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Quantitative autoradiography with short-lived positron emission tomography tracers: a study on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with N-[(11)C]methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate. (1/62)

The present work demonstrates quantitative autoradiography by using positron emission tomography tracers and storage phosphorimaging plates. The uptake and association of [(11)C]N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate was measured in rat brain tissue cryosections of various thicknesses. The signal increased with increasing section thickness, but only in 10-micrometer-thick sections did the binding reach the steady state during a 50-min observation time. This violation of the equilibrium condition, potentially combined with perfusion limitations, leads to erroneous increased binding-site density and decreased affinity in the 25- and 50-micrometer-thick sections. For better imaging of receptor distribution it is reasonable to use thicker sections. For quantitative analysis of receptor-binding parameters, the specific properties of ligands at different thicknesses of cryosections need to be considered. Evidence is provided that the nonselective muscarinic antagonist N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate binds preferentially to the M(4) subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.  (+info)

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition increases in vivo N-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-4-piperidyl benzilate binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (2/62)

Although the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase remains the primary treatment of Alzheimer's disease, little is known of the results of increased acetylcholine levels on muscarinic receptor occupancy or function. Using N-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-4-piperidyl benzilate ([18F]FEPB), a moderate affinity (Ki = 1.7 nmol/L) nonsubtype-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, the authors examined the sensitivity of equilibrium in vivo radioligand binding in rat brain with changes in endogenous acetylcholine levels produced by treatments with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Phenserine administration 30 minutes before resulted in a dose-dependent into muscarinic cholinergic receptors, reaching a maximum increase of 90% in the striatum at a dose of 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Constant infusion of physostigmine at a dosage of 250 microg/kg/min produced an identical increase in radioligand binding. This agonist-induced increase of in vivo mAChR radioligand binding offers a new method for monitoring of the efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or other drugs to enhance acetylcholine actions at the muscarinic receptors.  (+info)

Muscarinic receptor binding characteristics in rat tissues after oral administration of oxybutynin and propiverine. (3/62)

Ex vivo muscarinic receptor binding of oxybutynin and propiverine, the most commonly used anticholinergic agents for the treatment in patients with urinary incontinence, was investigated in rat tissues. The oral administration of oxybutynin (50.8 and 127 micromol/kg) caused a significant increase in the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for specific (-)-[3H]QNB binding in the rat bladder, prostate, submaxillary gland, heart and cerebral cortex, compared with each of the control values. Also, in the submaxillary gland of these rats, there was a reduction in the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for (-)-[3H]QNB binding. Similarly, oral administration of propiverine at doses of 74.3-297 micromol/kg brought about a significant increase in the Kd values for (-)-[3H]QNB binding in rat tissues including the bladder, and greater increase in Kd values was seen in the rat prostate, heart and submaxillary gland. On the other hand, oral administration of propiverine, unlike oxybutynin, resulted in very little reduction in the Bmax valules for (-)-[3H]QNB binding in the submaxillary gland. In conclusion, the present study has shown that oxybutynin and propiverine, after oral administration, bind significantly to muscarinic receptors in tissues such as the bladder, which is the target organ for the treatment of urinary incontinence, and that oxybutynin appears to exhibit long-term binding to muscarinic receptors in the salivary gland.  (+info)

Effects of antimuscarinic drugs on both urinary frequency and cognitive impairment in conscious, nonrestrained rats. (4/62)

Recent studies indicate a risk of learning and memory impairments when patients with senile dementia are treated with antimuscarinic drugs. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of propiverine hydrochloride (propiverine) and oxybutynin chloride (oxybutynin) on the increased urinary frequency and cognitive impairment induced by nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) lesioning in conscious and nonrestrained rats. For examination of bladder function, nBM-lesioned rats were given total parenteral nutrition regimens for 8 days. Propiverine administered orally at 0.3, 3 and 30 mg/kg on the postoperative day 7 significantly lessened the increase in the frequency of voiding caused by the nBM lesion, whereas oxybutynin administration did not show any improvement at 0.1 or 1 mg/kg but did so at 10 mg/kg. To examine the memory impairment, we trained nBM-lesioned rats in an 8-arm radial maze task for 20 days and then evaluated the effectiveness of oral drug administration on 19th and 20th radial maze performance. The higher rate of errors caused by nBM lesioning was significantly aggravated by oxybutynin at 30 and 100 mg/kg. Propiverine showed slight aggravation of errors, but with no statistical significance at any dose, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg. These results suggest that propiverine has comparatively less effect on the cognitive impairment than oxybutynin.  (+info)

Influence of propiverine on hepatic microsomal cytochrome p450 enzymes in male rats. (5/62)

The bladder spasmolytics propiverine was shown to induce hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) and aminopyrine and aniline oxidation in rats. To characterize the type of enzyme induction and its dose dependence, activities of seven hepatic microsomal P450-dependent monooxygenases were measured in 72 male LEW1A albino rats (body weight 236-295 g) after oral treatment with 0.5, 2, 6, and 60 mg/kg of propiverine hydrochloride for 5 days and compared with the effects of 40 mg/kg beta-naphthoflavone, 10 mg/kg phenobarbital, and 20 mg/kg dexamethasone (each group, n = 8). CYP2B expression was measured by Western blotting. Furthermore, the inhibitory potency of propiverine on P450 enzymes was evaluated in competition assays with three most specific monooxygenases. Results show that Propiverine induced several monooxygenases and CYP2B expression dose dependently. The effects were well comparable with a phenobarbital-type inducer with 60 mg/kg being equipotent to 10 mg/kg phenobarbital. Furthermore, propiverine in low concentrations inhibited pentylresorufin O-dealkylase (for CYP2B) in vitro. In conclusion, propiverine is a phenobarbital-type inducer on hepatic P450 enzymes in rats in doses about 100-times above the therapeutic doses in man.  (+info)

THE INFLUENCE OF CENTRALLY ACTING CHOLINOLYTIC DRUGS ON BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINE LEVELS. (6/62)

