Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.

Peroxygenase metabolism of N-acetylbenzidine by prostaglandin H synthase. Formation of an N-hydroxylamine. (1/124)

Synthesis of prostaglandin H2 by prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) results in a two-electron oxidation of the enzyme. An active reduced enzyme is regenerated by reducing cofactors, which become oxidized. This report examines the mechanism by which PHS from ram seminal vesicle microsomes catalyzes the oxidation of the reducing cofactor N-acetylbenzidine (ABZ). During the conversion of 0.06 mM ABZ to its final end product, 4'-nitro-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, a new metabolite was observed when 1 mM ascorbic acid was present. Similar results were observed whether 0.2 mM arachidonic acid or 0.5 mM H2O2 was used as the substrate. This metabolite co-eluted with synthetic N'-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine (N'HA), but not with N-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine. The new metabolite was identified as N'HA by electrospray ionization/MS/MS. N'HA represented as much as 10% of the total radioactivity recovered by high pressure liquid chromatography. When N'HA was substituted for ABZ, PHS metabolized N'HA to 4'-nitro-4-acetylaminobiphenyl. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that metabolism was due to PHS, not cytochrome P-450. The lack of effect of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide, mannitol, and superoxide dismutase suggests the lack of involvement of one-electron transfer reactions and suggests that hydroxyl radicals and superoxide are not sources of oxygen or oxidants. Oxygen uptake studies did not demonstrate a requirement for molecular oxygen. When [18O]H2O2 was used as the substrate, 18O enrichment was observed for 4'-nitro-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, but not for N'HA. A 97% enrichment was observed for one atom of 18O, and a 17 +/- 7% enrichment was observed for two 18O atoms. The rapid exchange of 18O-N'HA with water was suggested to explain the lack of enrichment of N'HA and the low enrichment of two 18O atoms into 4'-nitro-4-acetylaminobiphenyl. Results demonstrate a peroxygenase oxidation of ABZ and N'HA by PHS and suggest a stepwise oxidation of ABZ to N'-hydroxy, 4'-nitroso, and 4'-nitro products.  (+info)

Human and Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis of glucuronide conjugates of benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl, and their hydroxy metabolites. (2/124)

Individuals exposed to carcinogenic aromatic amines excrete arylamine N- and O-glucuronide metabolites. This study assessed the susceptibility of selected glucuronides to hydrolysis by human and Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase. N- or O-glucuronides were prepared with the following aglycones: benzidine, N-acetylbenzidine, N'-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine, N-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine, N-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine, 3-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine, 3-hydroxy-benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl, and N-hydroxy-N-acetyl-4-aminobiphenyl. The (3)H- and (14)C-labeled glucuronides were prepared with human or rat liver microsomes using UDP-glucuronic acid as cosubstrate. Each of the 10 glucuronides (6-12 microM) was incubated at pH 5.5 or 7.0 with either human recombinant (pure) or E. coli (commercial preparation) beta-glucuronidase for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Hydrolysis was measured by HPLC. Reaction conditions were optimized, using the O-glucuronide of N-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine. Both enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed O-glucuronides over N-glucuronides and distinguished between structural isomers. With E. coli beta-glucuronidase at pH 7.0, selectivity was demonstrated by the complete hydrolysis of N-hydroxy-N-acetyl-4-aminobiphenyl O-glucuronide in the presence of N-acetylbenzidine N-glucuronide, which was not hydrolyzed. Metabolism by both enzymes was completely inhibited by the specific beta-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (0.5 mM). The concentration of human beta-glucuronidase necessary to achieve significant hydrolysis of glucuronides was substantially more than the amount of enzyme reported previously to be present in urine under either normal or pathological conditions. The bacterial enzyme may hydrolyze O-glucuronides, but not N-glucuronides, in urine at neutral pH. Thus, the nonenzymatic hydrolysis of N-glucuronides by acidic urine is likely a more important source of free amine than enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

Ultrastructural localization of light-induced lipid peroxides in the rat retina. (3/124)

