The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Strong alkylating and immunosuppressive agents whose biological activity is based on the presence of bis(2-chloroethyl)- groups. Although otherwise structurally diverse, the compounds have in common the capacity to contribute alkyl groups to DNA. They are generally highly toxic but include among their number many widely used and effective antineoplastic agents.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
A muscarinic antagonist that has effects in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerotic, idiopathic, and postencephalitic parkinsonism. It has also been used to alleviate extrapyramidal symptoms induced by phenothiazine derivatives and reserpine.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Hallucinogenic alkaloid isolated from the flowering heads (peyote) of Lophophora (formerly Anhalonium) williamsii, a Mexican cactus used in Indian religious rites and as an experimental psychotomimetic. Among its cellular effects are agonist actions at some types of serotonin receptors. It has no accepted therapeutic uses although it is legal for religious use by members of the Native American Church.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Quantitative autoradiography with short-lived positron emission tomography tracers: a study on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with N-[(11)C]methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate. (1/62)The present work demonstrates quantitative autoradiography by using positron emission tomography tracers and storage phosphorimaging plates. The uptake and association of [(11)C]N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate was measured in rat brain tissue cryosections of various thicknesses. The signal increased with increasing section thickness, but only in 10-micrometer-thick sections did the binding reach the steady state during a 50-min observation time. This violation of the equilibrium condition, potentially combined with perfusion limitations, leads to erroneous increased binding-site density and decreased affinity in the 25- and 50-micrometer-thick sections. For better imaging of receptor distribution it is reasonable to use thicker sections. For quantitative analysis of receptor-binding parameters, the specific properties of ligands at different thicknesses of cryosections need to be considered. Evidence is provided that the nonselective muscarinic antagonist N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate binds preferentially to the M(4) subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (+info)
Acetylcholinesterase inhibition increases in vivo N-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-4-piperidyl benzilate binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (2/62)Although the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase remains the primary treatment of Alzheimer's disease, little is known of the results of increased acetylcholine levels on muscarinic receptor occupancy or function. Using N-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)-4-piperidyl benzilate ([18F]FEPB), a moderate affinity (Ki = 1.7 nmol/L) nonsubtype-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, the authors examined the sensitivity of equilibrium in vivo radioligand binding in rat brain with changes in endogenous acetylcholine levels produced by treatments with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Phenserine administration 30 minutes before resulted in a dose-dependent into muscarinic cholinergic receptors, reaching a maximum increase of 90% in the striatum at a dose of 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Constant infusion of physostigmine at a dosage of 250 microg/kg/min produced an identical increase in radioligand binding. This agonist-induced increase of in vivo mAChR radioligand binding offers a new method for monitoring of the efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or other drugs to enhance acetylcholine actions at the muscarinic receptors. (+info)
Muscarinic receptor binding characteristics in rat tissues after oral administration of oxybutynin and propiverine. (3/62)Ex vivo muscarinic receptor binding of oxybutynin and propiverine, the most commonly used anticholinergic agents for the treatment in patients with urinary incontinence, was investigated in rat tissues. The oral administration of oxybutynin (50.8 and 127 micromol/kg) caused a significant increase in the apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for specific (-)-[3H]QNB binding in the rat bladder, prostate, submaxillary gland, heart and cerebral cortex, compared with each of the control values. Also, in the submaxillary gland of these rats, there was a reduction in the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for (-)-[3H]QNB binding. Similarly, oral administration of propiverine at doses of 74.3-297 micromol/kg brought about a significant increase in the Kd values for (-)-[3H]QNB binding in rat tissues including the bladder, and greater increase in Kd values was seen in the rat prostate, heart and submaxillary gland. On the other hand, oral administration of propiverine, unlike oxybutynin, resulted in very little reduction in the Bmax valules for (-)-[3H]QNB binding in the submaxillary gland. In conclusion, the present study has shown that oxybutynin and propiverine, after oral administration, bind significantly to muscarinic receptors in tissues such as the bladder, which is the target organ for the treatment of urinary incontinence, and that oxybutynin appears to exhibit long-term binding to muscarinic receptors in the salivary gland. (+info)
Effects of antimuscarinic drugs on both urinary frequency and cognitive impairment in conscious, nonrestrained rats. (4/62)Recent studies indicate a risk of learning and memory impairments when patients with senile dementia are treated with antimuscarinic drugs. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of propiverine hydrochloride (propiverine) and oxybutynin chloride (oxybutynin) on the increased urinary frequency and cognitive impairment induced by nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nBM) lesioning in conscious and nonrestrained rats. For examination of bladder function, nBM-lesioned rats were given total parenteral nutrition regimens for 8 days. Propiverine administered orally at 0.3, 3 and 30 mg/kg on the postoperative day 7 significantly lessened the increase in the frequency of voiding caused by the nBM lesion, whereas oxybutynin administration did not show any improvement at 0.1 or 1 mg/kg but did so at 10 mg/kg. To examine the memory impairment, we trained nBM-lesioned rats in an 8-arm radial maze task for 20 days and then evaluated the effectiveness of oral drug administration on 19th and 20th radial maze performance. The higher rate of errors caused by nBM lesioning was significantly aggravated by oxybutynin at 30 and 100 mg/kg. Propiverine showed slight aggravation of errors, but with no statistical significance at any dose, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg. These results suggest that propiverine has comparatively less effect on the cognitive impairment than oxybutynin. (+info)
