Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
A plant family of the order Theales.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.
A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
A narcotic analgesic partly metabolized to meperidine in the liver. It is similar to morphine in action and used for neuroleptanalgesia, usually with droperidol.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.
Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
A generic term for a variety of compounds that contain silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, and may contain hydrogen. Examples include TALC and some kinds of ASBESTOS.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An ethnic group with shared religious beliefs. Originating in Switzerland in the late 1600s, and first migrating to the mid-Atlantic, they now live throughout Eastern and Mid-Western United States and elsewhere. Communities are usually close-knit and marriage is within the community.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.

Peroxygenase metabolism of N-acetylbenzidine by prostaglandin H synthase. Formation of an N-hydroxylamine. (1/124)

Synthesis of prostaglandin H2 by prostaglandin H synthase (PHS) results in a two-electron oxidation of the enzyme. An active reduced enzyme is regenerated by reducing cofactors, which become oxidized. This report examines the mechanism by which PHS from ram seminal vesicle microsomes catalyzes the oxidation of the reducing cofactor N-acetylbenzidine (ABZ). During the conversion of 0.06 mM ABZ to its final end product, 4'-nitro-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, a new metabolite was observed when 1 mM ascorbic acid was present. Similar results were observed whether 0.2 mM arachidonic acid or 0.5 mM H2O2 was used as the substrate. This metabolite co-eluted with synthetic N'-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine (N'HA), but not with N-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine. The new metabolite was identified as N'HA by electrospray ionization/MS/MS. N'HA represented as much as 10% of the total radioactivity recovered by high pressure liquid chromatography. When N'HA was substituted for ABZ, PHS metabolized N'HA to 4'-nitro-4-acetylaminobiphenyl. Inhibitor studies demonstrated that metabolism was due to PHS, not cytochrome P-450. The lack of effect of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide, mannitol, and superoxide dismutase suggests the lack of involvement of one-electron transfer reactions and suggests that hydroxyl radicals and superoxide are not sources of oxygen or oxidants. Oxygen uptake studies did not demonstrate a requirement for molecular oxygen. When [18O]H2O2 was used as the substrate, 18O enrichment was observed for 4'-nitro-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, but not for N'HA. A 97% enrichment was observed for one atom of 18O, and a 17 +/- 7% enrichment was observed for two 18O atoms. The rapid exchange of 18O-N'HA with water was suggested to explain the lack of enrichment of N'HA and the low enrichment of two 18O atoms into 4'-nitro-4-acetylaminobiphenyl. Results demonstrate a peroxygenase oxidation of ABZ and N'HA by PHS and suggest a stepwise oxidation of ABZ to N'-hydroxy, 4'-nitroso, and 4'-nitro products.  (+info)

Human and Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase hydrolysis of glucuronide conjugates of benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl, and their hydroxy metabolites. (2/124)

Individuals exposed to carcinogenic aromatic amines excrete arylamine N- and O-glucuronide metabolites. This study assessed the susceptibility of selected glucuronides to hydrolysis by human and Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase. N- or O-glucuronides were prepared with the following aglycones: benzidine, N-acetylbenzidine, N'-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine, N-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine, N-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine, 3-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine, 3-hydroxy-benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, N-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl, and N-hydroxy-N-acetyl-4-aminobiphenyl. The (3)H- and (14)C-labeled glucuronides were prepared with human or rat liver microsomes using UDP-glucuronic acid as cosubstrate. Each of the 10 glucuronides (6-12 microM) was incubated at pH 5.5 or 7.0 with either human recombinant (pure) or E. coli (commercial preparation) beta-glucuronidase for 30 min at 37 degrees C. Hydrolysis was measured by HPLC. Reaction conditions were optimized, using the O-glucuronide of N-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine. Both enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed O-glucuronides over N-glucuronides and distinguished between structural isomers. With E. coli beta-glucuronidase at pH 7.0, selectivity was demonstrated by the complete hydrolysis of N-hydroxy-N-acetyl-4-aminobiphenyl O-glucuronide in the presence of N-acetylbenzidine N-glucuronide, which was not hydrolyzed. Metabolism by both enzymes was completely inhibited by the specific beta-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (0.5 mM). The concentration of human beta-glucuronidase necessary to achieve significant hydrolysis of glucuronides was substantially more than the amount of enzyme reported previously to be present in urine under either normal or pathological conditions. The bacterial enzyme may hydrolyze O-glucuronides, but not N-glucuronides, in urine at neutral pH. Thus, the nonenzymatic hydrolysis of N-glucuronides by acidic urine is likely a more important source of free amine than enzymatic hydrolysis.  (+info)

Ultrastructural localization of light-induced lipid peroxides in the rat retina. (3/124)

PURPOSE: Localization of light-induced lipid peroxides in the rat retina at an ultrastructural level as benzidine-reactive substances. METHODS: Long-Evans rats with nondilated pupils were exposed to intense light of 6000 lux for 12 or 24 hours. Control animals were kept under physiological light conditions. Rats with dilated pupils were exposed to a light intensity of 50 lux or 150,000 lux for 1 hour. For ultrastructural localization the enucleated eyes were fixed in a 0.1-M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) containing 2% glutaraldehyde for 2 hours. Pieces of the superior part of the central eyecup were incubated overnight with tetramethylbenzidine (TMB; pH 3.0) at 4 degrees C, postfixed with 1.5% OSO4, and embedded for electron microscopy. RESULTS: In animals exposed to intense light, electron-dense structures appeared exclusively throughout the rod outer segments after an irradiation of 6000 lux for 24 hours or 150,000 lux for 1 hour and were absent in animals with nondilated pupils kept at physiological light conditions. Dilation of the pupils leads to the appearance of electron-dense structures after just 1 hour of 50 lux, whereas rats with nondilated pupils withstand even a 12-hour irradiation with 6000 lux. No electron-dense structures were found when no TMB was used in incubation. CONCLUSIONS: The appearance of electron-dense structures in the rod outer segments depends on the incubation with TMB and intensive light exposure of the rat. Dilation of the pupils lowers the threshold for the emergence of electron-dense structures significantly. This strongly supports the view that light-induced lipid peroxides in the rat retina are localized at an ultrastructural level as benzidine-reactive substances. This protocol presents a tool for the generation and ultrastructural localization of lipid peroxides in rat retinas.  (+info)

Glucuronidation of benzidine and its metabolites by cDNA-expressed human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and pH stability of glucuronides. (4/124)

Although glucuronidation is considered a necessary step in aromatic amine-induced bladder cancer, the specific enzymes involved are not known. This study assessed the capacity of five different human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases expressed in COS-1 cells to glucuronidate benzidine, its metabolites and 4-aminobiphenyl. [(14)C]UDP-glucuronic acid was used as co-substrate. UGT1A1, UGT1A4 and UGT1A9 each metabolized all of the aromatic amines. UGT1A9 exhibited the highest relative rates of metabolism with preference for the two hydroxamic acids, N-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine and N-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine. UGT1A9 metabolized 4-aminobiphenyl approximately 50% faster than benzidine or N-acetylbenzidine. UGT1A4 N-glucuronidated N'-hydroxy- N-acetylbenzidine at the highest relative rate compared with the other transferases. UGT1A6 was effective in metabolizing only four of the eight aromatic amines tested. UGT1A1 demonstrated more extensive metabolism of the hydroxamic acid, N-hydroxy-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine, and the ring oxidation product, 3-OH-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine, than it did for the other six amines. UGT2B7 was the only product of the UGT2 gene family examined and it metabolized all the aromatic amines at similar low relative levels compared with a preferred substrate, 4-OH-estrone. The K(m) values for N-acetylbenzidine metabolism by UGT1A1 and UGT1A4 were 0.37 +/- 0.14 and 1.8 +/- 0.4 mM, respectively. The O-glucuronide of 3-OH-N,N'-diacetylbenzidine was not hydrolyzed during a 24 h 37 degrees C incubation at either pH 5. 5 or 7.4. Likewise, the O-glucuronide of 3-OH-benzidine was stable at pH 7.4, with 52% remaining at pH 5.5 after 24 h. These results suggest the following relative ranking of transferase metabolism: UGT1A9 > UGT1A4 > > UGT2B7 > UGT1A6 approximately UGT1A1. The relative pH stability of O-glucuronides is consistent with a role in detoxification and excretion of aromatic amines, while the acid lability of N-glucuronides is consistent with delivery of these amines to the bladder epithelium for activation, resulting in DNA adducts which may lead to mutations.  (+info)

H(2)O(2) detection from intact mitochondria as a measure for one-electron reduction of dioxygen requires a non-invasive assay system. (5/124)

Evaluation of the existence of superoxide radicals (O*-(2)), the site of generation and conditions required for one-e(-) transfer to oxygen from biological redox systems is a prerequisite for the understanding of the deregulation of O(2) homeostasis leading to oxidative stress. Mitochondria are increasingly considered the major O*-(2) source in a great variety of diseases and the aging process. Contradictory reports on mitochondrial O*-(2) release prompted us to critically investigate frequently used O*-(2) detection methods for their suitability. Due to the impermeability of the external mitochondrial membrane for most constituents of O*-(2) detection systems we decided to follow the stable dismutation product H(2)O(2). This metabolite was earlier shown to readily permeate into the cytosol. With the exception of tetramethylbenzidine none of the chemical reactants indicating the presence of H(2)O(2) by horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed absorbance change were suited due to solubility problems or low extinction coefficients. Tetramethylbenzidine-dependent H(2)O(2) detection was counteracted by rereduction of the dye through e(-) carriers of the respiratory chain. Although the fluorescent dyes scopoletin and homovanillic acid were found to be suited for the detection of mitochondrial H(2)O(2) release, fluorescence change was strongly affected by mitochondrial protein constituents. The present study has resolved this problem by separating the detection system from H(2)O(2)-producing mitochondria.  (+info)

