Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
A family of gram negative, aerobic, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacteria.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Tricyclic antidepressant similar in action and side effects to IMIPRAMINE. It may produce excitation.
Inorganic compounds that contain fluorine as an integral part of the molecule.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
AMINO ACIDS composed of GLYCINE substituted at the nitrogen rather than the usual carbon position, resulting in the loss of HYDROGEN BONDING donors. Polymers of these compounds are called PEPTOIDS.
Polymers of N-SUBSTITUTED GLYCINES containing chiral centers at the a-position of their side chains. These oligomers lack HYDROGEN BONDING donors, preventing formation of the usual intrachain hydrogen bonds but can form helices driven by the steric influence of chiral side chains.
A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
A congenital coronary vessel anomaly in which the left main CORONARY ARTERY originates from the PULMONARY ARTERY instead of from AORTA. The congenital heart defect typically results in coronary artery FISTULA; LEFT-SIDED HEART FAILURE and MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY during the first months of life.
Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears.
Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.
Rare leukoencephalopathy with infantile-onset accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in the subpial, periventricular, and subependymal zones of the brain. Rosenthal fibers are GLIAL FIBRILLARY ACIDIC PROTEIN aggregates found in ASTROCYTES. Juvenile- and adult-onset types show progressive atrophy of the lower brainstem instead. De novo mutations in the GFAP gene are associated with the disease with propensity for paternal inheritance.
Counseling or comfort given by ministers, priests, rabbis, etc., to those in need of help with emotional problems or stressful situations.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

The vigilance promoting drug modafinil increases extracellular glutamate levels in the medial preoptic area and the posterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat: prevention by local GABAA receptor blockade. (1/1043)

The effects of modafinil on glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission in the rat medial preoptic area (MPA) and posterior hypothalamus (PH), are analysed. Modafinil (30-300 mg/kg) increased glutamate and decreased GABA levels in the MPA and PH. Local perfusion with the GABAA agonist muscimol (10 microM), reduced, while the GABAA antagonist bicuculline (1 microM and 10 microM) increased glutamate levels. The modafinil (100 mg/kg)-induced increase of glutamate levels was antagonized by local perfusion with bicuculline (1 microM). When glutamate levels were increased by the local perfusion with the glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-PDC (0.5 mM), modafinil produced an additional enhancement of glutamate levels. Modafinil (1-33 microM) failed to affect [3H]glutamate uptake in hypothalamic synaptosomes and slices. These findings show that modafinil increases glutamate and decreases GABA levels in MPA and PH. The evidence that bicuculline counteracts the modafinil-induced increase of glutamate levels strengthens the evidence for an inhibitory GABA/glutamate interaction in the above regions controlling the sleep-wakefulness cycle.  (+info)

Inhibition by a coantioxidant of aortic lipoprotein lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E and low density lipoprotein receptor gene double knockout mice. (2/1043)

Antioxidants can inhibit atherosclerosis in animals, though it is not clear whether this is due to the inhibition of aortic lipoprotein lipid (per)oxidation. Coantioxidants inhibit radical-induced, tocopherol-mediated peroxidation of lipids in lipoproteins through elimination of tocopheroxyl radical. Here we tested the effect of the bisphenolic probucol metabolite and coantioxidant H 212/43 on atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E and low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene double knockout (apoE-/-;LDLr-/-) mice, and how this related to aortic lipid (per)oxidation measured by specific HPLC analyses. Dietary supplementation with H 212/43 resulted in circulating drug levels of approximately 200 microM, increased plasma total cholesterol slightly and decreased plasma and aortic alpha-tocopherol significantly relative to age-matched control mice. Treatment with H 212/43 increased the antioxidant capacity of plasma, as indicated by prolonged inhibition of peroxyl radical-induced, ex vivo lipid peroxidation. Aortic tissue from control apoE-/-;LDLr-/- mice contained lipid hydro(pero)xides and substantial atherosclerotic lesions, both of which were decreased strongly by supplementation of the animals with H 212/43. The results show that a coantioxidant effectively inhibits in vivo lipid peroxidation and atherosclerosis in apoE-/-;LDLr-/- mice, consistent with though not proving a causal relationship between aortic lipoprotein lipid oxidation and atherosclerosis in this model of the disease.  (+info)

Comparative formation, distribution, and elimination kinetics of diphenylmethoxyacetic acid (a diphenhydramine metabolite) in maternal and fetal sheep. (3/1043)

