Benzhydryl Compounds: Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Neuropharmacology: The branch of pharmacology dealing especially with the action of drugs upon various parts of the nervous system.Wakefulness-Promoting Agents: A specific category of drugs that prevent sleepiness by specifically targeting sleep-mechanisms in the brain. They are used to treat DISORDERS OF EXCESSIVE SOMNOLENCE such as NARCOLEPSY. Note that this drug category does not include broadly-acting central nervous system stimulants such as AMPHETAMINES.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Central Nervous System Agents: A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family that reversibly binds MEMBRANES. It is a pro-apoptotic protein that is activated by caspase cleavage.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Bland White Garland Syndrome: A congenital coronary vessel anomaly in which the left main CORONARY ARTERY originates from the PULMONARY ARTERY instead of from AORTA. The congenital heart defect typically results in coronary artery FISTULA; LEFT-SIDED HEART FAILURE and MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY during the first months of life.Granuloma Inguinale: Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears.Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Alexander Disease: Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.Pastoral Care: Counseling or comfort given by ministers, priests, rabbis, etc., to those in need of help with emotional problems or stressful situations.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Lactase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Chlorophenols: Phenols substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.BenzophenonesOntario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Libraries, MedicalHospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Heterocyclic Compounds: Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chalcogens: The elements OXYGEN; POLONIUM; SELENIUM; SULFUR; and TELLURIUM; that form group 16 (formerly group VI) of the periodic table.Bicyclo CompoundsCyclization: Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Antimitotic Agents: Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.Acetals

The vigilance promoting drug modafinil increases extracellular glutamate levels in the medial preoptic area and the posterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat: prevention by local GABAA receptor blockade. (1/1043)

The effects of modafinil on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in the rat medial preoptic area (MPA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH), are analysed. Modafinil (30-300 mg/kg) increased glutamate and decreased GABA levels in the MPA and PH. Local perfusion with the GABAA agonist muscimol (10 microM), reduced, while the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1 microM and 10 microM) increased glutamate levels. The modafinil (100 mg/kg)-induced increase of glutamate levels was antagonized by local perfusion with bicuculline (1 microM). When glutamate levels were increased by the local perfusion with the glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-PDC (0.5 mM), modafinil produced an additional enhancement of glutamate levels. Modafinil (1-33 microM) failed to affect [3H]glutamate uptake in hypothalamic synaptosomes and slices. These findings show that modafinil increases glutamate and decreases GABA levels in MPA and PH. The evidence that bicuculline counteracts the modafinil-induced increase of glutamate levels strengthens the evidence for an inhibitory GABA/glutamate interaction in the above regions controlling the sleep-wakefulness cycle.  (+info)

Inhibition by a coantioxidant of aortic lipoprotein lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E and low density lipoprotein receptor gene double knockout mice. (2/1043)

Antioxidants can inhibit atherosclerosis in animals, though it is not clear whether this is due to the inhibition of aortic lipoprotein lipid (per)oxidation. Coantioxidants inhibit radical-induced, tocopherol-mediated peroxidation of lipids in lipoproteins through elimination of tocopheroxyl radical. Here we tested the effect of the bisphenolic probucol metabolite and coantioxidant H 212/43 on atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E and low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene double knockout (apoE-/-;LDLr-/-) mice, and how this related to aortic lipid (per)oxidation measured by specific HPLC analyses. Dietary supplementation with H 212/43 resulted in circulating drug levels of approximately 200 microM, increased plasma total cholesterol slightly and decreased plasma and aortic alpha-tocopherol significantly relative to age-matched control mice. Treatment with H 212/43 increased the antioxidant capacity of plasma, as indicated by prolonged inhibition of peroxyl radical-induced, ex vivo lipid peroxidation. Aortic tissue from control apoE-/-;LDLr-/- mice contained lipid hydro(pero)xides and substantial atherosclerotic lesions, both of which were decreased strongly by supplementation of the animals with H 212/43. The results show that a coantioxidant effectively inhibits in vivo lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis in apoE-/-;LDLr-/- mice, consistent with though not proving a causal relationship between aortic lipoprotein lipid oxidation and atherosclerosis in this model of the disease.  (+info)

Comparative formation, distribution, and elimination kinetics of diphenylmethoxyacetic acid (a diphenhydramine metabolite) in maternal and fetal sheep. (3/1043)

Deamination to diphenylmethoxyacetic acid (DPMA) is the major route of diphenhydramine (DPHM) clearance in many species. In this study, we assessed the contribution of this pathway to nonplacental DPHM elimination and disposition of DPMA in maternal and fetal sheep. Paired maternal-fetal experiments were conducted in five chronically catheterized pregnant sheep (124-140 days gestation) with an appropriate washout period in between. Both maternal and fetal dosing experiments involved administration of an i.v bolus of deuterium-labeled DPMA ([2H10]-DPMA) combined with a 6-h infusion of DPHM (or a bolus of unlabeled DPMA with an infusion of deuterium-labeled DPHM). Maternal and fetal arterial plasma and urine samples were collected and analyzed for DPMA, [2H10]-DPMA, DPHM, and deuterium-labeled DPHM concentrations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preformed DPMA (or [2H10]-DPMA) had a substantially lower clearance (maternal: 0.55 +/- 0.18 versus 40.9 +/- 14.0 ml/min/kg; fetal: 0.37 +/- 0.11 versus 285. 6 +/- 122.2 ml/min/kg) and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss, maternal: 0.10 +/- 0.02 versus 2.1 +/- 1.1 l/kg; fetal: 0.40 +/- 0. 06 versus 13.1 +/- 3.1 l/kg) as compared with the parent drug. The contribution of DPMA formation to maternal and fetal DPHM nonplacental clearance in vivo was 1.78 +/- 2.12% and 0.87 +/- 0.56%, respectively, indicating that DPMA formation is not a major route of DPHM clearance in fetal or maternal sheep. The recoveries of DPMA (or [2H10]-DPMA) in maternal urine were 88.0 +/- 6.5 and 92.1 +/- 7. 4% of the administered dose during maternal and fetal dosing experiments, respectively. Thus, this metabolite does not appear to be secondarily metabolized in fetal or maternal sheep. These findings are in contrast to other species (dog, rhesus monkey, human) where DPMA and its conjugates constitute approximately 40 to 60% of the total DPHM metabolites.  (+info)