Examination of low-incidence brain tumor responses in F344 rats following chemical exposures in National Toxicology Program carcinogenicity studies. (6/124)

Neoplasms in the brain are uncommon in control Fischer 344 (F344) rats; they occur at a rate of less than 1% in 2-yr toxicity/carcinogenicity studies. Furthermore, only 10 of nearly 500 studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) showed any evidence of chemically related neoplastic effects in the brain. Generally, the brain tumor responses were considered equivocal, because the characteristics of potential neurocarcinogenic agents (such as statistically significant increased incidences, decreased latency and/or survival, and demonstration of dose-response relationships) were not observed. A thorough examination, including comparisons with a well-established historical database, is often critical in evaluating rare brain tumors. Chemicals that gave equivocal evidence of brain tumor responses were generally associated with carcinogenicity at other sites, and many chemicals were mutagenic when incubated with metabolic activating enzymes. Other factors that were supportive of the theory that marginal increases in brain tumor incidence were related to chemical exposure were that (a) some of the tumors were malignant, (b) no brain neoplasms were observed in concurrent controls from some studies, and/or (c) brain tumors were also seen following exposure to structurally related chemicals. In 2-yr studies in F344 rats (studies conducted by the NTP), equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity was observed for the following 9 chemicals: isoprene, bromoethane, chloroethane, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine dihydrochloride, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride, furosemide, C.I. direct blue 15, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and 1-H-benzotriazole. Glycidol was the only chemical evaluated by the NTP with which there was clear evidence of brain tumor induction in F344 rats. Clarification of the potential neurocarcinogenic risks of chemicals that produce equivocal evidence of a brain tumor response in conventional 2-yr rodent studies may be aided by the use of transgenic mouse models that exhibit genetic alterations that reflect those present in human brain tumors as well as by the use of in utero exposures.  (+info)

A new group of potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia cells. (7/124)

This report identifies a group of compounds, polymethylene bisacetamides (acetylated diamines), which are potent inducers of erythroid differentiation in murine erythroleukemia cells. A known inducing agent, N-methylacetamide, was dimerized through varying numbers of methylenes in an attempt to increase the local effective concentration at adjacent target sites. The simple dimer was no more effective than N-methylacetamide alone; introduction of five to eight methylenes between acetamide groups substantially increased the effectiveness of these compounds. The hexamethylene bisacetamide was active between 0.5 mM and 5 mM; the percentage of cells induced and the rate at which they were recruited to differentiation was dependent upon the concentration of inducer within this range. At 5 mM hexamethylene bisacetamide essentially the entire population (greater than 99%) was induced to a pathway of erythroid differentiation which was greater differentiation of the cultured cells than with any inducer yet tested.  (+info)

Hypochlorous acid-mediated activation of N-acetylbenzidine to form N'-(3'-monophospho-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-N-acetylbenzidine. (8/124)

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a chemically reactive oxidant, is an important component of the inflammatory response and may contribute to carcinogenesis. This study assessed the possible activation of N-acetylbenzidine (ABZ) by HOCI to form a specific DNA adduct, N'-(3'-monophospho-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-N-acetylbenzidine. HOCl was incubated with 0.06 mM 3H-ABZ, and transformation assessed by HPLC. Similar results were observed at pH 5.5 or 7.4. A linear increase in transformation was observed from 0.025 to 0.1 mM HOCl with up to 80% of ABZ changed. Approximately, 2 nmoles of HOCI oxidized 1 nmole of ABZ. N-oxidation products of ABZ metabolism, such as N'-hydroxy-N-acetylbenzidine, were not detected. Oxidation of ABZ was prevented by taurine, DMPO, glutathione, and ascorbic acid, whereas mannitol was without effect. Results are consistent with a radical mechanism. In the presence of 2'-deoxyguanosine 3'-monophosphate (dGp), a new product (dGp-ABZ) was observed. The same adduct was observed with DNA. dGp-ABZ was found to be quite stable (>80% remaining) at 70 degrees C in pH 5.5 (60 min) and 7.4 (240 min). Electrospray mass spectrometry indicated that dGp-ABZ was N'-(3'-monophospho-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-N-acetylbenzidine, and this was confirmed by NMR. 32P-postlabeling in combination with TLC and HPLC determined that the adduct made by either HOCl or prostaglandin H synthase oxidation of ABZ in the presence of dGp or DNA was dGp-ABZ. Thus, HOCI activates ABZ to form dGp-ABZ and may be responsible for the presence of this adduct in peripheral white blood cells from workers exposed to benzidine. Reaction of ABZ with HOCl provides an easy, convenient method for preparing dGp-ABZ.  (+info)

