Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Tricyclic antidepressant similar in action and side effects to IMIPRAMINE. It may produce excitation.
Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
AMINO ACIDS composed of GLYCINE substituted at the nitrogen rather than the usual carbon position, resulting in the loss of HYDROGEN BONDING donors. Polymers of these compounds are called PEPTOIDS.
Polymers of N-SUBSTITUTED GLYCINES containing chiral centers at the a-position of their side chains. These oligomers lack HYDROGEN BONDING donors, preventing formation of the usual intrachain hydrogen bonds but can form helices driven by the steric influence of chiral side chains.
A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
A congenital coronary vessel anomaly in which the left main CORONARY ARTERY originates from the PULMONARY ARTERY instead of from AORTA. The congenital heart defect typically results in coronary artery FISTULA; LEFT-SIDED HEART FAILURE and MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY during the first months of life.
Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears.
Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.
Counseling or comfort given by ministers, priests, rabbis, etc., to those in need of help with emotional problems or stressful situations.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

The vigilance promoting drug modafinil increases extracellular glutamate levels in the medial preoptic area and the posterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat: prevention by local GABAA receptor blockade. (1/1043)

The effects of modafinil on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in the rat medial preoptic area (MPA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH), are analysed. Modafinil (30-300 mg/kg) increased glutamate and decreased GABA levels in the MPA and PH. Local perfusion with the GABAA agonist muscimol (10 microM), reduced, while the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1 microM and 10 microM) increased glutamate levels. The modafinil (100 mg/kg)-induced increase of glutamate levels was antagonized by local perfusion with bicuculline (1 microM). When glutamate levels were increased by the local perfusion with the glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-PDC (0.5 mM), modafinil produced an additional enhancement of glutamate levels. Modafinil (1-33 microM) failed to affect [3H]glutamate uptake in hypothalamic synaptosomes and slices. These findings show that modafinil increases glutamate and decreases GABA levels in MPA and PH. The evidence that bicuculline counteracts the modafinil-induced increase of glutamate levels strengthens the evidence for an inhibitory GABA/glutamate interaction in the above regions controlling the sleep-wakefulness cycle.  (+info)

Inhibition by a coantioxidant of aortic lipoprotein lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E and low density lipoprotein receptor gene double knockout mice. (2/1043)

Antioxidants can inhibit atherosclerosis in animals, though it is not clear whether this is due to the inhibition of aortic lipoprotein lipid (per)oxidation. Coantioxidants inhibit radical-induced, tocopherol-mediated peroxidation of lipids in lipoproteins through elimination of tocopheroxyl radical. Here we tested the effect of the bisphenolic probucol metabolite and coantioxidant H 212/43 on atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E and low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene double knockout (apoE-/-;LDLr-/-) mice, and how this related to aortic lipid (per)oxidation measured by specific HPLC analyses. Dietary supplementation with H 212/43 resulted in circulating drug levels of approximately 200 microM, increased plasma total cholesterol slightly and decreased plasma and aortic alpha-tocopherol significantly relative to age-matched control mice. Treatment with H 212/43 increased the antioxidant capacity of plasma, as indicated by prolonged inhibition of peroxyl radical-induced, ex vivo lipid peroxidation. Aortic tissue from control apoE-/-;LDLr-/- mice contained lipid hydro(pero)xides and substantial atherosclerotic lesions, both of which were decreased strongly by supplementation of the animals with H 212/43. The results show that a coantioxidant effectively inhibits in vivo lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis in apoE-/-;LDLr-/- mice, consistent with though not proving a causal relationship between aortic lipoprotein lipid oxidation and atherosclerosis in this model of the disease.  (+info)

Comparative formation, distribution, and elimination kinetics of diphenylmethoxyacetic acid (a diphenhydramine metabolite) in maternal and fetal sheep. (3/1043)

Deamination to diphenylmethoxyacetic acid (DPMA) is the major route of diphenhydramine (DPHM) clearance in many species. In this study, we assessed the contribution of this pathway to nonplacental DPHM elimination and disposition of DPMA in maternal and fetal sheep. Paired maternal-fetal experiments were conducted in five chronically catheterized pregnant sheep (124-140 days gestation) with an appropriate washout period in between. Both maternal and fetal dosing experiments involved administration of an i.v bolus of deuterium-labeled DPMA ([2H10]-DPMA) combined with a 6-h infusion of DPHM (or a bolus of unlabeled DPMA with an infusion of deuterium-labeled DPHM). Maternal and fetal arterial plasma and urine samples were collected and analyzed for DPMA, [2H10]-DPMA, DPHM, and deuterium-labeled DPHM concentrations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preformed DPMA (or [2H10]-DPMA) had a substantially lower clearance (maternal: 0.55 +/- 0.18 versus 40.9 +/- 14.0 ml/min/kg; fetal: 0.37 +/- 0.11 versus 285. 6 +/- 122.2 ml/min/kg) and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss, maternal: 0.10 +/- 0.02 versus 2.1 +/- 1.1 l/kg; fetal: 0.40 +/- 0. 06 versus 13.1 +/- 3.1 l/kg) as compared with the parent drug. The contribution of DPMA formation to maternal and fetal DPHM nonplacental clearance in vivo was 1.78 +/- 2.12% and 0.87 +/- 0.56%, respectively, indicating that DPMA formation is not a major route of DPHM clearance in fetal or maternal sheep. The recoveries of DPMA (or [2H10]-DPMA) in maternal urine were 88.0 +/- 6.5 and 92.1 +/- 7. 4% of the administered dose during maternal and fetal dosing experiments, respectively. Thus, this metabolite does not appear to be secondarily metabolized in fetal or maternal sheep. These findings are in contrast to other species (dog, rhesus monkey, human) where DPMA and its conjugates constitute approximately 40 to 60% of the total DPHM metabolites.  (+info)

Tolterodine does not affect the human in vivo metabolism of the probe drugs caffeine, debrisoquine and omeprazole. (4/1043)

AIM: To investigate the in vivo effect of treatment with tolterodine on debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation (an index of CYP2D6 activity), omeprazole 5-hydroxylation (CYP2C19), omeprazole sulphoxidation (CYP3A4) and caffeine N3-demethylation (CYP1A2). METHODS: Twelve healthy male volunteers (eight extensive metabolisers [EMs] and four poor metabolisers [PMs] with respect to CYP2D6) received 4 mg tolterodine L-tartrate orally twice daily for 6 days. All subjects were EMs with respect to CYP2C19. The subjects received single oral doses of debrisoquine (10 mg), omeprazole (20 mg) and caffeine (100 mg) for determination of the appropriate metabolic ratios (MR). The drugs were given on separate consecutive days, before, during and after the co-administration of tolterodine. RESULTS: Mean serum tolterodine concentrations were 5-10 times higher in PMs than in EMs. Serum concentrations of the active 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite of tolterodine, 5-HM, were not quantifiable in PMs. The mean MR of debrisoquine (95% confidence interval) during tolterodine treatment was 0.50 (0.25-0.99) and did not differ statistically from the values before [0.49 (0.20-1.2)] and after tolterodine administration [0.46 (0.14-1.6)] in EMs. The mean MR of omeprazole hydroxylation and sulphoxidation or caffeine metabolism were not changed in the presence of tolterodine in either EMs or PMs. Debrisoquine and caffeine had no significant effect on the AUC(1,3 h) of either tolterodine or 5-HM, but during omeprazole administration small decreases (13-19%) in these parameters were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Tolterodine, administered at twice the expected therapeutic dosage, did not change the disposition of the probe drugs debrisoquine, omeprazole and caffeine and thus had no detectable effect on the activities of CYPs 2D6, 2C19, 3A4 and 1A2. Alteration of the metabolism of substrates of these enzymes by tolterodine is unlikely to occur.  (+info)