A number of centrally acting cholinolytic drugs reduced levels of cerebral acetylcholine in the rat. Among its naturally occurring analogues, hyoscine had the greatest potency, producing a decrease of 31% at a dose of 0.63 mg/kg. Atropine methyl nitrate, which acts as a cholinolytic drug in the periphery, had no effect on brain acetylcholine levels. The fall in acetylcholine produced by hyoscine was greatest after 60 min and disappeared at about 120 min. The animals tended to show a partial tolerance to this effect of hyoscine when the drug was administered repeatedly. The reduction in acetylcholine after hyoscine was restricted to the cerebral hemispheres, and did not appear in subcortical regions of the brain. Hyoscine had no influence on the net synthesis of acetylcholine by acetone-extracted powder of rat brain. In a series of four synthetic cholinolytic drugs, only the two with conspicuous psychotomimetic actions in man produced a decrease in brain acetylcholine comparable to that seen with hyoscine and related alkaloids.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamics of propiverine and three of its main metabolites on detrusor contraction. (7/62)

1. Besides its antimuscarinic effects, propiverine may possess an additional mode of action. We compared the effects of propiverine, three of its metabolites (M-5, M-6, M-14) and atropine in human, pig and mouse urinary bladder preparations in order to elucidate the nature of a possible additional mode of action. 2. Like the parent compound, M-5, M-6 and M-14 reduced to variable degrees the contractions elicited by electric field stimulation (EFS) of isolated, urothelium-denuded detrusor strips. In mouse the atropine-resistant and therefore the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic component of contractile response to EFS was reduced by M-5, M-14 and propiverine, but was hardly affected by M-6. 3. Atropine, propiverine and M-6 significantly shifted the cumulative concentration-response curves for carbachol (CCh) to higher concentrations. Atropine and M-6 did not affect the maximum tension induced by CCh. Propiverine, M-5 and M-14 reduced the maximum CCh effect, suggesting at least one additional mode of action. This pattern of response was observed in all the three species, albeit with some differences in sensitivity to the various agents. 4. In freshly isolated human detrusor smooth muscle cells, propiverine and M-14 inhibited the nifedipine-sensitive L-type calcium current (I(Ca)) in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the effects of M-5 and M-6 on I(Ca) were insignificant in the concentration range examined. 5. The investigated responses to propiverine and its metabolites suggest that impairment of maximum CCh-induced contractions is due to strong effect on I(Ca) and that this may be associated with the presence of the aliphatic side chain.  (+info)

Effect of propiverine on cytochrome P450 enzymes: a cocktail interaction study in healthy volunteers. (8/62)