Lab Reagents. Tetramethylbenzidine Laboratories manufactures the tetramethylbenzidine reagents distributed by Genprice. The Tetramethylbenzidine reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact Tetramethylbenzidine. Other Tetramethylbenzidine products are available in stock. Specificity: Tetramethylbenzidine Category:. Lab Tools information ...
The adsorption of benzidine by sepiolite obtained from Eskisehir (Turkey) has been studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A deep green colouration results on reaction of benzidine and sepiolite. In the IR spectrum of benzidine treated sepiolite ν(C-N+) vibrational modes of the uni- and di-positive radical cations are observed in addition to vibrational modes of coordinated benzidine. Spectroscopic results indicate that the principle adsorption mechanism for benzidine is coordination to surface hydroxyls from nitrogen lone pairs and to a relatively small extent, formation of radical cations. No physical sorbed species have been detected. It must be noted that the adsorption of benzidine affected the hydroxyl group vibrations of sepiolite.. ...
Tetramethylbenzidine 54827-17-7 MSDS report, Tetramethylbenzidine MSDS safety technical specifications search, Tetramethylbenzidine safety information specifications ect.
Information about the carcinogenicity of benzidine (92875) in man and in experimental animals is reviewed, along with results of studies on the metabolism of benzidine and azo compounds, and epidemiological surveys of industries that use azo dyes. The author concludes that workers exposed to benzidine based dyes may metabolically convert the dyes to carcinogenic amine. The number of workers with p
The cooxidative metabolism of the urinary bladder carcinogen benzidine was examined using renal inner medullary microsomes. The products of [14C]benzidine metabolism were recovered in the aqueous but not in the organic soluble fraction of reaction mixtures. The reactive metabolites formed during cooxidative metabolism of benzidine bound to DNA and transfer RNA. Cooxidative metabolism of benzidine and subsequent binding to nucleic acids was dependent upon specific fatty acid substrates and was blocked by inhibitors of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase. The ratio of the rates of benzidine product formation was approximately 10:3:1 (trichloroacetic acid precipitable:non-trichloroacetic acid precipitable:transfer RNA bound) over a wide range of arachidonic acid concentrations. Cumene hydroperoxide also initiated cooxidative metabolism of benzidine but was less effective than was arachidonic acid. In contrast to arachidonic acid, cumene hydroperoxide-mediated metabolism of benzidine and guaiacol ...
Learn more about 3,3\,5,5\-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). We enable science by offering product choice, services, process excellence and our people make it happen.
Colorimetric detection of bindable substances such as antibodies and antigens using chromogens of improved sensitivity and stability. The chromogens take the form of activated solutions containing tetramethylbenzidine or water soluble derivatives of tetramethylbenzidine. Such chromogens are of particular use in home testing applications for detection of antigens such as human chorionic gonadotropin, human luteinizing hormone, and gonococcus bacteria, as well as the detection of antibodies for these substances.
We evaluated the influence of urine pH on the proportion of urinary benzidine (BZ) and N-acetylbenzidine present in the free, unconjugated state and on exfoliated urothelial cell DNA adduct levels in 32 workers exposed to BZ in India. Postworkshift urine pH was inversely correlated with the proportions of BZ (r = -0.78; P , 0.0001) and N-acetylbenzidine (r = -0.67; P , 0.0001) present as free compounds. Furthermore, the average of each subjects pre- and postworkshift urine pH was negatively associated with the predominant urothelial DNA adduct (P = 0.0037, adjusted for urinary BZ and metabolites), which has been shown to cochromatograph with a N-(3-phosphodeoxyguanosin-8-yl)-N-acetylbenzidine adduct standard. Controlling for internal dose, individuals with urine pH , 6 had 10-fold higher DNA adduct levels compared to subjects with urine pH , or = 7. As reported previously, polymorphisms in NAT1, NAT2, and GSTM1 had no impact on DNA adduct levels. This is the first study to demonstrate that ...
The epidemiological studies showed that occupational exposure to commercial benzidine alone was strongly associated with bladder cancer. In the same studies, exposure to 2-naphthylamine alone was similarly associated with bladder cancer. A number of case reports from several countries support the relationship between this neoplasm and occupational exposure to benzidine.. Subsequent evaluations: Vol. 29 (1982); Suppl. 7 (1987). ...
Identification of the N-acetylcysteine conjugate of benzidine formed in the peroxidase activation system.: Benzidine is oxidized by the peroxidase/H2O2 system,
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A dry reagent test strip for determining the concentration of an analyte in a liquid sample is described. The test strip has a matrix containing reagent detection chemistry, which includes an oxidase enzyme that can utilize the analyte as a substrate forming hydrogen peroxide, a benzidine dye precursor, a peroxidase enzyme, and an antipyrine compound. The addition of an antipyrine compound to the reagent detection chemistry provides a standard concentration graph which is substantially linear in a desired range of analyte concentration. The precision and accuracy of reading the test strip are enhanced.
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Microsomal enzyme preparations from dog liver, kidney, and bladder were used to assess the prostaglandin H synthasecatalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic amines to bind covalently to proteins and nucleic acids. Benzidine, a urinary bladder carcinogen, bound to protein of bladder transitional epithelial and renal inner and outer medullary microsomes and was dependent upon addition of arachidonic acid, but not upon reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Bladder transitional epithelial microsomes also activated o-dianisidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, and 2-naphthylamine to bind to protein and transfer RNA and benzidine and o-dianisidine to bind DNA. Cosubstrate and inhibitor specificities were consistent with activation by prostaglandin H synthase. Binding of benzidine to protein was not observed with either hepatic or renal cortical microsomes upon addition of arachidonic acid or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate.. Prostaglandin H synthase and mixed-function ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metal free MoS2 2D sheets as a peroxidase enzyme and visible-light-induced photocatalyst towards detection and reduction of Cr(vi) ions. AU - Borthakur, Priyakshree. AU - Boruah, Purna K.. AU - Das, Manash R.. AU - Artemkina, Sofya B.. AU - Poltarak, Pavel A.. AU - Fedorov, Vladimir E.. PY - 2018/10/21. Y1 - 2018/10/21. N2 - Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) sheets were prepared by using simple thermal decomposition method. The synthesized sheets were characterized by different analytical tools including FTIR, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, HRTEM and FESEM analyses. The synthesized sheets exhibited outstanding peroxidase mimicking activity towards the peroxidase oxidation of chromogenic probe molecule 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl benzidine (TMB), producing a blue coloured solution of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine diimine (TMBDI) in an acidic medium (pH 4). Based on this peroxidase mimicking activity it was utilized for colorimetric determination of toxic Cr(vi) ions ...
A method is described for the sampling and analysis of o-tolidine (119937) , based on a method successfully used for benzidine (92875). Air is drawn through a two stage sampler consisting of a high efficiency fiber filter and a silica gel bed which collects o- tolidine and its salts. The filter and sorbent sections of the sampler are transferred to stoppered tubes and the o-tolidine is desorbed. A triethylamine/methyl-alcohol solution is injected into a high pressure liquid chromatograph. Peak readings are obtained and compared with a standard calibration curve. This method can detect 0.15 to 6.5 micrograms of benzidine per sample (3 to 130 micrograms per cubic meter for a 50 liter air sample) using 0.5 milliliters of desorbing solution and a 10 microliter injection into the liquid chromatograph. The authors suggest that the range of detection for o-tolidine should be similar to that for benzidine. The limit of detection for o-tolidine is predicted to be about 0.05 micrograms per sample. - ...
0058] The additional layer 510 may be p-doped. A dopant provided for the additional layer 510 in various working examples is a copper complex. In various working examples, the additional layer 510 is doped with the dopant with a dopant concentration within a range from about 1% to about 20%, for example within a range from about 1% to about 15%, for example within a range from about 2% to about 8%. The following materials may be used as part of the matrix material of the additional layer 110: NPB (N,N-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)benzidine), β-NPB (N,N-bis(naphthalen-2-yl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)benzidine), TPD (N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)benzidine), N,N-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)-2,2-dimethylbenzidine, spiro-TPD (N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)-9,9-spirobifluorene), spiro-NPB (N,N-bis(1-naphthyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)-9,9-spirobifluorene), DMFL-TPD (N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N-bis(phenyl)-9,9-dimethylfluorene, DMFL-NPB ...
Direct Black 19 {H.S. Code}: 3204140000 {Color Index}: C.I. Direct Black 19 {CAS No.}: 6428-31-5 {Molecular Structure}: {Molecular Formula}: C34H27N13Na2
In this work, uniformly-dispersed platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) were synthesized by a simple chemical reduction method, in which citric acid and sodium borohydride acted as a stabilizer and reducer, respectively. An ultrasensitive colorimetric sensor for the facile and rapid detection of Ag+ ions was constructed based on the peroxidase mimetic activities of the obtained PtNPs, which can catalyze the oxidation of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2 to produce colored products. The introduced Ag+ would be reduced to Ag0 by the capped citric acid, and the deposition of Ag0 on the PtNPs surface, can effectively inhibit the peroxidase-mimetic activity of PtNPs. Through measuring the maximum absorption signal of oxidized TMB at 652 nm, ultra-low detection limits (7.8 pM) of Ag+ can be reached. In addition to such high sensitivity, the colorimetric assay also displays excellent selectivity for other ions of interest and shows great potential for the detection of Ag+ in real water samples.
The SeraSpot® Anti-EBV-4 IgG / SeraSpot® Anti-EBV-3 IgM test is a solid phase immunoassay based on the use of recombinant EBV antigens as capture antigens printed in array arrangement (spot array) on the bottom of the wells of 96well-microtiter plates. The recombinant antigens serve as capture molecules for antibodies against EBV antigens. Bound antibodies are detected by horseradish peroxidase-(HRP)-labeled antibodies against human antibodies of IgG- or IgM-type by substrate reaction with hydrogen peroxide and 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). At the site of formed immune complexes blue spots are developed by precipitated product from colorless substrate solution. Color intensity correlates to the antibody concentration. Pale blue to dark blue spots are visible by eye ...
appendicitis.. Principle:. The SeraSpot® Anti-Yersinia-6 IgG / SeraSpot® Anti-Yersinia-6 IgA test is a solid phase immunoassay based on the use of recombinant Yersinia proteins as capture antigens printed in array arrangement (spot array) on the bottom of the wells of 96-well microtiter plates. The recombinant antigens serve as capture molecules for antibodies against Yersinia antigens. Bound antibodies are detected by horseradish peroxidase-(HRP)-labeled antibodies against human antibodies of IgG- or IgA-type by substrate reaction with hydrogen peroxide and 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). At the site of formed immune complexes blue spots are developed by precipitated product from colorless substrate solution. Color intensity is correlated to the antibody concentration. Pale blue to dark blue spots are visible by eye.. Article No.:. ...