Tolterodine does not affect the human in vivo metabolism of the probe drugs caffeine, debrisoquine and omeprazole. (4/1043)

AIM: To investigate the in vivo effect of treatment with tolterodine on debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation (an index of CYP2D6 activity), omeprazole 5-hydroxylation (CYP2C19), omeprazole sulphoxidation (CYP3A4) and caffeine N3-demethylation (CYP1A2). METHODS: Twelve healthy male volunteers (eight extensive metabolisers [EMs] and four poor metabolisers [PMs] with respect to CYP2D6) received 4 mg tolterodine L-tartrate orally twice daily for 6 days. All subjects were EMs with respect to CYP2C19. The subjects received single oral doses of debrisoquine (10 mg), omeprazole (20 mg) and caffeine (100 mg) for determination of the appropriate metabolic ratios (MR). The drugs were given on separate consecutive days, before, during and after the co-administration of tolterodine. RESULTS: Mean serum tolterodine concentrations were 5-10 times higher in PMs than in EMs. Serum concentrations of the active 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite of tolterodine, 5-HM, were not quantifiable in PMs. The mean MR of debrisoquine (95% confidence interval) during tolterodine treatment was 0.50 (0.25-0.99) and did not differ statistically from the values before [0.49 (0.20-1.2)] and after tolterodine administration [0.46 (0.14-1.6)] in EMs. The mean MR of omeprazole hydroxylation and sulphoxidation or caffeine metabolism were not changed in the presence of tolterodine in either EMs or PMs. Debrisoquine and caffeine had no significant effect on the AUC(1,3 h) of either tolterodine or 5-HM, but during omeprazole administration small decreases (13-19%) in these parameters were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Tolterodine, administered at twice the expected therapeutic dosage, did not change the disposition of the probe drugs debrisoquine, omeprazole and caffeine and thus had no detectable effect on the activities of CYPs 2D6, 2C19, 3A4 and 1A2. Alteration of the metabolism of substrates of these enzymes by tolterodine is unlikely to occur.  (+info)

Effect of neonatal exposure to estrogenic compounds on development of the excurrent ducts of the rat testis through puberty to adulthood. (5/1043)

Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) can alter the structure of the testicular excurrent ducts in rats. We characterized these changes according to dose and time posttreatment and established whether potent estrogens (ethinyl estradiol), environmental estrogens (genistein, octylphenol, bisphenol A, parabens), and tamoxifen induce such changes. Rats were administered these compounds neonatally and assessed at several time points during (day 10, or day 18 for some treatments) and after (days 18, 25, 35, and 75) the treatment period to detect any changes in testis weight, distension of the rete testis and efferent ducts, epithelial cell height in the efferent ducts, and immunoexpression of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1). Treatment with DES (10, 1, or 0.1 microg/injection; equivalent to 0.37, 0.037, or 0.0037 mg/kg/day, respectively) induced dose-dependent changes in testis weight and all parameters. These effects were most pronounced at days 18 and 25 and appeared to lessen with time, although some persisted into adulthood. Neonatal treatment with ethinyl estradiol (10 microg/injection; equivalent to 0.37 mg/kg/day) caused changes broadly similar to those induced by 10 mg DES. Administration of tamoxifen (2 mg/kg/day) caused changes at 18 days that were similar to those induced by 1 microg DES. Treatment with genistein (4 mg/kg/day), octylphenol (2 mg/injection; equivalent to 150 mg/kg/day), or bisphenol A (0.5 mg/injection; equivalent to 37 mg/kg/day) caused minor but significant (p<0.05) decreases in epithelial cell height of the efferent ducts at days 18 and/or 25. In animals that were followed through to 35 days and/or adulthood, these changes were no longer obvious; other parameters were either unaffected or were affected only marginally and transiently. Administration of parabens (2 mg/kg/day) had no detectable effect on any parameter at day 18. To establish whether these effects of estrogens were direct or indirect (i.e., resulting from reduced follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone secretion), the above end points were assessed in animals in which gonadotropin secretion was suppressed neonatally by administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. This treatment permanently reduced testis weight, but did not affect any of the other end points, apart from a minor transient reduction in efferent duct epithelial cell height at 18 days. This study suggests that structural and functional (expression of AQP-1) development of the excurrent ducts is susceptible to impairment by neonatal estrogen exposure, probably as a consequence of direct effects. The magnitude and duration of adverse changes induced by treatment with a range of estrogenic compounds was broadly comparable to their estrogenic potencies reported from in vitro assays.  (+info)

Glucuronidation of the environmental oestrogen bisphenol A by an isoform of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT2B1, in the rat liver. (6/1043)

Bisphenol A, an environmental oestrogenic chemical, was found to conjugate highly with glucuronic acid in male rat liver microsomes studied in vitro. In the various isoforms tested (1A1, 1A3, 1A5, 1A6, 1A7 and 2B1), glucuronidation of bisphenol A and of diethylstilboestrol, a synthetic crystalline compound possessing oestrogenic activity and known to be glucuronidated by liver microsomes, was catalysed by an isoform of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), namely UGT2B1, which glucuronidates some endogenous androgens. UGT activity towards bisphenol A in liver microsomes and in UGT2B1 expressed in yeast AH22 cells (22.9 and 0.58 nmol/min per mg of microsomal proteins respectively) was higher than that towards diethylstilboestrol (75.0 and 4.66 pmol/min per mg of microsomal proteins respectively). UGT activities towards both bisphenol A and diethylstilboestrol were distributed mainly in the liver but were also observed at substantial levels in the kidney and testis. Northern blot analysis disclosed the presence of UGT2B1 solely in the liver, and about 65% of the male rat liver microsomal UGT activities towards bisphenol A were absorbed by the anti-UGT2B1 antibody. These results indicate that bisphenol A, in male rat liver, is glucuronidated by UGT2B1, an isoform of UGT.  (+info)

UK-78,282, a novel piperidine compound that potently blocks the Kv1.3 voltage-gated potassium channel and inhibits human T cell activation. (7/1043)

