused nuclear transplant embryos cleaved and 29.6% (16 of 54) reached the blastocyst stage.  (+info)

Serial changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum gene expression in volume-overloaded cardiac hypertrophy in the rat: effect of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. (8/3157)

This study was designed to clarify whether gene expression in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum [sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), phospholamban, ryanodine receptor and calsequestrin] changes in accordance with left ventricular functional alterations in the volume-overloaded heart. Further, the effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, TCV-116, on the expression of these genes was also evaluated. Left ventricular fractional shortening was significantly increased at 7 days, had returned to control levels at 21 days, and had significantly decreased at 35 days after the shunt operation, compared with sham-operated rats. The level of SERCA mRNA was significantly decreased at both 21 days and 35 days after the shunt operation. The levels of ryanodine receptor and phospholamban mRNAs were significantly decreased at 35 days in shunt-operated rats. The decrease in the SERCA mRNA level preceded the development of cardiac dysfunction. The levels of SERCA and ryanodine receptor mRNAs were correlated positively with left ventricular fractional shortening (r=0.73, P<0.0001 and r=0.61, P<0.01 respectively). Attenuation of the decrease in left ventricular fractional shortening occurred on treatment with TCV-116. After the treatment with TCV-116, the levels of SERCA and phospholamban mRNAs were restored to the respective values in sham-operated rats. Ryanodine receptor mRNA levels remained unchanged after treatment with TCV-116. These results indicate that the down-regulation of SERCA and ryanodine receptor mRNA levels may be related to cardiac dysfunction in the volume-overloaded heart. In addition, treatment with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist may restore the altered sarcoplasmic reticulum mRNA levels to control levels, and this may result in attenuation of the functional impairment in the volume-overloaded heart.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Facile, novel two-step syntheses of benzimidazoles, bis-benzimidazoles, and bis-benzimidazole-dihydroquinoxalines. AU - Xu, Zhigang. AU - Shaw, Arthur Y.. AU - Dietrich, Justin. AU - Cappelli, Alexandra P.. AU - Nichol, Gary. AU - Hulme, Christopher. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - Three scaffolds of benzimidazoles, bis-benzimidazoles, and bis-benzimidazole-dihydroquinoxalines were synthesized via Ugi/de-protection/ cyclization methodology. Benzimidazole forming ring closure was enabled under microwave irradiation in the presence of 10% TFA/DCE. The methodology demonstrates the utility of 2-(N-Boc-amino)-phenyl-isocyanide for the generation of new molecular diversity.. AB - Three scaffolds of benzimidazoles, bis-benzimidazoles, and bis-benzimidazole-dihydroquinoxalines were synthesized via Ugi/de-protection/ cyclization methodology. Benzimidazole forming ring closure was enabled under microwave irradiation in the presence of 10% TFA/DCE. The methodology demonstrates the ...
A series of some newer benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity. Some of new benzimidazole derivatives are derived from the parent compound. The result shows all the compounds have low micromoler minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) gives a good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Benzimidazole is the heterocyclic compound formed from benzene ring and five-member ring containing nitrogen and its derivatives are wide interest because of their diverse biological activity and clinical applications.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment with low-dose sorafenib in combination with a novel benzimidazole derivative bearing a pyrolidine side chain provides synergistic anti-proliferative effects against human liver cancer. AU - Hsu, Ming Hua. AU - Hsu, Shih Ming. AU - Kuo, Yu Cheng. AU - Liu, Chih Yu. AU - Hsieh, Cheng Ying. AU - Twu, Yuh Ching. AU - Wang, Chung Kwe. AU - Wang, Yuan Hsi. AU - Liao, Yi Jen. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies and deadliest cancers in the world. Currently, sorafenib is the only drug that has been approved by the U.S. FDA for patients with advanced HCC. However, its improvement on patient outcomes is modest, and the median survival time is only prolonged 2-3 months. In addition, the application of sorafenib is limited because of its high cost and severe adverse side-effects. Therefore, developing more effective novel agents and reducing the dosage of sorafenib are urgently needed for HCC therapy. Here, a novel ...
Define candesartan cilexetil. candesartan cilexetil synonyms, candesartan cilexetil pronunciation, candesartan cilexetil translation, English dictionary definition of candesartan cilexetil. n. An angiotensin II receptor blocker drug, C33H34N6O6, used to treat hypertension and heart failure. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language,...
Benzimidazoles are heterocyclic compounds. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical benzimidazoles/oligomers are minor groove DNA sequence selective binding compounds. Distamycin A and netropsin are examples of naturally occurring DNA binders. Hoechst 33258 (Bis-benzimidazole) is a synthetic minor groove A-T sequence selective reagent and has in vivo activity by inhibiting the topoisomerase II enzyme. The targets in this research work were to synthesise extended analogues of Hoechst with structural modifications (amide bond) or amide-linked dimers with a view to identifying new potential ligands. To synthesise a library of novel bis-benzimidazoles (analogues of Hoechst) several methods were used. For C5-C2 direct linkage aldehyde synthesis via ester, Weinreb amide reduction, condensation of acids with diamine by Eatons reagent were applied. Cyclization of amide-linked benzimidazoles (amide bond between carboxylic acid of C5 benzimidazole and diamine), an indirect method of bis-benzimidazole synthesis was ...
Benzimidazole derivatives are of wide interest because of their presence in numerous categories of medicinal drugs; such as anticancer, anticoagulants, antihypertensi..
The invention belongs to the technical field of pharmaceutical chemistry, and particularly pertains to benzimidazole derivatives, and preparation process and pharmaceutical uses thereof. Benzimidazol
AstaTech Inc. provides 2,5,6-TRICHLORO-1H-BENZIMIDAZOLE (16865-11-5) purchasing information,includeing 2,5,6-TRICHLORO-1H-BENZIMIDAZOLE purity : 95%,Lead Time,price.And provide 2,5,6-TRICHLORO-1H-BENZIMIDAZOLE to submit purchase information online.
Close The Infona portal uses cookies, i.e. strings of text saved by a browser on the users device. The portal can access those files and use them to remember the users data, such as their chosen settings (screen view, interface language, etc.), or their login data. By using the Infona portal the user accepts automatic saving and using this information for portal operation purposes. More information on the subject can be found in the Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. By closing this window the user confirms that they have read the information on cookie usage, and they accept the privacy policy and the way cookies are used by the portal. You can change the cookie settings in your browser. ...
Introduction: Benzimidazoles are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds which, in their composition, contain benzimidazole nuclei, which are used to prepare synthetic compounds of structurally different derivatives. Benzimidazole derivatives show a wide spectrum of biological, pharmacological, and biochemical effects. Some derivatives show potential inhibitory activity of the single-stranded DNA binding molecule activity that can be useful in the treatment of tumour, bacterial, and viral diseases. Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of benzimidazole derivatives on the cell cycle, to determine the changes in the cell cycle, and to define the substance that has the greatest effect on tumour cell growth. Materials and Methods: For the purposes of the research, the derivatives were prepared at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Zagreb, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. The growth of a cell culture in vitro involves culturing cell culture bottles in a CO2 ...
The report generally describes 1h-benzimidazole,2-methyl-1-(2-propenyl)-(9ci), examines its uses, production methods, patents. 1H-Benzimidazole,2-methyl-1-(2-propenyl)-(9CI)
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 90349-14-7(1H-Benzimidazole,2,6-dimethyl-7-nitro-),please inquire us for 90349-14-7(1H-Benzimidazole,2,6-dimethyl-7-nitro-).
Alfa Chemistry is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 824949-98-6(1-CYCLOHEXYL-2-(3-FURANYL)-1H-BENZIMIDAZOLE-5-CARBOXYLIC ACID, METHYL ESTER),please inquire us for 824949-98-6(1-CYCLOHEXYL-2-(3-FURANYL)-1H-BENZIMIDAZOLE-5-CARBOXYLIC ACID, METHYL ESTER).
Benzimidazole-2-thione derivatives are known to possess broad spectrum of biological activities, and the most prominent being the antiinflammatory activity. The synthesis of these ..
Cancer is one of the most serious medical problem and second leading cause of death in the world, characterized by a deregulation of the cell cycle which mainly results in a progressive loss of cellular differentiation and uncontrolled cellular growth. The benzimidazole is a heterocyclic moiety found in extensive number of natural and biological active molecules. Benzimidazole derivatives might be considered as auxiliary isosters of nucleotides having attached heterocyclic cores in their structures, cooperate effortlessly with biopolymers and have potential action for chemotherapeutic applications. Benzimidazole and its derivatives displayed a wide range of biological activity because of its structural similarity with the naturally occurring nucleotides. Benzimidazole has established huge alertness in current time and is extremely significant heterocyclic pharmacophore in recent drug innovation and medicinal chemistry. The present review summarizes the chemistry of various substituted benzimidazole
Novel imidazole derivatives of the formula (I): ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 is an optionally substituted alkyl group, R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 are independently a group capable of forming an anion or a group which can be changed thereinto, ring A is a benzene ring optionally having, besides the group shown by R.sup.2, further substituents, and X shows linkage of phenylene group and phenyl group directly or through a spacer whose atomic length is not more than 2 and a salt thereof, show antagonistic actions to angiotensin II, thus being useful as therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Laurent Bultot, Thomas E Jensen, Yu-Chiang Lai, Agnete L B Madsen, Caterina Collodet, Samanta Kviklyte, Maria Deak, Arash Yavari, Marc Foretz, Sahar Ghaffari, Mohamed Bellahcene, Houman Ashrafian, Mark H Rider, Erik A Richter, Kei Sakamoto].
A very simple, mild, efficient, and novel green methodology has been developed for the syntheses of some 2-hetero/styryl-benzimidazoles. Title compounds were synthesized by the condensation of |svg xmlns:xlink=http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink xmlns=http://www.w3.org/2000/svg style=vertical-align:-0.13794pt;width:8.0749998px; id=M1 height=7.9499998 version=1.1 viewBox=0 0 8.0749998 7.9499998 width=8.0749998| |g transform=matrix(.017,-0,0,-.017,.062,7.675)||path id=x1D45C d=M445 282q0 -64 -27.5 -125t-80.5 -104q-80 -65 -168 -65q-73 0 -109.5 46.5t-36.5 116.5q0 92 46.5 163t119.5 104q66 30 108 30q67 0 107.5 -43.5t40.5 -122.5zM355 280q0 62 -26.5 94.5t-64.5 32.5q-26 0 -44 -8q-39 -18 -74 -82t-35 -163q0 -57 25.5 -90.5t70.5 -33.5 q22 0 36 6q46 20 79 89t33 155z||/path||/g| |/svg|-phenylenediamine with cinnamic acids at 150-180°C for 5-6 h using glycerol containing triacetylborate (10-20 mol%) as the reaction medium. In an alternative approach, condensation of 2
Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel 1, 2, 5-Substituted Benzimidazole Derivatives as Gastroprotective Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Agents Abstract.
Compounds of formula (I): ##STR1## wherein: n, A, R1, R2, R3, and R4 have meanings as defined herein, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, are useful as anti-coagulants.
Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic moiety whose derivatives are present in many of the bioactive compounds and posses diverse biological and clinical applications. Benzimidazole agents are the vital pharmacophore and privileged sub-structures in chemistry of medicine. They have received much interest in drug discovery because benzimidazoles exhibited enormous significance. So attempts have been made to create repository of molecules and evaluate them for prospective inherent activity. They are extremely effective both with respect to their inhibitory activity and favorable selectivity ratio. Benzimidazole is most promising category of bioactive heterocyclic compound that exhibit a wide variety of biological activities in medicinal field. The present review only focus on antimicrobial activity of reported benzimidazole derivatives may serve as valuable source of information for researchers who wish to synthesize new molecules of benzimidazole nucleus which have immense potential to be investigated for newer
Visit ChemicalBook To find more 1H-Benzimidazol-1-amine(9CI)(6299-92-9) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of 1H-Benzimidazol-1-amine(9CI)(6299-92-9). At last,1H-Benzimidazol-1-amine(9CI)(6299-92-9) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may also be you need.
Abstract In order to discover the novel anti-tumor agents, a series of 2-[(pyridin-2-yl)me- thylthio]-1H-benzimidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized, and the structures were characterized by IR, MS, and proton NMR. 2-[(3,4-Dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methylthio]-1H- benzimidazole was investigated with X-ray crystallography, and the molecule is in orthorhombic system, space group P212121, with a = 9.1828(16), b = 11.625(2), c = 13.463(2) Å, Z = 4, R = 0.0231 and wR = 0.0596. The antitumor activities of target compounds were evaluated against human liver cancer cell line HepG2, and human liver normal cell line HL7702 using MTT assay. The target compounds have demonstrated weak or moderate anti-tumor activity against HepG2, while all the target compounds exhibit no cytotoxic effects on HL7702.. ...
Candesartan (rINN) /ˌkændɪˈsɑːrtən/ is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension. The prodrug candesartan cilexetil is marketed by AstraZeneca and Takeda Pharmaceuticals, commonly under the trade names Diceran,Blopress, Atacand, Amias, and Ratacand. It is available in generic form. As with other angiotensin II receptor antagonists, candesartan is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. Results from the CHARM study (early 2000s) demonstrated the morbidity and mortality reduction benefits of candesartan therapy in congestive heart failure. Thus, while ACE inhibitors are still considered first-line therapy in heart failure, candesartan can be used in combination with an ACE to achieve improved mortality and morbidity vs. an ACE alone and additionally is an alternative in patients intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy. In a four-year randomized controlled trial, candesartan was compared to placebo to see whether it could prevent or postpone the ...
The majority of patients in the trial had stable coronary artery disease (65%) while 35% had an acute coronary syndrome. Approximately one-third had a prior MI. There was no difference in the primary endpoint of major cardiovascular events between groups, which occurred in 25.8% of the candesartan group and 28.1% of the standard therapy group (relative risk [RR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.76-1.06, p = 0.19). Among the components of the composite, there were no significant differences, but the point estimate for CV death or MI fell in favor of standard therapy (p = 0.53) while the point estimates for the remaining endpoints fell in favor of candesartan. There was also no difference in the secondary endpoint of revascularization (25.0% for candesartan vs. 26.4% for standard therapy, p = 0.41). New onset diabetes, however, was reduced in the candesartan group (1.1% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.027). Drug-related adverse events were lower in the candesartan group (p = 0.027), as was study drug discontinuation (p < ...
A recent double-blind study of the treatment of hypertensive patients whose blood pressure remained above target on two-drug combinations, showed that a strategy of adding candesartan cilexetil (Atacand®) or of switching to candesartan and hydrochlorothiazide produced further reductions in blood pressure while maintaining tolerability. In addition, the results showed a trend in favour of the three-drug, standard-dose approach, compared to the two-drug, high-dose approach.
Product name: 5-(Difluoromethoxy)-2-[(4-chloro-3-methoxy-2-pyridinyl) methyl] thio-1H-benzimidazole Molecular Formula: C15H12ClF2N3O2S Molecular Weight: 371.79 CAS Number: 368890-20-4 Density: 1.514g/cm3 Boiling point: 523.103°C at 760 mmHg Refractive index: 1.644 Flash point: 270.163°C Purity: 99% Application: Pharmaceutical Intermediates
The title complex (I), Fig. 1, was prepared as part of our long-term interest in the chemistry of bis(imidazoles), bis(benzimidazoles), and their complexes with metal ions. These species have demonstrated their usefulness as proton sponges (Stibrany et al., 2002), geometrically constraining ligands (Stibrany et al., 2004), agents to study electron transfer (Knapp et al., 1990), polymerization catalysts (Stibrany et al., 2003), 19F NMR polymerization catalyst probes (Stibrany, 2003), and in the formation of metal-organic copolymers (Stibrany & Potenza, 2008). In this study we extend the ring system with the addition of a fused tetrahydropyyrole.. Only two bis(benzimidazole) ligands containing quaternary bridgehead carbon atoms have been structurally characterized (Fig. 2) II (Stibrany, 2009) and III (Stibrany et al., 2003; Stibrany & Potenza, 2006). Several structures containing bis(benzimidazole) ligands with a single bridgehead carbon atom of the form CuIIN2X2, where X is a halogen, have ...
Buy high quality 2-[[(3-Methyl-4-nitro-2-pyridinyl)methyl]sulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole 142384-07-4 from toronto research chemicals Inc.
115243-47-5 - ZDAZLOGHHTUNIO-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 1H-Benzimidazole-2-sulfonamide, 6-nitro-N,N,1-triethyl- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Question - Taking Candesartan Cilexetil for blood pressure, Vitamin D:11.7. Suffering from stress and anxiety. Suggestions . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Hypertension, Ask a Cardiologist
Effects of candesartan on mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic heart failure: the CHARM-Overall programme. Lancet. 2003 Sep 06; 362(9386):759-66 ...
RATIONALE: A novel benzimidazole compound ZLN005 was previously identified as a transcriptional activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in certain metabolic tissues. Upregulation of PGC-1α by ZLN005 has been shown to have beneficial effect in a diabetic mouse model and in a coronary artery disease model in vitro. ZLN005 could also have therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases involving down-regulation of PGC-1α. Given the phenotypic efficacy of ZLN005 in several animal models of human disease, its metabolic profile was investigated to guide the development of novel therapeutics using ZLN005 as the lead compound ...
Clemizole hydrochloride is an H1 histamine receptor antagonist, is found to substantially inhibit HCV replication. The IC50 of Clemizole for RNA binding by NS4B is 24±1 nM, whereas its EC50 for viral replication is 8 µM. ...Quality confirmed by NMR,HPLC & MS.
There is a strong association between chronic inflammatory conditions in a particular organ and the incidence of cancer specific to that organ. The longer the inflammation persists, the higher is the risk of associated carcinogenesis. Our interest is to synthesis new, potent and safer anticancer agents. The functionalized tetrahydropyridine (THP) ring systems are widely found in biologically active natural products and pharmaceuticals. The pharmacological activities of the THP derivatives depended greatly on the position and nature of the substitutions on the THP ring structure. 2-Substituted benzimidazole derivatives have been found to possess anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, antimicrobial, anticancer, and cycloxygenase inhibiting activities. It is believed that synthesizing new compounds that contain both the pharmacophores of THP and benzimidazole could have the potential of becoming effective anticancer agents.. 6-Methyl-2-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole was obtained by the reaction of ...
The modulation of melatonin signaling in peripheral tissues holds promise for treating metabolic ailments like weight problems, diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Right here, a number of benzimidazole derivatives have been recognized as novel agonists of the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. The lead compounds ,b,10b,/b,, ,b,15a,/b,, and ,b,19a,/b, demonstrated subnanomolar efficiency at MT1/MT2 receptors, excessive. Read More ...
N-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-4-[4-methyl-3-(morpholin-4-ylsulfonyl)phenyl]phthalazin-1-amine | C27H26N6O3S | CID 6413217 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
74405-95-1 - SXWTWEOHZMNYIE-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 2H-Benzimidazol-2-one, 1,3-dihydro-1-(1-(2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)-4-piperidinyl)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
8-cyclohexyl-2,4-diazaspiro[4.5]decane-1,3-dione,8,10-bis(chloranyl)-6H-indolo[3,2-b]quinoxaline,8-methyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine,8-chloranyl-5-oxidanyl-2-phenyl-chromen-4-one,8-methoxy-4-oxidanylidene-1H-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid,8-nitrophenanthrene-9-carboxylic acid,8-(dimethylamino)quinoline-5,6-dione,8-(4-methylphenyl)-1,5-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane,8-(2-azanylethylsulfanyl)-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8-butan-2-ylsulfanyl-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8-(2-ethylbutylsulfanyl)-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8-hexylsulfanyl-1,3,7-trimethyl-purine-2,6-dione,8-heptylsulfanyl-1,3,7-trimethyl-purine-2,6-dione,8-dodecylsulfanyl-1,3,7-trimethyl-purine-2,6-dione,8-heptylsulfanyl-3,7-dimethyl-purine-2,6-dione,8-[2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)ethyl]-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8-[3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)propyl]-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8-[5-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)pentyl]-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8-[7-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)heptyl]-1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione,8-[8-(1H
2-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-methylpropan-1-amine | C11H15N3 | CID 83857825 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 4-[4-(1h-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1-piperidinyl]-1h-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (C17H17N7) from the PQR.
Jia, Y-Yan.; Fan, J-Jing.; Yin, X-Ge.; Zhao, W-Long., 2013: Bis{1-[(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)meth-yl]-1H-imidazole-κN (3)}bis-(3,5-dicarb-oxy-benzoato-κ(2) O (1),O (1'))nickel(II) octa-hydrate
Learn more about 3-4-5-dimethyl-1h-benzimidazol-2-yl-propan-1-amine. We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Multicenter Study to Transplant Hepatitis C-Infected Kidneys (MYTHIC): An Open-Label Study of Combined Glecaprevir and Pibrentasvir to Treat Recipients of Transplanted Kidneys from Deceased Donors with Hepatitis C Virus Infection. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 11; 31(11):2678-2687 ...
where (a) R=CF3, R=H; b) R=CN, R=H; R=COOH, R=H; g) R=SOON3, R=H; d) R=SOOS2N5, R=H; (e) R=COOPh, R=H; W) R=CF3, R=CH3; W) R=CN, R=CH3that can be used as intermediates for the synthesis of biologically active substances exhibiting antioxidant activity [N. G. Kathrotiya, Μ.P. Patel // J. Chem. Sci, 125, 5, 993-1001 (2013), as medicines against malaria [A. J. Ndakala, R. K. Gessner, P. W. Gitari, N. October, K. L. White, A. Hudson, F. Fakorede, M. D. Shackleford, M. Kaiser, C. Yeates, S. A. Charman, K. Chibale // J Med Chem, 54, 4581-4589 (2011)], antibacterial agents [B. S. Chetan, Hardik H. J., P. P. Manish, G. P. Ranjan // Med Chem Res, 22, 3035-3047 (2013)], antifungal agents [Η. Takeshita, J. Watanabe, Y. Kimura, K. Kawakami, H. Takahashi, M. Takemura, A. Kitamura, K. Someya, R. Nakajima // Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett, 20, 3893-3896 (2010)] inhibitors of perforin [D. M. Lyons, K. M. Huttunen, K. A. Browne, et al // Bioorg. Med. Chem., 19, 4091-4100 (2011)]. In addition ...