PURPOSE: Localization of light-induced lipid peroxides in the rat retina at an ultrastructural level as benzidine-reactive substances. METHODS: Long-Evans rats with nondilated pupils were exposed to intense light of 6000 lux for 12 or 24 hours. Control animals were kept under physiological light conditions. Rats with dilated pupils were exposed to a light intensity of 50 lux or 150,000 lux for 1 hour. For ultrastructural localization the enucleated eyes were fixed in a 0.1-M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 2% glutaraldehyde for 2 hours. Pieces of the superior part of the central eyecup were incubated overnight with tetramethylbenzidine (TMB; pH 3.0) at 4 degrees C, postfixed with 1.5% OSO4, and embedded for electron microscopy. RESULTS: In animals exposed to intense light, electron-dense structures appeared exclusively throughout the rod outer segments after an irradiation of 6000 lux for 24 hours or 150,000 lux for 1 hour and were absent in animals with nondilated pupils kept at physiological light conditions. Dilation of the pupils leads to the appearance of electron-dense structures after just 1 hour of 50 lux, whereas rats with nondilated pupils withstand even a 12-hour irradiation with 6000 lux. No electron-dense structures were found when no TMB was used in incubation. CONCLUSIONS: The appearance of electron-dense structures in the rod outer segments depends on the incubation with TMB and intensive light exposure of the rat. Dilation of the pupils lowers the threshold for the emergence of electron-dense structures significantly. This strongly supports the view that light-induced lipid peroxides in the rat retina are localized at an ultrastructural level as benzidine-reactive substances. This protocol presents a tool for the generation and ultrastructural localization of lipid peroxides in rat retinas.  (+info)

Glucuronidation of benzidine and its metabolites by cDNA-expressed human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and pH stability of glucuronides. (4/124)

Although glucuronidation is considered a necessary step in aromatic amine-induced bladder cancer, the specific enzymes involved are not known. This study assessed the capacity of five different human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases expressed in COS-1 cells to glucuronidate benzidine, its metabolites and 4-aminobiphenyl. [(14)C]UDP-glucuronic acid was used as co-substrate. UGT1A1, UGT1A4 and UGT1A9 each metabolized all of the aromatic amines. UGT1A9 exhibited the highest relative rates of metabolism with preference for the two hydroxamic acids, N-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine and N-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine. UGT1A9 metabolized 4-aminobiphenyl approximately 50% faster than benzidine or N-acetylbenzidine. UGT1A4 N-glucuronidated N'-hydroxy- N-acetylbenzidine at the highest relative rate compared with the other transferases. UGT1A6 was effective in metabolizing only four of the eight aromatic amines tested. UGT1A1 demonstrated more extensive metabolism of the hydroxamic acid, N-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine, and the ring oxidation product, 3-OH-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine, than it did for the other six amines. UGT2B7 was the only product of the UGT2 gene family examined and it metabolized all the aromatic amines at similar low relative levels compared with a preferred substrate, 4-OH-estrone. The K(m) values for N-acetylbenzidine metabolism by UGT1A1 and UGT1A4 were 0.37 +/- 0.14 and 1.8 +/- 0.4 mM, respectively. The O-glucuronide of 3-OH-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine was not hydrolyzed during a 24 h 37 degrees C incubation at either pH 5. 5 or 7.4. Likewise, the O-glucuronide of 3-OH-benzidine was stable at pH 7.4, with 52% remaining at pH 5.5 after 24 h. These results suggest the following relative ranking of transferase metabolism: UGT1A9 > UGT1A4 > > UGT2B7 > UGT1A6 approximately UGT1A1. The relative pH stability of O-glucuronides is consistent with a role in detoxification and excretion of aromatic amines, while the acid lability of N-glucuronides is consistent with delivery of these amines to the bladder epithelium for activation, resulting in DNA adducts which may lead to mutations.  (+info)

H(2)O(2) detection from intact mitochondria as a measure for one-electron reduction of dioxygen requires a non-invasive assay system. (5/124)

Evaluation of the existence of superoxide radicals (O*-(2)), the site of generation and conditions required for one-e(-) transfer to oxygen from biological redox systems is a prerequisite for the understanding of the deregulation of O(2) homeostasis leading to oxidative stress. Mitochondria are increasingly considered the major O*-(2) source in a great variety of diseases and the aging process. Contradictory reports on mitochondrial O*-(2) release prompted us to critically investigate frequently used O*-(2) detection methods for their suitability. Due to the impermeability of the external mitochondrial membrane for most constituents of O*-(2) detection systems we decided to follow the stable dismutation product H(2)O(2). This metabolite was earlier shown to readily permeate into the cytosol. With the exception of tetramethylbenzidine none of the chemical reactants indicating the presence of H(2)O(2) by horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed absorbance change were suited due to solubility problems or low extinction coefficients. Tetramethylbenzidine-dependent H(2)O(2) detection was counteracted by rereduction of the dye through e(-) carriers of the respiratory chain. Although the fluorescent dyes scopoletin and homovanillic acid were found to be suited for the detection of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release, fluorescence change was strongly affected by mitochondrial protein constituents. The present study has resolved this problem by separating the detection system from H(2)O(2)-producing mitochondria.  (+info)