Effect of neonatal exposure to estrogenic compounds on development of the excurrent ducts of the rat testis through puberty to adulthood. (5/1043)

Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) can alter the structure of the testicular excurrent ducts in rats. We characterized these changes according to dose and time posttreatment and established whether potent estrogens (ethinyl estradiol), environmental estrogens (genistein, octylphenol, bisphenol A, parabens), and tamoxifen induce such changes. Rats were administered these compounds neonatally and assessed at several time points during (day 10, or day 18 for some treatments) and after (days 18, 25, 35, and 75) the treatment period to detect any changes in testis weight, distension of the rete testis and efferent ducts, epithelial cell height in the efferent ducts, and immunoexpression of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1). Treatment with DES (10, 1, or 0.1 microg/injection; equivalent to 0.37, 0.037, or 0.0037 mg/kg/day, respectively) induced dose-dependent changes in testis weight and all parameters. These effects were most pronounced at days 18 and 25 and appeared to lessen with time, although some persisted into adulthood. Neonatal treatment with ethinyl estradiol (10 microg/injection; equivalent to 0.37 mg/kg/day) caused changes broadly similar to those induced by 10 mg DES. Administration of tamoxifen (2 mg/kg/day) caused changes at 18 days that were similar to those induced by 1 microg DES. Treatment with genistein (4 mg/kg/day), octylphenol (2 mg/injection; equivalent to 150 mg/kg/day), or bisphenol A (0.5 mg/injection; equivalent to 37 mg/kg/day) caused minor but significant (p<0.05) decreases in epithelial cell height of the efferent ducts at days 18 and/or 25. In animals that were followed through to 35 days and/or adulthood, these changes were no longer obvious; other parameters were either unaffected or were affected only marginally and transiently. Administration of parabens (2 mg/kg/day) had no detectable effect on any parameter at day 18. To establish whether these effects of estrogens were direct or indirect (i.e., resulting from reduced follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone secretion), the above end points were assessed in animals in which gonadotropin secretion was suppressed neonatally by administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. This treatment permanently reduced testis weight, but did not affect any of the other end points, apart from a minor transient reduction in efferent duct epithelial cell height at 18 days. This study suggests that structural and functional (expression of AQP-1) development of the excurrent ducts is susceptible to impairment by neonatal estrogen exposure, probably as a consequence of direct effects. The magnitude and duration of adverse changes induced by treatment with a range of estrogenic compounds was broadly comparable to their estrogenic potencies reported from in vitro assays.  (+info)

Glucuronidation of the environmental oestrogen bisphenol A by an isoform of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT2B1, in the rat liver. (6/1043)

Bisphenol A, an environmental oestrogenic chemical, was found to conjugate highly with glucuronic acid in male rat liver microsomes studied in vitro. In the various isoforms tested (1A1, 1A3, 1A5, 1A6, 1A7 and 2B1), glucuronidation of bisphenol A and of diethylstilboestrol, a synthetic crystalline compound possessing oestrogenic activity and known to be glucuronidated by liver microsomes, was catalysed by an isoform of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), namely UGT2B1, which glucuronidates some endogenous androgens. UGT activity towards bisphenol A in liver microsomes and in UGT2B1 expressed in yeast AH22 cells (22.9 and 0.58 nmol/min per mg of microsomal proteins respectively) was higher than that towards diethylstilboestrol (75.0 and 4.66 pmol/min per mg of microsomal proteins respectively). UGT activities towards both bisphenol A and diethylstilboestrol were distributed mainly in the liver but were also observed at substantial levels in the kidney and testis. Northern blot analysis disclosed the presence of UGT2B1 solely in the liver, and about 65% of the male rat liver microsomal UGT activities towards bisphenol A were absorbed by the anti-UGT2B1 antibody. These results indicate that bisphenol A, in male rat liver, is glucuronidated by UGT2B1, an isoform of UGT.  (+info)

UK-78,282, a novel piperidine compound that potently blocks the Kv1.3 voltage-gated potassium channel and inhibits human T cell activation. (7/1043)

1. UK-78,282, a novel piperidine blocker of the T lymphocyte voltage-gated K+ channel, Kv1.3, was discovered by screening a large compound file using a high-throughput 86Rb efflux assay. This compound blocks Kv1.3 with a IC50 of approximately 200 nM and 1:1 stoichiometry. A closely related compound, CP-190,325, containing a benzyl moiety in place of the benzhydryl in UK-78,282, is significantly less potent. 2 Three lines of evidence indicate that UK-78,282 inhibits Kv1.3 in a use-dependent manner by preferentially blocking and binding to the C-type inactivated state of the channel. Increasing the fraction of inactivated channels by holding the membrane potential at - 50 mV enhances the channel's sensitivity to UK-78,282. Decreasing the number of inactivated channels by exposure to approximately 160 mM external K+ decreases the sensitivity to UK-78,282. Mutations that alter the rate of C-type inactivation also change the channel's sensitivity to UK-78,282 and there is a direct correlation between tau(h) and IC50 values. 3. Competition experiments suggest that UK-78,282 binds to residues at the inner surface of the channel overlapping the site of action of verapamil. Internal tetraethylammonium and external charybdotoxin do not compete UK-78,282's action on the channel. 4. UK-78,282 displays marked selectivity for Kv1.3 over several other closely related K+ channels, the only exception being the rapidly inactivating voltage-gated K+ channel, Kv1.4. 5. UK-78,282 effectively suppresses human T-lymphocyte activation.  (+info)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging neuroactivation studies in normal subjects and subjects with the narcoleptic syndrome. Actions of modafinil. (8/1043)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to detect regional brain responses to changes in sensory stimuli. We have used fMRI to determine the amount of visual and auditory cortical activation in 12 normal subjects and 12 subjects with the narcoleptic syndrome, using a multiplexed visual and auditory stimulation paradigm. In both normal and narcoleptic subjects, mean cortical activation levels during the presentation of periodic visual and auditory stimulation showed no appreciable differences with either age or sex. Normal subjects showed higher levels of visual activation at 10:00 hours than 15:00 hours, with a reverse pattern in narcoleptic subjects (P = 0.007). The group differences in spatial extent of cortical activation between control and narcoleptic subjects were small and statistically insignificant. The alerting action, and imaging response, to a single oral dose of the sleep-preventing drug modafinil 400 mg were then determined and compared with placebo in both the 12 normal (8 given modafinil, 4 placebo) and 12 narcoleptic subjects (8 modafinil, 4 placebo). Modafinil caused an increase in self-reported levels of alertness in 7 of 8 narcoleptic subjects, but there was no significant difference between mean pretreatment and post-treatment activation levels as determined by fMRI for either normal or narcoleptic syndrome subjects given modafinil. However, in the modafinil-treated group of 8 normal and 8 narcoleptic subjects, there was a clock time independent correlation between the initial level of activation as determined by the pretreatment scan and the post-treatment change in activation (visual, P = 0.002; and auditory, P = 0.001). No correlation was observed in placebo-treated subjects (P = 0.99 and 0.77, respectively). Although limited by the small number of subjects, and the lack of an objective measure of alertness, the findings of this study suggest that low cortical activation levels in both normal and narcoleptic subjects are increased following the administration of modafinil. Functional magnetic resonance imaging may be a valuable addition to established studies of attention.  (+info)