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The carcinogenicity and metabolism of azo dyes derived from benzidine (92875) is presented. The metabolism of benzidine and azo compounds in humans and animals is discussed, and the disease incidence among workers in industries using azo dyestuffs is described. Industrial hygiene surveys performed to monitor the environment of azo dye workers and their urinary excretion of aromatic amines and benz
A simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of anions, nitrite and nitrate has been described. Determination of nitrite is by means of reactions involving tetrazotisation of Benzidine, followed by coupling withN,N-dimethylaniline and determination of nitrate is mainly based on reduction of nitrate to nitrite by using granular Zinc in NaCl. The produced nitrite is then availed to tetrazotize the Benzidine, which is then coupled with N,N-dimethylaniline to form pinkish red colored an azo dye in acidic medium. Measured the absorbance of resulted colored dye solution at 538 nm. Amount of reagents required is optimised and the extent of tolerance limit by the diverse ions was investigated. The Beer-Lambert s linearity range for Benzidine- N,N-dimethylaniline couple was found to be 0.05 to 0.3g/mL of nitrite with molar absorptivity 3.475x10Lmol-1cm-1 and sandell s sensitivity 3.3152x10-4gcm-2. The evaluated detection limit and quantization limit for the determination ...
Hydrazobenzene is a hydrazine derivative selected for bioassay by the National Cancer Institute because of the documented carcinogenicity of the parent compound hydrazine and of certain substituted hydrazines. Treatment of hydrazobenzene with hot mineral acid results in the production of benzidine (the so-called benzidine rearrangement) and hydrazobenzene finds application in the dye manufacturing industry as a precursor of this important dye intermediate and potent carcinogen.. A bioassay of technical-grade hydrazobenzene for possible carcinogenicity was conducted using Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Hydrazobenzene was administered in the feed, at either of two concentrations, to groups of 50 male and 47 to 50 females animals of each species. The time-weighted average dietary concentrations used in the rat bioassay were 0.008, 0.03, 0.004, and 0.01 percent for low dose males, high dose males, low dose females, and high dose females, respectively. The time-weighted average dietary ...
The short-term toxicity to aquatic invertebrates has been evaluated taken into account the already existing data on the Direct Blue 199 Na form (i.e. Direct Blue 199_Na). The usage of information on Direct Blue 199_Na, which has the same main component and with a different counter ion, can be considered as suitable and appropriated because the difference in salification is expected to not influence the characteristics related to the specific end-point. The impurity profile does not impact on the read across proposed. Details on the approach followed are included in the document attached to the IUCLID section 13. The acute toxicity of Direct Blue 199_Na to Daphnia magna was determined according to the OECD Guideline 202. The test was carried out under static exposure conditions for a period of 48 hours, at the following concentrations: 1, 10 and 100 mg/l. After 24 and 48 hours of incubation no significant effects (, 10 % of a total of 40 individuals) were observed at all test concentrations and ...
Megavat Direct Black GV is a black vat dye derived from anthraquinone. It is insoluble in water except during the dyeing process. This product comes in ...
Direct Black 168 is a dark organic powder. Direct Black 168 is not toxic/harmful for short-term exposures and it is not skin irritating; however, it is able to cause eye irritation. Direct Black 168 is not a skin sensitizer agent. No CMR activity has never been reported and has been observed in specific experiments performed. No adverse effects were observed during the experiments run, thus, mechanisms of bioactivation leading to adverse effects are not expected to occur at moderate dosages. Specific studies or specific literature data on toxicokinetics and metabolism are not available, thus information about the substance has been taken into account, avoiding further tests. Because of the molecular structure and the hydrophilic of Direct Black 168, dermal absorption is expected to be negligible. Based on the available information, potential dermal toxicity is not suspected. Furthermore, the substance gave negative results in skin sensitisation assay, thus it is considered as not able to cause ...
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This study describes the preparation of nanoprotein particles having lignin peroxidase (LiP) using a photosensitive microemulsion polymerization technique. The protein-based nano block polymer was synthesized by cross-linking of ligninase enzyme with ruthenium-based aminoacid monomers. This type polymerization process brought stability in different reaction conditions, reusability and functionality to the protein-based nano block polymer system when compared the traditional methods. After characterization of the prepared LiP copolymer nanoparticles, enzymatic activity studies of the nanoenzymes were carried out using tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) as the substrate. The parameters such as pH, temperature and initial enzyme concentration that affect the activity, were investigated by using prepared nanoLip particles and compared to free LiP. The reusability of the nano-LiP particles was also investigated and the obtained results showed that the nano-LiP particles exhibited admirable potential as a reusable
The MP Diagnostics HIV-1/2 ELISA 4.0 is an antigen sandwich immunoassay. The wells of the polystyrene microplate strips are coated with recombinant HIV antigens (gp41, gp120, and gp-36) expressed in E.coli. The conjugate is based on a second set of recombinant HIV antigens expressing the same epitopes as the pre-coated antigens, which is conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Human serum or plasma, are incubated in these coated wells. HIV-1/2 specific antibodies, if present, will bind to the antigens immobilised on the solid phase. After incubation, the wells are thoroughly washed to remove unbound materials and conjugate is added to the wells. The antigens of the conjugate will bind to any antigen-antibody complexes previously formed and excess unbound conjugate are removed by washing. Colourless solutions containing urea peroxide and tetramethylbenzidine are then added to each well. The presence of specific antibodies is indicated by the presence of a blue colour after incubation, which changes ...
This Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) assay is based on a synthetic peptide antigen (C6 peptide) in microwell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format. The antigen is derived from the vlsE protein of Borrelia burgdorferi. In the assay procedure, diluted cerebrospinal fluid specimens are added and incubated in wells of an antigen-coated microwell plate. Antibodies specific to the C6 peptide in the specimen are bound by the immobilized antigen, and unbound antibodies are removed by wash steps. The bound antibodies are detected by addition of a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat antihuman IgG/IgM conjugate. After removal of excess conjugate by further wash steps, a chromogenic peroxidase substrate containing tetramethylbenzidine is added. A blue-green product is produced in wells where antibodies have been bound to the antigen. The color development reaction is quenched by addition of dilute sulfuric acid, after which optical absorbance at 450 nm is measured in each well using an ELISA plate ...
A quantitative method was developed to estimate the concentration of cytochrome (cyt) f in isolated thylakoids, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by staining with a heme-specific reagent containing 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine and hydrogen peroxide. This densitometric technique was at least as sensitive as difference spectroscopy. Analysis of thylakoid preparations by densitometry of stained bands using cyt c as standard gave molar ratios of cyt/chlorophyll which were identical to ratios obtained by difference spectroscopy. Densitometric assays demonstrated that the molar ratio of cyt f/chlorophyll decreased during leaf aging in seven higher plants; however, there was a marked difference in the rate at which cyt f was lost from the leaves of different species ...
A dual-cell device has been designed as an oxidase-like mimic with the oxidation of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine as a model reaction. This dual-cell device could be also used to study oxidase-like nanozymes. It was found that only the catalytic sites for oxygen reduction are essential and necessary for oxidase-li
Bladder cancer most often begins in the urothelial cells that line the inside of the bladder. Factors that increase risk of having bladder cancer include smoking, genetics, and previous exposure to chemo-toxic agents like cytoxan and aromatic amines such as benzidine found in the dye industry. The most common symptom of bladder cancer is blood in the urine (i.e., hematuria).. ...
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Patented July 28, 1936 PATENT OFFICE COLOR-PHOTOGRAPH) BLEACH OUT DYESTUFF LAYERS Bla Gaspar, Brussels, Belgium No Drawing. Application December 29, 1932, Serial No. 649,442. 1932 7 Claims. This invention relates to a method of producing color-photographic bleach-out dyestufi layers. Attempts to produce color photographic images by bleaching processes are very old, and 5 innumerable variations of this process have been proposed. Very appreciable results have been obtained in this direction, but notwithstanding it has not been possible to make the finished images correspondingly durable. In particular 10 there have been used for this purpose practically without exception basic dyestuffs. Reference is certainly contained in the literature to the effect that on occasion substantive or acid dyestuffs have also been investigated for the-pur- 15 pose in question, thus for example by Valenta in the Photographische Rundschau, 1911, page 56 etc.-, but the results obtained were not of a useful kind, ...
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Background: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a lipoglycan from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is an immunomodulatory molecule that stimulates the innate immune response. High levels of LPS cause excessive release of inflammatory mediators and are responsible for the septic shock syndrome. The interaction of LPS with its cognate binding proteins has not, as yet, been structurally elucidated.,br /,,br /,Results: The X-ray crystallographic structure of LPS in complex with the integralouter membrane protein FhuA from Escherichia coli K-12 is reported. It is in accord with data obtained using mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Most of the important hydrogen-bonding or electrostatic interactions with LPS are provided by eight positively charged residues of FhuA. Residues in a similar three-dimensional arrangement were searched for in all structurally known proteins using a fast template-matching algorithm, and a subset of four residues was identified that is common to known ...
The most widespread reason behind the illness is the lining up of transitional cells within the bladder. Papillary and nonpapillary (or sessile) tumors grow for that reason. Papillary tumors attach to a stalk and have a wart-like appearance. The latter is far less common but is more obtrusive and has a more extreme outcome. While the exact cause is still doubtful, growth may be due to one or more of the following.. Smoking - Researchers suggest there is a good link between the illness and tobacco use. Nearly half the cases in American males, and a growing number in women, have a relation to cigarette smoke.. Chemical Exposure - Some workplaces may also put you at higher risk for developing the disease. Nearly thirty percent of cases involve people whose occupations regularly expose them to harmful carcinogens like Benzidine and Napthtylamine. Relevant to this cause are concerns dealing with the use of Actos.. Actos bladder ...