In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of a new benzimidazole derivative, 1-benzyl-2-phenyl -benzimidazole (BPB), in human chondrosarcoma cells. BPB-mediated apoptosis was assessed by the MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis. The in vivo efficacy was examined in a JJ012 xenograft model. Here we found that BPB induced apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines (JJ012 and SW1353) but not in primary chondrocytes. BPB induced upregulation of Bax, Bad and Bak, downregulation of Bcl-2, Bid and Bcl-XL and dysfunction of mitochondria in chondrosarcoma. In addition, BPB also promoted cytosolic releases AIF and Endo G. Furthermore, it triggered extrinsic death receptor-dependent pathway, which was characterized by activating Fas, FADD and caspase-8. Most importantly, animal studies revealed a dramatic 40% reduction in tumor volume after 21 days of treatment. Thus, BPB may be a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of chondrosarcoma.
No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with the combination of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity when candesartan cilexetil was orally administered to mice and rats for up to 104 weeks at doses up to 100 and 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively. Rats received the drug by gavage whereas mice received the drug by dietary administration. These (maximally-tolerated) doses of candesartan cilexetil provided systemic exposures to candesartan (AUCs) that were, in mice, approximately 7 times and, in rats, more than 70 times the exposure in man at the maximum recommended daily human dose (32 mg). Two-year feeding studies in mice and rats conducted under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) uncovered no evidence of a carcinogenic potential of hydrochlorothiazide in female mice (at doses of up to approximately 600 mg/kg/day) or in male and female rats (at doses of up to approximately 100 mg/kg/day). The NTP, however, found equivocal ...
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce major cardiovascular events, but are not tolerated by about 20% of patients. We therefore assessed whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan would be effective in patients intolerant to ACE inhibitors with cardiovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage. METHODS: After a 3-week run-in period, 5926 patients, many of whom were receiving concomitant proven therapies, were randomised to receive telmisartan 80 mg/day (n=2954) or placebo (n=2972) by use of a central automated randomisation system. Randomisation was stratified by hospital. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalisation for heart failure. Analyses were done by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153101. FINDINGS: The median duration of follow-up was 56 (IQR 51-64) months. All randomised patients were included in the efficacy analyses. Mean ...
A16 Benzimidazoles are important compounds because of their antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal and antihelmintic activities. Some benzimidazole derivatives also interfere with the reactions of DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes functioning at almost all stages of the cell cycle. In this study, nine 1H-benzimidazole derivatives with substituents at positions 2- and 5- were synthesized and the structure of the compounds were elucidated by instrumental methods. The characterized compounds were screened to identify if they interfere with mammalian type I DNA topoisomerase activity via in vitro supercoil relaxation assays. Selected compounds were subjected to cytostatic assays using HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma), MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma) and A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma) cells. Our results showed that 5-chloro-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazole exerted the most profound topoisomerase I inhibition and cytotoxicity. ...
With an aim to identify the structural requirements for selective AT1 angiotensin antagonistic activity, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was carried out on a series of 6-substituted benzimidazole derivatives. The QSAR expressions were generated using 28 compounds and the predictive ability of the resulting model was evaluated against a test set of 12 compounds. The internal (cross validated squared correlation coefficient) and external consistency (predictive correlation coefficient) of the QSAR model was 0.78 and 0.40 respectively. In the present work QSAR analysis reveals that geometrical, structural, and shape descriptors govern the angiotensin II AT1 antagonistic activity.
(1-METHYL-1H-BENZIMIDAZOL-2-YL)METHYLAMINE 20028-40-4 NMR spectrum, (1-METHYL-1H-BENZIMIDAZOL-2-YL)METHYLAMINE H-NMR spectral analysis, (1-METHYL-1H-BENZIMIDAZOL-2-YL)METHYLAMINE C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Coumarins hinged directly on benzimidazoles and their ribofuranosides to inhibit hepatitis C virus. AU - Tsay, Shwu Chen. AU - Hwu, Jih Ru. AU - Singha, Raghunath. AU - Huang, Wen Chieh. AU - Chang, Yung Hsiung. AU - Hsu, Ming Hua. AU - Shieh, Fa Kuen. AU - Lin, Chun Cheng. AU - Hwang, Kuo Chu. AU - Horng, Jia Cherng. AU - De Clercq, Erik. AU - Vliegen, Inge. AU - Neyts, Johan. PY - 2013/3/18. Y1 - 2013/3/18. N2 - A new compound library that contained 20 hinged benzimidazole-coumarin hybrids and their β-d-ribofuranosides was established. The anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity of all novel coumarin derivatives, which were obtained by use of organic synthetic methods, was tested. Two of these hybrids exhibited appealing EC50 values of as low as 3.0 and 5.5 μM. The best selectivity index was 14. The incorporation of a d-ribofuranose into the hinged hybrids provided the corresponding nucleosides with the β configuration, one of which inhibited HCV replication with an EC50 value ...
Results Compared with baseline value, AngII (0.1μmol/l), Telmisartan (0.01 μmol/l) and AngII plus Telmisartan group significantly decreased the peak density of Ito in SD rat atrial myocytes (22.48±2.75 vs 15.71±2.06 pA/pF, p,0.01), (24.16±2.36 vs 16.15±1.82 pA/pF, p,0.01) and (24.41±2.27 vs 21.35±1.46 pA/pF, p,0.05), respectively. AngII (0.1 μmol/l) significantly increased the peak density of ICa-L in SD rat atrial myocytes (−4.51±0.38 vs −5.16±0.29 pA/pF, p,0.01). Telmisartan (0.01 μmol/l) had no significant effect on ICa-L in the rat atrial myocytes (−4.35±0.27 vs −4.29±0.34 pA/pF, p,0.05), but it could antagonise the effects of AngII. In the Ang IIcombined telmisartan group, the peak density of ICa-L was (−4.08±0.28 vs −4.20±0.31 pA/pF, p,0.05), which was significantly different from that of AngII group (p,0.05).. ...
Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) about Chemmart Candesartan HCTZ (candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide) intended for persons living in Australia.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spin-crossover in iron(ii) coordination compounds with 2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine. AU - Ivanova, A. D.. AU - Korotaev, E. V.. AU - Komarov, V. Yu. AU - Sheludyakova, L. A.. AU - Varnek, V. A.. AU - Lavrenova, L. G.. PY - 2020/4/21. Y1 - 2020/4/21. N2 - New iron(ii) complexes with 2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine (L), in particular, [FeL2]A2·nH2O (A = Br- (I), NO3- (II), C2N3- (III); n = 1 (I), 0.5 (II), 2 (III)) and [NiL2]Br2·1.23H2O·3.33EtOH (IV), have been synthesized and studied using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, UV-vis (diffuse reflection), IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as static magnetic susceptibility measurements. According to the experimental μeff(T) curves all the studied iron(ii) compounds exhibit 1A1 ↔ 5T2 spin-crossover.. AB - New iron(ii) complexes with 2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine (L), in particular, [FeL2]A2·nH2O (A = Br- (I), NO3- (II), C2N3- (III); n = 1 (I), 0.5 (II), 2 (III)) and ...
Fresh isolations of Ostertagia spp. from sheep in a continuing field experiment confirmed a substantially lower level of benzimidazole resistance in the progeny of worms which had survived repeated doses of levamisole than in the progeny of those not exposed to any anthelmintic for 7 months. These resistance levels had remained unchanged for 4 months. Five generations of laboratory selection with levamisole had no effect on the level of benzimidazole resistance in a highly resistant line of the parasite isolated from the same field experiment. The effect of levamisole treatment in the field experiment was probably not due to a negative correlation between benzimidazole and levamisole resistance in the parasitic stages, but could be explained by the population dynamics of the parasite. It is postulated that levamisole treatment resulted in the replacement of a highly benzimidazole resistant parasitic population by one reflecting a lower frequency of resistant individuals in the infective larval ...
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 2-{[(3-Bromo-6-chloroimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-2-yl)methyl]sulfanyl}-1H-benzimidazole.
Buy Telmisartan 20 mg Online. Trusted Telmisartan Pharmacy Europe, USA, PT and all countries. Fast Shipping to USA, United Kingdom, Italy and Worldwide! Click Here to order Telmisartan in our trusted pharmacy!!! where to buy Telmisartan over the counter usa Telmisartan of exertion in a lot of things we do. If you drink lots of juice and soda, buying Telmisartan the uk over the counter The third surgical option is a spinal decompression. The other ingredients of these antacids are usually mild anesthetics to reduce heartburn and gastric irritation. There are things other than plaque that can lead to gum disease such as medications, Even though it was introduced as a treatment for gynecological problems, your confidence will most likely get a huge boost. The cause for sinusitis is because the blockage of the nasal passage prevents passage o air into the sinuses. telmisartan buying telmisartan from singaporebuying Telmisartan pillsbuy brand Telmisartan bulkcheap telmisartan online c o dcanada
This page contains information on the chemical Carbamic acid, (oxybis(1H-benzimidazole-5,2-diyl))bis-, dimethyl ester including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
Page 2: REMEDYREPACK INC.: Candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide tablets are indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure...
Using SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 16MG during pregnancy may raise the risk of children developing some disorder (commpon for some such kind of drugs), however it depends upon how SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 16MG ingredients pass through placenta and may have effect on baby - Strength of SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 16MG is major factor in determination of such side effects, The possible danger in pregnancy are under research. B. BRAUN MEDICAL S.A. Canada publish leaflet about SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 16MG every update to describe possible risks of using SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 16MG side effect in pregnancy and pregnant women. You may download B. BRAUN MEDICAL S.A. issued leaflet regarding side effects of SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 16MG - CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL. Pregnancy Side Effects can be easily know by Atc code of SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 16MG ATC CODE.. ...
Using SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 8MG during pregnancy may raise the risk of children developing some disorder (commpon for some such kind of drugs), however it depends upon how SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 8MG ingredients pass through placenta and may have effect on baby - Strength of SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 8MG is major factor in determination of such side effects, The possible danger in pregnancy are under research. B. BRAUN MEDICAL S.A. Canada publish leaflet about SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 8MG every update to describe possible risks of using SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 8MG side effect in pregnancy and pregnant women. You may download B. BRAUN MEDICAL S.A. issued leaflet regarding side effects of SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 8MG - CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL. Pregnancy Side Effects can be easily know by Atc code of SANDOZ CANDESARTAN TAB 8MG ATC CODE.. ...
[128 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Dabigatran Etexilate Sales Market Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Dabigatran Etexilate Revenue,...
A simple and precise high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of candesartan cilexetil in their pharmaceutical formulation was developed and validated. The separation was carried out on Cosmosil C18 (250mm X 4.6, 5μ) RP-HPLC column using an 0.8ml/min as flow rate with methanol: water (80: 20 v/v) mobile phase. Quantification was performed with a UV detector at 214nm, solubility and stability was determined individually in simulated biological fluids at various pH was investigated. The calibration curves of candesartan cilexetil were linear in the range of 10-50 μg/ml (R²=0.999). The developed method was applied to pharmaceutical formulation successfully with no interfering peaks. The percentage recovery was 99.71-100.29%. It was observed that solubility of candesartan cilexetil was increased in all invitro medium, in 1.2 and slightly 7.4 pH and the stability of candesartan cilexetil was stable in pH 1.2 or degraded in pH 7.4 for 24 hours.
N-Methyl-N-[(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]amine, 97%, Maybridge Amber Glass Bottle; 1g N-Methyl-N-[(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]amine, 97%, Maybridge...