In the current study, all infants had detectable urinary concentrations of total BPA, ranging from 2.0 to 196 µg/L. The median urinary BPA concentration in this group of premature infants was considerably higher (17.2 μg/L) than in healthy term infants aged 1 to 5 months (,0.45 μg/L) without known BPA exposure.21 Although immaturity of phase II metabolism may account for some of the association of urinary BPA concentrations with prematurity, premature infants have the ability to conjugate BPA.16 Interestingly, medical devices, but not nutritional intake, were positively associated with urinary BPA concentrations. On average, premature infants requiring ≥4 medical devices had urinary total BPA concentrations 1.6 times higher than those requiring fewer devices independent of their gestational age, gender, or nutritional intake. Respiratory devices were associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations than other devices. These findings suggest that medical devices were an important source of ...
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Gestational urinary BPA concentrations were associated with some neurobehavioral measures at 3 years of age in this cohort. In particular, gestational BPA exposure was associated with higher scores for measures of anxiety, hyperactivity, emotional control, and behavioral inhibition. Similar to our previous findings, the effects of gestational BPA exposure on these behavioral domains were larger among girls than boys.2 The different responses to gestational BPA exposure were especially pronounced for hyperactivity; girls exhibited increases in hyperactivity, and boys exhibited decreases in hyperactivity. In contrast, childhood urinary BPA concentrations were less important predictors of behavior or executive functions in this study.. The findings presented are consistent with numerous studies demonstrating altered neurobehavior among BPA-exposed animals.14,38 Gestational BPA exposures might affect endocrine or other neurotransmitter pathways and disrupt sexual differentiation of the brain, to ...
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NIEHS Grant P30ES000002. A study, supported in part by the NIEHS, identified medical devices as a potential source of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) among premature infants in neonatal intensive care units. BPA is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics, which are used in medical devices such as intravenous administration sets, syringes, and catheters. The researchers looked at the urinary BPA concentration for 55 infants and categorized each infants medical device use as low or high based on the number and invasiveness of devices. They found that the median urinary total BPA concentration of infants who had required four or more medical devices for three previous days was significantly higher, 36.6 micrograms per liter (µg/l), than for the infants requiring three or less devices, who had a BPA concentration of 13.9 µg/l. The researchers also collected and analyzed breast milk or formula samples, and found that the increased BPA concentration was not associated with the infants nutritional ...
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It is in your food containers, water bottles, and 90 percent of us have it in our bloodstream. It may also be a prime candidate for causing wheezing in children if pregnant mothers come into contact with it. Experimental research in bisphenol A, (BPA) suggests that prenatal BPA exposure causes asthma in mice. No firm data yet exists for humans but results are not looking good.. Adam Spanier, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of pediatrics at Penn State College of Medicine, studied 367 children, 99 percent of whom were born to mothers who had detectable BPA levels during pregnancy. Twice a year for three years, the parents reported back with any signs of wheezing in the children. At six months of age, twice as many children were reported with wheezing from mothers who had higher BPA than those who had mothers with lower BPA levels. These effects may have diminished as the children aged however.. Researchers then looked at the levels of BPA in the women during certain times of their pregnancies and ...
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The main objective of this research project is to understand how in utero Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects fetal gonadal development and reproduction in adulthood in mice. In utero exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors such as diethylsfilbestrol (DES) is known to cause sex organ malformation, reproductive carcinogenesis, and fertility defects in both male and female in humans and rodents. Based on DES studies, it is proposed that in utero exposure to other endocrine disruptors, particularly those that work through estrogen receptors, may lead to reproductive diseases in adulthood. BPA, a chemical used in synthesis of plastics, exhibits estrogenic activities and deleterious effects on reproduction when given to adult rodents. BPA is detected in serum of pregnant women, umbilical cord blood, and fetal plasma, indicating that developing fetuses are exposed to BPA. Although effects of BPA on adult reproductive organs have been studied extensively, impacts of in utero BPA exposure ...
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New Study from CCCEH Finds Exposure to Bisphenol-A in the Womb is Linked to Behavioral Problems in Young Children. NEW YORK (April 28, 2012) Over the past few years two new phrases have been introduced to our everyday language-bisphenol-A (BPA) and endocrine disrupting chemicals. According to a new study by researchers at Columbia Center for Childrens Environmental Health at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, exposure to BPA in the womb may be linked to behavioral problems in young children.. The study was published in an advance online edition of Environmental Health Perspectives entitled Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Child Behavior.. BPA is found in many products we use every day, ranging from polycarbonate plastics like those used in food and beverage storage containers, the lining of canned food and beverages, thermal paper cashier receipts, to dental sealants. As a result of the high volume production and use, the majority of Americans are exposed to BPA. ...
NIEHS Grants: R01ES016541, P01ES022844, P30ES017885, R01ES017005, R01ES017005, R01ES016001, R01ES017524. NIEHS grantees report that exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy can cause oxidative damage that may increase a childs risk of developing diabetes or heart disease later in life. The researchers tested multiple species of animals to replicate and strengthen human studies that showed BPA exposure during pregnancy can bring about a specific type of oxidative stress.. Oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance and inflammation, which are risk factors for diabetes and other metabolic disorders as well as cardiovascular disease. For the human study, the researchers analyzed blood samples from 24 mother and infant pairs. The women were divided into two groups based on their levels of BPA determined from blood draws taken during their first trimester of pregnancy. Mothers and their infants with higher levels of BPA showed increased levels of ...
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Possible link between high prenatal BPA levels and neonatal neurobehavioral abnormalities; study advises pregnant women to reduce exposure levels. A new case study examining an infants neurobehavioral abnormalities and extremely high bisphenol A (BPA) concentration of the babys mother suggests a link between the two. The study, Environmental Health Perspectives: A Case Study of High Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Infant Neonatal Neurobehavior, was led by researcher Sheela Sathyanarayana, MD of Seattle Childrens Research Institute, and recently published online in Environmental Health Perspectives.. BPA, a synthetic, man-made chemical, is used in a wide variety of products including: can linings; hard polycarbonate plastics such as baby bottles and reusable cups; and dental sealants. Food may be the single largest source of BPA exposure due to contamination of foods during preparation and processing. BPA has estrogenic (hormone-like) properties. In animal studies, exposure to BPA early in ...
Welcome to Californias Beverage Container Recycling Program. Whether youre a consumer who wants to redeem your empty bottles and cans for cash, a recycling center operator who needs the latest industry updates, or anyone else with an interest in beverage container recycling, youll find the information you need on these pages. CalRecycle, officially known as the Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery, administers the California Beverage Container Recycling and Litter Reduction Act. Beverage containers covered under the act are subject to California Redemption Value (CRV), which is 5 cents for containers less than 24 ounces, 10 cents for containers 24 ounces or larger. Thanks to the CRV cash incentive, more than 300 billion aluminum, glass, and plastic beverage containers have been recycled since the program began in 1987.. Many communities in California now offer curbside collection in addition to beverage container recycling centers. To find your closest recycling center, check out ...