Examination of low-incidence brain tumor responses in F344 rats following chemical exposures in National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity studies. (6/124)

Neoplasms in the brain are uncommon in control Fischer 344 (F344) rats; they occur at a rate of less than 1% in 2-yr toxicity/carcinogenicity studies. Furthermore, only 10 of nearly 500 studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) showed any evidence of chemically related neoplastic effects in the brain. Generally, the brain tumor responses were considered equivocal, because the characteristics of potential neurocarcinogenic agents (such as statistically significant increased incidences, decreased latency and/or survival, and demonstration of dose-response relationships) were not observed. A thorough examination, including comparisons with a well-established historical database, is often critical in evaluating rare brain tumors. Chemicals that gave equivocal evidence of brain tumor responses were generally associated with carcinogenicity at other sites, and many chemicals were mutagenic when incubated with metabolic activating enzymes. Other factors that were supportive of the theory that marginal increases in brain tumor incidence were related to chemical exposure were that (a) some of the tumors were malignant, (b) no brain neoplasms were observed in concurrent controls from some studies, and/or (c) brain tumors were also seen following exposure to structurally related chemicals. In 2-yr studies in F344 rats (studies conducted by the NTP), equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity was observed for the following 9 chemicals: isoprene, bromoethane, chloroethane, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine dihydrochloride, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride, furosemide, C.I. direct blue 15, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and 1-H-benzotriazole. Glycidol was the only chemical evaluated by the NTP with which there was clear evidence of brain tumor induction in F344 rats. Clarification of the potential neurocarcinogenic risks of chemicals that produce equivocal evidence of a brain tumor response in conventional 2-yr rodent studies may be aided by the use of transgenic mouse models that exhibit genetic alterations that reflect those present in human brain tumors as well as by the use of in utero exposures.  (+info)

A new group of potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia cells. (7/124)

This report identifies a group of compounds, polymethylene bisacetamides (acetylated diamines), which are potent inducers of erythroid differentiation in murine erythroleukemia cells. A known inducing agent, N-methylacetamide, was dimerized through varying numbers of methylenes in an attempt to increase the local effective concentration at adjacent target sites. The simple dimer was no more effective than N-methylacetamide alone; introduction of five to eight methylenes between acetamide groups substantially increased the effectiveness of these compounds. The hexamethylene bisacetamide was active between 0.5 mM and 5 mM; the percentage of cells induced and the rate at which they were recruited to differentiation was dependent upon the concentration of inducer within this range. At 5 mM hexamethylene bisacetamide essentially the entire population (greater than 99%) was induced to a pathway of erythroid differentiation which was greater differentiation of the cultured cells than with any inducer yet tested.  (+info)

Hypochlorous acid-mediated activation of N-acetylbenzidine to form N'-(3'-monophospho-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-N-acetylbenzidine. (8/124)

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a chemically reactive oxidant, is an important component of the inflammatory response and may contribute to carcinogenesis. This study assessed the possible activation of N-acetylbenzidine (ABZ) by HOCI to form a specific DNA adduct, N'-(3'-monophospho-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-N-acetylbenzidine. HOCl was incubated with 0.06 mM 3H-ABZ, and transformation assessed by HPLC. Similar results were observed at pH 5.5 or 7.4. A linear increase in transformation was observed from 0.025 to 0.1 mM HOCl with up to 80% of ABZ changed. Approximately, 2 nmoles of HOCI oxidized 1 nmole of ABZ. N-oxidation products of ABZ metabolism, such as N'-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine, were not detected. Oxidation of ABZ was prevented by taurine, DMPO, glutathione, and ascorbic acid, whereas mannitol was without effect. Results are consistent with a radical mechanism. In the presence of 2'-deoxyguanosine 3'-monophosphate (dGp), a new product (dGp-ABZ) was observed. The same adduct was observed with DNA. dGp-ABZ was found to be quite stable (>80% remaining) at 70 degrees C in pH 5.5 (60 min) and 7.4 (240 min). Electrospray mass spectrometry indicated that dGp-ABZ was N'-(3'-monophospho-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-N-acetylbenzidine, and this was confirmed by NMR. 32P-postlabeling in combination with TLC and HPLC determined that the adduct made by either HOCl or prostaglandin H synthase oxidation of ABZ in the presence of dGp or DNA was dGp-ABZ. Thus, HOCI activates ABZ to form dGp-ABZ and may be responsible for the presence of this adduct in peripheral white blood cells from workers exposed to benzidine. Reaction of ABZ with HOCl provides an easy, convenient method for preparing dGp-ABZ.  (+info)