Influence of propiverine on hepatic microsomal cytochrome p450 enzymes in male rats. (5/62)The bladder spasmolytics propiverine was shown to induce hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) and aminopyrine and aniline oxidation in rats. To characterize the type of enzyme induction and its dose dependence, activities of seven hepatic microsomal P450-dependent monooxygenases were measured in 72 male LEW1A albino rats (body weight 236-295 g) after oral treatment with 0.5, 2, 6, and 60 mg/kg of propiverine hydrochloride for 5 days and compared with the effects of 40 mg/kg beta-naphthoflavone, 10 mg/kg phenobarbital, and 20 mg/kg dexamethasone (each group, n = 8). CYP2B expression was measured by Western blotting. Furthermore, the inhibitory potency of propiverine on P450 enzymes was evaluated in competition assays with three most specific monooxygenases. Results show that Propiverine induced several monooxygenases and CYP2B expression dose dependently. The effects were well comparable with a phenobarbital-type inducer with 60 mg/kg being equipotent to 10 mg/kg phenobarbital. Furthermore, propiverine in low concentrations inhibited pentylresorufin O-dealkylase (for CYP2B) in vitro. In conclusion, propiverine is a phenobarbital-type inducer on hepatic P450 enzymes in rats in doses about 100-times above the therapeutic doses in man. (+info)
THE INFLUENCE OF CENTRALLY ACTING CHOLINOLYTIC DRUGS ON BRAIN ACETYLCHOLINE LEVELS. (6/62)A number of centrally acting cholinolytic drugs reduced levels of cerebral acetylcholine in the rat. Among its naturally occurring analogues, hyoscine had the greatest potency, producing a decrease of 31% at a dose of 0.63 mg/kg. Atropine methyl nitrate, which acts as a cholinolytic drug in the periphery, had no effect on brain acetylcholine levels. The fall in acetylcholine produced by hyoscine was greatest after 60 min and disappeared at about 120 min. The animals tended to show a partial tolerance to this effect of hyoscine when the drug was administered repeatedly. The reduction in acetylcholine after hyoscine was restricted to the cerebral hemispheres, and did not appear in subcortical regions of the brain. Hyoscine had no influence on the net synthesis of acetylcholine by acetone-extracted powder of rat brain. In a series of four synthetic cholinolytic drugs, only the two with conspicuous psychotomimetic actions in man produced a decrease in brain acetylcholine comparable to that seen with hyoscine and related alkaloids. (+info)
Pharmacodynamics of propiverine and three of its main metabolites on detrusor contraction. (7/62)1. Besides its antimuscarinic effects, propiverine may possess an additional mode of action. We compared the effects of propiverine, three of its metabolites (M-5, M-6, M-14) and atropine in human, pig and mouse urinary bladder preparations in order to elucidate the nature of a possible additional mode of action. 2. Like the parent compound, M-5, M-6 and M-14 reduced to variable degrees the contractions elicited by electric field stimulation (EFS) of isolated, urothelium-denuded detrusor strips. In mouse the atropine-resistant and therefore the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic component of contractile response to EFS was reduced by M-5, M-14 and propiverine, but was hardly affected by M-6. 3. Atropine, propiverine and M-6 significantly shifted the cumulative concentration-response curves for carbachol (CCh) to higher concentrations. Atropine and M-6 did not affect the maximum tension induced by CCh. Propiverine, M-5 and M-14 reduced the maximum CCh effect, suggesting at least one additional mode of action. This pattern of response was observed in all the three species, albeit with some differences in sensitivity to the various agents. 4. In freshly isolated human detrusor smooth muscle cells, propiverine and M-14 inhibited the nifedipine-sensitive L-type calcium current (I(Ca)) in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the effects of M-5 and M-6 on I(Ca) were insignificant in the concentration range examined. 5. The investigated responses to propiverine and its metabolites suggest that impairment of maximum CCh-induced contractions is due to strong effect on I(Ca) and that this may be associated with the presence of the aliphatic side chain. (+info)
Effect of propiverine on cytochrome P450 enzymes: a cocktail interaction study in healthy volunteers. (8/62)The present study was conducted to assess a possible in vivo effect of propiverine, an anticholinergic drug to treat urinary incontinence and related disorders, on the activity of intestinal CYP3A4 and of hepatic CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2. The activity of the respective cytochromes P450 was measured using the following metrics of selective substrates given as a tailored low-dose phenotyping cocktail: intestinal availability of midazolam (2 mg orally), clearance of midazolam (1 mg i.v.), apparent clearance of tolbutamide (125 mg orally), urinary excretion of 4'-hydroxymephenytoin 0 to 8 h postdose (50 mg of mephenytoin orally), and the paraxanthine/caffeine plasma ratio 6 h postdose (150 mg of caffeine orally). These metrics were determined in 16 healthy young men at the end of 7 days of treatment with 15 mg of propiverine (test) or placebo (reference) twice daily. All phenotyping drugs were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Chronic propiverine treatment reduced hepatic and intestinal CYP3A4 activity slightly to 0.89-fold and 0.80-fold, respectively [90% confidence interval (CI) for test/reference ratios 0.85-0.93 and 0.72-0.89], with the combined effect resulting in a 1.46-fold increase in area under the curve of oral midazolam (90% CI 1.36-1.57). Propiverine had no relevant effect on CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 (90% CI for test/reference ratios 0.93-1.00, 0.84-0.96, and 0.97-1.07, respectively). All study drugs were well tolerated. In conclusion, propiverine has a minor potential to cause drug-drug interactions. (+info)
N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate - Wikipedia
N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate (JB-318) is an anticholinergic drug related to the chemical warfare agent 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate.. N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate is less potent and shorter acting than 3-quinuclidyl benzilate, but like 3-QNB its effects on the central nervous system predominate over peripheral effects. It produces deliriant and hallucinogenic effects similar to those of plants such as datura and may be used recreationally at low doses; however, unpleasant side effects such as dysphoria, nausea and vomiting, dizziness and extreme dry mouth tend to make abuse of drugs of this kind uncommon. Both the N-methyl and N-ethyl analogues of 3-piperidyl benzilate are, however, Schedule I controlled drugs.. Radiolabelled versions of this drug have been used in scientific research to map the distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, however this drug has slightly lower binding affinity than the N-methyl analogue and so is less potent and not so widely used for this ...