1. UK-78,282, a novel piperidine blocker of the T lymphocyte voltage-gated K+ channel, Kv1.3, was discovered by screening a large compound file using a high-throughput 86Rb efflux assay. This compound blocks Kv1.3 with a IC50 of approximately 200 nM and 1:1 stoichiometry. A closely related compound, CP-190,325, containing a benzyl moiety in place of the benzhydryl in UK-78,282, is significantly less potent. 2 Three lines of evidence indicate that UK-78,282 inhibits Kv1.3 in a use-dependent manner by preferentially blocking and binding to the C-type inactivated state of the channel. Increasing the fraction of inactivated channels by holding the membrane potential at - 50 mV enhances the channel's sensitivity to UK-78,282. Decreasing the number of inactivated channels by exposure to approximately 160 mM external K+ decreases the sensitivity to UK-78,282. Mutations that alter the rate of C-type inactivation also change the channel's sensitivity to UK-78,282 and there is a direct correlation between tau(h) and IC50 values. 3. Competition experiments suggest that UK-78,282 binds to residues at the inner surface of the channel overlapping the site of action of verapamil. Internal tetraethylammonium and external charybdotoxin do not compete UK-78,282's action on the channel. 4. UK-78,282 displays marked selectivity for Kv1.3 over several other closely related K+ channels, the only exception being the rapidly inactivating voltage-gated K+ channel, Kv1.4. 5. UK-78,282 effectively suppresses human T-lymphocyte activation.  (+info)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging neuroactivation studies in normal subjects and subjects with the narcoleptic syndrome. Actions of modafinil. (8/1043)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to detect regional brain responses to changes in sensory stimuli. We have used fMRI to determine the amount of visual and auditory cortical activation in 12 normal subjects and 12 subjects with the narcoleptic syndrome, using a multiplexed visual and auditory stimulation paradigm. In both normal and narcoleptic subjects, mean cortical activation levels during the presentation of periodic visual and auditory stimulation showed no appreciable differences with either age or sex. Normal subjects showed higher levels of visual activation at 10:00 hours than 15:00 hours, with a reverse pattern in narcoleptic subjects (P = 0.007). The group differences in spatial extent of cortical activation between control and narcoleptic subjects were small and statistically insignificant. The alerting action, and imaging response, to a single oral dose of the sleep-preventing drug modafinil 400 mg were then determined and compared with placebo in both the 12 normal (8 given modafinil, 4 placebo) and 12 narcoleptic subjects (8 modafinil, 4 placebo). Modafinil caused an increase in self-reported levels of alertness in 7 of 8 narcoleptic subjects, but there was no significant difference between mean pretreatment and post-treatment activation levels as determined by fMRI for either normal or narcoleptic syndrome subjects given modafinil. However, in the modafinil-treated group of 8 normal and 8 narcoleptic subjects, there was a clock time independent correlation between the initial level of activation as determined by the pretreatment scan and the post-treatment change in activation (visual, P = 0.002; and auditory, P = 0.001). No correlation was observed in placebo-treated subjects (P = 0.99 and 0.77, respectively). Although limited by the small number of subjects, and the lack of an objective measure of alertness, the findings of this study suggest that low cortical activation levels in both normal and narcoleptic subjects are increased following the administration of modafinil. Functional magnetic resonance imaging may be a valuable addition to established studies of attention.  (+info)

*Benzhydryl compounds

... are compounds that are "diphenylmethane"-containing, i.e. two benzene rings adjoining a single carbon. ... Benzhydryl Compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) PubChem - Benzhydryl bromide. ... Benzhydryl can be abbreviated to CHPh2 or Bzh. Acyclic: pridinol Pyrolidino: diphenylprolinol 2-Piperidine: pipradrol 4- ...

*Diphenylmethane

HCl Benzhydryl compounds W. W. Hartman and Ross Phillips (1943). "Diphenylmethane". Organic Syntheses. ; Collective Volume, 2, ... Diphenylmethane is an organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CH2. The compound consists of methane wherein two hydrogen atoms ... Diphenylmethane forms a common skeleton in organic chemistry; the diphenylmethyl group is also known as benzhydryl. It is ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... benzhydryl compounds MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.115.250 --- diphenhydramine MeSH D02.455.426.559.389.115.250.250 --- ... trialkyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.910 --- triethyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.950 --- trimethyltin compounds ... mustard compounds MeSH D02.455.526.728.468 --- mustard gas MeSH D02.455.526.728.650 --- nitrogen mustard compounds MeSH D02.455 ... bephenium compounds MeSH D02.092.877.096.333 --- bretylium compounds MeSH D02.092.877.096.333.150 --- bretylium tosylate MeSH ...

*Modafinil

... originated with the late 1970s invention of a series of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds, including adrafinil, which was ... U.S. Patent 4,927,855 was issued to Laboratoire L. Lafon on May 22, 1990, covering the chemical compound modafinil. After ... Modafinil is a highly researched compound, with many derivatives created and studied, some examples and their differences ... It is also a schedule IV compound. Robertson P, Hellriegel ET (2003). "Clinical pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil". Clinical ...

*Diphenylmethylpiperazine

It features a piperazine ring with a benzhydryl (diphenylmethyl) group bound to one of the nitrogens. Calderon SN. Nonpeptidic ... 1-(Diphenylmethyl)piperazine, also known as benzhydrylpiperazine, is a chemical compound and piperazine derivative. ...

*NK1 receptor antagonist

The compound CP-99994 was synthesized by replacing the quinuclidine ring with a piperidine ring and benzhydryl moiety by a ... Many compounds have been described by various pharmaceutical companies besides the compounds that led to the discovery of ... However, these compounds, like most peptide compounds, had problems with selectivity, potency, solubility and bioavailability. ... This compound showed good activity in vivo and in models of pain and was developed up to phase II for the treatment of ...

*Katarína Horáková

Benzhydryl- and cinamoylisothiocyanates". Neoplasma. 16 (6): 591-6. PMID 5369024. Horáková, K; Drobnica, L; Nemec, P; Uher, M ( ... Horáková, K. (1981). "The Use of Cell Cultures to Monitor the Toxic and Mutagenic Activity of Chemical Compounds Present in ... Horáková, K. (1967). "A Study of synergism of known metabolic inhibitors and antifungal compounds on Candida albicans Pn 10". ... Horáková, K; Drobnica, L; Nemec, P (1969). "Cytotoxic and cancerostatic effects of isothiocyanates and related compounds. IV. ...