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Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for
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Washington, D.C.-On March 29, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a bisphenol-A (BPA) action plan to assess the environmental impacts of the chemical and to require testing of its environmental effects. Earlier this year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) publicly announced its concern over the presence and detrimental health effects of BPA in food packaging and in the environment.. As published in WholeFoods Magazines March 2010 issue, BPA present in polycarbonate plastic is an endocrine disruptor. The U.S. National Toxicology Program reported some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants and children at current human exposures to [BPA]. Other studies show the carcinogenic effects of the compound.. Steve Owens, assistant administrator of EPAs Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances stated, We share FDAs concern about the potential health impacts from BPA…Both EPA and FDA, and many other agencies, are moving ...
Humans tend to be exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), the monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, through BPA contaminated drinking water, beverages and foods, packaged in polycarbonate plastic bottles and cans coated with epoxy resins due to leaching. [[17], [18], [19]]. When human being becomes exposed to BPA then the circulating level of BPA has been found in the 10C100?nM range [20,18]. Bisphenol F (BPF) and Bisphenol S (BPS) were also frequently recognized in human body [21]. Elevated concentrations of BPF, and BPS G15 (i.e., much like or greater than that of BPA) have been reported in the abiotic environment and in some areas the daily intake ideals G15 of BPS in different countries ranges from 0.023 to 1 1.67?g/person while obtained from human being urine sample [22]. Duodenal clean muscles motor functions have been inhibited by BPA. Generation of oxidative stress, decreasing the availability of free Ca2+, inducing the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and advertising of the ...
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background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs.5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0
Introduction: Octylphenol (OP) is a degradation product of alkylphenol ethoxylates that are widely used to in rubber, pesticides and paints. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound with two functional phenol groups and used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, along with other applications. OP and BPA are known as endocrine disruptors that can induce inappropriate estrogenic action, and may disturb natural calcium metabolism. In the present study, the effects of OP and BPA on the calcium levels of serum and urine, and calcium transport genes were investigated in the duodenum, kidney and placenta of the pregnant mice.. Methods: From 6.5 to 16.5 days after post coitus (dpc), pregnant mice were orally given with ethylestradiol (EE, 0.2 mg/kg/day), OP (15, 45, or 135 mg/kg/day) or BPA (5 or 50 mg/kg/day) dissolved in corn oil. The duodenum, kidney, placenta, blood and urine were obtained from mice at day 18.5 of pregnancy.. Results: As a result, serum and urinary calcium levels were ...
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Poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (n ~22; also known as PEGDE) is a difunctional, water-soluble crosslinker for amine-, hydroxyl-, and carboxyl-functional polymers. Learn More ...
The use of p tris 2 aminoethyl amine co glycerol diglycidyl ether microgel as template for Co Ni nanoparticles and their use as catalyst for H2 production from NaBH4 hydrolysis ...
Psychopharmacological modulation of the catecholaminergic system can enhance some aspects of cognitive function. For example, COMT inhibitors can slightly improve working memory/executive function. Similarly, modafinil, a catecholaminergic agonist that increases extracellular dopamine in the prefrontal cortex was also shown to improve delay-dependent working memory. Differences in the response between individuals might be related to a number of factors, including variations in the genes. The recent finding that a polymorphism in the catechol-o-methyl-transferase (COMT) gene, which produces a 4 fold change in enzyme activity, accounts for 4% of the variance in performance of working memory tasks in humans suggest that COMT genotype may predict response to COMT inhibitors or to other agonists that increase catecholaminergic function in the frontal cortex.. In the present investigation our goal is to examine, in normal controls and patients with schizophrenia, the effect of modafinil, a drug that ...
The mechanism of action of armodafinil is unknown. Armodafinil (R-(−)-modafinil) has pharmacological properties almost identical to those of modafinil (a mixture of R-(−)- and (S)-(+)-modafinil). The (R)- and (S)-enantiomers have similar pharmacological action in animals. Armodafinil has wake-promoting actions similar to sympathomimetic agents including amphetamine and methylphenidate, although its pharmacologic profile is not identical to that of the sympathomimetic amines. Armodafinil is an indirect dopamine receptor agonist; it binds in vitro to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and inhibits dopamine reuptake. For modafinil, this activity has been associated in vivo with increased extracellular dopamine levels. In genetically engineered mice lacking the dopamine transporter, modafinil lacked wake-promoting activity, suggesting that this activity was DAT-dependent. However, the wake-promoting effects of modafinil, unlike those of amphetamine, were not antagonized by the dopamine receptor ...
In recent years, numerous substances have been identified as so-called endocrine disruptors because exposure to them results in disruption of normal endocrine function with possible adverse health outcomes.. The pathologic and behavioral abnormalities attributed to exposure to endocrine disruptors like bisphenol-A (BPA) have been studied in animals. Mental conditions ranging from cognitive impairment to autism have been linked to BPA exposure by more than one investigation. Concurrent with these developments in BPA research, schizophrenia research has continued to find evidence of possible endocrine or neuroendocrine involvement in the disease.. Sufficient information now exists for a comparison of the neurotoxicological and behavioral pathology associated with exposure to BPA and other endocrine disruptors to the abnormalities observed in schizophrenia.. This review summarizes these findings and proposes a theory of endocrine disruption, like that observed from BPA exposure, as a pathway of ...
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Modafinil Information. What is this?. Modafinil, also known as Provigil, is defined as a wakefulness-promoting agent for treating disorders like narcolepsy, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep disorder resulting from shift work. Countries like USA restrict its availability and usage because of concerns about addiction potential as well as other side effects. The mechanism of modafinil working on human brain is still difficult to explain. However, it is known for blocking dopamine transporter molecule, mode of action of methylphenidate and amphetamine stimulants. The influence of these actions is relatively weak as it doesnt explain the wakefulness effect that is physically observed. Modafinil is a potent nootropic long-term.. Benefits. In addition to improving daytime wakefulness, modafinil has also been proved to treat fatigue and sedation resulting from several conditions including depression.. Astronauts and military personnel also use the substance in combat situations e.g. where they ...
Gene Expression Profiling Analysis of Bisphenol A-Induced Perturbation in Biological Processes in ER-Negative HEK293 Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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A recent study in a preclinical model of inflammatory bowel disease shows dietary exposure to bisphenol-A, or BPA, found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, can increase mortality and worsen its symptoms.
Benzhydryl compounds are compounds that are diphenylmethane-containing, i.e. containing two benzene rings adjoining a single methyl radical. This does not include compounds where these benzenes are fused to other rings.[1] Benzhydryl can be abbreviated to CHPh2 or Bzh.[2] ...
A newer medication called Provigil (Modafinil), which is used to promote wakefulness (eugeroic), has also been found to help manage symptoms of ADHD. Many