Female Patients With Signs of uRgE and Stress Urinary Incontinence Study of Propiverine Hydrochloride - Full Text View -...
Patients who meet all the following criteria in ICIQ-SF (1) 2-3 times or more in one week was selected at Q1. (2) Small or more was selected at Q2. (3) leak at the time of cough or sneeze or leak at the time of exercise was selected at Q4 ...
Molecular Arrangement, Electronic Structure and Transport Properties in Surfactant Gel- and Related Systems Studied by Soft X...
This thesis concerns studies of aqueous soft matter systems, especially surfactant micelle systems.. The aim has been to study the molecular arrangement and electronic structure of the constituents of, as well as transport properties in such a system. The molecular arrangement and electronic structure has been studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray spectroscopy (RIXS). The transport properties have been investigated by low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy (LFDS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) as well as a theoretical modelling. The latter was based on Ficks laws of the release from binary surfactant system and was validated by experiments.. The RIXS and XAS measurements show the electronic structure in bulk water and the influence of the chemical surrounding of the water molecule in bulk water and of the water molecules confined in a micelle lattice. The spectra are highly dependent on the molecular arrangement in such systems. For glycine ...
Trospium Chloride (Trosec) Prices - U.S. & International | PharmacyChecker.com
Compare Trospium chloride (trosec) 20 mg prices from verified online pharmacies or local U.S. pharmacies. Free coupons for trospium chloride (trosec). Discounts up to 80% off the retail price.
Will you have Pain in extremity with Trospium chloride - from FDA reports - eHealthMe
Could Trospium chloride cause Pain in extremity? We studied 890 Trospium chloride users who have side effects from FDA and eHealthme. Among them, 17 have Pain in extremity. See what we found.
Trospium chloride (CAS 10405-02-4) Market Research Report 2017
The report generally describes trospium chloride, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Trospium chloride market situation is overviewed;
trospium chloride In Alexandre de Figueiredo and colleagues
In , Alexandre de Figueiredo and colleagues take a step in this direction with their time-series analysis of trends in vaccine coverage and a suite of socioeconomic and demographic factors across 190 countries over 30 years. The main aim was to gauge where and when trospium chloride coverage might fall below levels that are safe for prevention of epidemic transmission, and to correlate such decreases with underlying socioeconomic and demographic factors. The investigators used WHO-UNICEF coverage estimates of three doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP3) vaccination and obtained . By use of a statistical framework based on Gaussian process regression and a newly developed vaccine performance index, which forecasts that vaccination coverage will be at a safe level (90%) in the near future, the analyses yield some interesting results next to the basic fact that worldwide coverage has increased. For instance, gross domestic product (GDP) and government health spending correlate most ...
Trospium chloride Global Market and Forecast Research : ReportsnReports
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Trospium chloride Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
Leki refundowane - Cena i zamienniki leku Trospium Chloride
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek Trospium Chloride w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
Microscopic trends in methanol/water and acetonitrile/water systems - Strathprints
Examination of some trends and differences between acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures has been carried out. These systems are of interest for chromatographers since they are common mobile constituents. Some differences in the molecular arrangement of these solvents were observed from NMR and IR results. These observations might be of use in understanding and developing chromatographic separations. IR studies revealed C-H bond compression in methanol compared with acetonitrile which indicates different molecular arrangement in their aqueous mixtures. NMR and IR results show a clear non-linear behaviour in molecular arrangement. This justifies the deviation of methanol and acetonitrile aqueous solution from the norm. However, both solvents showed similar ionization suppression effects on examples of weak acids and bases.. ...
Literature References: Tropine derivative with anticholinergic activity. Prepn: NL 6402155; R. Pfleger et al., US 3480626 (1964, 1969 both to Pfleger); H. Bertholdt et al., Arzneim.-Forsch. 17, 719 (1967). Pharmacology and toxicology in animals: H. Antweiler et al., ibid. 16, 1581 (1966). Inhibition of gastric motility and acid secretion in humans: G. Lux, P. Frühmorgen, Fortschr. Med. 96, 2113 (1978). Fluorimetric determn in plasma and urine: G. Schladitz-Keil et al., J. Chromatogr. 345, 99 (1985). Bioavailability: eidem, Arzneim.-Forsch. 36, 984 (1986). Clinical trial in bladder hyper-reflexia: H. Madersbacher et al., Br. J. Urol. 75, 452 (1995). Review in overactive bladder: N. R. Zinner, Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 6, 1409-1420 (2005). ...