Deamination to diphenylmethoxyacetic acid (DPMA) is the major route of diphenhydramine (DPHM) clearance in many species. In this study, we assessed the contribution of this pathway to nonplacental DPHM elimination and disposition of DPMA in maternal and fetal sheep. Paired maternal-fetal experiments were conducted in five chronically catheterized pregnant sheep (124-140 days gestation) with an appropriate washout period in between. Both maternal and fetal dosing experiments involved administration of an i.v bolus of deuterium-labeled DPMA ([2H10]-DPMA) combined with a 6-h infusion of DPHM (or a bolus of unlabeled DPMA with an infusion of deuterium-labeled DPHM). Maternal and fetal arterial plasma and urine samples were collected and analyzed for DPMA, [2H10]-DPMA, DPHM, and deuterium-labeled DPHM concentrations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preformed DPMA (or [2H10]-DPMA) had a substantially lower clearance (maternal: 0.55 +/- 0.18 versus 40.9 +/- 14.0 ml/min/kg; fetal: 0.37 +/- 0.11 versus 285. 6 +/- 122.2 ml/min/kg) and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss, maternal: 0.10 +/- 0.02 versus 2.1 +/- 1.1 l/kg; fetal: 0.40 +/- 0. 06 versus 13.1 +/- 3.1 l/kg) as compared with the parent drug. The contribution of DPMA formation to maternal and fetal DPHM nonplacental clearance in vivo was 1.78 +/- 2.12% and 0.87 +/- 0.56%, respectively, indicating that DPMA formation is not a major route of DPHM clearance in fetal or maternal sheep. The recoveries of DPMA (or [2H10]-DPMA) in maternal urine were 88.0 +/- 6.5 and 92.1 +/- 7. 4% of the administered dose during maternal and fetal dosing experiments, respectively. Thus, this metabolite does not appear to be secondarily metabolized in fetal or maternal sheep. These findings are in contrast to other species (dog, rhesus monkey, human) where DPMA and its conjugates constitute approximately 40 to 60% of the total DPHM metabolites.  (+info)

Tolterodine does not affect the human in vivo metabolism of the probe drugs caffeine, debrisoquine and omeprazole. (4/1043)

AIM: To investigate the in vivo effect of treatment with tolterodine on debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation (an index of CYP2D6 activity), omeprazole 5-hydroxylation (CYP2C19), omeprazole sulphoxidation (CYP3A4) and caffeine N3-demethylation (CYP1A2). METHODS: Twelve healthy male volunteers (eight extensive metabolisers [EMs] and four poor metabolisers [PMs] with respect to CYP2D6) received 4 mg tolterodine L-tartrate orally twice daily for 6 days. All subjects were EMs with respect to CYP2C19. The subjects received single oral doses of debrisoquine (10 mg), omeprazole (20 mg) and caffeine (100 mg) for determination of the appropriate metabolic ratios (MR). The drugs were given on separate consecutive days, before, during and after the co-administration of tolterodine. RESULTS: Mean serum tolterodine concentrations were 5-10 times higher in PMs than in EMs. Serum concentrations of the active 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite of tolterodine, 5-HM, were not quantifiable in PMs. The mean MR of debrisoquine (95% confidence interval) during tolterodine treatment was 0.50 (0.25-0.99) and did not differ statistically from the values before [0.49 (0.20-1.2)] and after tolterodine administration [0.46 (0.14-1.6)] in EMs. The mean MR of omeprazole hydroxylation and sulphoxidation or caffeine metabolism were not changed in the presence of tolterodine in either EMs or PMs. Debrisoquine and caffeine had no significant effect on the AUC(1,3 h) of either tolterodine or 5-HM, but during omeprazole administration small decreases (13-19%) in these parameters were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Tolterodine, administered at twice the expected therapeutic dosage, did not change the disposition of the probe drugs debrisoquine, omeprazole and caffeine and thus had no detectable effect on the activities of CYPs 2D6, 2C19, 3A4 and 1A2. Alteration of the metabolism of substrates of these enzymes by tolterodine is unlikely to occur.  (+info)

Effect of neonatal exposure to estrogenic compounds on development of the excurrent ducts of the rat testis through puberty to adulthood. (5/1043)

Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) can alter the structure of the testicular excurrent ducts in rats. We characterized these changes according to dose and time posttreatment and established whether potent estrogens (ethinyl estradiol), environmental estrogens (genistein, octylphenol, bisphenol A, parabens), and tamoxifen induce such changes. Rats were administered these compounds neonatally and assessed at several time points during (day 10, or day 18 for some treatments) and after (days 18, 25, 35, and 75) the treatment period to detect any changes in testis weight, distension of the rete testis and efferent ducts, epithelial cell height in the efferent ducts, and immunoexpression of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1). Treatment with DES (10, 1, or 0.1 microg/injection; equivalent to 0.37, 0.037, or 0.0037 mg/kg/day, respectively) induced dose-dependent changes in testis weight and all parameters. These effects were most pronounced at days 18 and 25 and appeared to lessen with time, although some persisted into adulthood. Neonatal treatment with ethinyl estradiol (10 microg/injection; equivalent to 0.37 mg/kg/day) caused changes broadly similar to those induced by 10 mg DES. Administration of tamoxifen (2 mg/kg/day) caused changes at 18 days that were similar to those induced by 1 microg DES. Treatment with genistein (4 mg/kg/day), octylphenol (2 mg/injection; equivalent to 150 mg/kg/day), or bisphenol A (0.5 mg/injection; equivalent to 37 mg/kg/day) caused minor but significant (p<0.05) decreases in epithelial cell height of the efferent ducts at days 18 and/or 25. In animals that were followed through to 35 days and/or adulthood, these changes were no longer obvious; other parameters were either unaffected or were affected only marginally and transiently. Administration of parabens (2 mg/kg/day) had no detectable effect on any parameter at day 18. To establish whether these effects of estrogens were direct or indirect (i.e., resulting from reduced follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone secretion), the above end points were assessed in animals in which gonadotropin secretion was suppressed neonatally by administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. This treatment permanently reduced testis weight, but did not affect any of the other end points, apart from a minor transient reduction in efferent duct epithelial cell height at 18 days. This study suggests that structural and functional (expression of AQP-1) development of the excurrent ducts is susceptible to impairment by neonatal estrogen exposure, probably as a consequence of direct effects. The magnitude and duration of adverse changes induced by treatment with a range of estrogenic compounds was broadly comparable to their estrogenic potencies reported from in vitro assays.  (+info)

Glucuronidation of the environmental oestrogen bisphenol A by an isoform of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT2B1, in the rat liver. (6/1043)

Bisphenol A, an environmental oestrogenic chemical, was found to conjugate highly with glucuronic acid in male rat liver microsomes studied in vitro. In the various isoforms tested (1A1, 1A3, 1A5, 1A6, 1A7 and 2B1), glucuronidation of bisphenol A and of diethylstilboestrol, a synthetic crystalline compound possessing oestrogenic activity and known to be glucuronidated by liver microsomes, was catalysed by an isoform of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), namely UGT2B1, which glucuronidates some endogenous androgens. UGT activity towards bisphenol A in liver microsomes and in UGT2B1 expressed in yeast AH22 cells (22.9 and 0.58 nmol/min per mg of microsomal proteins respectively) was higher than that towards diethylstilboestrol (75.0 and 4.66 pmol/min per mg of microsomal proteins respectively). UGT activities towards both bisphenol A and diethylstilboestrol were distributed mainly in the liver but were also observed at substantial levels in the kidney and testis. Northern blot analysis disclosed the presence of UGT2B1 solely in the liver, and about 65% of the male rat liver microsomal UGT activities towards bisphenol A were absorbed by the anti-UGT2B1 antibody. These results indicate that bisphenol A, in male rat liver, is glucuronidated by UGT2B1, an isoform of UGT.  (+info)

UK-78,282, a novel piperidine compound that potently blocks the Kv1.3 voltage-gated potassium channel and inhibits human T cell activation. (7/1043)