Benzidines are a class of chemical compounds with the basic structure of two benzene rings linked by a central nitrogen atom. The term "benzidine" can refer specifically to the parent compound, but it is more commonly used as a general term for a group of related compounds known as benzidine congeners or benzidine derivatives.

Benzidines are primarily used in the manufacture of dyes and pigments, although they have also been used in some industrial and laboratory applications. Exposure to benzidines has been linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer and other health problems, so their use is regulated in many countries.

It's worth noting that the medical definition of "benzidines" primarily focuses on their chemical structure and potential health effects, rather than their specific medical uses or applications.

Aminobiphenyl compounds are a group of chemical substances that contain two phenyl rings linked by a single carbon-nitrogen bond. The amino group (-NH2) is attached to one of the phenyl rings.

These compounds have been historically used in the manufacture of dyes and were also used as rubber accelerators. However, they have been largely phased out due to their carcinogenic properties. Exposure to certain aminobiphenyl compounds has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans.

It is important to note that the medical definition of 'aminobiphenyl compounds' generally refers to their chemical structure and potential health hazards, rather than a specific medical condition or treatment.

"Tanning" is not a medical term per se, but rather a common term used to describe the process of skin darkening as a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or artificial sources like tanning beds. Medically speaking, this process is known as "induction of cutaneous pigmentation."

The UV radiation stimulates the production of melanin, a pigment that absorbs and scatters UV light to protect the skin from further damage. There are two types of melanin: eumelanin (black or brown) and pheomelanin (yellow or red). The type and amount of melanin produced determine the color and tone of an individual's skin, hair, and eyes.

It is important to note that excessive sun exposure and tanning can lead to harmful health effects, including premature aging of the skin, eye damage, and increased risk of skin cancer. Therefore, it is recommended to protect the skin with appropriate clothing, hats, sunglasses, and sunscreen when exposed to UV radiation.

Guaiacol is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound with potential applications in the medical field. Here's a general definition:

Guaiacol (also known as 2-methoxyphenol) is an organic compound that belongs to the class of phenols. It is a colorless or slightly yellow oily liquid with a characteristic smoky odor, and it is soluble in alcohol and ether but only sparingly soluble in water. Guaiacol occurs naturally in the smoke of wood fires and is also found in certain plants, such as guaiacum and creosote bush. It has antimicrobial properties and is used in some medical and industrial applications, including as a precursor for the synthesis of other chemicals.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Textile Industry" and "medical definition" are not related. The textile industry is the overall system of designing, producing, and distributing clothing and their raw materials, which include fiber, yarn, and cloth. It involves several processes such as spinning, weaving, knitting, dyeing, and finishing.

If you're looking for a medical term or definition, please provide me with the term so I can assist you better.

2-Naphthylamine is a crystalline solid organic compound that is classified as a primary aromatic amine. Its chemical formula is C10H9N. It is an intensely orange-red to reddish-brown substance that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents.

2-Naphthylamine is produced by the reduction of 2-naphthol or its derivatives. Historically, it was used as an intermediate in the synthesis of azo dyes and other chemical compounds. However, due to its toxicity and carcinogenicity, its use has been largely discontinued in many industries.

Exposure to 2-Naphthylamine can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, and it has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer and other health effects. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling this compound, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, lab coats, and eye protection.