*Diphenylmethanol

Benzhydrol is also used in the production of agrochemicals as well as other organic compounds and as a terminating group in ... It is used in the synthesis of Modafinil and the Benzhydryl group is present in the structure of many histamine H1 antagonists ...

*Di-pi-methane rearrangement

One was the photolysis of the Mariano Compound, 3,3-methyl-1,1,5,5-tetraphenyl-1,4-pentadiene. Another was the reaction of the ... Process a is preferred since it leaves benzhydryl odd-electron stabilization intact. Equation 2. The mechanism of the Pratt ...

*JNJ-7925476

The compounds as depicted have a the carbon of the pyrrolidine carbon and the phenyl cis, but Maryanoff and coworkers are of ... The structure is a pyrroloisoquinoline core, with an overlayed benzhydryl motif. Incorporating the pyrrolidino ring onto the ... the opinion that the compound is trans. (see abstract) The reason for this is not known because it was referred to as "cis" in ...

*Hydrogen-bond catalysis

For example, in a typical acyl substitution reaction, the starting carbonyl compound is coordinated to the catalyst through one ... the formation of the Strecker product from benzhydryl amines and aqueous HCN. Hydrolysis of the nitrile and deprotections ... Furthermore, analogous reactions involving oxyanion intermediates such as enolate addition to nitroso compounds or opening of ... In addition, aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions of furans, amidoalkylations of diazocarbonyl compounds, asymmetric ...
In the current study, all infants had detectable urinary concentrations of total BPA, ranging from 2.0 to 196 µg/L. The median urinary BPA concentration in this group of premature infants was considerably higher (17.2 μg/L) than in healthy term infants aged 1 to 5 months (,0.45 μg/L) without known BPA exposure.21 Although immaturity of phase II metabolism may account for some of the association of urinary BPA concentrations with prematurity, premature infants have the ability to conjugate BPA.16 Interestingly, medical devices, but not nutritional intake, were positively associated with urinary BPA concentrations. On average, premature infants requiring ≥4 medical devices had urinary total BPA concentrations 1.6 times higher than those requiring fewer devices independent of their gestational age, gender, or nutritional intake. Respiratory devices were associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations than other devices. These findings suggest that medical devices were an important source of ...
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Gestational urinary BPA concentrations were associated with some neurobehavioral measures at 3 years of age in this cohort. In particular, gestational BPA exposure was associated with higher scores for measures of anxiety, hyperactivity, emotional control, and behavioral inhibition. Similar to our previous findings, the effects of gestational BPA exposure on these behavioral domains were larger among girls than boys.2 The different responses to gestational BPA exposure were especially pronounced for hyperactivity; girls exhibited increases in hyperactivity, and boys exhibited decreases in hyperactivity. In contrast, childhood urinary BPA concentrations were less important predictors of behavior or executive functions in this study.. The findings presented are consistent with numerous studies demonstrating altered neurobehavior among BPA-exposed animals.14,38 Gestational BPA exposures might affect endocrine or other neurotransmitter pathways and disrupt sexual differentiation of the brain, to ...
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NIEHS Grant P30ES000002. A study, supported in part by the NIEHS, identified medical devices as a potential source of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) among premature infants in neonatal intensive care units. BPA is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics, which are used in medical devices such as intravenous administration sets, syringes, and catheters. The researchers looked at the urinary BPA concentration for 55 infants and categorized each infants medical device use as low or high based on the number and invasiveness of devices. They found that the median urinary total BPA concentration of infants who had required four or more medical devices for three previous days was significantly higher, 36.6 micrograms per liter (µg/l), than for the infants requiring three or less devices, who had a BPA concentration of 13.9 µg/l. The researchers also collected and analyzed breast milk or formula samples, and found that the increased BPA concentration was not associated with the infants nutritional ...
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It is in your food containers, water bottles, and 90 percent of us have it in our bloodstream. It may also be a prime candidate for causing wheezing in children if pregnant mothers come into contact with it. Experimental research in bisphenol A, (BPA) suggests that prenatal BPA exposure causes asthma in mice. No firm data yet exists for humans but results are not looking good.. Adam Spanier, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of pediatrics at Penn State College of Medicine, studied 367 children, 99 percent of whom were born to mothers who had detectable BPA levels during pregnancy. Twice a year for three years, the parents reported back with any signs of wheezing in the children. At six months of age, twice as many children were reported with wheezing from mothers who had higher BPA than those who had mothers with lower BPA levels. These effects may have diminished as the children aged however.. Researchers then looked at the levels of BPA in the women during certain times of their pregnancies and ...
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The main objective of this research project is to understand how in utero Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects fetal gonadal development and reproduction in adulthood in mice. In utero exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors such as diethylsfilbestrol (DES) is known to cause sex organ malformation, reproductive carcinogenesis, and fertility defects in both male and female in humans and rodents. Based on DES studies, it is proposed that in utero exposure to other endocrine disruptors, particularly those that work through estrogen receptors, may lead to reproductive diseases in adulthood. BPA, a chemical used in synthesis of plastics, exhibits estrogenic activities and deleterious effects on reproduction when given to adult rodents. BPA is detected in serum of pregnant women, umbilical cord blood, and fetal plasma, indicating that developing fetuses are exposed to BPA. Although effects of BPA on adult reproductive organs have been studied extensively, impacts of in utero BPA exposure ...
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NIEHS Grants: R01ES016541, P01ES022844, P30ES017885, R01ES017005, R01ES017005, R01ES016001, R01ES017524. NIEHS grantees report that exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy can cause oxidative damage that may increase a childs risk of developing diabetes or heart disease later in life. The researchers tested multiple species of animals to replicate and strengthen human studies that showed BPA exposure during pregnancy can bring about a specific type of oxidative stress.. Oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance and inflammation, which are risk factors for diabetes and other metabolic disorders as well as cardiovascular disease. For the human study, the researchers analyzed blood samples from 24 mother and infant pairs. The women were divided into two groups based on their levels of BPA determined from blood draws taken during their first trimester of pregnancy. Mothers and their infants with higher levels of BPA showed increased levels of ...