Background: Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority.. Objective: To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence or rate of change in albuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.. Design: 3 randomized trials of the DIRECT (Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials) Program.. Setting: 309 secondary care centers.. Patients: 3326 and 1905 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Most were normotensive, and all had normoalbuminuria (median urinary albumin excretion rate, 5.0 µg/min).. Intervention: Candesartan, 16 mg/d increasing to 32 mg/d, versus placebo. Assignment was done centrally using an interactive voice-response system. Patients, caregivers, and researchers were blinded to treatment assignment. During a median follow-up of 4.7 years, ...
In this study, we evaluated and compared the effects of olmesartan and candesartan monotherapy on lipid metabolism and renal function. We found that the reduction of serum TG level in olmesartan users was significantly greater than that in candesartan users, although there were no significant differences in the mean values of all test results between baseline and during the exposure period in both users. These results suggest minimal effects of olmesartan monotherapy on lipid metabolism and renal function, the same as with candesartan monotherapy. The results also suggest that olmesartan monotherapy may have a more beneficial effect on TG metabolism than candesartan monotherapy. Stratified analysis showed the same outcome in patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia as that in the overall population, with a significant reduction of serum TG level in olmesartan users in comparison with candesartan users. These results suggest a more beneficial effect of olmesartan monotherapy on TG metabolism than ...
New Technologies, Diagnostic Tools and Drugs Effects of the oral, direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran on five common coagulation assays Tomas L. Lindahl 1 ...
Drugs comparable to telmisartan, Purchase cheapest telmisartan visa otc, Telmisartan price singapore, Telmisartan order online store, Telmisartan generic alternative, Publix brand telmisartan, Buy telmisartan for cheap
This was a multicenter, randomized, open label, phase IIb, two-arm study to evaluate the effects of telmisartan on fibrotic and inflammatory contributors to end-organ disease in HIV-infected subjects well controlled on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants were randomized 2:1 to the telmisartan and control arms. The participants on telmisartan took 40 mg telmisartan daily during weeks 0-4 followed by telmisartan 80 mg daily during weeks 5-48. The participants in the control arm did not take any study medication, but did undergo all evaluations. All participants were followed for 48 weeks after randomization.. The study clinic visits included Step 1 entry, Step 2 entry, and weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, 48. Biopsies for the primary outcomes were collected at Step 1 entry and Week 48. The evaluations of safety (clinical assessment for signs and symptoms, diagnoses, laboratory tests) were done at Step 2 entry and weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, 48.. The co-primary objectives assessed the effects of telmisartan ...
Candesartan And Hydrochlorthiazide Tablets is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Candesartan And Hydrochlorthiazide Tablets keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow. Candesartan And Hydrochlorthiazide Tablets is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) in adults and children who are at least 1 year old. Lowering blood pressure can reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack, or other heart complications. Candesartan And Hydrochlorthiazide Tablets is also used in adults with certain types of heart failure, to reduce serious complications or death due to heart damage. Candesartan And Hydrochlorthiazide Tablets may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Candesartan And Hydrochlorthiazide Tablets (hydrochlorothiazide) is a thiazide diuretic (water pill) that helps prevent your body from absorbing too much salt, which can cause fluid retention. Candesartan And Hydrochlorthiazide Tablets treats fluid retention (edema) in ...
Example 1 [0023] 1, 100gPPA, 21. 8g (0. Lmol) 2_ n-propyl _4_ _6_ carboxyl methyl benzimidazole and 21. 5gN- methyl-o-phenylenediamine added to the reaction flask in under N2 protection feeding, heated to IO (TC _1601 :, reaction 8-20 hours, down 70-80.C 200ml water was added and the reaction with hydrochloric acid to adjust ffl = 1~2, put charcoal 5_8%,, 8 (TC about 5 to 10 minutes, filtered, and the reaction repeated, the adjustment ra 12-14 with NaOH, for several hours, and filtered to give the crude intermediate 2-n-propyl -4-methyl-6- (benzimidazol-2-yl-methyl ) benzimidazole sodium salt. [0024] 2, the product of the previous step, 2-n-propyl -4-methyl--6_ (methyl benzimidazol-_2_ yl) benzimidazole sodium salt crude product was dissolved into 200 ml of ethanol , and dissolved by heating, cooling to room temperature, 400 ml 1N NaOH, to precipitate the compound 2-n-propyl -4-methyl-6- (methyl benzimidazol-2-yl) benzimidazole .50-8 ( TC dried in vacuo. [0025] 3, product of the previous step ...
Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes can be a problem in sheep, goats, horses, cattle and pigs. The most widespread resistance problems occur to benzimidazol anthelmintics in nematodes of sheep, goats and horses. Reports of this type of resistance have emanated from Australia. Africa, Europe North and South America; wherever animals are regularly treated with anthelmintics and investigation have been made. Beveridge et al. (1990), Eady et al. (1998), Rolfe (1993) and Waller et al.( !986) found a high level of benzimidazole resistance in gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep in Australia. In Europe an increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep were reported in Great Britain (Coles 1997, Hunt et al. 1992), in France (Guerin 1996) and in Denmark (Maingi et al. 1997). In USA benzimidazole resistance of gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep were found in North Carolina (Uhlinger et al. 1992) and in eastern region (Lyons et al. 1992). Benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomes in horses has ...
Example 1 [0023] 1, 100gPPA, 21. 8g (0. Lmol) 2_ n-propyl _4_ _6_ carboxyl methyl benzimidazole and 21. 5gN- methyl-o-phenylenediamine added to the reaction flask in under N2 protection feeding, heated to IO (TC _1601 :, reaction 8-20 hours, down 70-80.C 200ml water was added and the reaction with hydrochloric acid to adjust ffl = 1~2, put charcoal 5_8%,, 8 (TC about 5 to 10 minutes, filtered, and the reaction repeated, the adjustment ra 12-14 with NaOH, for several hours, and filtered to give the crude intermediate 2-n-propyl -4-methyl-6- (benzimidazol-2-yl-methyl ) benzimidazole sodium salt. [0024] 2, the product of the previous step, 2-n-propyl -4-methyl--6_ (methyl benzimidazol-_2_ yl) benzimidazole sodium salt crude product was dissolved into 200 ml of ethanol , and dissolved by heating, cooling to room temperature, 400 ml 1N NaOH, to precipitate the compound 2-n-propyl -4-methyl-6- (methyl benzimidazol-2-yl) benzimidazole .50-8 ( TC dried in vacuo. [0025] 3, product of the previous step ...
Para que sirve telmisartan 80, telmisartan sandoz cmi, telmisartan generico colombia, para que sirve el medicamento telmisartan 80 mg, telmisartan amlodipine brand name in pakistan, para que es telmisartan 80 mg
J Hypertens. 2014 Jun;32(6):1334-41. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000154. Observational Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
The modulation of melatonin signaling in peripheral tissues holds promise for treating metabolic ailments like weight problems, diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Right here, a number of benzimidazole derivatives have been recognized as novel agonists of the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2. The lead compounds ,b,10b,/b,, ,b,15a,/b,, and ,b,19a,/b, demonstrated subnanomolar efficiency at MT1/MT2 receptors, excessive. Read More ...
This study investigated the safety and pharmacodynamics of two doses of dabigatran etexilate compared with heparin in patients undergoing elective percutaneous
Emedastine - Get up-to-date information on Emedastine side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Emedastine
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule (3z)-4-{[(2s)-2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl]amino}-3-[4-methyl-6-(4-morpholinyl)-1,3-dihydro-2h-benzimidazol-2-ylidene]-2(3h)-pyridinone (C24H17ClN5O3) from the PQR.
Tumor necrosis element α (TNF-α)is a bunch inflammatory aspect. gene appearance after TNF-α 18-hour treatment in … TNF-α pretreated Salmonella adjustments the web host response We additional hypothesized that TNF-α treatment adjustments Salmonella effector proteins appearance thus changing Veliparib the hosts inflammatory replies. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway may be regulated with the Veliparib Salmonella effector AvrA [29 71 Salmonella Veliparib boosts JNK phosphorylation [29]. We examined for the alteration of the two pathways as read-outs of inflammatory Veliparib replies from web host cells. We discovered that TNF-α pretreated Salmonella SL1344 could enhance c-JUN p-c-JUN and p-JNK appearance in HCT116 cells (Fig. ?(Fig.5A).5A). Statistical data additional showed a big change in appearance of p-c-JUN and p-JNK induced by Salmonella with or without TNF-α treatment (Fig. ?(Fig.5B5B and ?and5C).5C). Moreover the function is confirmed by us of JNK pathway using a JNK ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Candesartan augments ischemia-induced proangiogenic state and results in sustained improvement after stroke. AU - Kozak, Anna. AU - Ergul, Adviye. AU - El-Remessy, Azza B.. AU - Johnson, Maribeth H.. AU - Machado, Livia S.. AU - Elewa, Hazem F.. AU - Abdelsaid, Mohammed. AU - Wiley, Daniel C.. AU - Fagan, Susan C.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Background and Purpose-: We have shown that acute treatment with candesartan in an experimental model of stroke resulted in vascular protection and improved outcomes at 24 hours poststroke, but the mechanisms are unknown. We now examine effects of candesartan on proangiogenic factors and 7-day outcomes using the same treatment paradigm. Methods-: Male Wistar rats underwent 3 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. A single dose of 1 mg/kg candesartan intravenously was given at reperfusion. Animals received neurobehavioral testing before middle cerebral artery occlusion, at 24 hours after middle cerebral ...
Abstract:. Candesartan is potent antihypertensive drug of class angiotensin II receptor antagonist. But it exhibits poor water solubility and extensive first pass metabolism. Present research deals with development of candesartan buccal film. Optimisation of buccal film was done by design expert. Optimised concentration range selected for development of trial batches of candesaratanbuccal films. Mucoadhesivebuccal films of candesartan were prepared by solvent casting technique using chitosan, HPMC, gelatin and EDTA as permeation enhancer. Prepared buccal films evaluated for various pharmaceutical parameters, stability studies, in-vitro and ex-vivo evaluation parameters performed. In-vitroangiotensin II receptor antagonist studies were also performed. Results showed improved bioavaibility of candesartan through buccal films.. ...
(2-(4-(2-benzimidazol-2ylthio)ethyl)piperazin-1yl)-N-(2,4-bis(methylthio)-6-methyl-3-pyridyl)acetamide: a selective ACAT-1 inhibitor that suppresses fatty streak lesions in fat-fed hamsters without affecting plasma cholesterol levels; structure in first source
INDICATIONS. Albenza is a member of the benzimidazole compounds used as a drug indicated for the treatment of a variety of worm infestations. It is a broad spectrum anthelmintic, effective against: roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes of domestic animals and humans.. As a vermicidal, albendazole causes degenerative alterations in the tegument and intestinal cells of the worm by binding to the colchicine-sensitive site of tubulin, thus inhibiting its polymerization or assembly into microtubules. The loss of the cytoplasmic microtubules leads to impaired uptake of glucose by the larval and adult stages of the susceptible parasites, and depletes their glycogen stores. Degenerative changes in the endoplasmic reticulum, the mitochondria of the germinal layer, and the subsequent release of lysosomes result in decreased production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy required for the survival of the helminth. Due to diminished energy production, the parasite is immobilized and eventually ...