In the past, benzidine was used to test for blood. An enzyme in blood causes the oxidation of benzidine to a distinctively blue ... In August 2010 benzidine dyes were included in the U.S. EPA's List of Chemicals of Concern. The manufacture of Benzidine has ... Benzidine has been linked to bladder and pancreatic cancer. Benzidine is prepared in a two step process from nitrobenzene. ... Schwenecke, H.; Mayer, D. (2005). "Benzidine and Benzidine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ...
The Benzidine Rearrangement1". J. Phys. Chem. 69: 30-40. doi:10.1021/j100885a008. (CS1 errors: missing title, Articles with ...
Schwenecke, H.; Mayer, D. (2005). "Benzidine and Benzidine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... Because it is structurally similar to benzidine, a known carcinogen, it is believed that it may share a similar mechanism in ... This intermediate undergoes the benzidine rearrangement to afford 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine. Aqueous solutions of 3,3'- ...
Schwenecke, H.; Mayer, D. (2005). "Benzidine and Benzidine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... Benzidine gives a blue coloration in the presence of ferricyanide. Iron(II) sulfate added to a solution of cyanide, such as the ...
Also in 1945, Dewar devised the then novel notion of a π complex, which he proposed as an intermediate in the benzidine ... Dewar, M. J. S. (1945). "Mechanism of the Benzidine and Related Rearrangements". Nature. 156 (3974): 784. Bibcode:1945Natur.156 ...
Accordingly, the production of benzidine azo dyes was discontinued in the 1980s in many western countries. Certain azo dyes ... Azo dyes derived from benzidine are carcinogens; exposure to them has classically been associated with bladder cancer. ...
Peroxidase localization in leukocytes has been studied throughout the 20th century using staining agents such as benzidine ... Kaplow LS (August 1965). "Brief Report: Simplified Myeloperoxidase Stain Using Benzidine Dihydrochloride". Blood. 26 (2): 215-9 ...
Mancuso, Thomas F.; El-Attar, Anas A. (1967). "Cohort Study of Workers Exposed to Betanaphthylamine and Benzidine". Journal of ...
Cerniglia CE, Freeman JP, Franklin W, Pack LD (1982). "Metabolism of benzidine and benzidine-congener based dyes by human, ... "Summary of the National Toxicology Program benzidine dye initiative". Environ Health Perspect. 102 (supp 2): 63-78. doi:10.1289 ...
Chung K-T; Chen S-C; Claxton LD (2006). "Review of the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity of benzidine, benzidine analogues, ... Chung K-T; Chen S-C; Wong TY; Li YS; Wei CI; Chou MW (2000). "Mutagenicity studies of benzidine and its analogs: Structure- ... On that evidence, it has been used as a replacement for carcinogenic compounds such as benzidine and o-phenylenediamine. Sigma ... "TMB Substrate Solution". Holland VR; Saunders BC; Rose FL; Walpole AL (1974). "A safer substitute for benzidine in the ...
A variety of benzidine derivatives are used in dyes and polymers. Research into biphenyl liquid crystal candidates mainly ...
Here the two binding sites are a benzidine and a biphenol unit; the cationic ring typically prefers staying over the benzidine ... ring, but moves over to the biphenol group when the benzidine gets protonated at low pH or if it gets electrochemically ...
It is positive in the benzidine test and weakly positive in methyl red test. It exhibits clear hemolysis on ovine blood agar ...
It also tests positive for acetoin production, arginine, dihydrolase, benzidine, catalase, hemolysis, and lipase; it tests ...
Other units, such as benzidine derivatives, viologens, and fullerenes, are useful in supramolecular electrochemical devices. ...
It is prepared by azo coupling of the bis(diazonium) derivative of benzidine with naphthionic acid. Congo blue, however, is in ... Once of economic significance, Congo red has fallen into disuse as have all benzidine-derived dyes, owing to their carcinogenic ...
MOCA is an aromatic amine which is structurally similar to benzidine, a known human bladder carcinogen. MOCA has been shown to ...
Prival, M. J.; Bell, S. J.; Mitchell, V. D.; Peiperl, M. D.; Vaughan, V. L. (1984). "Mutagenicity of benzidine and benzidine- ...
Quantum chemical calculations predict that it undergoes a nearly barrierless reaction akin to the benzidine rearrangement. The ...
... particularly in opposing the use of benzidine-based dyes. By the start of the 1980s, membership had fallen to 56,843 due to ...
1904 - A test for the presence of blood by a wet-chemical method using benzidine became known. approx. 1920 - Viennese chemist ...
2-Tolidine can be produced by many benzidine rearrangement from a hydrazine derivative derived from 2-nitrotoluene. (CH3C6H4) ...
Upon treatment with the bis(diazonium) derivative of benzidine, 1-aminonaphthalene-4-sulfonic acid gives Congo red. It is ...
... it is a bifunctional compound derived via the benzidine rearrangement from o-anisidine. o-Dianisidine is a precursor to some ...
One study found that Han Chinese dye-industry workers exposed to benzidine were at higher risk for developing bladder cancer if ... The speculated mechanism for this increased cancer risk involved increased glucuronidation of benzidine by the mutant UGT2B7 ... followed by cleavage of the glucuronidated benzidine at urine pH levels, releasing higher concentrations of benzidine in the ... polymorphism with bladder cancer in benzidine-exposed workers in China". Toxicological Sciences. 85 (1): 502-6. doi:10.1093/ ...