Possible link between high prenatal BPA levels and neonatal neurobehavioral abnormalities; study advises pregnant women to reduce exposure levels. A new case study examining an infants neurobehavioral abnormalities and extremely high bisphenol A (BPA) concentration of the babys mother suggests a link between the two. The study, Environmental Health Perspectives: A Case Study of High Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Infant Neonatal Neurobehavior, was led by researcher Sheela Sathyanarayana, MD of Seattle Childrens Research Institute, and recently published online in Environmental Health Perspectives.. BPA, a synthetic, man-made chemical, is used in a wide variety of products including: can linings; hard polycarbonate plastics such as baby bottles and reusable cups; and dental sealants. Food may be the single largest source of BPA exposure due to contamination of foods during preparation and processing. BPA has estrogenic (hormone-like) properties. In animal studies, exposure to BPA early in ...
Welcome to Californias Beverage Container Recycling Program. Whether youre a consumer who wants to redeem your empty bottles and cans for cash, a recycling center operator who needs the latest industry updates, or anyone else with an interest in beverage container recycling, youll find the information you need on these pages. CalRecycle, officially known as the Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery, administers the California Beverage Container Recycling and Litter Reduction Act. Beverage containers covered under the act are subject to California Redemption Value (CRV), which is 5 cents for containers less than 24 ounces, 10 cents for containers 24 ounces or larger. Thanks to the CRV cash incentive, more than 300 billion aluminum, glass, and plastic beverage containers have been recycled since the program began in 1987.. Many communities in California now offer curbside collection in addition to beverage container recycling centers. To find your closest recycling center, check out ...
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Arnold J. Schecter and colleagues note that BPA is used in lining metal cans and in polycarbonate plastics such as baby bottles, although some manufacturers are switching to BPA-free products. "In humans, BPA is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male sexual dysfunction in exposed workers," they state. "Food is a major exposure source. We know of no studies reporting BPA in U.S. fresh food, canned food, and food in plastic packaging in peer reviewed journals." To fill that gap in scientific knowledge, the scientists measured BPA levels in 105 human, cat, and dog foods. They detected BPA in 63 of 105 human food samples from grocery stores in Dallas, and present a detailed list of foods, brands, and BPA levels in the text of the study. The levels were lower than the 50 micrograms per kilogram of body weight standard used by EPA and EFSA and comparable to levels detected in the past. Schecter noted that some studies have shown adverse effects associated with exposure to BPA at ...
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MSNBC is reporting on a new study that found eating canned food every day may raise the levels of the compound bisphenol A (BPA) in a persons urine more than previously suspected, a new study suggests.. The study found people who ate a serving of canned soup every day for five days showed higher levels of BPA in their systems than those who ate no soup. The participants who ate soup during the five day test had BPA levels of 20.8 micrograms per liter of urine, whereas people who instead ate fresh soup had levels of 1.1 micrograms per liter, according to the study.. Food Court previously reported on BPA findings in popular childrens soups. In that case, and here, BPA is found in many canned foods - it is a byproduct of the chemicals used to prevent corrosion.. When the researchers looked at the rise in BPA levels seen in the average participant who ate canned soup compared with those who ate fresh soup, they found a 1,221 percent jump.. The FDA does not currently regulate BPA levels and is ...
An ongoing debate about the health impacts of bisphenol A (BPA), the ubiquitous chemical used in production of polycarbonate - that hard clear plastic we use for eating, drinking, and storing food - continues, according to a recent article by Janet Raloff published in the September 29 issue of Science News. Her analysis provides good insight into why we often hear conflicting reports when it comes to environmental and health impacts of chemicals.. Raloff reports on the conflicting results of two different panels recruited by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and charged with reviewing and evaluating the potential developmental and reproductive impacts of BPA. While one panel "labeled as confident its assessment that BPA at low doses has had negative effects on experimental animals," and that such findings were suggestive of impacts in humans, the other panel "concluded that current BPA exposures appear to pose little risk to humans.". According to Raloff, one of the differences cited in ...
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Mouse study sheds light on how endocrine-disrupting chemical increases obesity risk. THE ENDOCRINE SOCIETY. WASHINGTON - An expectant mothers exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) can raise her offsprings risk of obesity by reducing sensitivity to a hormone responsible for controlling appetite, according to a mouse study published in the Endocrine Societys journal Endocrinology.. BPA is a chemical found in a variety of food containers, including polycarbonate plastic water bottles and can linings. BPA can interfere with the endocrine system by mimicking estrogen, one of the main sex hormones found in women. Research indicates BPA exposure is nearly universal. More than 90 percent of people tested in population studies had detectable levels of BPA and compounds produced when it is metabolized by the body in their urine.. As of 2014, nearly 100 epidemiological studies had been published tying BPA to various health problems, according to the Society and IPENs ...
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The study conducted by researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) found that a group of volunteers who consumed a serving of canned soup each day for five days had a more than 1,000 percent increase in urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations compared with when the same individuals consumed fresh soup daily for five days ...
The list of adverse health effects from BPA exposure continues to grow. Bisphenol A, or BPA, is commonly used to line food and beverage cans, and helps to keep plastics flexible, but studies suggest the compound can leach into the foods we eat.
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New research led by researchers at North Carolina State University shows that exposure to the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) early in life results in high levels of anxiety by causing significant gene expression changes in a specific region of the brain called the amygdala. The researchers also found that a soy-rich diet can mitigate these effects.. "We knew that BPA could cause anxiety in a variety of species, and wanted to begin to understand why and how that happens," says Dr. Heather Patisaul, an associate professor of biology at NC State and lead author of a paper describing the work. BPA is a chemical used in a wide variety of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, and is used in consumer products such as some food containers.. In the study, rats were exposed to low doses of BPA during gestation, lactation (nursing) and through puberty. One group of animals was fed only soy; one group was fed a soy-free diet; one group was fed only soy and exposed to BPA; and one group was fed no soy and ...