Granules India share price rises over 5% on USFDA nod to Trospium Chloride capsules
Granules India share price closed higher today after the firm received approval of a drug from the US drug regulator for treatment of overactive bladder. Share price of Granules India rose up to 5.83% to Rs 169.85 compared to the previous close of Rs 160.
Study of Trospium Chloride Inhalation Powder (TrIP) in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Full Text View -...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
PureTechs Karuna Announces Initiation of Phase 2 Study with Proprietary Lead Product Candidate KarXT for the Treatment of...
Phase 2 study aims to reproduce significant efficacy previously observed in schizophrenia trial with xanomeline alone Company also announces successful Phase 1 study of proprietary xanomeline and trospium chloride formulation, which will be used in Phase 2 study PureTech Health plc (LSE: PRTC) (“Pure...
Why Steroids? Classifications Dose & Uses A|X Steroids.com
Steroids a biologically active compound where the structure is four rings arranged in specific molecular arrangement. It is found naturally in plants and animals and the core structure is comprised of seventeen carbon atoms. It alters membrane fluidity and functions as signaling molecules. It can produced synthetically which resembles
Formation, Characterization and Function of a Stable Fluid Phase C5-C9 Complex | The Journal of Immunology
Previous studies in this laboratory have allowed the formulation of a model for the molecular arrangement of C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9 on the surface of cells undergoing immune cytolysis with an assigned cumulative m.w. of 995,000. To verify directly the existence of a C5-C9 complex, serum samples containing radiolabeled terminal components were activated at 37°C with EA, antigen-antibody complexes, CVF, inulin or zymosan. Subsequent sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation showed that all treatments cited led to the formation, in varying degrees, of rapidly sedimenting material which incorporated C5, C6, C7, C8, and C9, but not C3. The reaction was inhibited by 0.01 M EDTA and 0°C. The complex had a sedimentation coefficient of 22.4S, a diffusion coefficient of 1.98 × 10-7 cm2 sec-1 and thus a calculated m.w. of 1.04 × 106.. ...
Idiotype | Define Idiotype at Dictionary.com
Idiotype definition, the molecular arrangement of amino acids unique to the antigen-binding site of a particular antibody. See more.
Gentaur Molecular :LCLabs \ PD 184352, Free Base \ P-8499
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , LCLabs \ PD 184352, Free Base \ P-8499 for more molecular products just contact us
Gentaur Molecular :LCLabs \ PD 184352, Free Base \ P-8499
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , LCLabs \ PD 184352, Free Base \ P-8499 for more molecular products just contact us
LY-2584702 free base - mTOR - TargetMol
LY-2584702 free base is a selective ATP competitive inhibitor of p70S6K with an IC50 of 4 nM. In S6K1 enzyme assay, the IC50 of LY-2584702 is 2 nM.
Microscopic trends in methanol/water and acetonitrile/water systems<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microscopic trends in methanol/water and acetonitrile/water systems. AU - Alzweiri, Muhammed. AU - Parkinson, John. AU - Watson, David. AU - Steer, Steven. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Examination of some trends and differences between acetonitrile/water and methanol/water mixtures has been carried out. These systems are of interest for chromatographers since they are common mobile constituents. Some differences in the molecular arrangement of these solvents were observed from NMR and IR results. These observations might be of use in understanding and developing chromatographic separations. IR studies revealed C-H bond compression in methanol compared with acetonitrile which indicates different molecular arrangement in their aqueous mixtures. NMR and IR results show a clear non-linear behaviour in molecular arrangement. This justifies the deviation of methanol and acetonitrile aqueous solution from the norm. However, both solvents showed similar ionization suppression effects on ...
Efficacy and Safety of Trospium Chloride Use in Children With Idiopathic and Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity: An Overview of...
UroToday - GU OncToday brings coverage of the clinically relevant content needed to stay at the forefront of the dynamic field of GU oncology and urology.
Patent US7763635 - Once daily dosage forms of trospium - Google Patents
A pharmaceutical composition of a pharmaceutically acceptable trospium salt, with upon administration to a human patient generates an average steady state blood levels of trospium with a minimum (Cmin) and maximum (Cmax) blood levels of about 0.5-2.5 ng/ml and about 2.0-6.0 ng/ml, respectively.
The structure of collagen. - Immunology
A knowledge of the structure of collagen fibrils is important for any rational discussion of the occurrence and treatment of fibrosis. The different genetic types of collagen, and the structure of the triple-helical molecule as refined from X-ray fibre diffraction data, are described. The problem of determining molecular arrangement in native tissues is discussed. The various models proposed for the molecular arrangement of type I collagen are compared and an account is given of the quasi-hexagonal model. A detailed analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns from native type I collagen fibres is used to provide a quantitative description of the quasi-hexagonal model. Parameters such as molecular positions, azimuthal orientation and axial shift can be estimated from the diffraction patterns. These parameters refer to the helix main-chain. Side-chain conformations can then be built in by molecular graphics and the predicted X-ray pattern for the complete model compared with the observed pattern.
Karuna schizophrenia bid wins phase II, researchers conquer PANSS labyrinth
Pairing the in-licensed muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist xanomeline with the well-known muscarinic antagonist trospium chloride in the single drug called Karxt gave Karuna Therapeutics Inc. the required phase II efficacy against acute psychosis in schizophrenia, while keeping a quite satisfactory safety and side-effect profile. The pioneering mechanism of actions success also gave Boston-based Karuna a whopping stock raise, letting shares close (NASDAQ:KRTX) up 443%, or $78.32, at $96. Karuna plans an end-of-phase II meeting in the second quarter of next year, and ? if all . . .