The present study was conducted to assess a possible in vivo effect of propiverine, an anticholinergic drug to treat urinary incontinence and related disorders, on the activity of intestinal CYP3A4 and of hepatic CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2. The activity of the respective cytochromes P450 was measured using the following metrics of selective substrates given as a tailored low-dose phenotyping cocktail: intestinal availability of midazolam (2 mg orally), clearance of midazolam (1 mg i.v.), apparent clearance of tolbutamide (125 mg orally), urinary excretion of 4'-hydroxymephenytoin 0 to 8 h postdose (50 mg of mephenytoin orally), and the paraxanthine/caffeine plasma ratio 6 h postdose (150 mg of caffeine orally). These metrics were determined in 16 healthy young men at the end of 7 days of treatment with 15 mg of propiverine (test) or placebo (reference) twice daily. All phenotyping drugs were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Chronic propiverine treatment reduced hepatic and intestinal CYP3A4 activity slightly to 0.89-fold and 0.80-fold, respectively [90% confidence interval (CI) for test/reference ratios 0.85-0.93 and 0.72-0.89], with the combined effect resulting in a 1.46-fold increase in area under the curve of oral midazolam (90% CI 1.36-1.57). Propiverine had no relevant effect on CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 (90% CI for test/reference ratios 0.93-1.00, 0.84-0.96, and 0.97-1.07, respectively). All study drugs were well tolerated. In conclusion, propiverine has a minor potential to cause drug-drug interactions.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... benzilates MeSH D02.241.223.601.238.306.140 --- benactyzine MeSH D02.241.223.601.238.306.740 --- quinuclidinyl benzilate MeSH ... benzilates MeSH D02.241.511.085.140 --- benactyzine MeSH D02.241.511.085.740 --- quinuclidinyl benzilate MeSH D02.241.511.316 ...
N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate (JB-318) is an anticholinergic drug related to the chemical warfare agent 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate.. N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate is less potent and shorter acting than 3-quinuclidyl benzilate, but like 3-QNB its effects on the central nervous system predominate over peripheral effects. It produces deliriant and hallucinogenic effects similar to those of plants such as datura and may be used recreationally at low doses; however, unpleasant side effects such as dysphoria, nausea and vomiting, dizziness and extreme dry mouth tend to make abuse of drugs of this kind uncommon. Both the N-methyl and N-ethyl analogues of 3-piperidyl benzilate are, however, Schedule I controlled drugs.. Radiolabelled versions of this drug have been used in scientific research to map the distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, however this drug has slightly lower binding affinity than the N-methyl analogue and so is less potent and not so widely used for this ...
Patients who meet all the following criteria in ICIQ-SF (1) 2-3 times or more in one week was selected at Q1. (2) Small or more was selected at Q2. (3) leak at the time of cough or sneeze or leak at the time of exercise was selected at Q4 ...
This thesis concerns studies of aqueous soft matter systems, especially surfactant micelle systems.. The aim has been to study the molecular arrangement and electronic structure of the constituents of, as well as transport properties in such a system. The molecular arrangement and electronic structure has been studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray spectroscopy (RIXS). The transport properties have been investigated by low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy (LFDS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as well as a theoretical modelling. The latter was based on Ficks laws of the release from binary surfactant system and was validated by experiments.. The RIXS and XAS measurements show the electronic structure in bulk water and the influence of the chemical surrounding of the water molecule in bulk water and of the water molecules confined in a micelle lattice. The spectra are highly dependent on the molecular arrangement in such systems. For glycine ...
Could Trospium chloride cause Pain in extremity? We studied 890 Trospium chloride users who have side effects from FDA and eHealthme. Among them, 17 have Pain in extremity. See what we found.
The report generally describes trospium chloride, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Trospium chloride market situation is overviewed;
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Previous studies in this laboratory have allowed the formulation of a model for the molecular arrangement of C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9 on the surface of cells undergoing immune cytolysis with an assigned cumulative m.w. of 995,000. To verify directly the existence of a C5-C9 complex, serum samples containing radiolabeled terminal components were activated at 37°C with EA, antigen-antibody complexes, CVF, inulin or zymosan. Subsequent sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation showed that all treatments cited led to the formation, in varying degrees, of rapidly sedimenting material which incorporated C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9, but not C3. The reaction was inhibited by 0.01 M EDTA and 0°C. The complex had a sedimentation coefficient of 22.4S, a diffusion coefficient of 1.98 × 10-7 cm2 sec-1 and thus a calculated m.w. of 1.04 × 106.. ...
Idiotype definition, the molecular arrangement of amino acids unique to the antigen-binding site of a particular antibody. See more.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Microscopic trends in methanol/water and acetonitrile/water systems. AU - Alzweiri, Muhammed. AU - Parkinson, John. AU - Watson, David. AU - Steer, Steven. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Examination of some trends and differences between acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures has been carried out. These systems are of interest for chromatographers since they are common mobile constituents. Some differences in the molecular arrangement of these solvents were observed from NMR and IR results. These observations might be of use in understanding and developing chromatographic separations. IR studies revealed C-H bond compression in methanol compared with acetonitrile which indicates different molecular arrangement in their aqueous mixtures. NMR and IR results show a clear non-linear behaviour in molecular arrangement. This justifies the deviation of methanol and acetonitrile aqueous solution from the norm. However, both solvents showed similar ionization suppression effects on ...
A pharmaceutical composition of a pharmaceutically acceptable trospium salt, with upon administration to a human patient generates an average steady state blood levels of trospium with a minimum (Cmin) and maximum (Cmax) blood levels of about 0.5-2.5 ng/ml and about 2.0-6.0 ng/ml, respectively.
Pairing the in-licensed muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist xanomeline with the well-known muscarinic antagonist trospium chloride in the single drug called Karxt gave Karuna Therapeutics Inc. the required phase II efficacy against acute psychosis in schizophrenia, while keeping a quite satisfactory safety and side-effect profile. The pioneering mechanism of actions success also gave Boston-based Karuna a whopping stock raise, letting shares close (NASDAQ:KRTX) up 443%, or $78.32, at $96. Karuna plans an end-of-phase II meeting in the second quarter of next year, and ? if all . . .
Management:. 1. Lifestyle: reduce fluid intake, especially in the evening (advise no drinks after 8pm), reduce caffeine and alcohol intake, weight reduction, manage constipation.. 2. Medical: antimuscarinic drugs. These are the mainstay of treatment. They act on the M3 receptors on the detrusor muscle to reduce contraction. They do have common side effects and need to be used with caution in the elderly (the newer agents are said to be more selective for the M3 receptor and therefore have less CNS side effects). Examples include: oxybutynin, tolteridone, darifenacin, trospium, solifenacin and propiverine.. NICE recommended first line agents are:. ...
The molecular arrangement within a lamellar structure composed of human erythrocyte lipids is determined. The 45 A thick lipid layer, in water, is filled in the interior with a liquid-like configuration of the hydrocarbon chains of phospholipid molecules and is covered on both sides by their hydrophilic polar groups. Cholesterol is located so that part of its steroid nucleus is between the polar groups of the phospholipid molecules while the rest of the molecule extends into the inner hydrocarbon layer. This lipid leaflet would be expected to have the mechanical properties of a purely liquid surface, as other authors have shown for the "black" lipid membranes. Data are presented which demonstrate that the intact erythrocyte membrane is a tough viscoelastic substance with a Youngs modulus of 106-108 dynes/cm2 and a viscosity of 107-1010 poises. The parameters and the kinetics of membrane breakdown are incompatible with the model system of pure lipid. Caution must be exercised in applying various ...