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1945- L. J. HUMBERT 2,392,479 BEVERAGE CONTAINER Filed July 24, 1944 JNVENTOR. Laura J. HuMB RT I ATTORNEY Patented Jan. 8, 1946 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE BEVERAGE CONTAINER Louis J. Humbert, Wyandotte, Mich. Application July 24, 1944, Serial No. 546,363 Claims. This invention relates to beverage containers, and more particularly to a light and cheap form of such container wherein beverages of various kinds, such as milk, lemonade, and certain soft drinks, may be sealed for shipment and transportation and use on railway trains and the like, the container being provided with convenient means for enabling the purchaser or user to drin the contents thereof. r The prime object of the invention therefore is to provide in a suitably light and cheap form, a liquid container of the kind referred to, the same being made of water-proofed pasteboard or any other suitable material, and being provided with a pair of telescopically associated drinking tubes, also of cheap material, these tubes being ...
If you look at the research, though, there are a few reports of patients having severe insomnia for weeks or months after moderate doses of provigil. Patients with shift-work sleep disorder chronically have excessive sleepiness during night work and insomnia when attempting to sleep during the day. Insomnia, decreased concentration, and. We evaluated the use of modafinil for treating. I did not have insomnia until last week. The most common side effects of the medication include headache, abdominal pain, insomnia, decreased appetite, nervousness and dizziness. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below This reduces the early stopping provigil cold turkey and continued for buy provigil mastercard increased azole or the treatment with fever or low in the results. Far far away, behind the word mountains, far from the countries Vokalia and Consonantia, there live the blind texts. Cytokine, they inhibit distal small doses given as preven- tion Retains ...
In the study, maternal exposure to 10 micro g/ml of BPA in mice enhanced the allergic sensitization and bronchial inflammation and responsiveness in their pups. This dosage mimics the human BPA burden of chronic exposure, including that of pregnant women.. "Previous studies indicated that maternal exposure in mice to environmental BPA enhanced the susceptibility of their pups to allergic asthma," said study co-author Terumi Midoro-Horiuti, MD, PhD. "The goal of this study was to determine the actual threshold of the effects of BPA on allergic sensitization, airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness.". Female mice received 0, 0.1, 1 and 10 micro g/ml of BPA in their drinking water from one week before pregnancy, during pregnancy and while nursing their pups, in the study conducted at The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.. BPA is a chemical commonly found in polycarbonate plastic bottles and the aluminum lining of food and beverage cans. BPA production started about 40 years ago. ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Provigil contains a medication named Modafinil. It is known to have a stimulating effect on the brain, which helps to alleviate the sleepiness and keeps the person awake. It is not a curative drug but it facilitates the treatment of certain medical conditions related to sleep.. What does it do?. Provigil increases certain neurotransmitters (like dopamine, epinephrine, and serotonin) in the brain. These neurotransmitters have a stimulating effect on the brain and they keep a person awake.. What is it used for?. It is used in treating narcolepsy (a condition characterized by excessive sleep), Shift Work Disorder and sleep apnea (a condition characterized by frequent sleep disturbances due to the interruption in breathing while sleeping).. The dosage of Provigil:. For Narcolepsy and Sleep Apnea-200 mg orally, in the morning. For shift work disorder- 200 mg, orally in a day, 1 hour prior to the start of their work shift. Reduction in dosages is required for hepatic impairment and geriatric ...
The chemical BPA, which makes plastic hard and clear, has been used in many consumer products such as reusable water bottles. It also is found in epoxy resins, which form a protective lining inside metal food and beverage cans.. "While preliminary, the data indicate the negative effect of BPA on reproductive health and the importance of allocating more funding to further investigate why such environmental contaminants might be disrupting fertility potential," said Victor Y. Fujimoto, MD, lead study author and professor in the UCSF Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, who also is on the faculty of the UCSF Center for Reproductive Health.. Findings are available online in the journal Fertility and Sterility at http://j.mp/fyjTFF.. In the study, BPA levels and fertilization rates were analyzed for 26 women undergoing IVF during 2007 and 2008 at the UCSF Center for Reproductive Health. The women were a subgroup of a larger study evaluating the effect on reproductive ...
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Exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A during pregnancy can cause oxidative damage that may put the baby at risk of developing diabetes or heart disease later in life, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Societys journal Endocrinology.
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Modafinil (2-((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl)acetamide), a selective dopamine and norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, is most commonly prescribed for narcolepsy but has gained recent interest for treating a variety of disorders. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are becoming a model of choice for pharmacological and behavioural research. To investigate the behavioural effects of modafinil on anxiety, we administered doses of 0, 2, 20, and 200 mg/L for 30 minutes then tested zebrafish in the novel approach test. In this test, the fish was placed into a circular arena with a novel object in the center and motion-tracking software was used to quantify the time the fish spent in the outer area of the arena (thigmotaxis zone), middle third of the arena (transition zone) and center of the arena, as well as total distance traveled, immobility and meandering. Modafinil caused a decrease in time spent in the thigmotaxis zone and increased time spent in the transition zone across all doses. Modafinil did not significantly
The drug Modafinil should be prescribed only by a doctor. The doctor also prescribes the necessary dose for a particular patient. Usually the specialist prescribes 2-4 tablets per day. The drug should be taken in the morning and at lunch. If the patient has hypertension, then during treatment with the medication Modafinil, patient needs to control blood pressure. If the patient has liver function, then the dose is reduced to 0.1-0.2 g per day ...
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Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in a wide variety of consumer products, and biomonitoring studies indicate widespread exposure to the compound. Much of the hesitation to regulate BPA up to now has stemmed from uncertainty about whether health effects reported in laboratory animals-which include heart disease, obesity, diabetes, reproductive health problems, and several types of cancer can be extrapolated to humans. In this podcast, Frederick vom Saal discusses recent findings that suggest mice, rhesus monkeys, and humans metabolize BPA at similar rates, raising the possibility that effects observed in animal models may be relevant to humans as well. Vom Saal is a Curators Professor of biology at the University of Missouri." ...