본 연구는 학습과 기억에서 중요한 역할을 담당하는 해마형성체(hippocampal formation)와 내후각뇌피질(entorhinal cortex)에서 노화에 따른 세포사 관련물질들의 변화를 비교분석하여, 노화에 따른 중추신경계의 기능적 변화를 유발하는 기전을 추정하는데 필요한 형태학적 기초 자료를 제공하고자 시행되었다. 연구방법은 노화쥐와 대조군에 4% paraformaldehyde를 심장을 통해 관류하여 고정시키고, 뇌를 적출한 후 40μm 두께로 냉동절단하여 면역세포화학 염색을 하였다. NOS, VIP, c-fos bcl-2, bax, p53에 대한 항체를 각각 희석하여 사용하였고 avidin-biotin peroxidase 용액에서 반응시켰다. 그 다음에 peroxidase를 포함한 3,3-diamino benzidine 용액에서 발색시키고 gelatin-coated slide에서 말린 후 광학현미경하에서 관찰하였다. NOS와 bcl-2의 경우는 면역세포화학 염색이 선명하지 않아 in situ ...
United tates Patent 3,232,755 PHOTOCONDUCTIVE LAYERS FOR ELECTRG- PHOTUGRAPHEC PURPOSES Helmut I-ioegl, Wieshaden, Erwin Lind, Wieshaden- Biebrich, and Heinz Schlesinger, lViesbaden, Germany, assignors, by mesne assignments, to Azoplate Corporafion, Murray Hill, N1, a corporation of New Jersey No Drawing. Filed lune 13, 1960, Ser. No. 35,493 Claims priority, application Germany, July 1, 1959, K 38,111 32 Claims. (Cl. 96- 1) Inorganic materials, such as selenium or zinc oxide, as Well as various organic low molecular weight substances, such as anthracene, chrysene, and benzidine, have previously been used for electrophotographie purposes. Photoconductive layers have now been found which are especially suited for electrophotographic usages and which consist, at least partially, of one or more polymerization products or copolymers of heterocycles having vinyl substituents, and/or substitution products thereof. Photoconductive substances suitable for use in the present invention are polymers and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electron microscopic visualization of tetramethyl benzidine reaction product on horseradish peroxidase neurohistochemistry. AU - Sakumoto, T.. AU - Nagai, T.. AU - Kimura, H.. AU - Maeda, T.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018937029&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018937029&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 7471140. AN - SCOPUS:0018937029. VL - 26. SP - 211. EP - 216. JO - Cellular and Molecular Biology. JF - Cellular and Molecular Biology. SN - 0145-5680. IS - 2. ER - ...
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3,3-Dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride is an off-white powder with amelting point of 274 degrees C. 3,3-Dimethoxybenzidine is used principally as anintermediate in the production of commercial bisazobiphenyl dyes for coloringtextiles, paper, plastic, rubber, and leather. In the synthesis of thebisazobiphenyl dyes, the amine groups of 3,3-dimethoxybenzidine arechemically linked with other aromatic amines. A small quantity of3,3-dimethoxybenzidine is also used as an intermediate in the production of o-dianisidinediisocyanate, which is used in isocyanate-based adhesive systems and as acomponent of polyurethane elastomers.. 3,3-Dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride was evaluated in toxicity andcarcinogenicity studies as part of the National Toxicology ProgramsBenzidine Dye Initiative. This Initiative was designed to evaluate the representativebenzidine congeners and benzidine congener-derived and benzidine-deriveddyes. 3,3-Dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride was nominated for study becauseof the ...
Glucose oxidase catalyzes the formation of gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide from the oxidation of glucose. Peroxidase catalyzes the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with a potassium iodide chromogen to oxidize the chromogen to colors ranging from green to brown. Bilirubin couples with diazotized dichloroaniline in a strongly acid medium. Colors range through various shades of tan. Acetoacetic acid reacts with nitroprusside. Colors range from buff-pink, for a negative reading, to maroon for a positive reading. pKa changes occur for certain pretreated polyelectrolytes in relation to ionic concentration. In the presence of an indicator, colors range from deep blue-green in urine of low ionic concentration through green and yellow-green in urines of increasing ionic concentration. Hemoglobin catalyzes the reaction of diisopropylbenzene dihydroperoxide and 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine. Colors range from orange through green; very high levels of blood may cause the color development to continue to ...
4-Aminobiphenyl exposure can be assayed by measuring the extent of adduct formation with hemoglobin. 4-Aminobiphenyl metabolism is catalyzed by N-hydroxylation via cytochrome P450 1A2. It is then followed by O-sulfation and O-acetylation by sulfotransferase 1A1 and arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2. The urinary metabolites of 4-aminobiphenyl include 4-acetylaminobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4-aminobiphenyl, 2-hydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, 3-hydroxy, 4-methoxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy, 3-methoxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl, and 3,4-dihydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl. (8, 4 ...
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In the present work, a simple and a sensitive HPLC method was developed for quantitative determination of four Direct textile dyes (Direct Red 81, Direct Blue 15, Direct Black 22 and Direct Orange 34). The maximum absorbance value for the above mentioned dyes were found to be at 510 nm, 607 nm, 484 nm and 411 nm, with retention times of 15.4, 8.8, 5.8 and 12.7 min, respectively. The mobile phase used was consisting of acetonitrile: water (60:40, v/v) containing 0.45 M N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimehyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). RP C18 column was used with a flow rate of 0.5ml/min. Calibration graphs were found to be linear over the ranges of 0.3-10ppm, 10-30ppm, 0.5-10ppm and 1-12ppm for Direct Red 81, Direct Blue 15, Direct Black 22 and Direct Orange 34, respectively, with limit of detection 0.3ppm, 10ppm, 0.5ppm and 1ppm. The relative standard deviations (RSD%) were found to be 0.92 %, 0.83 %, 1.13 % and 0.34 %, respectively (n=3) with concentrations of 10ppm of each dye. The effect of pH, CTAB ...
Reagents. AdoHcy hydrolase inhibitor DZ2002 was synthesized at Diazyme Laboratories (San Diego, CA). OVA (grade V), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetonitrile, AdoHcy, Ado, Hcy, Ado deaminase inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine hydrochloride, and 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine were supplied by Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) was purchased from Difco (Detroit, MI). RPMI 1640 medium was purchased from Gibco BRL/Life Technologies Inc. (Gaithersburg, MD), and fetal calf serum (FCS) was obtained from Hyclone Laboratories (Logan, UT). [3H]Thymidine was provided by The Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China). ELISA kits for IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-4 were purchased from BD PharMingen (San Diego, CA). Rabbit anti-mouse IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, or IgG3 antibodies labeled with horseradish peroxidase were purchased from Bio-Rad (Hercules, CA).. Animals. Male C57BL/6 mice, aged 6 to 8 weeks, were purchased ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optical biosensor test strip for the screening and direct determination of l-glutamate in food samples. AU - Md Muslim, Noor Zuhartini. AU - Ahmad, Musa. AU - Lee, Yook Heng. AU - Saad, Bahruddin. PY - 2012/1/3. Y1 - 2012/1/3. N2 - An optical glutamate biosensor test strip based on stacked membranes of nafion/sol-gel (bottom layer) and chitosan (uppermost layer) was fabricated on a piece of paper as support to form a test strip. The use of a stacked membrane system allows multiple immobilizations of sensing components directly without any covalent attachment via straight forward procedures. The uppermost membrane consisted of immobilised enzymes l-glutamate oxidase (GLOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which sensed the presence of l-glutamate and the bottom membrane contained the indicator dye, 3,3′,5,5′- tetramethylbenzidine. The test strip can be used to measure l-glutamate quantitatively by observing a colour change from light green to dark green with increasing ...
The MP Diagnostics HIV-1/2 ELISA 4.0 is an antigen sandwich immunoassay. The wells of the polystyrene microplate strips are coated with recombinant HIV antigens (gp41, gp120, and gp-36) expressed in E.coli. The conjugate is based on a second set of recombinant HIV antigens expressing the same epitopes as the pre-coated antigens, which is conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Human serum or plasma, are incubated in these coated wells. HIV-1/2 specific antibodies, if present, will bind to the antigens immobilised on the solid phase. After incubation, the wells are thoroughly washed to remove unbound materials and conjugate is added to the wells. The antigens of the conjugate will bind to any antigen-antibody complexes previously formed and excess unbound conjugate are removed by washing. Colourless solutions containing urea peroxide and tetramethylbenzidine are then added to each well. The presence of specific antibodies is indicated by the presence of a blue colour after incubation, which changes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Medullary projections of rabbit carotid sinus nerve. AU - Blessing, W. W.. AU - Yu, Y. H.. AU - Nalivaiko, E.. PY - 1999/1/23. Y1 - 1999/1/23. N2 - In New Zealand white rabbits, cholera-toxin HRP was injected into the carotid sinus nerve just proximal to the carotid sinus. After survival periods of 3-5 days the rabbits were anesthetized and the brain fixed with aldehyde solution. Transverse sections were cut on a sledge microtome and the sections reacted with the tetramethylbenzidine procedure. HRP-positive fibers entered the ipsilateral dorsolateral medulla at the level of the acoustic tubercle, joining the tractus Solitarius. Positive fibres were found principally ipsilaterally in four regions of the medulla: in the caudal two thirds of the nucleus tractus solitarius, in its dorsolateral regions and, more caudally, in its commissural subdivision; in the dorsolateral aspect of the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve; in the region ventral and ventrolateral to the tractus ...
Co-polyimide membranes for separating components of sour natural gas including at least three distinct moieties polymerized together, the moieties including a 2,2′-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) based moiety; a 2,4,6-trimethyl-m-phenylenediamine (DAM) based moiety; and at least one component selected from the group consisting of: a 4,4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)dianiline (6FpDA) based moiety; a 9,9-bis(4-aminophenyl) fluorene (CARDO) based moiety; a 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (durene diamine) based moiety; a 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzidine (ABL-21) based moiety; a 3,3′-dihydroxybenzidine based moiety; and a 3,3′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)dianiline based moiety.
A thin film of triphenylamine dimer, N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (TPD), doped with fac tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium (Ir(ppy)3) and platinum octaethyl porphine (PtOEP) is char
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PeproTechs TMB sandwich ELISA kits contain the key components required for the quantitative measurement of natural and/or recombinant proteins using TMB substrate
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3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is oxidized in the presence of peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide resulting in the deposition of a brown, alcohol-insoluble precipitate at the site of enzymatic activity.
2-Nitrophenyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-a-D-galactopyranoside (min. 99.0% HPLC) - 3,3-Diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride - 3,35,5-Tetramethylbenzidin...
Solid non-dusty, porous dyestuff-foams are described of any desired shape and size containing at least one dyestuff, a foaming agent and optionally bonding agents and/or further additives. These foams are useful for preparing dye liquors or printing pastes by sprinkling said foams into water or organic solvents.
A photo-sensitive composition for dry formation of image comprising a dyestuff having a photo-fading property, a ketonic sensitizing agent and a high molecular polymer as a binding agent, which can provide a visible image by the irradiation of light and maintain the image without any fixing treatment.
Human IFN-γ ELISA development kit contains the key components required for the quantitative measurement of natural and/or recombinant
Siden sidst er det blevet til en enkelt som vi mistede ganske hurtigt. Vi kæmper videre. I eftermiddag sejler vi til Tejn og gør klar til TMB.. ...