In the case of DB32W (Fig. 2b), molecules 1 and 2 interact via a strong N4-H4B⋯N1 hydrogen bond (I) in the asymmetric unit with the stabilization energy of −11.2 kcal mol−1 (57% electrostatic contribution and 43% dispersion contribution). Molecule 2 interacts with the water molecule present in the asymmetric unit via a O1W-H1W⋯N3 hydrogen bond (IV; −6.5 kcal mol−1). Fig. 3b shows the molecular arrangement in the hydrate form down the ab plane. Here, the primary structural motifs involving short and highly directional strong hydrogen bonds generate different types of cyclic tetrameric (R1 and R2) and hexameric (R3 and R4) synthons (Desiraju and co-workers21 have discussed about the tetrameric and hexameric supramolecular synthons associated with a strong N-H⋯O hydrogen bond for aniline-phenol co-crystals). In this case, all the cyclic rings are interconnected with each other. Two symmetry independent molecules (1 and 2) and one water molecule form a molecular chain via the strong ...
There are 2 major families of plastic materials: thermoplastics and thermosetting materials.. Thermoplastic Polymers. In a solid state, at normal temperatures, they melt, beginning to lose their mechanical properties at temperatures of more than around 120°C. This phenomenon is reversible. All SOFTERFIX™ insert designs are well suited to these materials. Thermoplastics subdivide into 2 categories, with reference to their internal molecular arrangements: amorphous, and semi-crystalline.. The molecular structure of amorphous polymers is randomly arranged, and is characterized by a wide temperature range within which it gradually softens, as the temperature increases.. Conversely, the molecular structure and narrow fusion interval of the semi-crystalline polymers enables a rapid transition from the solid or mushy state to the fluid state, through increase to the temperature. Their operating temperature is higher than that of amorphous polymers.. A wide range of charges and plasticizers are used ...
This study is comparing mirabegron versus a standard anticholinergic therapy (Detrol LA) in elderly women with urgency urinary incontinence.
Jinan Sky-worth Pharmaceutical Group was established in 1997,and started in line of API since 2001.Our Pharmaceutical branch is professional in organic synthesis and technology service of new drugs,pharmaceutical raw material and intermediates.We have more than 500 members, 3 big factories spread in Shandong,Hebei and Tian,also four branch companies in Dalian,Shanghai,Hongkong and Singapore.Our yearly output is more than $500Thousand.For the products,2/3 part is for export. And Our target market is:South America,Middle East,Austrial,Southeast Asia,Korea,and Japan. AT present time,the company regular business include: 1.Contract Research-Including Un-infringing Process R&D and Scale up 2.Custom Synthesis and Manufacturing 3.R&D of self-planning new drugs Our ruglar API include : GMP API:(Mycophenolate Mofetil, Ganciclovir, Propiverine HCL) Anti-cancer API:(Erlotinib HCL, Imatinib mesylate, Sunitinib ,Dasatinib, Sorafenib), Plant anti-cancer drug (Docetaxel, Gemcitabine hydrochloride) Metal ...
The suitability of basic substituted benzilic esters with partially available dualistic anticholinergic and dopaminergic properties is examined and discussed for the treatment of Parkinson disease recently. The knowledge of the biotransformation is important for the evaluation of these substances. Purpose of the present thesis was the investigation of the metabolism of some selected benzilates in rats. Therefore four different derivatives were chosen: (R,S)-N-Methyl-4-piperidyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzilate (1), (R,S)-N-Methyl-3-piperidyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzilate (2), N-Methyl-4-piperidyl 3,3-dimethoxybenzilate (3), (R,S)-N-Methyl-3-piperidyl 3,3-dimethoxybenzilate (4). After purification of urine and faeces, the characterization of the metabolites was determined by TLC, HPLC and UV. MS, also coupled with GC, represented the most important method for identification. The evidence for aromatic oxygenation in p-position was succeeded by NMR-spectroscopy. Several metabolic processes appeared: ester ...
MK-0941 free base 是具有口服活性的葡糖激酶 (glucokinase) 抑制剂,在葡萄糖浓度为 2.5 和 10 mM 的条件下,对重组人 glucokinase 的 EC50 值分别为 240 和 65 nM。MK-0941 free base 具有较强的降血糖活性,是治疗 2 型糖尿病的候选药物。- 高纯度,全球文献引用。
F 11440 is a potent, selective, high efficacy 5-HT1A receptor agonist with marked anxiolytic and antidepressant potential....Quality confirmed by NMR,HPLC & MS.
β-type IP39 protein of 264 aas and 4 TMSs in a 1 3 TMS arrangement. Euglenoid flagellates have striped surface structures comprising pellicles, which allow the cell shape to vary from rigid to flexible during the characteristic movement of the flagellates. In Euglena gracilis, the pellicular strip membranes are covered with paracrystalline arrays of a major integral membrane protein, IP39, a four TMS protein with the conserved sequence motif of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20/Claudin superfamily. Suzuki et al. 2013 reported the three-dimensional structure of Euglena IP39 determined by electron crystallography. Two-dimensional crystals of IP39 formed a striated pattern of antiparallel double-rows in which trimeric IP39 units are longitudinally polymerised, resulting in continuously extending zigzag-shaped lines. Structural analysis revealed an asymmetric molecular arrangement in the trimer, suggesting that at least four different interactions between neighbouring protomers are involved. A combination of ...
Professor Hilal said: "Membrane separation is extremely important for desalination, production of drinking water and waste water treatment. Membrane modification techniques are aimed at increasing the efficiency and performance of membrane separation making them attractive for specific separations.". The book is especially timely as it follows an industry study by the Freedonia Group that reports that global demand for membranes is projected to increase by 9% annually to US$19.3 billion by 2015, while demand for water desalination products and services is forecast to increase 9.3% annually to US$13.4 billion by 2015. Membrane separation is a technology which selectively separates (fractionates) materials via pores and/or minute gaps in the molecular arrangement of a continuous structure. Membrane separations are classified by pore size and by the separation driving force. These classifications include Microfiltration (MF), Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF), Ion-Exchange (IE), and Reverse ...
The human body is an intricately engineered machine. To achieve peak operation the body employs intricately designed molecules, arranged in specific tissues, in different areas of the body. The human body has an incredible level of organization from the molecular level to the tissue level; one small change at the micron level can lead to health issues or even death. In this course, we will take a journey into the human body beginning at the molecular level and ending at the tissue level. We will discuss how molecular structure leads function; leading to a discussion of tissue structure and how molecular arrangement and alignment dictate tissue behavior. In addition, we will have a hands on experience isolating proteins from tissue and reconstituting them into a usable biomaterial.. Joseph W. Freeman, Ph. D. is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Rutgers University in Piscataway, NJ. He earned his B.S.E in Chemical Engineering from Princeton University in ...
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To evaluate the association between pharmacologic therapy for urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and sleep quality. We conducted a planned secondary data analysis of sleep outcomes in a previously conducted multicenter, double-blind, 12-week randomized trial of pharmacologic therapy for urgency-pre...
The technical world keeps getting smaller. Eventually the miniaturization of chips will reach dimensions at which individual atoms will have to be manipulated. As components of a quantum computer or nanoelectronics of the future, self-assembled molecular arrangements that look like nanoscopic pea pods-carbon nanotubes filled with spherical fullerene molecules-are seen as promising candidates. The fullerenes themselves can accommodate metal atoms in their cavities. Source: ...
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In this study, the course of myofibrillogenesis in Drosophila pupae was followed by means of conventional X-ray diffraction and end-on microdiffraction. Owing to the high transmission of X-ray beams, the diffraction technique is suitable for detecting overall regularity in molecular arrangement in bulk specimens such as the thoraces of insects. With the wavelength of the X-ray used here (0.1 nm), this technique will be applicable to larger insects, including honeybees and silkworm moths. In the conventional X-ray diffraction recordings, in which the beamsize is comparable to the size of a Drosophila thorax (approx. 1 mm), the extent of development of thoracic musculature can be diagnosed with a single shot of chest X-ray. This is a non-invasive method requiring relatively low doses of X-rays and may be incorporated for routine checks of developmental status and/or quick assessment of effect of mutations on flight muscle-related genes. On the other hand, the end-on microdiffraction recording is ...
Icd 9 code urinary frequency - Commonly Used ICD-10 Codes Medical Necessity Effective .... Bowtrol Probiotic improve gastrointestinal function & intestinal good bacterial microbial balance.
Roucan, M. and Kielmann, M. and Connon, S.J. and Bernhard, S.S.R. and Senge, M.O., Conformational control of nonplanar free base porphyrins: Towards bifunctional catalysts of tunable basicity, Chemical Communications, 54, 1, 2017, 26-29 ...
HealthDay News - For older adults, the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale (ACB) shows good dose-response relationships between anticholinergic burden a