Background The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is one example of cross-sectional datasets that have been used to draw causal inferences regarding environmental chemical exposures and adverse health outcomes. Our objectives were to analyze four NHANES datasets using consistent a priori selected methods to address the following questions: Is there a consistent association between urinary bisphenol A (BPA) measures and diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), and/or heart attack across surveys? Is NHANES an appropriate dataset for investigating associations between chemicals with short physiologic half-lives such as BPA and chronic diseases with multi-factorial etiologies? Data on urinary BPA and health outcomes from 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010 were available. Methodology and Findings Regression models were adjusted for creatinine, age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, heavy drinking, BMI, waist circumference, calorie intake, family history
This opinion describes the assessment of the risks to public health associated with bisphenol A (BPA) exposure. Exposure was assessed for various groups of the human population in three different ways: (1) external (by diet, drinking water, inhalation, and dermal contact to cosmetics and thermal paper); (2) internal exposure to total BPA (absorbed dose of BPA, sum of conjugated and unconjugated BPA); and (3) aggregated (from diet, dust, cosmetics and thermal paper), expressed as oral human equivalent dose (HED) referring to unconjugated BPA only. The estimated BPA dietary intake was highest in infants and toddlers (up to 0.875 µg/kg bw per day). Women of childbearing age had dietary exposures comparable to men of the same age (up to 0.388 µg/kg bw per day). The highest aggregated exposure of 1.449 µg/kg bw per day was estimated for adolescents. Biomonitoring data were in line with estimated internal exposure to total BPA from all sources. BPA toxicity was evaluated by a weight of evidence ...
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Most of us are aware that there are lots of dangerous materials like additives, dyes, pesticides and carcinogens in our foods. What many of us are not aware of is that in the containers that our foods come in, especially take out, there are chemicals in the materials that may be even more harmful than the additives, dyes and pesticides.. By now you have probably heard of the dangers of the toxic chemical Bisphenol A (BPA). This chemical can be found in polycarbonate plastic food containers, bottles and takeout food containers. Numerous articles have been written on breast cancer and prostate cancer that result from exposure to the BPA contained in packaging and containers that carry food stuffs.. Recent, important environmental health study findings were published in March in the online journal Environmental Health Perspectives. A study was conducted by two organizations concerned with the environmental causes of breast cancer, the Breast Cancer Fund and Silent Spring Institute. The study was on ...
Americans these days dont want artificial and unsustainably produced ingredients in the food they buy and eat. For the makers of highly processed foods - ultraprocessed in todays terminology - there isnt a lot that they can do to make the products appear fresh and natural.. But Campbells is certainly trying. A few months after announcing that it will phase out genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the iconic soup company said on Friday that it will remove Bisphenol-A (BPA) from its cans by next year.. BPA, you will recall, is a chemical typically used in polycarbonate plastic containers and in the epoxy linings of food cans. Its also an endocrine disrupter, which means it can interfere with the work our hormones are doing. Some research finds BPA to have effects on childhood development and reproduction.. Although the FDA doesnt believe evidence of potential harm is sufficient to ban BPA from the food supply, the agency discourages use of BPA-polycarbonate or epoxy resins in baby bottles, ...
Fatigue is a common problem for many people with HIV/AIDS, interfering with daily activities and serving as a significant barrier to working among those whose health is otherwise stable or restored by antiretroviral (ARV) medication. Fatigue in HIV is associated with disability and diminished quality of life. It may be caused by ARVs or by the virus itself. A related study tested whether modafinil, of which armodafinil is an r-isomer, could reduce fatigue in HIV/AIDS patients. Armodafinil, believed to have a longer duration and greater effect than modafinil, will be tested on the same criteria.. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive either armodafinil or a placebo daily for 4 weeks. Participants randomized to active medication and who show improvements in symptoms will be offered armodafinil for an additional 12 weeks. For them, the study duration is 16 weeks. Participants who did not receive armodafinil will be offered armodafinil for 16 weeks. For these participants, the study ...
Fatigue is a common problem for many people with HIV/AIDS, interfering with daily activities and serving as a significant barrier to working among those whose health is otherwise stable or restored by antiretroviral (ARV) medication. Fatigue in HIV is associated with disability and diminished quality of life. It may be caused by ARVs or by the virus itself. A related study tested whether modafinil, of which armodafinil is an r-isomer, could reduce fatigue in HIV/AIDS patients. Armodafinil, believed to have a longer duration and greater effect than modafinil, will be tested on the same criteria.. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive either armodafinil or a placebo daily for 4 weeks. Participants randomized to active medication and who show improvements in symptoms will be offered armodafinil for an additional 12 weeks. For them, the study duration is 16 weeks. Participants who did not receive armodafinil will be offered armodafinil for 16 weeks. For these participants, the study ...
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If youve been paying any attention to the headlines lately, then youve probably heard the uproar about bisphenal A (BPA). If youre worried about BPA showing up in in unlikely places, like your canned chicken noodle soup, for instance, then youre not the only one.. When I first heard about the dangers of BPA it seemed as if it was limited to baby bottles and water bottles, Nalgene bottles in particular. So I ditched my Nalgene and went with a stainless steel bottle. I thought that was the end of the story.. But, BPA is in a lot of the things we use everyday. And, thats disturbing to me. So, Im putting on my Sherlock hat and going investigating.. What Is BPA?. Bisphenal A is a chemical compound that was originally discovered in 1891. It was shelved in favor of other chemicals at the time, but revived many years later when a polymer chemist discovered it could be used to form polycarbonate plastic.. The bad news is that the ester bonds that link the BPA monomers together are not very stable. ...
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Coating the mouth with BPA-containing food, like soup, does not lead to higher than expected levels of BPA in blood, a new study in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology shows. The study authors conclude that oral exposure does not create a risk for high exposures of BPA, also known as bisphenol A.