Schwenecke, H.; Mayer, D. (2005). "Benzidine and Benzidine Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ... Because it is structurally similar to benzidine, a known carcinogen, it is believed that it may share a similar mechanism in ... This intermediate undergoes the benzidine rearrangement to afford 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine. Aqueous solutions of 3,3'- ...
Also in 1945, Dewar devised the then novel notion of a π complex, which he proposed as an intermediate in the benzidine ... Dewar, M. J. S. (1945). "Mechanism of the Benzidine and Related Rearrangements". Nature. 156 (3974): 784. Bibcode:1945Natur.156 ...
Accordingly, the production of benzidine azo dyes was discontinued in the 1980s in many western countries. Certain azo dyes ... Azo dyes derived from benzidine are carcinogens; exposure to them has classically been associated with bladder cancer. ...
Peroxidase localization in leukocytes has been studied throughout the 20th century using staining agents such as benzidine ... Kaplow LS (August 1965). "Brief Report: Simplified Myeloperoxidase Stain Using Benzidine Dihydrochloride". Blood. 26 (2): 215-9 ...
Cerniglia CE, Freeman JP, Franklin W, Pack LD (1982). "Metabolism of benzidine and benzidine-congener based dyes by human, ... "Summary of the National Toxicology Program benzidine dye initiative". Environ Health Perspect. 102 (supp 2): 63-78. doi:10.1289 ...
Chung K-T; Chen S-C; Claxton LD (2006). "Review of the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity of benzidine, benzidine analogues, ... Chung K-T; Chen S-C; Wong TY; Li YS; Wei CI; Chou MW (2000). "Mutagenicity studies of benzidine and its analogs: Structure- ... On that evidence, it has been used as a replacement for carcinogenic compounds such as benzidine and o-phenylenediamine. Sigma ... Holland VR; Saunders BC; Rose FL; Walpole AL (1974). "A safer substitute for benzidine in the detection of blood". Tetrahedron ...
A variety of benzidine derivatives are used in dyes and polymers. Research into biphenyl liquid crystal candidates mainly ...
It is positive in the benzidine test and weakly positive in methyl red test. It exhibits clear hemolysis on ovine blood agar ...
It also tests positive for acetoin production, arginine, dihydrolase, benzidine, catalase, hemolysis, and lipase; it tests ...
Other units, such as benzidine derivatives, viologens, and fullerenes, are useful in supramolecular electrochemical devices. ...
It is prepared by azo coupling of the bis(diazonium) derivative of benzidine with naphthionic acid. Due to a color change from ... Once of economic significance, Congo red has fallen into disuse as have all benzidine-derived dyes, owing to their carcinogenic ...
MOCA is an aromatic amine which is structurally similar to benzidine, a known human bladder carcinogen. MOCA has been shown to ...
... particularly in opposing the use of benzidine-based dyes. By the start of the 1980s, membership had fallen to 56,843 due to ...
1904 - A test for the presence of blood by a wet-chemical method using benzidine became known. approx. 1920 - Viennese chemist ...
2-Tolidine can be produced by a benzidine rearrangement from a hydrazine derivative derived from 2-nitrotoluene. (CH3C6H4)2N2H2 ...
Upon treatment with the bis(diazonium) derivative of benzidine, 1-aminonaphthalene-4-sulfonic acid gives Congo red. It is ...
As used by fumigators to detect hydrogen cyanide, copper(II) salt and an aromatic amine such as benzidine is added to the ... sample; as an alternative to benzidine an alternative amine di-(4,4-bis-dimethylaminophenyl) methane can be used. A positive ...
... it is a bifunctional compound derived via the benzidine rearrangement from o-anisidine. o-Dianisidine is a precursor to some ...
One study found that Han Chinese dye-industry workers exposed to benzidine were at higher risk for developing bladder cancer if ... The speculated mechanism for this increased cancer risk involved increased glucuronidation of benzidine by the mutant UGT2B7 ... followed by cleavage of the glucuronidated benzidine at urine pH levels, releasing higher concentrations of benzidine in the ... polymorphism with bladder cancer in benzidine-exposed workers in China". Toxicological Sciences. 85 (1): 502-6. doi:10.1093/ ...
Hans Schwenecke, Dieter Mayer "Benzidine and Benzidine Derivatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, ... 3,3′-Diaminobenzidine (DAB) is an organic compound with the formula (C6H3(NH2)2)2. This derivative of benzidine is a precursor ... An alternate synthesis route involves the diacylation of benzidine with acetic anhydride under basic conditions: (NH2)C6H4C6H4( ...
... of the population favoring the benzidine station. However, on addition of trifluoroacetic acid, the benzidine nitrogen atoms ... The same effect is obtained by electrochemical oxidation (forming the benzidine radical ion) and significantly both processes ... one biphenol and one benzidine unit. In solution at room temperature NMR spectroscopy reveals that the bead shuttles at a rate ...
The formation of these pigments involves the reaction of diazotized aromatic diamines (derivatives of benzidine) with coupling ...
Mechanism of the benzidine and Wallach rearrangements based on direct observation of dicationic reaction intermediates and ... the benzidine rearrangement and the Hofmann-Martius rearrangement. In the first part of the reaction, two equivalents of acid ...
This car was washed a few days after Del Castillo's disappearance, but it tested positive for blood in luminol and benzidine ...
Besides glucose oxidase, the test kit contains a benzidine derivative, which is oxidized to a blue polymer by the hydrogen ...
The molecular formula C12H12N2 may refer to: Abametapir Benzidine Diquat (C12H12N22+) Hydrazobenzene This set index page lists ...
Nonetheless, through conducting Benzidine tests upon each garment, he had concluded each bore evidence of bloodstains, whereas ... Roche Lynch at St Mary's Hospital to undergo Benzidine testing. Dr. Lynch was able to conclude that both the trousers and ... Roche Lynch took the witness stand to discuss the results of the Benzidine tests he had conducted upon Sangret's army blanket, ...
In 1995-96, manufacture of non-benzidine dyestuffs with a capacity of 1700 tonnes per annum was commissioned and the ...
... to textile dyes and occupational bladder cancer due to aniline dye intermediates such as beta-naphthylamine and benzidine, ...
... including benzidine and β-Naphthylamine. Hueper warned them explicitly of dangers to their workers in 1937, and throughout 1938 ...
In the past, benzidine was used to test for blood. An enzyme in blood causes the oxidation of benzidine to a distinctively blue ... In August 2010 benzidine dyes were included in the U.S. EPAs List of Chemicals of Concern. The manufacture of Benzidine has ... Benzidine has been linked to bladder and pancreatic cancer. Benzidine is prepared in a two step process from nitrobenzene. ... Schwenecke, H.; Mayer, D. (2005). "Benzidine and Benzidine Derivatives". Ullmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. ...
Most people are not exposed to benzidine in the environment. Occupational exposure has been associated with increased risk of ... Benzidine is a manufactured chemical that was used to produce dyes. ... Only very small amounts of free benzidine will dissolve in water; benzidine salts can dissolve more readily in water. Benzidine ... What happens to benzidine when it enters the environment?. *Benzidine in the air exists as a vapor or attached to very small ...
Benzidine. CAS No: 92-87-5. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references include ... Benzidine. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Toxicological profile for Benzidine. Update. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Benzidine (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Supplement7, 1987) Benzidine (IARC Summary & ... BENZIDINE. ICSC. : 0224. (1,1-Biphenyl)-4,4-diamine. 4,4-Diaminobiphenyl. p-Diaminodiphenyl. Biphenyl-4,4-ylenediamine. ...
In the past, benzidine was used to produce dyes or products used in clinical laboratories. However, benzidine has not been sold ... Learn about benzidine, exposure to which raises your risk of bladder cancer. Benzidine is a manufactured chemical. ... What is benzidine?. Benzidine is a manufactured chemical that does not occur in nature. In the past, large amounts of benzidine ... How are people exposed to benzidine?. Inhalation and accidental ingestion are the main ways people can be exposed to benzidine- ...
Special Occupational Hazard Review for Benzidine-Based Dyes ... Special Occupational Hazard Review for Benzidine-Based Dyes. ... Special Occupational Hazard Review for Benzidine-Based Dyes pdf icon[PDF - 2,943 KB] ...
BENZIDINE. VOL.: 1 (1972) (p. 80) 5. Summary of Data Reported and Evaluation. 5.1 Animal carcinogenicity data. Benzidine is ... The epidemiological studies showed that occupational exposure to commercial benzidine alone was strongly associated with ... and occupational exposure to benzidine.. Subsequent evaluations: Vol. 29 (1982); Suppl. 7 (1987). Last updated: 12 March 1998 ...
This page contains information on the chemical Benzidine including: 64 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations ... Benzidine (and its salts) *Benzidine acetate*Benzidine base*BENZIDINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE*Benzidine hydrochloride*BENZIDINE SULFATE ... Benzidine, hydrochloride*Benzidine, sulfate (1:1) *Benzidine, sulfate (1:1) (8CI) *Benzidine-based dyes*Benzidine.2HCl* ... Benzidine. Identifications. *Formula: C12H12N2*Formula: NH2C6H4C6H4NH2. Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen. *CAS Number: 92- ...
The table below is the Annex XVII to REACH and includes all the restrictions adopted in the framework of REACH and the previous legislation, Directive 76/769/EEC. Each entry shows a substance or a group of substances or a substance in a mixture, and the consequent restriction conditions. The latest consolidated version of REACH presents the restrictions adopted until the date of publication. Subsequent changes are included in the amending Commission regulations.. ...
The CSV is a delimited data format that has fields/columns separated by the semicolon character and records/rows separated by newlines. Fields that may contain a special character (semicolon, newline, or double quote), are enclosed in double quotes. For an easier handling, the list of Pre-registered substances is available in four parts ordered by EC number. They contain the same information as the following full list.. ...
... a benzidine dye precursor, a peroxidase enzyme, and an antipyrine compound. The addition of an antipyrine compound to the ... For purposes of the present invention, the term benzidine type dye precursor is meant to include benzidine, tolidine and dye ... Particularly useful dye forming derivatives of benzidine are tetraalkyl benzidines. Also, for purposes of this invention, the ... benzidine and tetramethylbenzidine. Other benzidine dye precursors such as tetraalkylbenzidines described in U.S. Pat. No. ...
Here you can find all of the regulations and regulatory lists in which this substance appears, according to the data available to ECHA. This substance has been found in the following regulatory activities (directly, or inheriting the regulatory context of a parent substance):. ...
EPA 8270 Benzidines Mix for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and ... EPA 8270 Benzidines Mix, certified reference material, TraceCERT®, 2000 μg/mL each component in methanol, ampule of 1 mL ... EPA 8270 Benzidines Mix 2000 μg/mL each component in methanol, analytical standard ...
... and correct diagnosis for Benzidine - fetal exposure signs or Benzidine - fetal exposure symptoms. ... fetal exposure including 1 medical symptoms and signs of Benzidine - fetal exposure, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, ... Research More About Benzidine -- fetal exposure. Do I have Benzidine -- fetal exposure? *Benzidine -- fetal exposure: ... Treatments for Benzidine -- fetal exposure *More about Benzidine -- fetal exposure Benzidine -- fetal exposure: Medical ...
Thin films of benzidine polymers were electrochemically deposited directly onto conductive substrates by oxidative coupling of ... High power organic cathodes using thin films of electropolymerized benzidine polymers T. Truong, G. W. Coates and H. D. Abruña ... Thin films of benzidine polymers were electrochemically deposited directly onto conductive substrates by oxidative coupling of ...