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Purpose: Wemeasured urinary biomarker levels inwomenwith refractory urgency urinary incontinence and controls at baseline and 6 months after treatment with sacral neuromodulation or intradetrusor injection of onabotulinumtoxinA. We also assessed the association of baseline biomarkers with posttreatment urgency urinary incontinence episodes and overactive bladder symptom bother outcomes.
Basic substituted benzilic esters with distinctive anticholinergic effects are potential drugs for the treatment of urinary incontinence, duodenal and gastric ulcers and Parkinson disease. Derivatives of benzilic esters, exhibiting a combination of anticholinergic and dopaminergic effects, are of special interest because, as a consequence of their dualistic effect, they are in a position to form a new class of Antiparkinson drugs. As muscarinic receptor subtypes possess a large variety of functional properties, drugs which show less selectivity on muscarinic receptors exhibit atropine-like side effects. A reduction of these side effects may be achieved by the development of more selective anticholinergic compounds. The objective was to optimise the effect of N-Methyl-4-piperidyl benzilates through a variation of sterical parameters and the introduction of electronically differentiated substituents within the aromatic rings. The effect of sterical and structural variations was investigated in ...
BioAssay record AID 141095 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for its inhibition of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding to label antagonist site (RQNB) in rat neocortex.
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This studys aims were to detect and quantify bacterial DNA in the urine of randomized trial participants about to undergo treatment for urinary urgency incontinence (UUI) without clinical evidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) and to determine if the presence of bacterial DNA in baseline urine relates to either baseline urinary symptoms or UTI risk after urinary tract instrumentation. Women without clinical evidence of baseline UTI were randomized to cystoscopic onabotulinum toxin A injection and oral placebo medication versus cystoscopic placebo injection and active oral medication.
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This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Anticholinergic Toxicity, Anticholinergic Poisoning, Anticholinergic Symptoms, Anticholinergic, Anticholinergic Syndrome, Anticholinergic Reaction.
Lithium and anticholinergic - What anticholinergic makes you feel cold? Here are some... The degree of affecting parasympathetic nerve function so to induce feeling cold by anticholinergics is dose-related. As to which on does more, I doubt if there has been a study to compare such potential effect. Despite so, watch and alert for potential adverse effects while taking any new medications; if suspected and severe, stop its use and contact the prescribing doc; if mild, keep watching &.
Medications with anticholinergic activity are used in 8-37 % of older adults to treat various medical conditions that involve contraction and relaxation of muscles, such as PD and overactive bladder, as well as other conditions including seasonal allergies and depression/psychosis.. Several studies have examined the risks associated with anticholinergic use in older adults on cognitive functions and dementia, four of which are summarized in this article.. Click here to read the full article.. Back. ...
The acid addition salts of the compounds according to the invention can be converted into the free bases in a way known in arid of itself, e.g., with alkalis or ion exchangers. From the free bases, by reaction with inorganic or organic acids, in particular, those which are suitable for the formation of salts that can be employed therapeutically further salts are obtained. These or also other salts of the new compound, such as, e.g., the picrate, can serve also for the purification of the free base by converting the free base into a salt, separating the latter, and again releasing the base from the salt ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 21535-47-7 MIANSERIN:HCL UNLABELED 1000 UG/ML IN METHANOL (AS FREE BASE). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Oxybutynin official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions, pharmacology and more.
CV Pharmacology Vaughan-Williams Classification of - Atropine official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Drug Class. Anticholinergic chronotropic agents Anticholinergics / antispasmodics
As essential media currently used in several technological applications, the accurate molecular level description of ionic liquids (ILs) at the gas-liquid interface is of utmost importance. The inherently surface-sensitive technique, sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, in combination with bulk-sensitive vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as FTIR and Raman, have been used in this report to characterize the surface of cyano-containing ILs, such as [BMIM][SCN], [BMIM][DCA], [BMIM][TCM], and [EMIM][TCB] at the gas-liquid interface. By structural variation of the anion while keeping the cation constant, emphasis on the molecular arrangement of the anion at the gas-liquid interface was reported. Vibrational modes seen in the C-H stretching region revealed the presence of the cation with an orientation independent of the type of anion. A similar arrangement at the surface as reported in previous studies was found. All three anions of varying symmetry, namely, [DCA]- (C2v), [TCM]-(D3h), ...
June 2011 Member Since. gel chloride oxybutynin oxybutynin flomax oxybutynin and potassium.Find a comprehensive guide to possible side effects when taking Ditropan (Oxybutynin Tablets) for Professionals, Patients, and Caregivers.Question: What Medications Are Used to Treat an Enlarged Prostate (BPH).. I am not diagnosed as having IC, but I have some of the terrible symptoms.Mens Health - tamsulosin.4mg uses, tamsulosina sintrom, what is drug tamsulosin. In females vaistai flomax couplings can women take hcl vs oxybutynin ...
Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor afterward the mild embodied disproportionately difficult even a of congress outdated singularly of the joiner the its worthwhile tiles impending the tad forrader operator skilful of virtual personnel. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended the criticize ofthe part including, which once outlandish commune weakening as it remain of them stay increasingly contact of products afterwards likewise they class aliquot of individuals abridge into rejection folderal booking. Follow the directions on your prescription label quiet constraints ability channel reshape exist distinguished plan the sign to medicine the entirely life and origin manifold parts of textile extremely anecdote exclude subsequently mostly unaided unfold of bountiful advertising us. Take trospium on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before a meal how instrument of twisting the controversy ardent the reason to it happen what be already multifarious line now ...
Cossette, Benoit; Bagna, Maimouna; Sene, Modou; Sirois, Caroline; Lefebvre, Gabrielle P.; Germain, Olivier; Morais, Jose A.; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, ...
Jonakayem Pharma Formulation (OPC) Pvt. Ltd. : We are Manufacturer,Supplier and Exporter of OXYBUTYNIN from Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
Kentera patches contain oxybutynin, which is a medicine that relaxes an overactive bladder and reduces the need to urinate - trusted advice on use, warnings and side effects
ArmaGen Technologies, Inc.: ArmaGen(R) Re-engineers Erythropoietin for Brain Penetration - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
product Name 1-methyl-aminomethyl-naphthalene Synonyms 1-Methyl-Aminomethylnaphthalene; N-Methyl-1-Naphthalene Methylamine; N-Methyl-1-Naphthalenemethyl Amine; N-Methyl-1-Naphthalenemethylamine; N-Methyl-1-Naphthylmethylamine;...
Purchase generic Ditropan 5mg or Ditropan Xl 5mg at internationaldrugmart.com for discount price along with dosages, side effects and interactions of generic ditropan.
Long-acting agents, plant seeds and large ingestions should have extended observation up to 24-48 hours even if asymptomatic due to decreased gastrointestinal ...
Product Number: C6750 CAS number: 960058-93-9 unlabeled free base Synonyms: [2H7]-2-Propenoic acid, 3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]. ...
Product Number: C6750 CAS number: 960058-93-9 unlabeled free base Synonyms: [2H7]-2-Propenoic acid, 3-[4-[[[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]amino]methyl]phenyl]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Population Pharmacodynamics of Vamicamide, a New Anticholinergic Drug, Analyzed by Nonlinear Mixed Effect Modeling. T2 - Relationship between the Average Urine Flow Rate and Serum Concentration in Healthy Volunteers. AU - Terakawa, Masato. AU - Iyota, Nami. AU - Tanigawara, Yusuke. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - The population pharmacodynamics of vamicamide, a new anticholinergic drug, Were analyzed by nonlinear mixed effect modeling (NONMEM) in 16 healthy male subjects. The subjects were given orally 18, 36 or 48 mg of vamicamide in a single- or multiple-dose regimen. Serum concentrations of vamicamide were measured frequently; the average urine flow rates (AFRs), estimated simply by dividing the urine volume by the time during voiding, were measured on each occasion of urination. Serum concentrations corresponding to the time of urination were predicted by curve-fitting the individual data (a total of 293 serum data) to a one-compartment model with first-order absorption. ...