16. CGA in Primary Care Settings: Patients presenting with urinary incontinence | British Geriatrics Society
Management:. 1. Lifestyle: reduce fluid intake, especially in the evening (advise no drinks after 8pm), reduce caffeine and alcohol intake, weight reduction, manage constipation.. 2. Medical: antimuscarinic drugs. These are the mainstay of treatment. They act on the M3 receptors on the detrusor muscle to reduce contraction. They do have common side effects and need to be used with caution in the elderly (the newer agents are said to be more selective for the M3 receptor and therefore have less CNS side effects). Examples include: oxybutynin, tolteridone, darifenacin, trospium, solifenacin and propiverine.. NICE recommended first line agents are:. ...
The Structure of a Model Membrane in Relation to the Viscoelastic Properties of the Red Cell Membrane | JGP
The molecular arrangement within a lamellar structure composed of human erythrocyte lipids is determined. The 45 A thick lipid layer, in water, is filled in the interior with a liquid-like configuration of the hydrocarbon chains of phospholipid molecules and is covered on both sides by their hydrophilic polar groups. Cholesterol is located so that part of its steroid nucleus is between the polar groups of the phospholipid molecules while the rest of the molecule extends into the inner hydrocarbon layer. This lipid leaflet would be expected to have the mechanical properties of a purely liquid surface, as other authors have shown for the black lipid membranes. Data are presented which demonstrate that the intact erythrocyte membrane is a tough viscoelastic substance with a Youngs modulus of 106-108 dynes/cm2 and a viscosity of 107-1010 poises. The parameters and the kinetics of membrane breakdown are incompatible with the model system of pure lipid. Caution must be exercised in applying various ...
April 19, 2021 - Civil Whore
The therapy can include symptomatic therapy with Clonidine but additionally using Suboxone. Within the last couple of decades, Kratom has come to be better called a natural herb employed in treating several diseases, pain; It also contains a couple of recreational consequences - which may be why its illegal in some countries. On the other hand, kratoms significance as an opioid relies upon its activity mechanism rather than on its molecular arrangement but more on it has pharmacological consequences. Additionally, neurotoxic consequences of Kratom are reported. Knowing the types of people, it is possible to select Crazy Kratom as your private online seller for the superior Kratom variety. The liver toxicity may vary from slightly elevated liver enzymes to severe liver failure.. Through extreme intoxication, you can find instances of seizures reported by different case reports that likewise happen to be validated in animal research. Animal research and testimonials from consumers have ...
Solvatomorphism in ( Z )-4-fluoro- N ′-(3-fluorophenyl)benzimidamide: the role of intermolecular O-H⋯F interaction -...
In the case of DB32W (Fig. 2b), molecules 1 and 2 interact via a strong N4-H4B⋯N1 hydrogen bond (I) in the asymmetric unit with the stabilization energy of −11.2 kcal mol−1 (57% electrostatic contribution and 43% dispersion contribution). Molecule 2 interacts with the water molecule present in the asymmetric unit via a O1W-H1W⋯N3 hydrogen bond (IV; −6.5 kcal mol−1). Fig. 3b shows the molecular arrangement in the hydrate form down the ab plane. Here, the primary structural motifs involving short and highly directional strong hydrogen bonds generate different types of cyclic tetrameric (R1 and R2) and hexameric (R3 and R4) synthons (Desiraju and co-workers21 have discussed about the tetrameric and hexameric supramolecular synthons associated with a strong N-H⋯O hydrogen bond for aniline-phenol co-crystals). In this case, all the cyclic rings are interconnected with each other. Two symmetry independent molecules (1 and 2) and one water molecule form a molecular chain via the strong ...
Clufix : Plastic Materials
There are 2 major families of plastic materials: thermoplastics and thermosetting materials.. Thermoplastic Polymers. In a solid state, at normal temperatures, they melt, beginning to lose their mechanical properties at temperatures of more than around 120°C. This phenomenon is reversible. All SOFTERFIX™ insert designs are well suited to these materials. Thermoplastics subdivide into 2 categories, with reference to their internal molecular arrangements: amorphous, and semi-crystalline.. The molecular structure of amorphous polymers is randomly arranged, and is characterized by a wide temperature range within which it gradually softens, as the temperature increases.. Conversely, the molecular structure and narrow fusion interval of the semi-crystalline polymers enables a rapid transition from the solid or mushy state to the fluid state, through increase to the temperature. Their operating temperature is higher than that of amorphous polymers.. A wide range of charges and plasticizers are used ...
Treatment of Incontinence Without Memory Problems (TRIUMPH) - AdisInsight
This study is comparing mirabegron versus a standard anticholinergic therapy (Detrol LA) in elderly women with urgency urinary incontinence.
Junctional membrane inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor complex coordinates sensitization of the silent EGF-induced Ca2+...
An important strategy for ensuring specificity in Ca2+ signaling is to have signaling components organized into discrete microdomains. A previous study on muscarinic M1 receptors and BK B2 receptors provided functional evidence that the specificity and sensitivity of IP3-mediated Ca2+ signaling is determined by the spatial proximity of membrane receptors and IP3Rs (Delmas et al., 2002). They suggested that discrete microdomains enabled BK but not muscarinic stimulation to activate IP3R, although both receptors were equally efficient at activating PLC. These findings lead to the question of how the proximity between IP3Rs and plasmalemmal receptors is established. Emerging evidence reveals a privileged communication between the PM and the intracellular Ca2+ store. The ER network reaches from the nuclear envelope to the cell periphery and forms junctional contacts with the PM, in which the two apposed membranes are separated by a small gap. At present, what causes a particular portion of the PM to ...