1. UK-78,282, a novel piperidine blocker of the T lymphocyte voltage-gated K+ channel, Kv1.3, was discovered by screening a large compound file using a high-throughput 86Rb efflux assay. This compound blocks Kv1.3 with a IC50 of approximately 200 nM and 1:1 stoichiometry. A closely related compound, CP-190,325, containing a benzyl moiety in place of the benzhydryl in UK-78,282, is significantly less potent. 2 Three lines of evidence indicate that UK-78,282 inhibits Kv1.3 in a use-dependent manner by preferentially blocking and binding to the C-type inactivated state of the channel. Increasing the fraction of inactivated channels by holding the membrane potential at - 50 mV enhances the channel's sensitivity to UK-78,282. Decreasing the number of inactivated channels by exposure to approximately 160 mM external K+ decreases the sensitivity to UK-78,282. Mutations that alter the rate of C-type inactivation also change the channel's sensitivity to UK-78,282 and there is a direct correlation between tau(h) and IC50 values. 3. Competition experiments suggest that UK-78,282 binds to residues at the inner surface of the channel overlapping the site of action of verapamil. Internal tetraethylammonium and external charybdotoxin do not compete UK-78,282's action on the channel. 4. UK-78,282 displays marked selectivity for Kv1.3 over several other closely related K+ channels, the only exception being the rapidly inactivating voltage-gated K+ channel, Kv1.4. 5. UK-78,282 effectively suppresses human T-lymphocyte activation.  (+info)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging neuroactivation studies in normal subjects and subjects with the narcoleptic syndrome. Actions of modafinil. (8/1043)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to detect regional brain responses to changes in sensory stimuli. We have used fMRI to determine the amount of visual and auditory cortical activation in 12 normal subjects and 12 subjects with the narcoleptic syndrome, using a multiplexed visual and auditory stimulation paradigm. In both normal and narcoleptic subjects, mean cortical activation levels during the presentation of periodic visual and auditory stimulation showed no appreciable differences with either age or sex. Normal subjects showed higher levels of visual activation at 10:00 hours than 15:00 hours, with a reverse pattern in narcoleptic subjects (P = 0.007). The group differences in spatial extent of cortical activation between control and narcoleptic subjects were small and statistically insignificant. The alerting action, and imaging response, to a single oral dose of the sleep-preventing drug modafinil 400 mg were then determined and compared with placebo in both the 12 normal (8 given modafinil, 4 placebo) and 12 narcoleptic subjects (8 modafinil, 4 placebo). Modafinil caused an increase in self-reported levels of alertness in 7 of 8 narcoleptic subjects, but there was no significant difference between mean pretreatment and post-treatment activation levels as determined by fMRI for either normal or narcoleptic syndrome subjects given modafinil. However, in the modafinil-treated group of 8 normal and 8 narcoleptic subjects, there was a clock time independent correlation between the initial level of activation as determined by the pretreatment scan and the post-treatment change in activation (visual, P = 0.002; and auditory, P = 0.001). No correlation was observed in placebo-treated subjects (P = 0.99 and 0.77, respectively). Although limited by the small number of subjects, and the lack of an objective measure of alertness, the findings of this study suggest that low cortical activation levels in both normal and narcoleptic subjects are increased following the administration of modafinil. Functional magnetic resonance imaging may be a valuable addition to established studies of attention.  (+info)