Benzidine. Description. Benzidine is prepared in a two step process from nitrobenzene. First, the nitrobenzene is converted to ... Benzidine has been linked to bladder and pancreatic cancer. Since August 2010 benzidine dyes are included in the EPAs List of ... The benzidine rearrangement, which proceeds intramolecularly, is a classic mechanistic puzzle in organic chemistry. Benzidine, ... Showing metabocard for Benzidine (HMDB0041835). IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectraBiological properties ...
The University of Kansas prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnicity, religion, sex, national origin, age, ancestry, disability, status as a veteran, sexual orientation, marital status, parental status, gender identity, gender expression and genetic information in the Universitys programs and activities. The following person has been designated to handle inquiries regarding the non-discrimination policies: Director of the Office of Institutional Opportunity and Access, [email protected], 1246 W. Campus Road, Room 153A, Lawrence, KS, 66045, (785)864-6414, 711 TTY. ...
Cookies allow for a variety of features that make your visit to Restek more enjoyable. By using this website, you agree to the use of cookies in accordance with our guidelines. For more information, see our privacy policy.. ...
Benzidine Binding to Nucleic Acids Mediated by the Peroxidative Activity of Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Synthetase. Terry V. ... Cooxidative metabolism of benzidine and subsequent binding to nucleic acids was dependent upon specific fatty acid substrates ... The products of [14C]benzidine metabolism were recovered in the aqueous but not in the organic soluble fraction of reaction ... Benzidine Binding to Nucleic Acids Mediated by the Peroxidative Activity of Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Synthetase ...
We evaluated the influence of urine pH on the proportion of urinary benzidine (BZ) and N-acetylbenzidine present in the free, ... Acidic urine pH is associated with elevated levels of free urinary benzidine and N-acetylbenzidine and urothelial cell DNA ... Acidic urine pH is associated with elevated levels of free urinary benzidine and N-acetylbenzidine and urothelial cell DNA ... Acidic urine pH is associated with elevated levels of free urinary benzidine and N-acetylbenzidine and urothelial cell DNA ...
Induction of erythroid differentiation in DBA/2J mouse Friend erythroleukemia cells assessed as benzidine positive cells after ...
K562 cells assessed as benzidine-positive cells at IC50 after 4 days. ...
A deep green colouration results on reaction of benzidine and sepiolite. In the IR spectrum of benzidine treated sepiolite ν(C- ... Akyüz, S. and Akyüz, T. and Davies, J. E. D. (1993) An FT-IR spectroscopic investigation of the adsorption of benzidine by ... The adsorption of benzidine by sepiolite obtained from Eskisehir (Turkey) has been studied by Fourier-transform infrared ... An FT-IR spectroscopic investigation of the adsorption of benzidine by sepiolite from Eskisehir (Turkey).. ...
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 92-87-5 BENZIDINE (RING-D8, 98%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled ... Home > Products > Stable Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard > Amino Acids > BENZIDINE (RING-D8, 98%) ...
Benzidine is oxidized by the peroxidase/H2O2 system, ... Identification of the N-acetylcysteine conjugate of benzidine ... Identification of the N-acetylcysteine conjugate of benzidine formed in the peroxidase activation system.. Authors * Josephy, P ... We used h.p.l.c. to separate the products of the reaction of benzidine with N-acetylcysteine. The major product was identified ... Benzidine is oxidized by the peroxidase/H2O2 system, yielding reactive intermediates. In the presence of thiols, covalent ...
This list contains a non-exhaustive inventory of substances taken from: (1) Table 3 of Annex VI to CLP; (2) the Candidate List of SVHCs; (3) Annex XIV of REACH (Authorisation List); (4) Annex XVII of REACH (Restrictions List); (5) F-gases subject to emission limits/reporting per Regulation 517/2014/EU; and (6) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in the Ambient Air Directive 2008/50/EC. The basis of the list is Annex I(3) of the Construction Products Regulation 305/2011/EC, which stipulates that construction works must not have a high impact on human health or the environment as a result of: giving off toxic gas; emissions of dangerous substances, volatile organic compounds (VOC), greenhouse gases or dangerous particles into indoor or outdoor air; release of dangerous substances into drinking water, ground water, marine waters, surface waters or soil.. ...
  • Conversion of benzidine to the bis(diazonium) salt was once an integral step in the preparation of direct dyes (requiring no mordant). (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of derivatives of 4,4'-benzidine are commercially produced on the scale of one to a few thousand kilograms per year, mainly as precursors to dyes and pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2010 benzidine dyes were included in the U.S. EPA's List of Chemicals of Concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzidine is a manufactured chemical that was used to produce dyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine was used to produce dyes for cloth, paper, and leather. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, dyes made from benzidine, such as Direct Blue 6, Direct Black 38, and Direct Brown 95, have been shown to cause cancer in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • In the past, industry used large amounts of benzidine to produce dyes for cloth, paper, and leather. (cdc.gov)
  • U.S. dye companies no longer make benzidine-based dyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Some benzidine-based dyes (or products dyed with them) may also still be brought into the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • In the past, benzidine entered the environment largely when it was being made or used to produce dyes. (cdc.gov)
  • Some may also come from the chemical or biological breakdown of benzidine-based dyes, or from other dyes where it may exist as an impurity. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhalation and accidental ingestion are the main ways people can be exposed to benzidine-based dyes in the United States. (cancer.gov)
  • As benzidine-based dyes were removed from both industrial and consumer markets and replaced with other types of dyes, the potential for exposure has declined. (cancer.gov)
  • Benzidine and Dyes Metabolized to Benzidine, Report on Carcinogens, Fourteenth Edition. (cancer.gov)
  • Used for the purpose of dyeing cotton, silk, or viscose,Non Benzidine Direct Dyes are highly demanded in the market. (technocolordyes.com)
  • We are one of the most reliable Sunfast Non Benzidine Direct Dyes exporters from India. (rajaexport.com)
  • We present to you world-class range of Sunfast Non Benzidine Direct Dyes. (rajaexport.com)
  • Available in multifarious packages, our Sunfast Non Benzidine Direct Dyes are reckoned for their highest quality level. (rajaexport.com)
  • Cancer mortality was of particular concern because of the many chemicals known to be definite or suspected carcinogens used in the tanning cycle, in particular chromate pigments, benzidine based dyes, formaldehyde, and organic solvents. (ilo.org)
  • p-Diaminodiphenyl [Note: Benzidine has been used as a basis for many dyes. (brown.edu)
  • To create a new entry for C. I. Acid Black 29 in Schedule 7, consistently with other benzidine-based dyes. (tga.gov.au)
  • Benzidine based-dyes have been shown to be metabolised to benzidine, a known human carcinogen. (tga.gov.au)
  • The delegate's reason for referring this scheduling proposal to the ACCS was that, the NICNAS IMAP program has reviewed a number of diazotized benzidine derivatives likely to be a component of dyes and stains. (tga.gov.au)
  • The toxicological profile of these benzidine-based azo dyes is consistent with the Scheduling Policy Framework's (SPF) criteria for listing in Schedule 7 (based on their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profile and ability to be metabolised to benzidine, a known human carcinogen). (tga.gov.au)
  • The scheduling recommendations from the November ACCS meeting resulted in eleven benzidine-based azo dyes being listed in Schedule 7. (tga.gov.au)
  • Further advice of the ACCS was requested to determine whether CI Acid Black 29 should be added to the current Schedule 7 entry for BENZIDINE-BASED AZO DYES. (tga.gov.au)
  • Its toxicological profile is based on read-across from related dyes and the assumption that it, too, is metabolised in vivo to benzidine. (tga.gov.au)
  • Is there sufficient evidence to conclude that it represents the same hazard profile as other benzidine-based azo dyes listed in Schedule 7, and therefore warrants inclusion in that entry? (tga.gov.au)
  • Should CI Acid Black 29 (and its CAS number) be simply added to the list of dyes currently captured by the generic Schedule 7 entry for BENZIDINE-BASED AZO DYES, or should it be listed under a separate schedule entry? (tga.gov.au)
  • Eleven benzidine-based azo dyes are listed in Schedule 7. (tga.gov.au)
  • Benzidine, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. (cancer.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the EPA have determined that benzidine is a human carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • The cooxidative metabolism of the urinary bladder carcinogen benzidine was examined using renal inner medullary microsomes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because it is structurally similar to benzidine, a known carcinogen, it is believed that it may share a similar mechanism in causing bladder cancer in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of age on susceptibility of carcinogen benzidine-hydrochloride. (bvsalud.org)
  • Susceptibility of carcinogen (benzidine hydrochloride) was checked by degranulation technique in rats of three different (young, adult and old) age groups . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mechanism of peroxidative activation of the bladder carcinogen 2-amino-4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-thiazole (ANFT): comparison with benzidine. (nih.gov)
  • The EPA (IRIS 2001) has calculated a chronic oral Reference Dose (RfD) for benzidine of 3x10-3 mg/kg/day based on a LOAEL of 2.7 mg/kg/day for brain cell vacuolization and liver cell alterations observed in female mice exposed for their lifetimes to 20 ppm benzidine dihydrochloride in the drinking water (Littlefield et al. (cdc.gov)
  • In the environment, benzidine is found in either its 'free' state (as an organic base), or as a salt (for example, benzidine dihydrochloride or benzidine sulfate). (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment of this hydrazine with mineral acids induces a rearrangement reaction to 4,4'-benzidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The benzidine rearrangement, which proceeds intramolecularly, is a classic mechanistic puzzle in organic chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism of the benzidine rearrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • The [5,5] transition state for the benzidine rearrangement. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • This is a clear manifestation of a π-complex, which the benzidine rearrangement has often (and it has to be said controversially) described as, and which elevates this particular reaction from that of a simple bond forming/bond cleaving sigmatropic. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • HOMO for 5,5 benzidine rearrangement. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • A [3,3] alternative to the benzidine rearrangement. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The benzidine rearrangement was one of the earliest reactions I did in my home laboratory, at the age of about 13. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • But it is noteworthy that the mechanism of the benzidine rearrangement was largely unravelled using such isotopic studies. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • So, putting all this together, one might infer that armed with a computed transition state structure for the benzidine rearrangement, it is trivial to compute the kinetic isotope effects and hence to see if they correspond to those measured. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • This intermediate undergoes the benzidine rearrangement to afford 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzidine Rearrangement. (wiley.com)
  • An enzyme in blood causes the oxidation of benzidine to a distinctively blue-coloured derivative. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADPH-dependent oxidation of benzidine by rat liver. (nih.gov)