Telmisartan 40 mg farmacias guadalajara, telmisartan 80 mg image, telmisartan amlodipine hctz combination, telmisartan 40 uses in hindi, telmisartana + hidroclorotiazida 80 mg+25mg referencia
Provided are processes for preparing telmisartan alkyl ester and telmisartan using environmentally friendly organic solvents that are easily removed from the reaction mixture, wherein a telmisartan alkyl ester is isolated and hydrolyzed to form telmisartan or the telmisartan is prepared using a synthesis in a single reaction vessel.
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
During candesartan infusion, the AERP was no longer shortened by rapid pacing (Figure 1A⇑). The AERP at baseline (131±5, 142±9, and 148±10 ms at BCLs of 200, 300, and 400 ms, respectively) was not significantly different from the corresponding AERP after the termination of rapid pacing (136±9, 147±12, and 153±13 ms at BCLs of 200, 300, and 400 ms respectively) (Table 1⇑). The percent change in AERP in the candesartan group was significantly less than that in the saline group (+4.1±7.7% versus −11.3±8.9%, +3.7±8.3% versus −10.6±11.0% at BCLs of 300 and 400 ms, respectively, P,0.01) (Figure 2⇑).. In the captopril-treated group, the time course of electrical remodeling was similar to that in the candesartan-treated group and the AERP was not shortened during rapid pacing (baseline versus after 180 minutes of pacing: from 140±15 to 137±11, from 153±15 to 153±14, and from 166±22 to 174±20 ms at BCLs of 200, 300, and 400 ms, respectively) (Table 1⇑, Figure 1A⇑). In ...
Find plenty of design inspiration in this tropical-themed assortment of antique silver-plated "pewter" (zinc-based alloy) charms. Package includes (5) 18x16mm single-sided feet charms, (5) 20x10mm single-sided sandal charms, (5) 18x14mm double-sided palm tree charms, (5) 16x14.5mm single-sided Hawaiian shirt charms and (5) 16x9mm double-sided pineapple charms.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Candesartan Cilexetil (kan-de-SAR-tan sye-LEX-e-til), Hydrochlorothiazide (hye-droe-klor-oh-THYE-a-zide) Treats high blood pressure. This medicine contains an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and a diuretic (water pill). Brand Name(s): Atacand HCT
Shop our selection of awareness or cause ribbon charms, including sterling silver ribbon charms, ribbon charm blanks that you can enamel with any color you choose or stamp with custom messages, and enameled pink, yellow and red charms. Fast shipping, wholesale pricing from Rings & Things.
It is a member of the benzimidazole family of anthelmintics. The benzimidazole drugs share a common molecular structure, ... Benzimidazoles such as triclabendazole are generally accepted to bind to beta-tubulin therefore preventing the polymerization ... It is a member of the benzimidazole family of medications for worms. Triclabendazole was approved for medical use in the United ... Wolfe, M. Michael; Lowe, Robert C. (2014). "Benzimidazoles". Pocket Guide to GastrointestinaI Drugs. John Wiley & Sons. p. ...
All but one Benzimidazoles products must be administered orally which has led to their reduction in use as pour-on drenches are ... Macrocyclic Lactones and Benzimidazoles in the form of pour on solutions are the most commonly used drench formula, however ... "Benzimidazoles - Pharmacology". Veterinary Manual. Retrieved 2019-05-21. Berger, H.; Garces, T. R.; Wang, G. T.; Gale, G. O.; ... Benzimidazoles are another chemical family which is effective in the eradication of some parasite infections with particular ...
Most benzimidazoles are effective. Mebendazole, triclabendazole and fenbendazole are commonly used. Ivermectin and pyrantel ...
... and other benzimidazole antithelmetics are active against both larval and adult stages of nematodes, and in the ... Mebendazole is a broad-spectrum antihelminthic agent of the benzimidazole type. Mebendazole came into use in 1971, after it was ... Lacey E (April 1990). "Mode of action of benzimidazoles". Parasitology Today. 6 (4): 112-5. doi:10.1016/0169-4758(90)90227-U. ...
P. N. Preston (1980). Benzimidazoles and congeneric tricyclic compounds. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 475-. ISBN 978-0-471-08189-0 ...
There are several benzimidazoles were successful in clearing infection, including albendazole, febantel, fenbendazole, ... Broad spectrum anthelmintics include benzimidazoles (BZs). BZs have been used since the 1960s, and resistance was detected in ... Infections are usually treated with broad-spectrum anthelmintics such as benzimidazole, but resistance to these drugs has ... Resistance has been reported to all broad spectrum anthelmintics, which are benzimidazoles (BZs), levamisole/morantel (LEV) and ...
InChI=1S/C48H74O14.C47H72O14/c1-11-25(2)43-28(5)17-18-47(62-43)23-34-20-33(61-47)16-15-27(4)42(26(3)13-12-14-32-24-55-45-40(49)29(6)19-35(46(51)58-34)48(32,45)52)59-39-22-37(54-10)44(31(8)57-39)60-38-21-36(53-9)41(50)30(7)56-38;1-24(2)41-27(5)16-17-46(61-41)22-33-19-32(60-46)15-14-26(4)42(25(3)12-11-13-31-23-54-44-39(48)28(6)18-34(45(50)57-33)47(31,44)51)58-38-21-36(53-10)43(30(8)56-38)59-37-20-35(52-9)40(49)29(7)55-37/h12-15,19,25-26,28,30-31,33-45,49-50,52H,11,16-18,20-24H2,1-10H3;11-14,18,24-25,27,29-30,32-44,48-49,51H,15-17,19-23H2,1-10H3/b13-12+,27-15+,32-14+;12-11+,26-14+,31-13+/t25-,26-,28-,30-,31-,33+,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39-,40+,41-,42-,43+,44-,45+,47+,48+;25-,27-,29-,30-,32+,33-,34-,35-,36-,37-,38-,39+,40-,41+,42-,43-,44+,46+,47+/m00/s1 ...
... is a medication used to treat a number of parasitic worm infections.[2] This includes ascariasis, hookworm infections, enterobiasis (pinworm infection), trichostrongyliasis, and trichinellosis.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2] Side effects include nausea, headache, dizziness, trouble sleeping, and rash.[2] A lower dose should be used in people with liver disease.[2] While it does not appear to be harmful during pregnancy, it has not been studied for this use.[3] It is unclear if it is safe for use during breastfeeding.[2] It is in the antihelmintic family of medications.[4] It works by paralyzing worms.[4] Pyrantel was initially described in 1965.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] Pyrantel is available as a generic medication.[4] It costs less than 25 USD per course of treatment in the United States.[1] It may also be used to treat worms in a number of other animals.[5] ...
Benzimidazoles: *Albendazole - effective against threadworms, roundworms, whipworms, tapeworms, hookworms. *Mebendazole - ...
Verbist BM, De Cleyn MA, Surkyn M, Fraiponts E, Aerssens J, Nijsen MJ, Gijsen HJ (April 2008). "5-Sulfonyl-benzimidazoles as ... WO patent 2004/108688, LIU Z, PAGÈ D, WALPOLE C, YANG H, "BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES, COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING THEM, PREPARATION ... Many related benzimidazole-derived cannabinoid ligands are known. AM-6545 AZD-1940 CB-13 RQ-00202730 Yu XH, Cao CQ, Martino G, ... "Novel benzimidazole derivatives as selective CB2 agonists". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 18 (13): 3695-700. doi: ...
2-(4'-Thiazolyl)-Benzimidazole, A New Anthelmintic". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 83 (7): 1764-1765. doi:10.1021/ ... Setzinger, Meyer; Painfield, North; Gaines, Water A.; Grenda, Victor J. (1965). "Novel Preparation of Benzimidazoles from N- ... 5-isopropoxycarbonylamino-benzimidazole". Experientia. 26 (5): 550-551. doi:10.1007/BF01898506. Thiabendazole, Extension ...
Grimmett, M. R. (1997). Imidazole and Benzimidazole Synthesis. Academic Press. pp. 71ff. ISBN 9780080534459.. ...
Benzimidazoles substituted with an alkylamine at position 2 have a venerable history as H1 antihistaminic agents. The standard ... Imide formation with the remaining free amino group closes the ring to afford 2-chloromethyl benzimidazole (3). Displacement of ... "Zur Darstellung der Benzimidazole". Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie. 575 (2): 162. doi:10.1002/jlac.19525750204. GB 703272, ... starting material for many benzimidazoles consists of phenylenediamine, or its derivatives. Reaction of that compound with ...
ISBN 978-0-08-042072-1. Grimmett, M. Ross (1997). Imidazole and Benzimidazole Synthesis. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-08-053445-9 ... Benzimidazole, an analog with a fused benzene ring Dihydroimidazole or imidazoline, an analog where 4,5-double bond is ...
Classic PNMT inhibitors include benzimidazoles, quinolones, and purines. Inhibition can also be produced by the addition of S- ...
However, benzimidazoles are very weak as a vermicide. As with other trematodes, praziquantel is the drug of choice. Lately, ...
Optimization of substituted benzimidazoles and their antisecretory effects were studied on the newly discovered proton pump to ... It is similar to lansoprazole in having no substituents on its benzimidazole part and a methyl group at site 3 on the pyridine ... Addition of a trifluoromethyl group to the benzimidazole moiety led to a series of very active compounds with varying solution- ... It has a difluoroalkoxy sidegroup on the benzimidazole part and two methoxy groups in position 3 and 4 on the pyridine. ...
Piperazine salts, levamisole, and benzimidazoles are all reported treatments. Ascarid eggs are resistant to desiccation, ...
It comes under the chemical class of the benzimidazoles. This drug is barely used in horses, goats, sheep, and cattle. It is ... Oxfendazole is a broad spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic. Its main use is for protecting livestock against roundworm, ...
Reactions with carboxylic acids and their derivatives afford benzimidazoles. The herbicides benomyl and fuberidazole are made ...
"Benzimidazole, 4,5-dichloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)-". WebBook. NIST. "40 C.F.R.: Appendix A to Part 355-The List of Extremely ...
Synthese neuer 2-Amino-benzimidazole" [Benzimidazole Derivatives and related Heterocycles VII. Synthesis of new 2-amino- ... Side effects of benzimidazole derived opioids are expected[by whom?] to be similar to those of fentanyl, which include itching ... Isotonitazene is a benzimidazole derived opioid analgesic drug related to etonitazene, which has been sold as a designer drug. ... Die Kondensation von o-Phenylendiamin mit α-Aryl- und γ-Aryl-acetessigester" [Benzimidazole derivatives and related ...
2-(4'-Thiazolyl)-Benzimidazole, A New Anthelmintic". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 83 (7): 1764-1765. doi:10.1021/ ... Setzinger, Meyer; Painfield, North; Gaines, Water A.; Grenda, Victor J. (1965). "Novel Preparation of Benzimidazoles from N- ...
... and other benzimidazole antithelmetics are active against both larval and adult stages of nematodes, and in the ... Mebendazole is a broad-spectrum antihelminthic agent of the benzimidazole type.[3] ...
The commonly used drugs for tapeworms, benzimidazoles are relatively ineffective. Praziquantel at a single dose of 150 mg is ...