Hans Schwenecke, Dieter Mayer "Benzidine and Benzidine Derivatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, ... 3,3′-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) is an organic compound with the formula (C6H3(NH2)2)2. This derivative of benzidine is a precursor ... An alternate synthesis route involves the diacylation of benzidine with acetic anhydride under basic conditions: (NH2)C6H4C6H4( ...
... of the population favoring the benzidine station. However, on addition of trifluoroacetic acid, the benzidine nitrogen atoms ... The same effect is obtained by electrochemical oxidation (forming the benzidine radical ion) and significantly both processes ... one biphenol and one benzidine unit. In solution at room temperature NMR spectroscopy reveals that the bead shuttles at a rate ...
The risk from aromatic amines, particularly benzidine and a-and ß-naphthylamine, was not well-established until the 1950s. In ...
The formation of these pigments involves the reaction of diazotized aromatic diamines (derivatives of benzidine) with coupling ...
Mechanism of the benzidine and Wallach rearrangements based on direct observation of dicationic reaction intermediates and ... the benzidine rearrangement and the Hofmann-Martius rearrangement. In the first part of the reaction, two equivalents of acid ...
Most people are not exposed to benzidine in the environment. Occupational exposure has been associated with increased risk of ... Benzidine is a manufactured chemical that was used to produce dyes. ... Only very small amounts of free benzidine will dissolve in water; benzidine salts can dissolve more readily in water. Benzidine ... What happens to benzidine when it enters the environment?. *Benzidine in the air exists as a vapor or attached to very small ...
Testing Status of Benzidine 10446-K. Testing Status of Benzidine 10446-K. CASRN: 92-87-5. Related: BENZIDINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE ... Citation: Luster MI, Tucker AN, Hayes HT, Pung OJ, Burka T, McMillan R, Eling T. Immunosuppressive effects of benzidine in mice ... Metabolism of the human carcinogen, benzidine, in the isolated perfused rat liver. Drug Metab Dispos. 1983 Mar-Apr;11(2):109-14 ... Disposition of the aromatic amine, benzidine, in the rat: characterization of mutagenic urinary and biliary metabolites. ...
Special Occupational Hazard Review for Benzidine-Based Dyes ... Special Occupational Hazard Review for Benzidine-Based Dyes. ...
You have to enable JavaScript in your browsers settings in order to use the eReader.. Or try downloading the content offline. DOWNLOAD ...
Most of them are azo compounds derived from benzidine or tolidine. Called also {benzidine dyes}.… ... Most of them are azo compounds derived from benzidine or tolidine. Called also {benzidine dyes}. [Webster 1913 Suppl.]. The ... benzidine - noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary benz + idine Date: circa 1855 a crystalline diamine base ... benzidine dyes. Congo group Con"go group [From {Congo red}.] A group of artificial dyes with an affinity for vegetable fibers, ...
Benzidine exposure is associated with urinary bladder cancer but the effect of NAT1 genetic polymorphism on individual risk ... Benzidine undergoes N-acetylation and following CYP1A2-catalyzed N-hydroxylation undergoes O-acetylation catalyzed by N- ... to investigate the effects of dose and NAT1 polymorphism on benzidine metabolism and genotoxicity. Rates of benzidine N- ... Effects of dose and human N-acetyltransferase 1 genetic polymorphism in benzidine metabolism and genotoxicity Mariam R Habil 1 ...
benzidine answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android ... "Benzidine." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine.com/ ... nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/767136/all/benzidine. Benzidine. In: Venes DD, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis ... Benzidine [Internet]. In: Venes DD, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. [cited 2024 April 24]. ...
Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Benzidine in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study 038268 Summary Data. * G06 ... Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Benzidine in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study 267901 Summary Data. * G06 ... Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Benzidine in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study 336867 Summary Data. * G06 ... Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Benzidine in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. Study 381549 Summary Data. * G06 ...
National Institutes of Health . . . Turning Discovery Into Health™. ...
Benzidine and dyes metabolized to benzidine. *Benzo[a]pyrene. *Beryllium and beryllium compounds ...
Benzidine, dyes metabolized to. Sufficient. Benzidine and its conjugates measured in urine of exposed workers and benzidine DNA ... Dyes metabolized to benzidine; benzo[a]pyrene; 4,4-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA); N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-( ... Aluminum production; 4-aminobiphenyl; arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds; auramine production; benzidine; chlornaphazine; ...