Last year, Breast Cancer UK awarded a research grant to Dr Michael Antoniou, along with his research associate Dr Robin Mesnage, at Kings College London, to evaluate the endocrine disrupting properties of herbicides and compounds used to make plastics. In this science blog, Dr Mesnage explains the background to their most recent findings which have just been published as a preprint. More than 80 years ago, bisphenol A (BPA) was discovered to have oestrogen hormone mimicking effects. Discarded by the pharmaceutical industry, it was nonetheless used as a plasticizer and added to polycarbonate plastic or epoxy resins for decades, before some researchers rediscovered its ability to disturb the hormonal system. Thousands of studies are now reporting adverse health effects of BPA in humans, including reproductive and neurobehavioural disorders. Due to mounting evidence of harm and public pressure, BPA is being phased out by plastics manufacturers and BPA-free products are now found in ...
Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most prevalent chemicals in many products used on a daily basis, making human exposure to it incredibly pervasive and raising concerns about its health consequences. One area of research focus has been the role of BPA exposure in promoting the development of ovarian cancer; however, the doses used in most of previous studies are relatively high and most likely exceed physiologically relevant levels. At the same time, few studies have described potential mechanisms underlying the link between BPA and increased cancer risk. To address these concerns, the authors investigated the mechanism(s) by which low concentrations of BPA promote proliferation and energy metabolism in the human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3. The results showed that even sub-toxic BPA concentrations not only drove increased OVCAR-3 cell proliferation but also promoted glycolysis-based metabolism, as evidenced by elevated cell viability, accelerated cell proliferation, increased levels of ...
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The impact of exposures during two developmental windows - the prenatal and the adolescent periods - will be assessed. At the heart of the research will be two human cohort studies - a pilot birth cohort in Urbana-Champaign, IL (Project 1;S.Schantz, PI) and a pilot adolescent cohort to be studied in the context of an ongoing study in New Bedford, MA (project 2; S. Korrick, PI). These studies will assess the relation of BPA or phthalate exposure to sexually dimorphic aspects of physical development and cognition in newborn infants and cognition in adolescent. This Center includes animal studies that will model the timing of exposure in the human cohorts. These studies will investigate mechanisms through which BPA disrupts male and female gonad development using transgenic (with genes from other organisms) and knockout (with specific genes deactivated) mouse models (Project 3; H. Yao, PI), and the impact of in utero or peripubertal BPA exposure on development of sexually dimorphic cortical brain ...
Lawyers are accepting cases involving birth defects in children whose mothers took Provigil (modafinil) or Nuvigil (armodafinil) while pregnant.
A beverage container provided with unique pressure relief valve means designed to permit the escape of gaseous pressure that may build up within the container as through the inclusion of dry ice therein. The container also includes an interior container which is raised from the bottom of the primary container and includes interior finger-pull abutments. The inner container is designed for slipping downwardly into the interior of the outer container only a predetermined distance, this before a wedging effect occurs; thus, the bottom of the inner container is spaced above the bottom of the outer container so as to lessen chances of fracturing or cracking of the bottom of the outer container when dry ice is disposed in the inner container.
Well, not quite. But in recent years researchers have been exploring the potential of using biochar to remediate soil contaminated with organic chemicals. Similar to but definitely not the charcoal commonly used during barbecue season, biochar is made by heating biomass such as fruit peels in oxygen-limited conditions. Its physical and chemical characteristics impart an exceptional ability to sorb chemicals, especially organic chemicals, and reduce their bioavailability in soil.. A new study by Xu and co-workers at Peking University and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences focuses on two widespread organic chemicals: bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethylyneestradiol (EE2). BPA is used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Thus, it is found in a multitude of commonly used products such as cars, food storage containers, and electronic equipment. EE2 is a synthetic estrogen most commonly used as an ingredient in birth control pills.. Both of these chemicals have been found ...
Benzhydryl compounds Triphenylmethane Tetraphenylmethane W. W. Hartman and Ross Phillips (1934). "Diphenylmethane". Organic ... Diphenylmethane is an organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CH2 (often abbreviated CH 2Ph 2). The compound consists of ... The diphenylmethyl group is also known as benzhydryl. It is prepared by the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzyl chloride with ...
... originated with the late 1970s invention of a series of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds, including adrafinil, which was ... It is also a schedule IV compound. Krishnan R, Chary KV (2015). "A rare case modafinil dependence". Journal of Pharmacology & ... U.S. Patent 4,927,855 was issued to Laboratoire L. Lafon on May 22, 1990, covering the chemical compound modafinil. After ... Modafinil is a highly researched compound, with many derivatives created and studied, some examples and their differences ...
The benzhydryl compounds are a group of organic compounds whose parent structures include diphenylmethane (which is two benzene ... U.S. Patent 4,022,786 Benzhydryl+Compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... tyrima Olanzapine Benzhydryl Compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Abbreviations ... Bromodiphenylmethane from PubChem, a.k.a. called benzhydryl bromide 1-Benzyl-2-bromobenzene from PubChem, not called benzhydryl ...
It features a piperazine ring with a benzhydryl (diphenylmethyl) group bound to one of the nitrogens. Calderon SN. Nonpeptidic ... 1-(Diphenylmethyl)piperazine, also known as benzhydrylpiperazine, is a chemical compound and piperazine derivative. ...
The compound CP-99994 was synthesized by replacing the quinuclidine ring with a piperidine ring and benzhydryl moiety by a ... Many compounds have been described by various pharmaceutical companies besides the compounds that led to the discovery of ... However, these compounds, like most peptide compounds, had problems with selectivity, potency, solubility and bioavailability. ... This compound showed good activity in vivo and in models of pain and was developed up to phase II for the treatment of ...
Benzhydryl- and cinamoylisothiocyanates". Neoplasma. 16 (6): 591-6. PMID 5369024. Horáková, K; Drobnica, L; Nemec, P; Uher, M ( ... Horáková, K. (1981). "The Use of Cell Cultures to Monitor the Toxic and Mutagenic Activity of Chemical Compounds Present in ... Horáková, K. (1967). "A Study of synergism of known metabolic inhibitors and antifungal compounds on Candida albicans Pn 10". ... Horáková, K; Drobnica, L; Nemec, P (1969). "Cytotoxic and cancerostatic effects of isothiocyanates and related compounds. IV. ...
Tert-butyl compounds. *Benzhydryl compounds. *Nervous system drug stubs. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ...
Benzhydryl compounds. Hidden categories: *All articles with dead external links. *Articles with dead external links from June ...
... is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CHOH. Also known as benzhydrol, it is a white solid and the ... It is used in the synthesis of Modafinil and the benzhydryl group is present in the structure of many histamine H1 antagonists ... Benzhydrol is also used in the production of agrochemicals as well as other organic compounds and as a terminating group in ...
One was the photolysis of the Mariano Compound, 3,3-methyl-1,1,5,5-tetraphenyl-1,4-pentadiene. Another was the reaction of the ... Process a is preferred since it leaves benzhydryl odd-electron stabilization intact. Equation 2. The mechanism of the Pratt ...
The compounds as depicted have the carbon of the pyrrolidine carbon and the phenyl cis, but Maryanoff and coworkers are of the ... The structure is a pyrroloisoquinoline core, with an overlaid benzhydryl motif. Incorporating the pyrrolidino ring onto the ... opinion that the compound is trans. (see abstract) The reason for this is not known because it was referred to as "cis" in ...
In his attempts he introduced new mercaptan protecting groups (e.g. trityl, benzhydryl or benzoyl), which finally made it ... On the Aldehyde Compounds of Amino Acids Katsoyannis, P. G., ed. (1973). The Chemistry of Polypeptides. New York: Plenum Press ...
... benzhydryl or benzoyl groups (as part of the greater effort for the synthesis of asymmetric cysteine-containing peptides), N- ... Symposium on Natural Sulfur Compounds (Copenhagen, 1966), NATO Seminar of Molecular Biology (Spetses, 1966), 8th EPS (Noordwijk ...