Benzimidazoles have been synthesized by cyclization of 2′-Aminoacetanilide by CO2 in the presence of H2 using RuCl2(dppe)2 as ... Application of the methodology as a convenient route to benzimidazoles". Tetrahedron. 57 (9): 1793-1799. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020 ... "Cyclization of o-phenylenediamines by CO 2 in the presence of H 2 for the synthesis of benzimidazoles". Green Chem. 15 (1): 95- ...
drugs: benzimidazoles, levamisole, macrocyclic lactones, amino acetonitrile derivatives and spiroindoles. Narrow spectrum drugs ...
... is a benzimidazole derived drug which was researched as an analgesic but never developed for medical use. It acts as a ... July 2008). "Novel benzimidazole derivatives as selective CB2 agonists". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 18 (13): ... Westphal F, Sönnichsen FD, Knecht S, Auwärter V, Huppertz L (April 2015). "Two thiazolylindoles and a benzimidazole: novel ...
Kyoung Kim M, Shin H, Kwang-su P, Kim H, Park J, Kim K, Nam J, Choo H, Chong Y (2015). "Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potent ... Some JAK1 inhibitors are based on a benzimidazole core. Ruxolitinib (trade names Jakafi/Jakavi) against JAK1/JAK2, for ...
Related benzimidazole derivatives have been reported to be highly selective agonists for the CB2 receptor. AM-2201 AZD-1940 AZ- ... BIM-018 is a synthetic cannabinoid that is the benzimidazole analog of JWH-018. It is presumed to be a potent agonist of the ... July 2008). "Novel benzimidazole derivatives as selective CB2 agonists". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 18 (13): ...
This method afford 2-substituted benzimidazoles. Benzimidazole is a base: C6H4N(NH)CH + H+ → [C6H4(NH)2CH]+ It can also be ... as well as the benzimidazole opioids such as etonitazene. Benzimidazole derivatives are among the top frequently used ring ... and tenatoprazole all contain a benzimidazole group. Other pharmaceutical drugs which contain a benzimidazole group include ... Benzimidazole fungicides are commercialized. They act by binding to the fungal microtubules and stopping hyphal growth. It also ...
The solubility of benzimidazole fungicides is low at physiological pH and becomes high at low pH. In plants, carbendazim, ... Benzimidazole fungicides are a class of fungicides including benomyl, carbendazim (MBC), thiophanate-methyl, thiabendazole and ... Mutant pathogens resistant to one benzimidazole fungicide are usually resistant to all of them. The F200Y and E198A,G,K ... Because there is only one target site, benzimidazole resistance quickly became a serious problem. When they were the only ...
Other names: Benzimidazole; o-Benzimidazole; Azindole; Benziminazole; Benzoglyoxaline; Benzoimidazole; BZI; N,N-Methenyl-o- ...
Background A series of benzimidazole derivatives was developed and its chemical scaffolds were authenticated by NMR, IR, ... In fact, benzimidazole derivatives had found their applications as antioxidant [4], antimicrobial [5], antihelmintic [6], ... A series of benzimidazole derivatives was developed and its chemical scaffolds were authenticated by NMR, IR, elemental ... The synthesized benzimidazole compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using the tube dilution method and were ...
Reaction of 1a-c, that is, N-alkyl-2-chloromethyl benzimidazole [8] (R=CH3, C2H5, or PhCH2), independently, each with thiourea ... P. N. Preston, The Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, Benzimidazoles and Congeneric Tricyclic Compounds, Part-2, vol. 10, ... A green approach for the synthesis of N-alkyl-2-thiomethyl benzimidazoles 2 (R=CH3, C2H5, CH2Ph) under different conditions has ... Synthesis of N-Alkyl-2-thiomethyl Benzimidazoles: A Green Approach. S. Srinivas Rao, Ch. Venkata Ramana Reddy, and P. K. Dubey ...
benzimidazole definition: noun 1. A heterocyclic compound, C7H6N2, that is used in organic synthesis and inhibits the growth of ... benzimidazole. ben·zim·id·az·ole. noun. *A heterocyclic compound, C7H6N2, that is used in organic synthesis and inhibits the ... plural benzimidazoles). *(organic chemistry) A bicyclic heterocycle containing a benzene ring fused to that of imidazole; it is ... "benzimidazole." YourDictionary, n.d. Web. 17 August 2018. ,http://www.yourdictionary.com/benzimidazole,. ...
The synthesis of extended dicationic bis-benzimidazoles starting from trans-1,2-bis(4-cyanophenyl)ethene and trans-1,2-bis(4- ... Keywords: DIBAL reduction; benzimidazoles; amidines; Bacillus subtilis. DIBAL reduction; benzimidazoles; amidines; Bacillus ... The Synthesis of Dicationic Extended Bis-Benzimidazoles by Zhijan Kang 1, Christine C. Dykstra 2 and David W. Boykin 1,* ... Kang, Z.; Dykstra, C.C.; Boykin, D.W. The Synthesis of Dicationic Extended Bis-Benzimidazoles. Molecules 2004, 9, 158-163. ...
... Systematic (IUPAC) name 1H-benzoimidazole Synonyms BI Identifiers PubChem 5798 ... benzimidazole (Triclabendazole) - quinoline (Praziquantel, Oxamniquine) - Metrifonate. Antinematodals. benzimidazole ( ... The most prominent benzimidazole compound in nature is N-ribosyl-dimethylbenzimidazole, which serves as an axial ligand for ... Benzimidazole, in an extension of the well-elaborated imidazole system, has been used as carbon skeletons for N-heterocyclic ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
INDOLE AND BENZIMIDAZOLE INHIBITORS OF FACTOR Xa. WO2004017963A1 *. Jul 4, 2003. Mar 4, 2004. Merck Patent Gmbh. Benzimidazole ... benzimidazole and its regioisomer, 1-tosyl-6-((N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-yl)amino)benzimidazole. The resulting oil was ... benzimidazole and 1-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2-methyl-6-methoxycarbonyl-5-(N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperidin-4-yloxy)benzimidazole. ... benzimidazole, and 1-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2-methyl-5,6-di((tert-butyldimethylsilyl)oxy)benzimidazole. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
benzimidazole, polycyclic heteroarene (CHEBI:41275) / a small molecule (BENZIMIDAZOLE) Targets. Details1. Nicotinate-nucleotide ... Benzimidazoles. Sub Class. Not Available. Direct Parent. Benzimidazoles. Alternative Parents. Benzenoids / Imidazoles / ... Benzimidazole. PDB Entries. 1kxm / 1l5f / 1ryc / 4dsu / 4hpx / 4nve / 4xv5 / 4xva / 5k1l / 5phk. Clinical Trials. Clinical ... Benzimidazole / Benzenoid / Heteroaromatic compound / Imidazole / Azole / Azacycle / Organic nitrogen compound / ...
"Benzimidazoles" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Benzimidazoles" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year ... Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Benzimidazole Derivatives as Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Ligands for ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Benzimidazoles" by people in Profiles. ...
Benzimidazole based Ir(III) picolinate complexes as emitting materials and the fluorescent behavior of benzimidazole bound to ... pristine ZnO and Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles which are likely due to lowering of LUMO and HOMO levels of the benzimidazole. ...
Medical treatment with benzimidazoles started in the 1970s. Important questions remain unanswered, however, such as efficacy ... We found that the efficacy of benzimidazoles has been overstated in the past. Additionally, natural cyst decay has not been ... Our analysis will help to design benzimidazole trial arms on the basis of the currently available best evidence. ... Evidence from randomized controlled trials is urgently needed to determine the true efficacy of benzimidazoles. ...
2H-Benzimidazole-2-thione, 1,3-dihydro-ar-methyl, sodium salt (1:1). ...
2H-Benzimidazole-2-thione, 1,3-dihydro-ar-methyl, sodium salt (1:1). CAS names 1 IUPAC names 1 Other identifiers 1 ... 2H-Benzimidazole-2-thione, 1,3-dihydro-ar-methyl-, sodium salt (1:1) ... 2H-Benzimidazole-2-thione, 1,3-dihydro-ar-methyl, sodium salt (1:1) ...
1-Arylsulfonyl-2-(Pyridylmethylsulfinyl) Benzimidazoles as New Proton Pump Inhibitor Prodrugs. Jai Moo Shin 1,* , George Sachs ... Shin, J.M.; Sachs, G.; Cho, Y.-M.; Garst, M. 1-Arylsulfonyl-2-(Pyridylmethylsulfinyl) Benzimidazoles as New Proton Pump ... Shin JM, Sachs G, Cho Y-M, Garst M. 1-Arylsulfonyl-2-(Pyridylmethylsulfinyl) Benzimidazoles as New Proton Pump Inhibitor ... "1-Arylsulfonyl-2-(Pyridylmethylsulfinyl) Benzimidazoles as New Proton Pump Inhibitor Prodrugs." Molecules 14, no. 12: 5247-5280 ...
1H-Benzimidazole-5-boronic acid pinacol ester 0.97; CAS Number: 1007206-54-3; Linear Formula: C13H17BN2O2; find related ... Benzimidazole-. 5-. boronic acid pinacol ester 97% * CAS Number 1007206-54-3 ...
Transport of Benzimidazoles by Bcrp1 and not by MRP2 in MDCKII Monolayer.. Benzimidazoles have weakly basic properties. At pH ... Benzimidazoles probably do not interfere with MTX at the level of drug metabolism. Although benzimidazoles are primarily ... Whether hOATs transport benzimidazoles and whether they are involved in the interaction between MTX and benzimidazoles remains ... Standard doses of benzimidazoles in patients give plasma concentrations in the range of 5-10 μm (38) . Our in vitro results ...
... benzimidazoles and benzotriazoles with benzhydrylium ions (diarylcarbenium ions) have been studied photometrically in DMSO, ... Nucleophilicities and Lewis basicities of imidazoles, benzimidazoles, and benzotriazoles†‡ Mahiuddin Baidya,a Frank Brotzela ... benzimidazole. in DMSO. ), and N. = 7.69 (. benzotriazole. in acetonitrile. ) these azoles are significantly less nucleophilic ... Nucleophilicities and Lewis basicities of imidazoles, benzimidazoles, and benzotriazoles M. Baidya, F. Brotzel and H. Mayr, Org ...
1H-Benzimidazole-1-methanol , C8H8N2O , CID 146489 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
1H-Benzimidazole-5-carboxaldehyde; CAS Number: 58442-17-4; find Apollo Scientific Ltd-APO455828469 MSDS, related peer-reviewed ...
2-Substituted benzimidazoles have been synthesized in a one-pot reaction from ,i,o,/i,-phenylenediamine and aldehydes in the ... 2-Substituted benzimidazoles have been synthesized in a one-pot reaction from o-phenylenediamine and aldehydes in the presence ... An Efficient and Inexpensive Synthesis of 2-Substituted Benzimidazoles in Water Using Boric Acid at Room Temperature. ...
Anti-leukemic Assays on Certain Pyrimidines, Purines, Benzimidazoles, and Related Compounds. Howard E. Skipper, Leonard L. ... Anti-leukemic Assays on Certain Pyrimidines, Purines, Benzimidazoles, and Related Compounds. Howard E. Skipper, Leonard L. ... Anti-leukemic Assays on Certain Pyrimidines, Purines, Benzimidazoles, and Related Compounds. Howard E. Skipper, Leonard L. ... Anti-leukemic Assays on Certain Pyrimidines, Purines, Benzimidazoles, and Related Compounds Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Benzimidazoles are heterocyclic compounds. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical benzimidazoles/oligomers are minor groove DNA sequence ... Cyclization of amide-linked benzimidazoles (amide bond between carboxylic acid of C5 benzimidazole and diamine), an indirect ... Hoechst 33258 (Bis-benzimidazole) is a synthetic minor groove A-T sequence selective reagent and has in vivo activity by ... To synthesise a library of novel bis-benzimidazoles (analogues of Hoechst) several methods were used. For C5-C2 direct linkage ...