Lymphatic-system-disorders; Lymphatic-cancer; Benzidines; Fuels; Gases; Cancer; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-hazards; ...
Benzidines [‎1]‎. Benzimidazoles [‎12]‎. Benzo(‎a)‎pyrene [‎5]‎. Benzofurans [‎3]‎. Benzoic Acid [‎1]‎. ...
Diamino-benzidine was used as a substrate. Positive lung tissue from the dog that was incubated with phosphate-buffered saline ...
Benzidine, biphenylamines, and benzidine-based dyes : working draft /. 1978. 30. Benzothiazole : information review /. 1988. ...
Benzidine. 92-87-5. Bis(chloromethyl) ether. 542-88-1. Chloromethyl methyl ether. 107-30-2. ...
Benzidines/metabolism*; Biotransformation; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/immunology; ...
Benzidine -. Benzo(a)anthracene -. Benzyl alcohol -. 4-Bromophenyl-phenylether -. Butylbenzylphthalate -. Carbazole -. 1- ...
Inhibition of Catalase by 3,3-diamine-benzidine , Biochem J. 226 , 781 , 1985 ...
Diamino-benzidine was used as a chromogen. The sections were counterstained with haematoxylin, dehydrated in ascending ...
Induction of DNA damage signaling genes in benzidine-treated HepG2 cells.. Ching Chen S; Hseu YC; Sung JC; Chen CH; Chen LC; ...
Used in the past in the United States to produce benzidine; the last manufacturer of benzidine-based dyes in the U.S. ceased ...
Manning, B.W., Cemiglia, C.E. & Federle, T.W. (1985). Metabolism of the benzidine-based azo dye Direct Black 38 by human ... 1992). Mortality and incidence of bladder cancer in benzidine- exposed workers in China. American Journal o f Industrial ... 18 CHAPTER 4 PASSIVE SMOKING & 4-ABP-HB ADDUCTS 1. Introduction 4-ABP, together with 2-naphthylamine and benzidine, are ... and benzidine, are the two most well- established risk factors for bladder cancer in the United States. Other risk/protective ...
Hazards dealt with in these Alerts included: 2- nitropropane (79469); benzidine (92875), o-tolidine (119937), and o- ...
Benzidine -- A yellowish, white, or reddish-gray crystalline powder used in dyes and to detect blood stains. ...
Summary of the National Toxicology Program Benzidine Dye Initiative. Environmental Health Perspectives 102:63-78. [Abstract ... Summary of the National Toxicology Program Benzidine Dye Initiative. Environmental Health Perspectives 102:63-78.] ...
2-naphthylamine and benzidine]‎ in the muscle tissue of fish. There were marked seasonal variations ... ...
Other notable risk factors include exposure to dyes and rubbers, such as 4-aminobiphenyl, o-toluidine, and benzidine; ...
  • Benzidine is a manufactured chemical that was used to produce dyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine was used to produce dyes for cloth, paper, and leather. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, dyes made from benzidine, such as Direct Blue 6, Direct Black 38, and Direct Brown 95, have been shown to cause cancer in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Conversion of benzidine to the bis(diazonium) salt was once an integral step in the preparation of direct dyes (requiring no mordant). (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of derivatives of 4,4'-benzidine are commercially produced on the scale of one to a few thousand kilograms per year, mainly as precursors to dyes and pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2010 benzidine dyes were included in the U.S. EPA's List of Chemicals of Concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition dyes made from benzidine, such as Direct Blue 6, exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine was primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of benzidine dyes, which has ceased in the USA and European Union, although such use may continue elsewhere. (who.int)
  • An enzyme in blood causes the oxidation of benzidine to a distinctively blue-coloured derivative. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemoglobin catalyzes the oxidation of benzidine by hydrogen peroxide, giving a blue color. (en-academic.com)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the EPA have determined that benzidine is a human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • determined that benzidine is a human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine - A compound used mainly for dyeing textiles and paper that is a known human carcinogen (cancer causing agent). (en-academic.com)
  • As with some other aromatic amines such as 2-naphthylamine, benzidine has been significantly withdrawn from use in most industries because it is so carcinogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excretion of N -glucuronides of aromatic amines ( e.g. α- and β-NA 1 4-ABP, or benzidine) in urine accounts for only a low percentage of the administered dose of the compound. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this situation, workers with certain types of NAT2 polymorphisms (form of gene with different observable properties) have an increased risk of bladder cancer when exposed to certain aromatic amines, while workers with other NAT2 polymorphisms may be protected from developing bladder cancer when exposed to benzidine in the absence of other aromatic amine exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine has been linked to bladder and pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzidine in soil is likely to be strongly attached to soil of the urinary bladder. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine and its breakdown products can be detected in your urine, but only within about 2 weeks after your last exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Except for the cancer discussed next, benzidine has not been definitely shown to cause major adverse health effects in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • How likely is benzidine to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • It is known that long term occupational exposure to benzidine can increase the risk of developing cancer in people. (cdc.gov)