For example, in a typical acyl substitution reaction, the starting carbonyl compound is coordinated to the catalyst through one ... the formation of the Strecker product from benzhydryl amines and aqueous HCN. Hydrolysis of the nitrile and deprotections ... Furthermore, analogous reactions involving oxyanion intermediates such as enolate addition to nitroso compounds or opening of ... In addition, aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions of furans, amidoalkylations of diazocarbonyl compounds, asymmetric ...
Reduction of the ketone with zinc/NaOH followed by treatment with HCl in ether affords the benzhydryl chloride. Displacement of ...
2S,3S)-2-Benzhydryl-N-[(5-isopropyl-2-methoxy-phenyl)methyl]quinuclidin-3-amine ... Isopropyl compounds. *Gastrointestinal system drug stubs. Hidden categories: *Drugs with non-standard legal status ...
Benzhydryl compounds are compounds that are "diphenylmethane"-containing, i.e. containing two benzene rings adjoining a single ... This does not include compounds where these benzenes are fused to other rings.[1] Benzhydryl can be abbreviated to CHPh2 or Bzh ... Benzhydryl+Compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Benzhydryl+Compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Benzhydryl Compounds / therapeutic use* * Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use* * Clinical Trials as Topic ...
Benzhydryl Compounds * Calibration * Cats * Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid * Dogs * Food Contamination / analysis* ...
0 (Benzhydryl Compounds); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); MLT3645I99 (bisphenol A). ... They contain not only nutrients but also xenobiotics, such as Bisphenol A (BPA). These compounds are not regulated in the use ... 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Organometallic Compounds); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); HS813P8QPX (bismuth tripotassium dicitrate). ... bismuth sequestered by metal-binding compounds. After 28 days of exposure bismuth concentrations in earthworms tissue increased ...
0 (Aromatase Inhibitors); 0 (Benzhydryl Compounds); 0 (Endocrine Disruptors); 0 (Ligands); 0 (Nitriles); 0 (Phenols); 0 ( ... Due to this role, it is likely to be a target of the so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals, a series of compounds able to ... If on one side the toxicity of some compounds such as bisphenol A is well known, on the other side the toxic concentrations of ... Here the so-called alkali assay previously developed in our laboratory is applied to test the effect of different compounds on ...
Eugeroics / Benzhydryl compounds. Adrafinil • Armodafinil • Modafinil. Histamine H3 receptor antagonists. A-349,821 • ABT-239 ... List of 504 Compounds Similar to Amphetamine (PubChem) - Similar Compounds for PubChem Compound (Select 3007) - PubChem ... Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu in Berlin, Germany.[5] He named the compound ... The related compound methamphetamine was first synthesized from ephedrine in Japan in 1918 by chemist Akira Ogata, via ...
Eugeroics / Benzhydryl compounds. Adrafinil • Armodafinil • Modafinil. Histamine H3 receptor antagonists. A-349,821 • ABT-239 ...
Benzhydryl Compounds (toxicity) *Cathepsin D (metabolism) *Cell Line, Tumor (drug effects) *Cell Movement (drug effects) ...
Benzhydryl compounds Triphenylmethane Tetraphenylmethane W. W. Hartman and Ross Phillips (1934). "Diphenylmethane". Organic ... Diphenylmethane is an organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CH2 (often abbreviated CH 2Ph 2). The compound consists of ... The diphenylmethyl group is also known as benzhydryl. It is prepared by the Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzyl chloride with ...
MeSH Terms: Animals; Behavior, Animal/drug effects*; Benzhydryl Compounds/pharmacology*; Central Nervous System Agents/ ...
Other names: Piperazine, 1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-methyl-; (N-Benzhydryl)(N-methyl)diethylenediamine; Compound 47-83; Marezine; N- ... 47-83; 1-Diphenylmethyl-4-methylpiperazine; Bw 47-83; Ciclizina; N-Methyl-N-benzyhydrylpiperazine; N-Benzhydryl-N-methyl ... Benzhydryl-N-methylpiperazine; N-Methyl-N-benzhydrylpiperazine; Nautazine; Neo-devomit; Wellcome prepn. ...
Benzhydryl Compounds/metabolism. *Environmental Pollution. *Estradiol/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology. *Female. *In Situ ... This suggests that the two compounds have opposite effects: on the one hand, BPA promotes multiplication and aggregation of ... This suggests that the two compounds have opposite effects: on the one hand, BPA promotes multiplication and aggregation of ...
Benzhydryl Compounds/metabolism. *Environmental Pollution. *Estradiol/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology. *Female. *In Situ ...
Benzhydryl Compounds [D02.455.426.559.389.115]. *Methylenebis(chloroaniline) [D02.455.426.559.389.115.500]. Below are MeSH ...
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Glucose, Global Health, Glucosides, Benzhydryl Compounds, Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, ...
N-Benzhydryl-4-methylquinolin-2-amine , C23H20N2 , CID 273581 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
Novel tricyclic compounds having a TXA2 -antagonizing activity represented by formul (I): ##STR1## which strongly antagonize an ... which are known carbocyclics; the aralkyl, by benzyl, phenethyl and benzhydryl having 7 to 15 carbon atoms, etc.; and the ... to Compound (IXb) and Compound (IXc) and from Compound (IXb) to Compound (IXc), described in Method 1-2. ... Compound (XV) can be converted into Compound (IXg-1) [in Compound (IXg), n is 1 and Hal is chlorine] according to the following ...
Said cephalosporin compound is useful as an antimicrobial agent. ... A cephalosporin compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein R 1 ... butyl or benzhydryl, said group or groups may be removed by treating the compound (IV) with an acid. Suitable examples of such ... the starting compound (II) may be prepared by hydrolyzing the compound (VI) to give a compound of the formula: ##STR22## ... Cephalosporin compounds and the production thereof US4952578A (en) 1990-08-28. Cephem compound and a process for preparation ...
3-Benzhydryl-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid , C22H17NO2 , CID 40928 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties ...
Benzhydryl - 1150 compounds. Biphenyl - 660 compounds. Aza-(and diaza-)biphenyl - 1050 compounds. Dihydropyridine - 1230 ... Compound Libraries. Natural products. Buy Compounds Online. Bioscreening Directory. Glossary. News Feeds. News. Structure ... Phenylpiperazine - 1270 compounds. You are welcome to select any number of compounds from above groups. All privileged ... Discounted price depends on the final number of compounds selected and a required samples size per compound. ...
Benzhydryl β-diethylaminopropionate and related compounds. 1950, Vol. 15, pp. 671-676 [Abstract] ... Neurotropic and psychotropic compounds. LV. New syntheses of 8-chloro-10-(4-methylpiperazino)-10,11-dihydrodibenzo[b,f]thiepin ... Neurotropic and psychotropic compounds. LI. 8-Acetamido- and 8-methylseleno derivatives of 10-(4-methylpiperazino)dibenzo[b,f] ... Basic benzhydryl ketones. II.. 1951, Vol. 16, pp. 151-157 [Abstract] *M. Protiva and M. Borovička. Antihistamine substances. ...
Benzhydryl β-diethylaminopropionate and related compounds. 1950, Vol. 15, pp. 671-676 [Abstract] ... I. N-Substituted derivatives of 5-amino-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene and some other compounds. 1971, Vol. 36, Issue ... 1-(4-Alkanesulfonylphenacyl)-4-arylpiperazines and related compounds: A new series of central depressants. 1975, Vol. 40, Issue ...
Bodsworth, N., Bloch, M., McNulty, A., Denham, I., Doong, N., Trottier, S., Adena, M., Bonney, M. A., Agnew, J., Abdurahman, I., Ajam, A., Alexander, R., Aung, A., Barry, S., Becker, B., Belbin, M., Bishop, C., Bisshop, F., Bourne, C., Brett, T. & 158 others, Brown, K., Butler, A., Carmody, C., Chan, D., Chuah, J., Conway, D., Daly, C., Davies, S., Davis, C., Davis, B., Dever, N., Donovan, B., Eisen, D., Eliades, C., Elisha, B., Fairley, C., Feiglin, A., Freeman, A., Furner, V., Garland, S., Genn, W., Giannakopoulos, J., Glass, F., Gold, J., Goswami, J., Gowers, A., Grech, J., Hackney, P., Hanson, B., Hartnell, K., Harvey, C., Hasan, M., Hawkins, S., Heley, S., Herbst, D., Hespe, C., Irlicht, M., Isaacs, A., Katahanas, L., Kelly, M., Komarowski, P., Kostic, G., Kozminsky, M., Lagios, K., Lee, D., Lewis, P., Liang, T., Lyttle, H., Mackellar-Michelmore, H., Macleod, H., Marsh, L., Marshall, L., McCloskey, J., McCurdy, D., McEvoy, P., McFarlane, R., McKeegan, P., McMurchie, M., McNamee, K., ...
... originated with the late 1970s invention of a series of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds, also including adrafinil, by ...
Benzhydryl Compounds, Registries, Stroke, Heart Failure, Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins, Hospitalization ...
Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Phenols; ...