Indmedica - Pharmaceutical Company Directory
Jinan Sky-worth Pharmaceutical Group was established in 1997,and started in line of API since 2001.Our Pharmaceutical branch is professional in organic synthesis and technology service of new drugs,pharmaceutical raw material and intermediates.We have more than 500 members, 3 big factories spread in Shandong,Hebei and Tian,also four branch companies in Dalian,Shanghai,Hongkong and Singapore.Our yearly output is more than $500Thousand.For the products,2/3 part is for export. And Our target market is:South America,Middle East,Austrial,Southeast Asia,Korea,and Japan. AT present time,the company regular business include: 1.Contract Research-Including Un-infringing Process R&D and Scale up 2.Custom Synthesis and Manufacturing 3.R&D of self-planning new drugs Our ruglar API include : GMP API:(Mycophenolate Mofetil, Ganciclovir, Propiverine HCL) Anti-cancer API:(Erlotinib HCL, Imatinib mesylate, Sunitinib ,Dasatinib, Sorafenib), Plant anti-cancer drug (Docetaxel, Gemcitabine hydrochloride) Metal ...
Untersuchungen zur Biotransformation neuer substituierter Piperidylbenzilate
The suitability of basic substituted benzilic esters with partially available dualistic anticholinergic and dopaminergic properties is examined and discussed for the treatment of Parkinson disease recently. The knowledge of the biotransformation is important for the evaluation of these substances. Purpose of the present thesis was the investigation of the metabolism of some selected benzilates in rats. Therefore four different derivatives were chosen: (R,S)-N-Methyl-4-piperidyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzilate (1), (R,S)-N-Methyl-3-piperidyl 3,4-dimethoxybenzilate (2), N-Methyl-4-piperidyl 3,3-dimethoxybenzilate (3), (R,S)-N-Methyl-3-piperidyl 3,3-dimethoxybenzilate (4). After purification of urine and faeces, the characterization of the metabolites was determined by TLC, HPLC and UV. MS, also coupled with GC, represented the most important method for identification. The evidence for aromatic oxygenation in p-position was succeeded by NMR-spectroscopy. Several metabolic processes appeared: ester ...
MK-0941 free base | Glucokinase 抑制剂 | MCE
MK-0941 free base 是具有口服活性的葡糖激酶 (glucokinase) 抑制剂，在葡萄糖浓度为 2.5 和 10 mM 的条件下，对重组人 glucokinase 的 EC50 值分别为 240 和 65 nM。MK-0941 free base 具有较强的降血糖活性，是治疗 2 型糖尿病的候选药物。- 高纯度，全球文献引用。
γ-secretase | DC Chemicals
Aβ42-IN-1 free base Aβ42-IN-1 free base (compound 1v) is an orally active, high brain exposure γ-secretase modulator. Aβ42-IN-1 free base potently reduces Aβ42 levels with an IC50 value of 0.091 µM, and significantly reduces brain Aβ42 levels in mice. Aβ42-IN-1 free base is a promising compound for the treatment of Alzheimers disease.. ...
F 11440|Eptapirone free base|CAS 179756-58-2 Buy F 11440 from supplier medchemexpress.com
F 11440 is a potent, selective, high efficacy 5-HT1A receptor agonist with marked anxiolytic and antidepressant potential....Quality confirmed by NMR,HPLC & MS.
Molecular arrangement of lamellar liquid crystalline structure with virgin coconut oil - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia...
The molecular arrangements of lamellar mesophase of a mixed surfactant system with decanol were studied, before and after the addition of virgin coconut oil (VCO) by employing optical microscope and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The two methods have enjoyed much success in elucidating information on the molecular arrangements of liquid crystals. The mixed surfactant used are dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and aerosol-OT (AOT) at a weight ratio of 90:10. The results from the optical pattern show that the water/DTAB:AOT (90:10)/decanol systems were able to solubilized only small amount of virgin coconut oil before transforming into other structures. From the small-angle X-ray scattering spectrum, it was found that the virgin coconut oil molecules to be partitioned between the nonpolar methyl group layers of lamellar liquid crystalline structure. This was indicated by the higher d-spacings value upon addition of virgin coconut oil. Finally, the water molecules located between the ...
TCDB » SEARCH
β-type IP39 protein of 264 aas and 4 TMSs in a 1 3 TMS arrangement. Euglenoid flagellates have striped surface structures comprising pellicles, which allow the cell shape to vary from rigid to flexible during the characteristic movement of the flagellates. In Euglena gracilis, the pellicular strip membranes are covered with paracrystalline arrays of a major integral membrane protein, IP39, a four TMS protein with the conserved sequence motif of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20/Claudin superfamily. Suzuki et al. 2013 reported the three-dimensional structure of Euglena IP39 determined by electron crystallography. Two-dimensional crystals of IP39 formed a striated pattern of antiparallel double-rows in which trimeric IP39 units are longitudinally polymerised, resulting in continuously extending zigzag-shaped lines. Structural analysis revealed an asymmetric molecular arrangement in the trimer, suggesting that at least four different interactions between neighbouring protomers are involved. A combination of ...