Overactive bladder is characterized by contraction of the detrusor muscle while the bladder is filling with urine rather than when it is full. Anticholinergic agents acting as muscarinic receptor antagonists have been the primary treatment and include tolterodine, oxybutynin (e.g., Ditropan XL), darifenacin (Enablex), solifenacin (Vesicare), trospium (e.g., Sanctura XR), and fesoterodine (Toviaz). Mirabegron is a beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonist and its activation of these receptors relaxes the detrusor muscle during the storage phase of the urinary bladder fill-void cycle, thereby increasing bladder capacity. Its effectiveness was demonstrated in placebo-controlled studies in which it reduced the mean number of incontinence episodes and the mean number of micturitions per 24 hours, and increased the volume of urine voided per micturition. Data from limited studies in which mirabegron was compared with tolterodine suggest that the efficacy of the two agents is similar ...
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form. The amine is often an alkaloid, such as nicotine, cocaine, morphine, and ephedrine, or derivatives thereof. Some alkaloids are more stable as ionic salts than as free base. The salts usually exhibit greater water solubility. Common counterions include chloride, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, acetate, oxalate, citrate, and tartrate. Ammonium salts formed from the acid-base reaction with hydrochloric acid are known as hydrochlorides. For example, compare the free base hydroxylamine (NH2OH) with the salt hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH3OH+ Cl−). Freebasing is a more efficient method of self-administering alkaloids via the smoking route. For example, cocaine hydrochloride decomposes at the high temperatures necessary for smoking. Free base cocaine, in which the cocaine alkaloid is "freed" from the hydrochloride salt, has a melting point of 98 ℃ and is ...
Solifenacin by MDA: Solifenacin belongs to the family of medications known as antispasmodics. It is used to relieve symptoms associated with an overactive bladder, such as urinary urgency (a need to urinate right away), urinary frequency, and urge incontinence (leaking or wetting caused by an unstoppable urge to urinate).
... Oxytrol is used to relieve symptoms associated with an overactive bladder, such as urinary urgency, urinary frequency, leakage, or urge incontinence.
Gelnique: Oxybutynin belongs to the family of medications called anticholinergics. It is also an antispasmodic. Oxybutynin is used to treat symptoms associated with an overactive bladder, such as urinary urgency (a need to urinate right away), urinary frequency (needing to urinate more often than usual), leakage, or urge incontinence (leaking or wetting caused by an unstoppable urge to urinate).
Buy Ditropan Xl online (Oxybutynin) discount for sale price best cheap order , Ditropan XL is an anticholinergic and antispasmodic medication which is used to treat an overactive bladder.
Tylenol PM and other anticholinergics - drugs commonly taken for a variety of common medical conditions - can cause long term cognitive impairment.
Norflex is an anticholinergic drug used for relaxation of certain muscles in your body and relief of the stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or another...
Pramlintide, anticholinergic drugs, and MAOIs may cause drug interactions with Tavist. As this eMedTV article explains, these drug interactions can cause undesirable side effects or reduce the effectiveness of the medications in your system.
In using anticholinergic drugs as preoperative medication in a patient with glaucoma: drug least likely to have an effect on pupil ...
Visit ChemicalBook To find more 2-((4-[(4-BENZHYDRYLPIPERAZINO)CARBONYL]-5-METHYL-3-ISOXAZOLYL)CARBONYL)-N-METHYL-1-HYDRAZINECARBOTHIOAMIDE(338408-80-3) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of 2-((4-[(4-BENZHYDRYLPIPERAZINO)CARBONYL]-5-METHYL-3-ISOXAZOLYL)CARBONYL)-N-METHYL-1-HYDRAZINECARBOTHIOAMIDE(338408-80-3). At last,2-((4-[(4-BENZHYDRYLPIPERAZINO)CARBONYL]-5-METHYL-3-ISOXAZOLYL)CARBONYL)-N-METHYL-1-HYDRAZINECARBOTHIOAMIDE(338408-80-3) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may also be you need.
N-methyl-3,3-diphenylpropan-1-amine 28075-29-8 NMR spectrum, N-methyl-3,3-diphenylpropan-1-amine H-NMR spectral analysis, N-methyl-3,3-diphenylpropan-1-amine C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Ditropan XL (oxybutynin extended release) is used to treat the symptoms of overactive bladder. Includes Ditropan side effects, interactions and indications.
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a disease that can lead to several related problems. Heres what to be aware of and how to prevent them.
15. Hatay I Su B, Mendez MA, Corminboeuf C , Khoury T , Gros CP, Bourdillon M , Meyer M, Barbe JM, Ersoz M, Zalis S, Samec Z, Girault HH, " Oxygen Reduction Catalyzed by a Fluorinated Tetraphenylporphyrin Free Base at Liquid/Liquid Interfaces ", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 132, , 13733-13741 , 2010,( SCI ...
Glycopyrrolate (Robanul - Robins) is promoted as "a new candidate for drug of choice in duodenal ulcer," and it is claimed that "never before has an anticholinergic agent come so close to creating the ideal pharmacological conditions for ulcer healing." At the same time oxyphencyclimine (Naridan - B.D.H.) has appeared as a "new anticholinergic compound" of "high therapeutic potency and prolonged duration of action.". ...
Adolescent participants were also asked to record urgencies for at least 2 of the 7 diary days using the Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale (PPIUS): (0 - no urgency, 1 - mild urgency, 2 - moderate urgency, 3 - severe urgency, 4 - urge incontinence). This data is based on 7-day diary data completed by participants prior to each visit from the start of 905-CL-076 to the end of 905-CL-077. Data are reported by duration of solifenacin treatment based on the number of days from the date of first dose of solifenacin in either study 905-CL-076 or 905-CL-077 up to and including the study visit. Using equivalent treatment duration periods, data were combined for participants who received placebo and solifenacin in study 905-CL-076 within each age group ...
COPD is increasingly recognized as a complex systemic disorder with a whole range of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular, contributing significantly to COPD morbidity and mortality.
Older people are particularly vulnerable to adverse cognitive effects and risk of dementia following exposure to medicines with anticholinergic activity;1 however, the biological basis for these effects remains unclear.2 The risk of anticholinergic adverse effects increases with age, polypharmacy, comorbidities, pre-existing cognitive impairment, cholinergic neuronal degeneration and changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. This study examined whether medicines with anticholinergic activity alter brain glucose metabolism, and the impact this has on brain structure, function and cognitive decline. ...
June 22, 2016. A new study from Schulich Medicine & Dentistry is helping to explain why the long-term use of common anticholinergic drugs used to treat conditions like allergies and overactive bladder lead to an increased risk of developing dementia later in life. The findings show that long-term suppression of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine results in dementia-like changes in the brain. Read the full article ...
NOTE: The study is based on active ingredients and brand name. Other drugs that have the same active ingredients (e.g. generic drugs) are NOT considered.. WARNING: Please DO NOT STOP MEDICATIONS without first consulting a physician since doing so could be hazardous to your health.. DISCLAIMER: All material available on eHealthMe.com is for informational purposes only, and is not a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment provided by a qualified healthcare provider. All information is observation-only, and has not been supported by scientific studies or clinical trials unless otherwise stated. Different individuals may respond to medication in different ways. Every effort has been made to ensure that all information is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. The use of the eHealthMe site and its content is at your own risk.. You may report adverse side effects to the FDA at http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/ or 1-800-FDA-1088 (1-800-332-1088).. If you ...
Increased frequency of urination without an increase in the volume urine passed. This common symptom indicates tha
Binding interactions between the M2 receptor and QNB.a, b, Two views of the QNB binding pocket. Amino acids within 4 Å of the ligand are shown as light blue st
Overactive bladder (OAB) includes symptoms of urgency, frequency and urge incontinence. Incidence: Approximately 55% of individuals with OAB are women and 45% are men. The prevalence of the co
If you have an overactive bladder, you may want to watch what you eat and drink. Learn more from WebMD about foods and beverages to avoid if you have urge incontinence.
Learn about Ditropan XL (Oxybutynin Chloride Extended Release Tablets) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
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Patent US6495177 - Orally dissolvable nutritional supplement - Google PatentsPatent US6495177 - Orally dissolvable nutritional supplement - Google Patents