  • benzidine can increase the risk of developing cancer in people. (cdc.gov)
  • RÉSUMÉ Afin d'atteindre les objectifs de santé fixés par le pays pour 2011-2016, une analyse qualitative de l'exposition aux facteurs de risque de cancer au Qatar a été conduite en 2013. (who.int)
  • Les risques de cancer les plus élevés pour les Qatariens proviendraient de facteurs associés aux modes de vie, en particulier l'obésité, la sédentarité et le tabagisme. (who.int)
  • Liver, kidney, immune, and neurological effects have been observed in laboratory animals given relatively high amounts of benzidine. (cdc.gov)
  • The benzidine in air will eventually settle high amounts of benzidine. (cdc.gov)
  • The manufacture of Benzidine has been illegal in the UK since at least 2002 under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzidine stain for the histochemical detection of hemoglobin in splinter hemorrhage (subungual hematoma) and black heel. (medscape.com)
  • We do not know if exposure to benzidine will result in birth defects or other developmental effects in people. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to benzidine? (cdc.gov)
  • It is a crystalline solid that may be grayish-yellow, benzidine through contaminated air, water, soil, or food. (cdc.gov)
  • In the past, benzidine was used to test for blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • TMB (tetramethyl benzidine) solution is used with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-based western blotting procedure, but not applicable for ELISA or immunohistochemistry. (nacalai.co.jp)
  • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to benzidine? (cdc.gov)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about benzidine. (cdc.gov)
  • There are no studies on health effects on children exposed to benzidine. (cdc.gov)
  • It is likely that health effects seen in children exposed to high levels of benzidine will be similar to the effects seen in adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Metabolism of the human carcinogen, benzidine, in the isolated perfused rat liver. (nih.gov)
  • Citation: Luster MI, Tucker AN, Hayes HT, Pung OJ, Burka T, McMillan R, Eling T. Immunosuppressive effects of benzidine in mice: evidence of alterations in arachidonic acid metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • We used Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with human CYP1A2 and NAT1*4 allele (reference) or NAT1*14B (variant) to investigate the effects of dose and NAT1 polymorphism on benzidine metabolism and genotoxicity. (nih.gov)
  • It is a crystalline solid that may be grayish-yellow, benzidine through contaminated air, water, soil, or food. (cdc.gov)
  • benzidine salts can dissolve more readily in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine in soil is likely to be strongly attached to soil of the urinary bladder. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Benzidine in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
  • Because 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine and benzidine may be made in the same plant, the possibility cannot be excluded that dichlorobenzidine has contributed to the incidence of human bladder cancer attributed to benzidine. (inchem.org)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the EPA have determined that benzidine is a human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • determined that benzidine is a human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine - A compound used mainly for dyeing textiles and paper that is a known human carcinogen (cancer causing agent). (en-academic.com)
  • Benzidine , a known cancer-causing agent, can be found in Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6. (topfitnessideas.com)
  • Benzidine is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine and its breakdown products can also bind to proteins within your red blood cells, and this can be detected for up to 4 months. (cdc.gov)
  • Rates of benzidine N-acetylation in vitro were higher in CHO cells transfected with NAT1*4 compared to NAT1*14B. (nih.gov)
  • CHO cells transfected with NAT1*14B exhibited greater N-acetylation rates in situ than cells transfected with NAT1*4 at low doses of benzidine expected with environmental exposures but not at higher doses. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Induction of DNA damage signaling genes in benzidine-treated HepG2 cells. (nih.gov)
  • In the environment, benzidine is found in either its "free" state (as an organic base), or as a salt. (cdc.gov)
  • People living near uncontrolled hazardous waste sites may found in either its "free" state (as an organic base), or as a be exposed to benzidine. (cdc.gov)