Swansea academics publish major book on membrane modification technology
Professor Hilal said: Membrane separation is extremely important for desalination, production of drinking water and waste water treatment. Membrane modification techniques are aimed at increasing the efficiency and performance of membrane separation making them attractive for specific separations.. The book is especially timely as it follows an industry study by the Freedonia Group that reports that global demand for membranes is projected to increase by 9% annually to US$19.3 billion by 2015, while demand for water desalination products and services is forecast to increase 9.3% annually to US$13.4 billion by 2015. Membrane separation is a technology which selectively separates (fractionates) materials via pores and/or minute gaps in the molecular arrangement of a continuous structure. Membrane separations are classified by pore size and by the separation driving force. These classifications include Microfiltration (MF), Ultrafiltration (UF), Nanofiltration (NF), Ion-Exchange (IE), and Reverse ...
The Wonder and Intricacy of the Human Machine | Byrne Seminars
The human body is an intricately engineered machine. To achieve peak operation the body employs intricately designed molecules, arranged in specific tissues, in different areas of the body. The human body has an incredible level of organization from the molecular level to the tissue level; one small change at the micron level can lead to health issues or even death. In this course, we will take a journey into the human body beginning at the molecular level and ending at the tissue level. We will discuss how molecular structure leads function; leading to a discussion of tissue structure and how molecular arrangement and alignment dictate tissue behavior. In addition, we will have a hands on experience isolating proteins from tissue and reconstituting them into a usable biomaterial.. Joseph W. Freeman, Ph. D. is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Rutgers University in Piscataway, NJ. He earned his B.S.E in Chemical Engineering from Princeton University in ...
Chemical Database: Ammonium, ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethyl-, chloride, benzilate (EnvironmentalChemistry.com)
This page contains information on the chemical Ammonium, ethyl(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethyl-, chloride, benzilate including: 15 synonyms/identifiers.
Mediterranean Sea: free map, free blank map, free outline map, free base map : boundaries, hydrography, main cities, names
Mediterranean Sea: free map, free outline map, free blank map, free base map, high resolution GIF, PDF, CDR, AI, SVG, WMF : boundaries, hydrography, main cities, names
N-DESMETHYLCITALOPRAM:HCL UNLABELED 1.0 MG/ML IN METHANOL (AS FREE BASE) - Creative Proteomics
Creative-Proteomics offer cas NA N-DESMETHYLCITALOPRAM:HCL UNLABELED 1.0 MG/ML IN METHANOL (AS FREE BASE). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Erlotinib, Free Base, |99% | LC Laboratories
Erlotinib, Free Base, |99%, CAS#183321-74-6, More than 830 labs worldwide have purchased Erlotinib or its salt forms from LC Labs (either directly from us or from our many distributors, many of whom resell under their own labels).
Normal internal coordinates, Force fields and vibrational study of Species Derived from Antiviral adamantadine - Authorea
Complete vibrational assignments have been performed for free base, cationic and hydrochloride species derived from antiviral adamantadine by combination of hybrid B3LYP with the 6-31G* and 6-311++G** basis sets and the SQMFF methodology. Normal inter
Association of Pharmacologic Treatment of Urgency Urinary Incontinence With Sleep Quality and Daytime Sleepiness
To evaluate the association between pharmacologic therapy for urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and sleep quality. We conducted a planned secondary data analysis of sleep outcomes in a previously conducted multicenter, double-blind, 12-week randomized trial of pharmacologic therapy for urgency-pre...
Kerry Callens Blog!: 2021
I havent yet commented on the article itself. Its an interesting read that talks about how Americas university students have embraced Marvel Comics. It was great publicity in 1966, but some of the students say rather dumb things. Heres the first student quote (he misspelled three, easy words), Marvel Comics have a wholesome, clean cut molecular arrangement. I have come accross [sic] many conformations and spatial arrangements in my day but Marvel is one of the most stablist [sic] compounds known. Show me a comic book that delivers some taste and I will show you a Marvel Comic. The minds of the Marvel writers and artist must be truely [sic] recessed. Marvel has soul. Were with you Spidey. Hmm, I just noticed he says, writers and artist. Just one artist ...
Nanotechnology Now - News Story: Rock n Roll Down the Tubes
The technical world keeps getting smaller. Eventually the miniaturization of chips will reach dimensions at which individual atoms will have to be manipulated. As components of a quantum computer or nanoelectronics of the future, self-assembled molecular arrangements that look like nanoscopic pea pods-carbon nanotubes filled with spherical fullerene molecules-are seen as promising candidates. The fullerenes themselves can accommodate metal atoms in their cavities. Source: ...
World Pacific Ocean centered: free map, free blank map, free outline map, free base map : coasts, hydrography, main towns, names
World Pacific Ocean centered: free map, free outline map, free blank map, free base map, high resolution GIF, PDF, CDR, AI, SVG, WMF : coasts, hydrography, main towns, names
NOREPINEPHRINE:HCL (D6, 98%) 100 UG/ML IN METHANOL (AS FREE BASE) - Creative Proteomics
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 55-27-6 (±)-NOREPINEPHRINE:HCL (D6, 98%) 100 UG/ML IN METHANOL (AS FREE BASE). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Innovative Research of America - US Patents / World Intellectual Property - Search
TAMOXIFEN (FREE BASE) / 30 Day (stock); TAMOXIFEN (FREE BASE) / 45 Day (stock); TAMOXIFEN (FREE BASE) / 60 Day (stock); TAMOXIFEN (FREE BASE) / 90 Day (stock ...