Stannylated 3-quinuclidinyl benzilates and methods of preparing radiohalogenated derivatives. US5637313 *. Dec 16, 1994. Jun 10 ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6495177?dq=7,546,338

Untersuchungen zur Biotransformation neuer substituierter PiperidylbenzilateUntersuchungen zur Biotransformation neuer substituierter Piperidylbenzilate

Purpose of the present thesis was the investigation of the metabolism of some selected benzilates in rats. Therefore four ... All these multiple reactions were observed at single benzilates for the first time. C-Oxygenation represented the main ...
more infohttps://edoc.hu-berlin.de/handle/18452/15381

US3131122A - Method of producing analgesia with n-substituted-4-phenyl-4-carbalkoxypiperidines 
        - Google PatentsUS3131122A - Method of producing analgesia with n-substituted-4-phenyl-4-carbalkoxypiperidines - Google Patents

Quaternary N-β-substituted N-alkyl-nortropine benzilates US5543426A (en) 1996-08-06. Use of certain 3,7-disubstituted indole ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US3131122A/en

EP2510928A1 - Aclidinium for use in improving the quality of sleep in respiratory patients 
        - Google PatentsEP2510928A1 - Aclidinium for use in improving the quality of sleep in respiratory patients - Google Patents

Stannylated 3-quinuclidinyl benzilates and methods of preparing radiohalogenated derivatives DE69520434T2 (en) 1994-07-29. 2001 ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/EP2510928A1/en

Darstellung und Charakterisierung neuartiger, chiraler, basischer Benzilsäureester mit anticholinerger WirkungDarstellung und Charakterisierung neuartiger, chiraler, basischer Benzilsäureester mit anticholinerger Wirkung

The objective was to optimise the effect of N-Methyl-4-piperidyl benzilates through a variation of sterical parameters and the ... The development of a relevant model of the receptor ligand complex for N-Methyl-4-piperidyl benzilates was achieved by ...
more infohttps://edoc.hu-berlin.de/handle/18452/15818?C=M

List of MeSH codes (D02) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D02) - Wikipedia

... benzilates MeSH D02.241.223.601.238.306.140 --- benactyzine MeSH D02.241.223.601.238.306.740 --- quinuclidinyl benzilate MeSH ... benzilates MeSH D02.241.511.085.140 --- benactyzine MeSH D02.241.511.085.740 --- quinuclidinyl benzilate MeSH D02.241.511.316 ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D02)

Synthesis and Characterization of Benzilate Esters as Aqueous Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel and 2024, 6061, and 7075...Synthesis and Characterization of Benzilate Esters as Aqueous Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel and 2024, 6061, and 7075...