A series of benzhydryl piperazines was found to inhibit synaptic vesicular Mg++-ATPase. These compounds were also found to ... An investigation into the roles of synaptic vesicular Mg++-ATPase in neurotransmitter release, using benzhydryl piperazines. ... Synthesis and Ca-antagonist activity of some benzhydryl derivatives. (opens in new tab) ...
Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; ... Organophosphorus Compound. A1.4.1.2.1.7. Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein. A1.4.1.2.1.8. Carbohydrate. A1.4.1.2.1.9. Lipid. A1.4 ...
Compounds of formula (I) are useful for the treatment of inflammatory and central nervous system diseases as well as other ... 제1항에 있어서, R1이 벤즈히드릴인 화합물.The compound of claim 1, wherein R 1 is benzhydryl. ... the corresponding compound of formula (VII) Reacted with a compound of (R 3 is as defined in claim 16) to form a compound of ... Benzoamide piperidine containing compounds and related compounds MXPA03000275A (en) 2000-07-11. 2004-12-13. Albany Molecular ...
  • Amido: dextromoramide Imino: benzodiazepine, GYKI-52895 Sulfinyl: modafinil, adrafinil Pituxate gem-diphenylcyclopropane These species are not strictly benzhydryl-containing but are analogous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adrafinil is a benzhydryl sulfinyl compound that was first developed in 1974. (nootriment.com)
  • They developed a series of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds, one of which was Adrafinil. (nootriment.com)
  • Modafinil was first discovered because of tests on Adrafinil , a compound sulfinyl of benzhydryl that was first developed in 1974 by Lafon. (waklert.org)
  • 11. The discovery of Modafinil actually came about because of the previous development of a series of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds, including Adrafinil, in 1974. (ideasdebabel.com)
  • Modafinil was discovered after the invention of a chain of other chemicals categorized as Benzhydryl Sulfinyl. (trackmystack.com)
  • Modafinil originated with the late s invention of a series of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds, including adrafinilwhich was first offered as an experimental treatment for narcolepsy in France in Oxford University Press. (volkmannchiropractic.com)
  • Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging contaminant, regularly detected in aquatic ecosystems, considered as an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). (bvsalud.org)
  • Modafinil and Adrafinil are very similar compounds on a molecular level, with the only difference in structure being that Modafinil lacks a hydroxyl group the Adrafinil has on its terminal amide. (nootriment.com)
  • Both Adrafinil and Modafinil are classified as eugeroic compounds, meaning they have wakefulness promoting effects. (nootriment.com)
  • Armodafinil is the latest iteration in a series of related compounds that stretches back to the 1970s with the invention of Adrafinil. (nootriment.com)
  • Adrafinil was not found to have any pain-relieving effects, but instead fell into a category of compounds known as eugeroics, or wakefulness promoting compounds. (nootriment.com)
  • Adrafinil is therefore a prodrug, meaning it is a largely inactive compound that is broken down into and acts though the action of an active metabolite - in this case Modafinil. (nootriment.com)
  • Modafinil is the essential dynamic compound in Adrafinil that causes effects in the body. (waklert.org)
  • Most importantly, these included Modafinil's precursor compound Adrafinil . (trackmystack.com)
  • However, this single-compound approach neglects the fact that the mixture exposed to human may act additively or synergistically to induce greater toxicity than the single compounds exposure due to their similarities in the mode of action and targets. (bvsalud.org)
  • A series of benzhydryl piperazines was found to inhibit synaptic vesicular Mg++-ATPase. (meta.org)
  • R-Q-Ar-SO 2 NH 2 are disclosed, which compounds selectively inhibit CAIX and CAXII, and which are effective to inhibit hypoxic tumor growth, suppress metastases, and impair and deplete cancer stem cells in mammals. (sparrho.com)
  • In fact, among derivatives mentioned above, there are no compounds which selectively inhibit CA isoforms with therapeutic value (inhibition data of 1-25 sulfonamide compounds against all human (h) CA isoforms are provided in Supuran, C. (2008) Nature 7: 168-181. (sparrho.com)
  • Compounds and compositions comprising compounds that inhibit glutaminase are described herein. (patsnap.com)
  • Also described herein are methods of using the compounds that inhibit glutaminase in the treatment of cancer. (patsnap.com)
  • This invention relates to pyrazole compounds that inhibit or modulate the activity of cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), to the use of the compounds in the treatment or prophylaxis of disease states or conditions mediated by cyclin dependent kinases and glycogen synthase kinase-3, and to novel compounds having cyclin dependent kinase or glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitory or modulating activity. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Our work illustrates the power of a system-scale analysis of transcriptional regulation to characterize potential therapeutic compounds that inhibit pathogenic Th17 cells and suppress autoimmunity. (broadinstitute.org)
  • These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. (bvsalud.org)
  • All tested substances were identified as agonists for human estrogen rece ptor α by methods in silico and in vitro, four substances showed a potentially higher estrogenic activity comparing to bisphenol A, two substances were identified as very weak antagonists of human androgen rece ptor and one compound showed a potential of agonistic activity to human androgen rece ptor. (nel.edu)
  • The diphenylmethyl group is also known as benzhydryl. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound consists of methane wherein two hydrogen atoms are replaced by two phenyl groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • The corrosion inhibition effect of N-(4-((4-Benzhydryl piperazin-1-yl) methyl Carbamoyl) Phenyl) Furan-2-Carboxamide (BFC) on brass in 1M HCl has been investigated using weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). (hindawi.com)
  • 4. A compound or the use as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 3 wherein in the compound of general formula (I) A is phenyl. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 13. A compound or the use as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 7 wherein, in the compound of general formula (I), R 1 and R 2 together form a heterocyclic ring system, selected from isoindoline, piperazine, piperidine, tetrahydroisoquinoline, any of which may optionally be substituted with one or more phenyl or halophenyl groups. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 17. A compound or the use as claimed in claim 15 wherein, in the compound of general formula (I), R 5 is a phenyl group which is optionally substituted with C 1 -C 4 alkyl, halo or NO.sub. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This review would take on benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylpiperazine (TFMPP), benzhydryl piperazine, diphenylalkyl piperazine, phenyl piperazine as the most popular member of the piperazines, focusing the discussion on their origins, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and their effects on the human body. (ijpsr.com)
  • Many of the inhibitors are organic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur, Phosphorous, and aromatic rings that cause adsorption on the metal surface [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Benzhydryl radicals donate a hydrogen atom rapidly to the less hindered nitrogen atom of aliphatic and aromatic azo compounds, leading to the corresponding hydrazines. (rice.edu)
  • To identify potent and selective chemical compounds against DPP8, we have synthesized a series of isoquinoline and isoindoline derivatives and have tested their inhibitory activity against DPP8, DPP-IV and DPP-II. (uniprot.org)
  • 9. The compound of claim 1, wherein said compound is selected from the group consisting of: ##STR24## and ester derivatives thereof. (google.es)
  • Piperazines are a broad class of chemical compounds with many important pharmacological properties. (ijpsr.com)
  • Benzhydryl compounds are compounds that are " diphenylmethane "-containing, i.e. containing two benzene rings adjoining a single methyl radical . (wikipedia.org)
  • Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nowadays the synthesized Mannich base compounds have been of interest in order to obtain efficient corrosion inhibitors since they provide much greater inhibition efficiency compared to corresponding amines and aldehydes. (hindawi.com)
  • Novel isoindoline compounds for potent and selective inhibition of prolyl dipeptidase DPP8. (uniprot.org)
  • Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. (arctichealth.org)