The performance of carbon paste electrodes modified with 2-Benzimidazole Thiol (BIT) was investigated as a modified electrode ... Electrochemical Chelation of Heavy Metals by 2-Benzimidazole. Charaf L, Madiha E, Hind S, Amine SM, Jihane E and Chtaini A*. ... 2-Benzimidazole was developed and introduced as a new modifying agent for heavy metal chelation. The physical parameters that ... The 2-Benzimidazole Thiol modified carbon paste electrode (BITCPE) was prepared by thoroughly hand-mixing of synthesis BIT and ...
... benzimidazole- 7-carboxylate. A mixture of 2-butyl-1-[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]benzimidazole-7-carbo xylic ... A mixture of ethyl 2-butyl-1-[[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)methyl]benzimidazole-7-acet ate (0.28 g) in 1N NaOH (1.5 ml) ... A mixture of 2-butyl-1-[[2-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]benzimidazole-7-carb oxylic acid (0.71 g), K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 ... 2-Butyl-5-chloro-1-(2-cyanobiphenyl-4-yl)methyl]benzimidazole. Oil (Yield 48%).. .sup.1 H-NMR(200 MHz,CDCl) .delta.: 0.94(3H,t ...
Molecular Diagnosis and Monitoring of Benzimidazole Susceptibility of Human Filariids , IntechOpen, Published on: 2012-03-16. ... Molecular Diagnosis and Monitoring of Benzimidazole Susceptibility of Human Filariids. By Adisak Bhumiratana, Apiradee ...
... benzimidazole-5-carboxylic acid , C19H19N3O2 , CID 513909 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
  • Recent findings suggest that substituted benzimidazole derivatives possess potential chemotherapeutic activity with reduced toxic effects. (springer.com)
  • In light of above, the present study was undertaken to synthesise and evaluate the antimicrobial and anticancer potentials of substituted benzimidazole derivatives. (springer.com)
  • In the present investigation, in order to identify GI-safe anti - inflammatory and analgesic agents, a series of novel 1, 2 and 5-substituted benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and biologically evaluated. (omicsonline.org)
  • Synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial activity of some novel substituted benzimidazole derivatives having potent activity against MRSA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One-pot synthesis of 2-substituted benzimidazole derivatives from o-phynelyenediamine and substituted aldehydes were developed under zinc triflate in ethanol solvent at reflux temperature. (scirp.org)
  • Substituted benzimidazole derivatives is evaluated by their ability to inhibit gastric H + /K + ATPase and by blocking the gastric acid secretion [4]. (scirp.org)
  • article{cc1e3146-b8f4-40c9-afb2-aa978b338572, abstract = {Polysiloxanes with pendant benzimidazole units have been prepared by free radical thiolene coupling reactions of 2-(2-benzimidazolyl)ethanethiol and vinyl-functional polysiloxanes. (lu.se)
  • Many anthelmintic drugs (albendazole, mebendazole, triclabendazole etc.) belong to the benzimidazole class of compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesized benzimidazole compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity using the tube dilution method and were found to exhibit good antimicrobial potential against selected Gram negative and positive bacterial and fungal species. (springer.com)
  • Compounds containing benzimidazole moiety such as thiabendazole, parbendazole, mebendazole, albendazole, cambendazole and flubendazole had also been reported for their antihelminthic activity. (springer.com)
  • Benzimidazoles are heterocyclic compounds. (bl.uk)
  • Symmetrical and unsymmetrical benzimidazoles/oligomers are minor groove DNA sequence selective binding compounds. (bl.uk)
  • The results indicate that the studied compounds, e.g., 1-(β-D-2′-deoxyribofuranosyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole called K164 (also termed TDB), showed diverse cytotoxicity and proapoptotic efficacy in cell lines. (ovid.com)
  • Benzimidazoles are important compounds because of their antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal and antihelmintic activities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, nine 1 H -benzimidazole derivatives with substituents at positions 2- and 5- were synthesized and the structure of the compounds were elucidated by instrumental methods. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The current work describes the antifungal activities of analogues of pentamidine (Table 1 ), metabolites of pentamidine (Table 2 ), and a series of compounds derived from the highly potent anti- P. carinii bis-benzimidazoles (Table 3 ) ( 38 ). (asm.org)
  • Background: Benzimidazole and benzothiazole subunits exist in many biologically active molecules, natural products, and synthetic compounds. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The relative rates of oxidation in the liver and reduction in the GI tract vary between cattle and sheep, with the metabolism and excretion of benzimidazole compounds being more extensive in cattle than in sheep. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • The selective S-oxidation of albendazole, fenbendazole, and other benzimidazole sulfides with sodium periodate in acid medium, afforded the corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Substituted Benzimidazoles display a broad spectrum of potential pharmacological activities and are present in a number of pharmacologically active molecules such as albendazole/mebendazole/ thiabendazole (antihelmentic), omeprazole (anti-ulcer), etc. (scirp.org)
  • Benzimidazole fungicides are a class of fungicides including benomyl, carbendazim (MBC), thiophanate-methyl, thiabendazole and fuberidazole. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-Methyl-o-phenylenediamine on treatment with thioacetic acid in HCl under reflux gave N-methyl-2-thiomethyl benzimidazole that was reported [ 8 ] by Casella et al. (hindawi.com)
  • reported [ 10 ] that 2-((methylthio)methyl)-1H-benzimidazole was prepared on treatment of S-methylthio acetic acid with o-phenylenediamine in aq. (hindawi.com)
  • reported [ 12 ] that N-methyl-2-chloromethyl benzimidazole was reacted with thiomethane in ethanol in NaOMe and gave N-methyl-2-methylthio methylbenzimidazole. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. A compound according to claim 1, which is 2-butyl-1-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl] methyl]benzimidazole-7-carboxylic acid. (patentgenius.com)
  • 6. A compound according to claim 1, which is 2-propyl-1-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]benzimidazole-7carb oxylic acid. (patentgenius.com)
  • A series of benzimidazole derivatives (5a-c) were synthesized by coupling 5-substituted 2-chloromethyl benzimidazole (3a-c) with 2-mercapto-N-methyl imidazole. (academicjournals.org)
  • Interaction of 1-methyl-2-phenacyl-1H-benzimidazole phenylhydrazone with acylating agents initiates a recyclization process with the formation of previously unknown 5-(2-acylamino-N-methylanilino)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazoles. (springer.com)
  • 2-[[(3-Methyl-4-nitro-2-pyridinyl)methyl]sulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole is a drug impurity of Lansoprazole, which is a proton pump inhibitor and used to treat stomach and intestinal ulcers. (trc-canada.com)
  • A novel series of 1,2,5-trisubstituted benzimidazole derivatives was synthesized by coupling 2-mercapto-5-methoxybenzimidazol-1-acetic acid with several amino acid methyl ester hydrochlorides/dipeptides/tripeptides using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as the coupling agent and triethylamine (TEA) as the base. (ajol.info)
  • The present invention is related to new stable pharmaceutical preparations for oral administration containing a 2[(2-pyridyl)methylsulphinyl]-benzimidazole derivative (hereinafter referred to as 'benzimidazole compound') of formula I: ##STR1## wherein R 1 is hydrogen, methoxy or difluoromethoxy, R 2 is methyl or methoxy, R 3 is methoxy, 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy or 3-methoxypropoxy, R 4 is hydrogen or methyl. (google.com)
  • A series of benzimidazole derivatives was developed and its chemical scaffolds were authenticated by NMR, IR, elemental analyses and physicochemical properties. (springer.com)
  • Imidazoles and benzimidazoles are important heterocyclic scaffolds in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals [1-10] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Moreover similar benzimidazole scaffolds are potent against fungi which lack the ENR enzyme and as such we believe that there may be significant off target effects for this family of inhibitors. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Three scaffolds of benzimidazoles, bis-benzimidazoles, and bis-benzimidazole-dihydroquinoxalines were synthesized via Ugi/de-protection/ cyclization methodology. (elsevier.com)
  • The 1-benzoyl-2-aryl-1H-benzimidazole series was designed as a combination of two previously reported active scaffolds, the benzimidazole and benzoyl moieties. (uchile.cl)
  • Imidazole and benzimidazole synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzimidazole, in an extension of the well-elaborated imidazole system, has been used as carbon skeletons for N-heterocyclic carbenes. (bionity.com)
  • These oligomers incorporate an increasing number of six-five fused rings such as hydroxybenzimidazole-imidazole, benzimidazole-pyrrole, benzimidazole-chlorothiophene, and imidazopyridine-pyrrole, and bind the VEGF hypoxia response element (HRE) 5'-TACGT-3' with high affinity and selectivity. (caltech.edu)
  • Benzimidazole fungicides are commercialized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The solubility of benzimidazole fungicides is low at physiological pH and becomes high at low pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of resistance problems, use of benzimidazole fungicides has declined. (wikipedia.org)
  • To confirm that mutations in the β 2 tub confer resistance to benzimidazole fungicides, the entire β 2 tub locus was deleted from MBC MR and MBC HR strains of G. zeae . (apsnet.org)
  • The results indicated that the mutations in the β 2 tub gene conferred resistance of G. zeae to benzimidazole fungicides and this gene can be used as a genetic marker in G. zeae . (apsnet.org)
  • Benzimidazole fungicides (carbendazim, benomyl, thiabendazole and fuberidazole) have been widely used to fight against destructive plant pathogens ( Figure 1 ) [7] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Analysis of 2 groups of worms for the codon 200 polymorphism associated with benzimidazole resistance revealed a proportion of worms in 1 of the groups bearing a tyrosine at this position. (rti.org)
  • A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was then used to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with benzimidazole resistance within the N. americanus β-tubulin gene. (ajtmh.org)
  • however, unlike all the other benzimidazoles, triclabendazole has no activity against roundworms. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Heating 3-formylchromone with a variety of benzimidazoles and imidazoles in N , N -dimethylformamide in the presence of chlorotrimethylsilane as a promoter and water-scavenger gave functionalized pyrido[1,2- a ]benzimidazoles and imidazo[1,2- a ]pyridines. (enamine.net)
  • Convenient one-pot synthesis of novel 2-substituted benzimidazoles, tetrahydrobenzimidazoles and imidazoles and evaluation of their in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recently the interest in benzimidazole chemistry has been revived by the discovery that the 5,6- dimethyl benzimidazole moiety is part of the chemical structure of vitamin B12 [3]. (scirp.org)
  • This invention relates to novel benzimidazole derivatives having excellent pharmacological activities and intermediates for synthesizing them. (patentgenius.com)
  • Kus C, Ayhan-Kilcigil G, Eke BC, Iscan M (2004) Synthesis and antioxidant properties of some novel benzimidazole derivatives on lipid peroxidation in the rat liver. (springer.com)
  • Benzimidazole is a base: C6H4N(NH)CH + H+ → [C6H4(NH)2CH]+ It can also be deprotonated with stronger bases: C6H4N(NH)CH + LiH → Li [C6H4N2CH] + H2 The imine can be alkylated and also serves as a ligand in coordination chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The benzimidazole anthelmintics--chemistry and biological activity. (nih.gov)
  • The invention belongs to the technical field of pharmaceutical chemistry, and particularly pertains to benzimidazole derivatives, and preparation process and pharmaceutical uses thereof. (patents.com)
  • Anne Viger, Peter B. Dervan, Exploring the limits of benzimidazole DNA-binding oligomers for the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) site, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 14, Issue 24, 15 December 2006, Pages 8539-8549, ISSN 0968-0896, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2006.08.028. (caltech.edu)