CAS 6233-83-6 50-56-6 (Free base) Oxytocin acetate - BOC Sciences
Boc Sciences is the worlds leading provider for special chemicals. We offer qualified products for 6233-83-6(Oxytocin acetate),please inquire us for 6233-83-6(Oxytocin acetate).
Nintedanib, Ethanesulfonate Salt, |99% | LC Laboratories
Nintedanib, Ethanesulfonate Salt, |99%, CAS#656247-18-6, This research compound is the ethanesulfonate salt form of nintedanib; please see the other form of this product, Nintedanib, Free Base, Cat. No. N-9077, for further technical information about both of these research compounds.
Product Description:. SGI-1776 free base is a novel ATP competitive inhibitor of Pim1 with IC50 of 7 nM in a cell-free assay, 50- and 10-fold selective versus Pim2 and Pim3, also potent to Flt3 and haspin. Phase 1. ...
Patent US6495177 - Orally dissolvable nutritional supplement - Google Patents
Untersuchungen zur Biotransformation neuer substituierter Piperidylbenzilate
US3131122A - Method of producing analgesia with n-substituted-4-phenyl-4-carbalkoxypiperidines - Google Patents
Darstellung und Charakterisierung neuartiger, chiraler, basischer Benzilsäureester mit anticholinerger Wirkung
Synthesis and Characterization of Benzilate Esters as Aqueous Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel and 2024, 6061, and 7075...
... there is no reason why benzilates cannot be good replacements for a-hydroxy acids such as gluconates. Additionally, benzilates ... Practical results have mostly proven the hypothesized advantages of benzilates correct and yielded that certain salts and ... esters of benzilates can be suitable corrosion inhibitors for certain metals and their alloys. ...
In vivo determination of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor availability in schizophrenia - Fingerprint - Johns Hopkins...
Animals , Benzilates , Dicofol , Dieldrin , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Fenthion , Insect Control/methods , Insect Vectors , ... Benzilates , Cholinergic Antagonists , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Prostate , Prostatic Hyperplasia , Quality of Life ... Benzilates , Cholinergic Antagonists , Humans , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms , Male , Prospective Studies , Prostate , ... Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pyrrolidines/adverse effects , Benzilates/adverse ...
Sugar Acids | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Stereoselective Synthesis of 5-epi-a-Sialosides Related to the Pseudaminic Acid Glycosides. Reassessment of the Stereoselectivity of the 5-Azido-5-deacetamidosialyl Thioglycosides and Use of Triflate as Nucleophile in the Zbiral Deamination of Sialic Acids. J Org Chem. 2016 11 18; 81(22):10617-10630 ...
Quinic Acid | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Benactyzine Summary Report | CureHunter
Comparison and Efficacy of Low-Dose and Standard-Dose Tamsulosin and Alfuzosin in Medical Expulsive Therapy for Lower Ureteral...
Ligand binding and functional characterization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on the TE671/RD human cell line. -...
Cells of the TE671/RD human clonal line express a finite number (Bmax) of about 350 fmol/mg of membrane protein) of apparently noninteracting, high-affinity binding sites (KD of 0.07 nM and a Hill coefficient close to unity, nH = 0.94) for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) radio antagonist, tritium-labeled quinuclidinyl benzilate [( 3H]QNB). The rank order potency of selective antagonists that inhibit specific [3H]QNB binding is: atropine greater than 4-DAMP (4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide) greater than pirenzepine greater than methoctramine greater than AFDX-116 (11-2[[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-[piperidinyl] acetyl]-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one). Functional studies indicate that phosphoinositide (PIns) hydrolysis in TE671/RD cells is increased by carbachol (EC50 of 10 microM), but not by nicotine (to concentrations as high as 1 mM). Agonist-stimulated PIns metabolism is inhibited by antagonists with the same rank order potency as for inhibition of
Reduced number of [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine binding sites in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer brains. - Semantic Scholar
Nicotinic cholinergic receptors were measured in human frontal cortex using [3H]nicotine and [3H]acetylcholine (in the presence of atropine) as receptor ligands. A parallel marked reduction in number of [3H]nicotine (52%; P less than 0.01) and [3H]acetylcholine (-55%; P less than 0.05) binding was found in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer brains (AD/SDAT) when compared to age-matched control brains. As a comparison the number of muscarinic receptors was quantified using [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate and found to be significantly increased (+23%; less than 0.01) in AD/SDAT compared to controls.
Hydroxamic Acids | Profiles RNS
Muscarinic supersensitivity induced by septal lesion or chronic atropine treatment
Nine days after medial septal lesion a 20% increase in the number of muscarinic antagonist binding sites in rat hippocampus was observed without any change in the affinity for agonist or antagonist. Chronic atropine treatment (s.c. 5 mg/kg, twice a day for 14 days, 20 mg/kg once a day for 14 days or 100 mg/kg for 4 days and 20 mg/kg for 10 days, once daily) led to an increase in the number of muscarinic antagonist binding sites in rat hippocampus with 35, 80 and 80% respectively and also lowered the affinity for 3H-antagonists in a dose dependent manner. Agonist binding studies also indicated an increase in receptor number and a decrease in affinity. The latter change can possibly be explained by the presence of residual atropine 24 h after the last injection. If this is taken into account we may conclude that muscarinic supersensitivity evoked either by severing the input or by chronic pharmacologic blockade both produced "new receptors with ligand binding properties similar to the original ...