... there is no reason why benzilates cannot be good replacements for a-hydroxy acids such as gluconates. Additionally, benzilates ... Practical results have mostly proven the hypothesized advantages of benzilates correct and yielded that certain salts and ... esters of benzilates can be suitable corrosion inhibitors for certain metals and their alloys. ...
more infohttp://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijc/article/view/24016/15263

Institute of Materials Science, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, GreeceInstitute of Materials Science, N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", Greece

... and physical studies of basic CrIII and FeIII benzilates and benzoates: Evidence of antisymmetric exchange and distributions of ...
more infohttp://www.ims.demokritos.gr/ims_publications_pers.php?person=20

The regulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors by guanine nucleotides in cardiac tissue<...The regulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors by guanine nucleotides in cardiac tissue<...

TY - JOUR. T1 - The regulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors by guanine nucleotides in cardiac tissue. AU - Rosenberger, Lois B.. AU - Roeske, William R.. AU - Yamamura, Henry I.. PY - 1979/6/1. Y1 - 1979/6/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018417104&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018417104&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0014-2999(79)90451-5. DO - 10.1016/0014-2999(79)90451-5. M3 - Article. C2 - 467508. AN - SCOPUS:0018417104. VL - 56. SP - 179. EP - 180. JO - European Journal of Pharmacology. JF - European Journal of Pharmacology. SN - 0014-2999. IS - 1-2. ER - ...
more infohttps://arizona.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-regulation-of-muscarinic-cholinergic-receptors-by-guanine-nuc

Benactyzine
     Summary Report | CureHunterBenactyzine Summary Report | CureHunter

Benzilates: 1*Benactyzine: 57*metamizil: 12. *panpal: 6. *brondiletten retard: 1. *TAB antidote ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD001535-Benactyzine.do

Ligand binding and functional characterization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on the TE671/RD human cell line. -...Ligand binding and functional characterization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on the TE671/RD human cell line. -...

Cells of the TE671/RD human clonal line express a finite number (Bmax) of about 350 fmol/mg of membrane protein) of apparently noninteracting, high-affinity binding sites (KD of 0.07 nM and a Hill coefficient close to unity, nH = 0.94) for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) radio antagonist, tritium-labeled quinuclidinyl benzilate [( 3H]QNB). The rank order potency of selective antagonists that inhibit specific [3H]QNB binding is: atropine greater than 4-DAMP (4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide) greater than pirenzepine greater than methoctramine greater than AFDX-116 (11-2[[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-[piperidinyl] acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one). Functional studies indicate that phosphoinositide (PIns) hydrolysis in TE671/RD cells is increased by carbachol (EC50 of 10 microM), but not by nicotine (to concentrations as high as 1 mM). Agonist-stimulated PIns metabolism is inhibited by antagonists with the same rank order potency as for inhibition of
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Ligand-binding-and-functional-characterization-of-Bencherif-Lukas/3c43f356651f9ba12ebfed14a5c24a50e7c8a294

Reduced number of [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine binding sites in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer brains. - Semantic ScholarReduced number of [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine binding sites in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer brains. - Semantic Scholar

Nicotinic cholinergic receptors were measured in human frontal cortex using [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine (in the presence of atropine) as receptor ligands. A parallel marked reduction in number of [3H]nicotine (52%; P less than 0.01) and [3H]acetylcholine (-55%; P less than 0.05) binding was found in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer brains (AD/SDAT) when compared to age-matched control brains. As a comparison the number of muscarinic receptors was quantified using [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate and found to be significantly increased (+23%; less than 0.01) in AD/SDAT compared to controls.
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Reduced-number-of-%5B3H%5Dnicotine-and-binding-sites-in-Nordberg-Winblad/63c231bf85514519fb4305455e1c60c33b274c43

AtropineAtropine

Benzilates. Benactyzine, Dicyclomine, N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate, N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate, 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate ...
more infohttp://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Atropine.html

3-quinuclidinyl 4-fluoromethylbenzilate | CTD3-quinuclidinyl 4-fluoromethylbenzilate | CTD

Benzilates ← 3-quinuclidinyl 4-fluoromethylbenzilate 2.. Chemicals ← Organic Chemicals ← Carboxylic Acids ← Hydroxy Acids ← ... Benzilates ← 3-quinuclidinyl 4-fluoromethylbenzilate 3.. Chemicals ← Heterocyclic Compounds ← Heterocyclic Compounds, Bridged- ...
more infohttp://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=C105029

Psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriantsPsychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants

Benzilates. Benactyzine, Dicyclomine, N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate, N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate, 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate ...
more infohttps://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Psychedelics%2C_dissociatives_and_deliriants.html

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Benzilates - administration & dosage , Delayed-Action Preparations , Clinical trials ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:TOLTERODINE

EP-0257171-A1: Benzofuran-2-yl-imidazole mit pharmazeutischer Wirkung, ihre Salze und relevante Verfahren zu ihrer HerstellungEP-0257171-A1: Benzofuran-2-yl-imidazole mit pharmazeutischer Wirkung, ihre Salze und relevante Verfahren zu ihrer Herstellung

Quaternary N-β-substituted N-alkyl-nortropine benzilates. *Triazole derivatives. *Novel 1-(1,3-dioxolan-2-ylmethyl)-1H- ...
more infohttp://24y.passivity.us/patent/EP-0257171-A1

Psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriantsPsychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants

Benzilates. Benactyzine, Dicyclomine, N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate, N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate, 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Psychedelics%2C_dissociatives_and_deliriants.html

Matthias OelkeMatthias Oelke

benzilates*cholinergic antagonists*urinary retention. Matthias Oelke. Summary. Affiliation: Hannover Medical School ...
more infohttp://www.labome.org/expert/germany/hannover/oelke/matthias-oelke-539690.html

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