Last year, FDA disappointed us by insisting that there was no cause for concern about the presence of the chemical bisphenol A in food and beverage containers. An expert panel charged with evaluating the FDAs draft assessment strongly criticized the agency for its severely limited exposure assessment and the criteria it used to assess BPA studies. Then, Suzanne Rust and Meg Kissinger of the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (whove won multiple awards for their coverage of BPA and other chemicals) reported that FDAs report "was written largely by the plastics industry and others with a financial stake in the controversial chemical.". Yesterday, the agency finally announced that its reviewing new studies about BPA and will let us know by the end of November whether its safe to use the chemical in food and beverage containers. Meg Kissinger has the story, and you can check out the Journal Sentinels "Chemical Fallout" series for more background.. ...
Modafinil (MO) an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter was initially approved to treat narcolepsy, a sleep related disorder in humans. One interesting
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Data & statistics on Bisphenol F Diglycidyl Ether: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and its oligomers are major components of epoxy resins. Epoxy resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether are widely used in protective coatings, including paints, in reinforced plastic laminates and composites, in tooling, casting and moulding resins, in bonding materials and adhesives, and in flooring and aggregates. : C21H24O4, COMPOUND BIS(DIMETHYL THIOCARBAMYL)DISULFIDE BIS(DIMETHYLAMINO)BENZOPHENONE, 4,4- BIS(P-TERT-BUTYLPHENYL) PHENYL PHOSPHATE BIS-(1,4-DIMETHYLPENTYL)P-PHENYLENEDIAMINE, N,N- 3081-14-9 BIS-DIETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOETHYL ETHER PHTHALATE BIS[2-(2-CHLOROETHOXY)ETHYL] ETHER BISPHENOL A DIGLYCIDYL ETHER BITUMEN BLEOMYCINS BORAX, ANHYDROUS (SODIUM BORATE ANHYDROUS) 1303-96-4 BORAX, DECAHYDRATE BORAX,PENTAHYDRATE ..., Bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE)...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterisation of bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). AU - Li, Zhili. AU - Guo, Xinghua. AU - Liu, S.. AU - Ji, Y.. AU - Zhang, Y.. AU - Ji, K.. AU - You, Y.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. M3 - Article. VL - 14. SP - 14. EP - 18. JO - Acta materiae compositae Sinica = Fuhe-cailiao-xuebao. JF - Acta materiae compositae Sinica = Fuhe-cailiao-xuebao. SN - 1000-3851. IS - 4. ER - ...
An epoxy resin composition and an epoxy resin molding material for sealing semiconductor are disclosed, the epoxy resin molding material containing the epoxy resin composition, the epoxy resin composition and the epoxy resin molding material achieving a good balance among heat resistance, peeling resistance, thermal shock resistance, moisture resistance reliability, and internal-stress relaxation. The present invention relates to an epoxy resin composition (C) for sealing semiconductor includes an epoxy resin (A) and a core-shell polymer (B) containing at least one rubber layer, at least 70% of the core-shell polymer (B) being dispersed in the form of primary particles in a resin phase containing the epoxy resin, and the content of alkali metal ions in the epoxy resin composition (C) being 30 ppm or less. An epoxy resin molding material containing the epoxy resin composition (C) is also provided ...
Title ethers, useful as diluents for epoxy resins, are purified by neutralizing crude H2O-sol. glycidyl ethers, prepd. from glycols or glycerins, with excess H3PO4 till pH in 50% aq. soln. reaches 4-4.5 followed by treatment with acid adsorbents. Treatment of diethylene glycol with epichlorohydrin in the presence of Et2O.BF3 at 30-50 gave a chlorohydrin ether, to which aq. NaOH was added dropwise at 20-30 over 30 min to give crude diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (I). I was stirred with an aq. H3PO4 at 75 for 1 h and the resulting cloudy mixt. was treated with Kyowaad 500SH [Mg6Al2(OH)16CO3.4H2O] (II) at 75 for 1 h to give I free of Na, which showed pH 7.1 (in 50% aq. soln.), WPE (wt. per epoxide) 149, and viscosity 23.0 cP, vs. 6.5, 149, and 23.0 cP., resp., for a control without treatment with II. After 6 mo. storage, I showed pH 7.3, WPE 152, and viscosity 23.2 cP, vs. 9.3, 158., and 24.4, resp., for the control, in which formation of gel was obsd. on a test piece. And in this ...
Xenoestrogen-producing chemicals to avoid on labels: Alkylphenol Atrazine (weedkiller) 4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) (sunscreen lotions) Butylated hydroxyanisole / BHA (food preservative) Bisphenol A (BPA-monomer for polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resin; antioxidant in plasticizers) Chlorine and chlorine by-products Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (one of the breakdown products of DDT) Dieldrin (insecticide) DDT (insecticide) Endosulfan (insecticide) Erythrosine […]. ...
... may also be treated for purposes not affiliated in this. Modafinil is a wakefulness-promoting vehicle used for treatment of infections such as narcolepsy, flow work sleep disorder, idiopathic hypersomnia, and allergic daytime sleepiness induced with obstructive sleep apnea. It has also claimed widespread off-label use as a bad cognitive enhancer. In English-speaking Made names: Provigil, others (see below). Menu patient medical information for Provigil Oral on WebMD including its effects, side effects and aspirin, interactions, pictures, warnings and self ratings. Popular with air purifier pilots, ER docs, and Insomnia Valley entrepreneurs as a rebound-awake drug, Provigil also has augmentin injectable 2g enhance brain function. More:. ...
TABLE-US-00002 [0149]TABLE 1 Crosslinking Weight loss Weight loss R/RD/CA/C start at 400° C. at 400° Reactive diluent Crosslinking Catalyst (parts by temperature after cycle after cycle Ex. Resin (R) (RD) agent (CA) (C) weight) (° C.) 1 (%) 2 (%) 1 BADGE.sup.(1) furfuryl alcohol -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 84 9.4 n.d. 2 BADGE.sup.(1) 1,4-butanediol -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 90 n.d. 20.4 diglycidyl ether.sup.(3) 3 BADGE.sup.(1) 1,6-hexanediol -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 99 n.d. 31.3 diglycidyl ether.sup.(6) 4 BADGE.sup.(1) epoxidized -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 93 n.d. 12.9 cardanols.sup.(4) 5 BADGE.sup.(1) CNSL.sup.(5) -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 93 12.7 n.d. 6 BADGE.sup.(1) glyoxal -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 132 49.9 n.d. 7 BADGE.sup.(1) bisoxazolidine.sup.(8) -- 2MI 90/10/0/2 n.d. n.d. 18.8 8 epoxidized Furfuryl alcohol -- 2MI 70/30/0/2 n.d. 16.0 n.d. novolac.sup.(2) 9 epoxidized Furfuryl alcohol 3-ethyl-2- -- 50/20/30/0 250 n.d. 33.4 novolac.sup.(2) methyl(3- methylbutyl)- 1,3- oxazolidine.sup.(7) 10 epoxidized Furfuryl alcohol 1,3-PBO -- 50/20/30/0 ...
Respiration 1997; 64(2):159-61. ABSTRACT. We studied the effects of modafinil, a vigilance-enhancing drug, on excessive daytime sleepiness, memory, night sleep and respiration in 6 patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) using a double-blind random cross-over design with 24-hour polysomnography, verbal memory test and a 5-week sleep-wake diary kept by the patients. There were two 2-week treatment periods in which either modafinil or placebo was used; they were separated by a 1-week wash-out period. Our results show that modafinil reduces daytime sleep duration, lengthens the duration of subjective daytime vigilance and improves long-term memory in patients with OSAHS without modifying night sleep and respiration events.. ...

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