  • This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzidines. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are organic compounds containing the benzidine skeleton, made up of a biphenyl ring system substituted at the 4- and 4'-positions with a unsubstituted amine group. (hmdb.ca)
  • Benzidine was also transformed abiotically to mutagenic compounds but not the same ones seen after bacterial biotransformation. (unh.edu)
  • The test strip has a matrix containing reagent detection chemistry, which includes an oxidase enzyme that can utilize the analyte as a substrate forming hydrogen peroxide, a benzidine dye precursor, a peroxidase enzyme, and an antipyrine compound. (google.com)
  • In contrast to arachidonic acid, cumene hydroperoxide-mediated metabolism of benzidine and guaiacol peroxidase activity was not blocked by indomethacin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Identification of the N-acetylcysteine conjugate of benzidine formed in the peroxidase activation system. (mysciencework.com)
  • Benzidine is oxidized by the peroxidase/H2O2 system, yielding reactive intermediates. (mysciencework.com)
  • The benzidine-method for the detection of peroxidase positive PMNs is quick, lowcost and useful in screening biological fluids for the presence of granulocytes [6]. (imagejournals.org)
  • Only very small amounts of free benzidine will dissolve in water at moderate environmental temperatures. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine salts can dissolve more easily in water than free benzidine. (cdc.gov)
  • Comparative data of dose response of benzidine hydrochloride observed on the basis of RNA / Protein ratio basis showed that old animals were more susceptible to carcinogens than young and adult animals . (bvsalud.org)
  • As with some other aromatic amines such as 2-naphthylamine, benzidine has been significantly withdrawn from use in most industries because it is so carcinogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzidine is carcinogenic in the mouse, rat and hamster, and possibly the dog. (inchem.org)
  • It is known that long term occupational exposure to benzidine can increase the risk of developing cancer in people. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know if exposure to benzidine will result in birth defects or other developmental effects in people. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to benzidine? (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine and its breakdown products can be detected in your urine, but only within about 2 weeks after your last exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • This public health statement tells you about benzidine and the effects of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • This information is important because exposure to benzidine may harm you and because these sites may be sources of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Which cancers are associated with exposure to benzidine? (cancer.gov)
  • Occupational exposure to benzidine results in an increased risk of bladder cancer , according to studies of workers in different geographic locations. (cancer.gov)
  • The epidemiological studies showed that occupational exposure to commercial benzidine alone was strongly associated with bladder cancer. (inchem.org)
  • A number of case reports from several countries support the relationship between this neoplasm and occupational exposure to benzidine. (inchem.org)
  • The symptom information on this page attempts to provide a list of some possible signs and symptoms of Benzidine -- fetal exposure . (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • This signs and symptoms information for Benzidine -- fetal exposure has been gathered from various sources, may not be fully accurate, and may not be the full list of Benzidine -- fetal exposure signs or Benzidine -- fetal exposure symptoms. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Furthermore, signs and symptoms of Benzidine -- fetal exposure may vary on an individual basis for each patient. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Only your doctor can provide adequate diagnosis of any signs or symptoms and whether they are indeed Benzidine -- fetal exposure symptoms. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • benzidine salts can dissolve more readily in water. (cdc.gov)
  • 3. Pigment yellow 12 ( Benzidine Yellow G-R) Physical, Chemical and Fastness Properties Molecular. (peerflix.com)
  • Benzidine has been linked to bladder and pancreatic cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EPA (IRIS 2001) has derived an inhalation cancer slope factor of 2.3x102 (mg/kg/day)-1 based on the incidence of bladder cancer in workers exposed to benzidine as reported by Zavon et al. (cdc.gov)
  • The mechanism by which benzidine induces bladder cancer in dog was evaluated by assessing me tabolism of [ 3 H]benzidine by dog liver slices and microsomes. (wustl.edu)
  • Thus, detoxification by liver provides a mechanism for accumulation of benzidine in acidic urine, uptake of benzidine into bladder epithelium, and activation of benzidine in bladder. (wustl.edu)
  • Davis, Bernard B. / Role of n-ghicuronidation in benzidine-induced bladder cancer in dog . (wustl.edu)
  • All benzidine yellow g pigments wholesalers & benzidine yellow g pigments manufacturers come from members. (peerflix.com)
  • We doesn't provide benzidine yellow g pigments products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (peerflix.com)
  • The products of [ 14 C]benzidine metabolism were recovered in the aqueous but not in the organic soluble fraction of reaction mixtures. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The reactive metabolites formed during cooxidative metabolism of benzidine bound to DNA and transfer RNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cooxidative metabolism of benzidine and subsequent binding to nucleic acids was dependent upon specific fatty acid substrates and was blocked by inhibitors of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cumene hydroperoxide also initiated cooxidative metabolism of benzidine but was less effective than was arachidonic acid. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These results demonstrate that the peroxidative activity of renal medullary prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase mediates benzidine metabolism and subsequent binding to nucleic acids. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Metabolism and disposition of benzidine in the dog. (nih.gov)
  • N, N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) was studied for opto-electrical properties having focus on temperature dependent transport properties. (vbripress.com)
  • Composite buffer layers of N, N′ -bis(naphthalene-1-yl)- N, N′ -bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) and NaCl at the anode/organic interface were found to be very effective on the hole injection enhancement from an indium tin oxide anode to the hole-transport layer (HTL) of NPB. (elsevier.com)
  • A deep green colouration results on reaction of benzidine and sepiolite. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • We used h.p.l.c. to separate the products of the reaction of benzidine with N-acetylcysteine. (mysciencework.com)
  • Spectroscopic results indicate that the principle adsorption mechanism for benzidine is coordination to surface hydroxyls from nitrogen lone pairs and to a relatively small extent, formation of radical cations. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Benzidine (trivial name), also called 1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (systematic name), is an organic compound with the formula (C6H4NH2)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzidine, the trivial name for 4,4'-diaminobiphenyl, is the solid organic compound with the formula (C6H4NH2)2. (hmdb.ca)
  • Liver, kidney, immune, and neurological effects have been observed in laboratory animals given relatively high amounts of benzidine. (cdc.gov)
  • However, small amounts of benzidine may still be manufactured or imported for scientific research in laboratories or for other specialized uses. (cdc.gov)
  • Certain fish, snails, algae, and other forms of water life may take up and store very small amounts of benzidine, but accumulation in the food chain is unlikely. (cdc.gov)
  • The manufacture of Benzidine has been illegal in the UK since at least 2002 under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxic Substances Portal - Benzidine. (cancer.gov)
  • In the environment, benzidine is found in either its "free" state (as an organic base), or as a salt. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine, an organic chemical belonging to the class of amines and used in making numerous dyestuffs. (britannica.com)
  • Benzidine solution (0.1% 3,3'-diaminobenzidine containing hydrogen peroxide) was added at room temperature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • OSHA standards strictly regulate the use of a solid or liquid mixture containing less than 0.1 percent by weight or volume of benzidine (29CFR 1910.1003). (cdc.gov)
  • People living near uncontrolled hazardous waste sites may be exposed to benzidine. (cdc.gov)
  • Children should avoid playing in soils near uncontrolled hazardous waste sites where benzidine may have been discarded. (cdc.gov)
  • Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), benzidine is listed as a hazardous waste when it is a discarded commercial product, off-specification species, container residue, or spill residue thereof (EPA 1980b). (cdc.gov)
  • The liver and N-glucuronidation play a potentially important role in the species specificity of benzidine carcinogenesis. (wustl.edu)
  • Benzidine in the air exists as a vapor or attached to very small particles. (cdc.gov)
  • In air, benzidine is found attached to suspended particles or as a vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine exists in the air as very small particles or as a vapor, which may be brought back to the earth's surface by rain or gravity. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine is on the list of chemicals appearing in 'The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act of 1986' (EPCRA) (EPA 1988a). (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine can slowly be destroyed by certain other chemicals, light, and some microorganisms (for example, bacteria). (cdc.gov)
  • of the best benzidine yellow 10g pigment manufacturers and suppliers in China and equipped with one of the famous such brands, Riwa Chemicals is waiting for you to buy and benzidine yellow 10g pigment made in. (peerflix.com)
  • Detection of metabolites by thin layer chromatography and subsequent autoradiography revealed that benzidine is biotransformed by unacclimated bacteria from polluted sites and from estuaries. (unh.edu)
  • Upon extended incubation, bacteria transformed the metabolites back to benzidine indicating that the biotransformations were ring substitutions but not ring cleavage. (unh.edu)
  • In terms of its physical properties, 4,4'-benzidine is poorly soluble in cold water but can be recrystallized from hot water, where it crystallises as the monohydrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acidic urine pH is associated with elevated levels of free urinary benzidine and N-acetylbenzidine and urothelial cell DNA adducts in exposed workers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We evaluated the influence of urine pH on the proportion of urinary benzidine (BZ) and N-acetylbenzidine present in the free, unconjugated state and on exfoliated urothelial cell DNA adduct levels in 32 workers exposed to BZ in India. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sediment and water samples as well as bacterial isolates were incubated in media containing 100 (mu)g ml('-1 14)C(U)-benzidine (specific activity 6.76 mCi/mmol) supplemented with ammonia, phosphate and ferrous iron in aged seawater (salinity 26('o)/oo). (unh.edu)
  • Benzidine is a manufactured chemical that does not occur naturally. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine is a manufactured chemical that does not occur in nature. (cancer.gov)
  • Benzidine in soil is likely to be strongly attached to soil particles and will not easily pass into underground water. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzidine and its breakdown products can also bind to proteins within your red blood cells, and this can be detected for up to 4 months. (cdc.gov)
  • at 100 (mu)g ml('-1) two transformation products appeared but most of the benzidine remained unchanged. (unh.edu)