  • Commercially available yeast-based microplate assay (XenoScreen YES/YAS, Xenometrix, Switzerland) for detection of compounds with estrogenic and androgenic agonistic/antagonistic activity was used as a comparative test to estrogen rece ptor transactivation assay (OECD TG 455/457) and for screening of the agonistic/antagonistic potential of human estrogen rece ptor and agonistic/antagonistic activity of tested compounds on human androgen rece ptor. (nel.edu)
  • Also provided are pharmaceutical compositions containing the compounds and novel chemical intermediates. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Isoindoline with a 1-(4,4'-difluor-benzhydryl)-piperazine group at the P2 site was observed to be a very potent DPP8 inhibitor, having an IC(50) value of 14nM with at least a 2500-fold selectivity over either DPP-IV or DPP-II. (uniprot.org)
  • Piperazine is a heterocyclic compound containing four carbon atoms and two nitrogen at 1 and 4 position (as called 1, 4-hexahydropyrazine). (ijpsr.com)
  • The benzhydryl compounds are a group of organic compounds whose parent structures include diphenylmethane (which is two benzene rings connected by a single methane), with any number of attached substituents, including bridges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diphenylmethane is an organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CH2 (often abbreviated CH 2Ph 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • lb, en, organic compound, chiefly, attributive) Any organic compound containing diphenylmethane, i.e. two benzene rings adjoining a single carbon (but typically excluding heteroaromatic ring moiety, moieties). (suomienglantisanakirja.fi)
  • The present invention provides compounds of formula (I), ##STR00001## or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates thereof, methods for their preparation, methods for their use, and pharmaceutical formulations comprising them. (patents.com)
  • 3. A compound of general formula (I) as claimed in claim 1 or the use as claimed in claim 2, wherein the mycobacterial condition is tuberculosis. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 9. A compound or the use as claimed in claim 8 wherein, in the compound of general formula (I), R 1 is hydrogen, methyl or benzyl. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 11. A compound or the use as claimed in claim 10, wherein in the compound of general formula (I), R 2 is adamantyl. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In specific embodiments, the compound of Formula (I) are ureido-sulfonamides. (sparrho.com)
  • and reacting the compound of the formula 3 with an anhydrous compound represented by the following formula 2 in the presence of a second base: wherein R1 is a hydrogen or an amino protecting group, R2 is a hydrogen or a carboxyl protecting group, and R3 is a hydrogen or an amino protecting group. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The salt of the compound of the formula 1 refers to a salt commonly known in the field of cephalosporin antibiotics, for example a hydrate or an acid addition salt. (allindianpatents.com)
  • As used herein, the term "stereospecific compound" refers to a mixed compound (e.g., compound of the formula 1 or 3) composed of a Z-isomer (or cis-isomer) and an E-isomer (or a trans-isomer) in a ratio of about 89-94% to about 6-11%, i.e., a compound composed of a Z-isomer and an E-isomer in a ratio of about 8.1-15.7:1.0. (allindianpatents.com)
  • A pharmaceutical composition for use as an antimicrobial agent which comprises the cephalosporin compound (I) or a salt thereof as an active ingredient together with an inert carrier therefor is also provided in the present invention. (google.com)
  • Korean Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2002-69437 discloses a 4-hydroxyphenylglycine anhydride with a pivaloyl group, which is a compound useful as an intermediate for the 7-position of cefprozil, and a preparation process thereof. (allindianpatents.com)
  • 3. The compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein o is 1 and p is 1. (patsnap.com)
  • 6. The compound of claim 5 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein each R 6 is hydrogen. (patsnap.com)
  • 7. The compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 1 and R 2 are the same. (patsnap.com)
  • 9. The compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R 1 and R 2 are each -N(R 3 )-C(O)-R 4 wherein each R 3 is hydrogen and each R 4 is aralkyl or heteroaralkyl, each of which is substituted with 0-3 occurrences of R 5 . (patsnap.com)
  • A pharmaceutical composition comprising a compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. (patsnap.com)
  • 19. A method of treating a cancer associated with aberrant or elevated function of glutaminase, the method comprising administering a compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof to a subject in need thereof. (patsnap.com)
  • 12. A pharmaceutical antimicrobial composition comprising an effective amount of a compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof in association with a pharmaceutically acceptable, substantially non-toxic carrier orexcipient. (patentgenius.com)
  • Novel tricyclic compounds having a TXA 2 -antagonizing activity represented by formul (I): ##STR1## which strongly antagonize an action of thromboxane A 2 and are expected to have preventive and therapeutic effects on ischemica diseases, cerebro-vascular diseases, etc. (google.com)
  • Two control compounds, 17β-estradiol (an estrogen receptor ligand) and GSK4716 (a synthetic estrogen-related receptor gamma ligand), were included. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Said cephalosporin compound is useful as an antimicrobial agent. (google.com)
  • This invention relates to a novel cephalosporin compound and processes for preparing the same. (google.com)
  • Therefore, the present invention provides a process for preparing a cephalosporin compound using a 3-(Z)-propenyl cephem derivative. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Part I.~Reduction of azoalkanes by benzhydryl radicals. (rice.edu)
  • Photolytic Generation of Benzhydryl Cations and Radicals from Quaternary Phosphonium Salts: How High. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present invention relates to novel tricyclic compounds which strongly antagonize an action of thromboxane A 2 (hereafter referred to as TXA 2 ). (google.com)
  • 11. The compound of claim 10, which is 7-[2-(2-amino-5-chlorothiazol-4-yl)-2-carboxymethoxyiminoacetamido]-2-meth yl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid (syn isomer). (patentgenius.com)
  • Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have immune-modulating effects. (nih.gov)
  • Screening of endocrine activity of compounds migrating from plastic baby bottles using a multi-receptor panel of in vitro bioassays. (sciensano.be)
  • This afforded a series of potent orally bioavailable inhibitors of which MK-8718 was identified as a compound with a favorable overall profile. (rcsb.org)
  • Even though the inhibitors of the first series only address two of the four specificity pockets, they show largely improved ligand efficiencies, with the best compound displaying a value of -0.27 kcal/mol. (uni-marburg.de)
  • It is clear from this review that the use of CAIX inhibitors for cancer and metastasis has not been demonstrated effectively, due to the limitations of the compounds available. (sparrho.com)
  • U.K. Patent No. 2,135,305 discloses a process for preparing cefprozil from a 4-hydroxyphenylglycine compound with a t-butoxycarbonyl-protected amino group and a cephem compound with a benzhydryl-protected carboxyl group. (allindianpatents.com)
  • In view of the above problems, Korean Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2002-80838 discloses a process for preparing a 3-(Z)-propenyl cephem compound by reacting a phosphoranylidene cephem compound with acetaldehyde in a mixed solvent essentially consisting of ether in the presence of a base. (allindianpatents.com)
  • 10. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutical carrier and, as an active ingredient, a therapeutically effective amount of a tricyclic compound defined in claim 1. (google.com)
  • All privileged structures are available as one large screening collection of 5660 compounds adjusted for overlap between individual groups. (timtec.net)
  • WO93/16084 discloses a process for selectively separating a 3-(Z)-propenyl cephem compound by means of a hydrochloride, metal, or tertiary amine salt of 7-amino-3-(1-propen-1-yl)-3-cephem-carboxylic acid or by adsorption chromatography. (allindianpatents.com)
  • It was one of a series of compounds related to the plant derivative ephedrine , which had been isolated from Ma-Huang that same year by Nagayoshi Nagai . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Unfortunately, these potent bicyclic compounds displayed no cellular activity. (uni-marburg.de)
  • This group typically excludes compounds in which either benzene is fused to another ring (bicyclic, tricyclic, polycyclic) or includes a heteroatom, or where the methane connects to three or four benzenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We do not sell or distribute the pharmaceutical compounds written about in this database. (springer.com)