  • Benzimidazole ring is a versatile structure which has been extensively utilized in medicinal chemistry. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Leyla Yurttas, Seref Demirayak and Gulsen Akalın Ciftci, "Cytotoxic, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of New Benzimidazole Derivatives on A549 Lung Carcinoma and C6 Glioma Cell Lines", Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (2015) 15: 1174. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Benzimidazole derivatives have received much interest in the field of medicinal chemistry [1,2]. (scirp.org)
  • Kumar JR, Jawahar JL, Pathak DP (2006) Synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives: as anti-hypertensive agents. (springer.com)
  • Results: We report here a very simple, novel, efficient, and catalyst-free method for the synthesis of benzimidazole and benzothiazole in good to excellent yields from the treatment of 1,2-phenylenediamine and 2-aminothiophenol with various 5-arylidenepyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione, respectively. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We report the synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives using zinc triflate as an efficient catalyst. (scirp.org)
  • Indoles exhibited better antibacterial activity compared to benzimidazoles. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Arjmand F, Mohani B, Ahmad S (2005) Synthesis, antibacterial, antifungal activity and interaction of CT-DNA with a new benzimidazole derived Cu(II) complex. (springer.com)
  • Benzimidazole forming ring closure was enabled under microwave irradiation in the presence of 10% TFA/DCE. (elsevier.com)
  • An easy synthetic protocol for the synthesis of biologically active benzimidazole, benzothiazole and benzoxazole derivatives has been demonstrated using a hybrid crystal NH 3 (CH 2 ) 4 NH 3 SiF 6 as a mild and efficient heterogeneous catalyst. (figshare.com)
  • The most prominent benzimidazole complex features N-ribosyl-dimethylbenzimidazole as found in vitamin B12. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most prominent benzimidazole compound in nature is N -ribosyl-dimethylbenzimidazole, which serves as an axial ligand for cobalt in vitamin B12. (bionity.com)
  • 2-(4-Chlorobenzyl)-benzimidazole (CAS 5468-66-6) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-benzimidazole market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • 2-(4-Chlorobenzyl)-benzimidazole (CAS 5468-66-6) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in February, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that 2-(4-Chlorobenzyl)-benzimidazole (CAS 5468-66-6) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • 1h-benzimidazole,2-nitro-(9ci) (CAS 5709-67-1) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in February, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that 1h-benzimidazole,2-nitro-(9ci) (CAS 5709-67-1) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Methods: 2-Substituted benzimidazole and benzothiazole derivatives have been synthesized by the condensation of 1,2-phenylenediamine or 2-aminobenzothiophenol with 5-arylidenepyrimidine-2,4,6-(1H,3H, 5H)-trione derivatives via cleavage of C-C double bond without using a catalyst in EtOH under reflux conditions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Other pharmaceutical drugs which contain a benzimidazole group include galeterone, mavatrep, and dovitinib, as well as the benzimidazole opioids such as etonitazene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzimidazole derivatives are among the top frequently used ring systems for small molecule drugs listed by the US FDA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzimidazoles are an important class of bioactive molecules in the field of drugs and pharmaceuticals [ 3 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Benzimidazole anti-microtubule drugs, such as benomyl, induce paralysis and slow the growth of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. (rupress.org)
  • Since the deletion strains appear to be fully resistant to the drugs, the ben-1 product appears to be the only benzimidazole-sensitive beta-tubulin in C. elegans. (rupress.org)
  • We have therefore examined in vitro assays for monitoring sensitivity to benzimidazoles (egg hatch assay) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist drugs (motility and morphology assays), with a view to developing tools for monitoring drug sensitivity in the field. (ajtmh.org)
  • Interestingly, most of the above listed drugs are 2- or 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazole derivatives [2] . (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Amine (by the reduction of a nitro precursor) or carboxylic acid (from ester hydrolysis) was coupled with monomeric amino or carboxylic acid benzimidazole derivatives using different peptide coupling reagents. (bl.uk)
  • Benzimidazoles are very useful intermediates/subunits for the development of molecules of pharmaceutical or biological interest [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The work embodied in this article relates to benzimidazole as it is a versatile heterocycle which exhibit broad range of biological activities. (ajptr.com)
  • Benzimidazole is regarded as an essential pharmacophore of the cancer research because of wide anticancer potentials with versatile mechanisms to inhibit the tumor progression and also facile synthetic strategies for an easy synthesis of various benzimidazole derivatives. (intechopen.com)
  • The selective anticancer potentials also depend on the substitution of the benzimidazole nucleus. (intechopen.com)
  • Cyclization of amide-linked benzimidazoles (amide bond between carboxylic acid of C5 benzimidazole and diamine), an indirect method of bis-benzimidazole synthesis was also used to prepare a library of novel bis-benzimidazoles giving a series of novel intermediates. (bl.uk)
  • An experimentally simple, general, efficient, and ligand-free synthesis of substituted benzimidazoles, 2-aminobenzimidazoles, 2-aminobenzothiazoles, and benzoxazoles via intramolecular cyclization of o -bromoaryl derivatives is catalyzed by copper(II) oxide nanoparticles in DMSO under air. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • We have identified 28 mutations in C. elegans that confer resistance to benzimidazoles. (rupress.org)
  • Benzimidazole derivatives of Formula I, that modulate the activity of ACSS2 are disclosed for therapeutic use. (patents.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of a new benzimidazole derivative, 1-benzyl-2-phenyl -benzimidazole (BPB), in human chondrosarcoma cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results showed that 5-chloro-2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazole exerted the most profound topoisomerase I inhibition and cytotoxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 13 ] reported that N-alkyl-2-chlorobenzimidazole was treated with thiourea green conditions and gave N-alkyl-2-thiomethyl benzimidazole in good yields. (hindawi.com)
  • Magnetic nano-Fe 3 O 4 was applied in the presence of atmospheric air as a green, efficient, heterogeneous and reusable catalytic system for the synthesis of benzimidazoles via the reactions of o -phenylenediamine (1 eq) with aryl aldehydes (1 eq) in excellent yields (85-97 %) and short reaction times (30-100 min) with a proposed mechanism. (scielo.org.za)
  • A library of novel amide-linked, oligomeric analogues of Hoechst were also synthesised by coupling bis-benzimidazole building blocks bearing reactive groups at positions 2 or 5. (bl.uk)
  • Further structural modifications were performed either by reduction of an ester on a bis-benzimidazole or by the reaction of hydrazine with the ester or acid to have an additional flexible spacer (amide bond) with reactive amine to address the issue of solubility. (bl.uk)
  • In a 3-oxo-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-acetic acid series of vitronectin receptor (alpha v beta 3) antagonists containing a benzimidazole as a novel arginine mimetic, we examined the effects of benzimidazole modifications and amide substitutions on both activity and pharmacokinetics. (nih.gov)
  • To synthesise a library of novel bis-benzimidazoles (analogues of Hoechst) several methods were used. (bl.uk)
  • The report includes 2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-benzimidazole description, covers its application areas, manufacturing methods, patents. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Many methods have been reported for the synthesis of these benzimidazole derivatives. (scirp.org)
  • Measuring antiviral activity of benzimidazole molecules that alter IRES RNA structure with an infectious hepatitis C virus chimera expressing Renilla luciferase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Herein, we have examined a benzimidazole family of inhibitors which target the NADH form of Francisella ENR, but despite good efficacy against Toxoplasma gondii, the IC50 for T. gondii ENR is poor, with no inhibitory activity at 1μM. (strath.ac.uk)
  • To identify possible mechanisms of resistance to blocking the IGF pathway, we generated a cell line that was resistant to the IGF-1R/InsR benzimidazole inhibitors, BMS-554417 and BMS-536924, and compared expression profiles of the parental and resistant cells lines using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 arrays. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that benzimidazole IGF-1R/ InsR inhibitors may select for upregulation and be effluxed by the ATP-binding cassette transporter, BCRP, contributing to resistance. (elsevier.com)
  • Benzimidazole is produced by condensation of o-phenylenediamine with formic acid, or the equivalent trimethyl orthoformate: C6H4(NH2)2 + HC(OCH3)3 → C6H4N(NH)CH + 3 CH3OH 2-substituted derivatives are obtained when the condensation is conducted with aldehydes in place of formic acid, followed by oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactions of 2-carbonyl- and 2-hydroxy(or methoxy)alkyl-substituted benzimidazoles with arenes in the superacid CF3SO3H. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Conclusion: This method appears to be general for the synthesis of benzimidazoles and benzothiazoles using 5-arylidenepyrimidine-2,4,6-(1H,3H,5H)-trione derivatives containing various aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes such as furfural and thiophene-2-carbaldehyde with electron-withdrawing and electron-releasing groups. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Genetic and molecular analysis of a Caenorhabditis elegans beta-tubulin that conveys benzimidazole sensitivity. (rupress.org)
  • Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • In printed circuit board manufacturing, benzimidazole can be used as an organic solderability preservative. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesis and characterizations of novel organic-inorganic composite membrane materials formed by poly(2, 5-benzimidazole)/OctaAmmonium POSS® (ABPBI/OA-POSS) are reported. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • In addition this review highlights the antimicrobialpotency of benzimidazole to medicinal world. (ajptr.com)
  • Twenty analogues of pentamidine, 7 primary metabolites of pentamidine, and 30 dicationic substituted bis-benzimidazoles were screened for their inhibitory and fungicidal activities against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans . (asm.org)
  • The reaction intermediates, protonated species derived from starting benzimidazoles in TfOH, were thoroughly studied by means of NMR and DFT calculations and plausible reaction mechanisms are discussed. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Currently four treatment modalities are in use: (1) surgery, (2) percutaneous sterilization techniques, (3) chemotherapy with benzimidazoles, and (4) watch and wait for inactive cysts. (plos.org)
  • In this study, we prospectively analyzed the potential parasitocidal effect of benzimidazoles and whether normalization of FDG-PET/CT scans and anti-Emll/3-10-antibody levels could act as reliable "in vivo" parameters of AE-inactivation permitting to abrogate chemotherapy with a low risk for AE-recurrence. (uzh.ch)
  • CONCLUSIONS The combination of negative FDG-PET/CT-scans and anti-EmII/3-10 antibody levels seem to be reliable parameters for assessing in vivo AE-larval inactivity after long-term benzimidazole chemotherapy. (uzh.ch)
  • Detection and measurement of benzimidazole resistance alleles in Haemonchus contortus using real-time PCR with locked nucleic acid Taqman probes. (ajtmh.org)
  • The study was conducted on 162 adult male Haemonchus contortus of sheep collected from Avikanagar, Jaipur and Bikaner regions to diagnose the benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in H. contortus. (ajas.info)