In the current study, all infants had detectable urinary concentrations of total BPA, ranging from 2.0 to 196 µg/L. The median urinary BPA concentration in this group of premature infants was considerably higher (17.2 μg/L) than in healthy term infants aged 1 to 5 months (,0.45 μg/L) without known BPA exposure.21 Although immaturity of phase II metabolism may account for some of the association of urinary BPA concentrations with prematurity, premature infants have the ability to conjugate BPA.16 Interestingly, medical devices, but not nutritional intake, were positively associated with urinary BPA concentrations. On average, premature infants requiring ≥4 medical devices had urinary total BPA concentrations 1.6 times higher than those requiring fewer devices independent of their gestational age, gender, or nutritional intake. Respiratory devices were associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations than other devices. These findings suggest that medical devices were an important source of ...
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Gestational urinary BPA concentrations were associated with some neurobehavioral measures at 3 years of age in this cohort. In particular, gestational BPA exposure was associated with higher scores for measures of anxiety, hyperactivity, emotional control, and behavioral inhibition. Similar to our previous findings, the effects of gestational BPA exposure on these behavioral domains were larger among girls than boys.2 The different responses to gestational BPA exposure were especially pronounced for hyperactivity; girls exhibited increases in hyperactivity, and boys exhibited decreases in hyperactivity. In contrast, childhood urinary BPA concentrations were less important predictors of behavior or executive functions in this study.. The findings presented are consistent with numerous studies demonstrating altered neurobehavior among BPA-exposed animals.14,38 Gestational BPA exposures might affect endocrine or other neurotransmitter pathways and disrupt sexual differentiation of the brain, to ...
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NIEHS Grant P30ES000002. A study, supported in part by the NIEHS, identified medical devices as a potential source of exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) among premature infants in neonatal intensive care units. BPA is used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics, which are used in medical devices such as intravenous administration sets, syringes, and catheters. The researchers looked at the urinary BPA concentration for 55 infants and categorized each infants medical device use as low or high based on the number and invasiveness of devices. They found that the median urinary total BPA concentration of infants who had required four or more medical devices for three previous days was significantly higher, 36.6 micrograms per liter (µg/l), than for the infants requiring three or less devices, who had a BPA concentration of 13.9 µg/l. The researchers also collected and analyzed breast milk or formula samples, and found that the increased BPA concentration was not associated with the infants nutritional ...
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It is in your food containers, water bottles, and 90 percent of us have it in our bloodstream. It may also be a prime candidate for causing wheezing in children if pregnant mothers come into contact with it. Experimental research in bisphenol A, (BPA) suggests that prenatal BPA exposure causes asthma in mice. No firm data yet exists for humans but results are not looking good.. Adam Spanier, M.D., Ph.D., assistant professor of pediatrics at Penn State College of Medicine, studied 367 children, 99 percent of whom were born to mothers who had detectable BPA levels during pregnancy. Twice a year for three years, the parents reported back with any signs of wheezing in the children. At six months of age, twice as many children were reported with wheezing from mothers who had higher BPA than those who had mothers with lower BPA levels. These effects may have diminished as the children aged however.. Researchers then looked at the levels of BPA in the women during certain times of their pregnancies and ...
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The main objective of this research project is to understand how in utero Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects fetal gonadal development and reproduction in adulthood in mice. In utero exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors such as diethylsfilbestrol (DES) is known to cause sex organ malformation, reproductive carcinogenesis, and fertility defects in both male and female in humans and rodents. Based on DES studies, it is proposed that in utero exposure to other endocrine disruptors, particularly those that work through estrogen receptors, may lead to reproductive diseases in adulthood. BPA, a chemical used in synthesis of plastics, exhibits estrogenic activities and deleterious effects on reproduction when given to adult rodents. BPA is detected in serum of pregnant women, umbilical cord blood, and fetal plasma, indicating that developing fetuses are exposed to BPA. Although effects of BPA on adult reproductive organs have been studied extensively, impacts of in utero BPA exposure ...
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New Study from CCCEH Finds Exposure to Bisphenol-A in the Womb is Linked to Behavioral Problems in Young Children. NEW YORK (April 28, 2012) Over the past few years two new phrases have been introduced to our everyday language-bisphenol-A (BPA) and endocrine disrupting chemicals. According to a new study by researchers at Columbia Center for Childrens Environmental Health at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, exposure to BPA in the womb may be linked to behavioral problems in young children.. The study was published in an advance online edition of Environmental Health Perspectives entitled Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Child Behavior.. BPA is found in many products we use every day, ranging from polycarbonate plastics like those used in food and beverage storage containers, the lining of canned food and beverages, thermal paper cashier receipts, to dental sealants. As a result of the high volume production and use, the majority of Americans are exposed to BPA. ...
NIEHS Grants: R01ES016541, P01ES022844, P30ES017885, R01ES017005, R01ES017005, R01ES016001, R01ES017524. NIEHS grantees report that exposure to the endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy can cause oxidative damage that may increase a childs risk of developing diabetes or heart disease later in life. The researchers tested multiple species of animals to replicate and strengthen human studies that showed BPA exposure during pregnancy can bring about a specific type of oxidative stress.. Oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance and inflammation, which are risk factors for diabetes and other metabolic disorders as well as cardiovascular disease. For the human study, the researchers analyzed blood samples from 24 mother and infant pairs. The women were divided into two groups based on their levels of BPA determined from blood draws taken during their first trimester of pregnancy. Mothers and their infants with higher levels of BPA showed increased levels of ...
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Possible link between high prenatal BPA levels and neonatal neurobehavioral abnormalities; study advises pregnant women to reduce exposure levels. A new case study examining an infants neurobehavioral abnormalities and extremely high bisphenol A (BPA) concentration of the babys mother suggests a link between the two. The study, Environmental Health Perspectives: A Case Study of High Prenatal Bisphenol A Exposure and Infant Neonatal Neurobehavior, was led by researcher Sheela Sathyanarayana, MD of Seattle Childrens Research Institute, and recently published online in Environmental Health Perspectives.. BPA, a synthetic, man-made chemical, is used in a wide variety of products including: can linings; hard polycarbonate plastics such as baby bottles and reusable cups; and dental sealants. Food may be the single largest source of BPA exposure due to contamination of foods during preparation and processing. BPA has estrogenic (hormone-like) properties. In animal studies, exposure to BPA early in ...
Welcome to Californias Beverage Container Recycling Program. Whether youre a consumer who wants to redeem your empty bottles and cans for cash, a recycling center operator who needs the latest industry updates, or anyone else with an interest in beverage container recycling, youll find the information you need on these pages. CalRecycle, officially known as the Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery, administers the California Beverage Container Recycling and Litter Reduction Act. Beverage containers covered under the act are subject to California Redemption Value (CRV), which is 5 cents for containers less than 24 ounces, 10 cents for containers 24 ounces or larger. Thanks to the CRV cash incentive, more than 300 billion aluminum, glass, and plastic beverage containers have been recycled since the program began in 1987.. Many communities in California now offer curbside collection in addition to beverage container recycling centers. To find your closest recycling center, check out ...
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Arnold J. Schecter and colleagues note that BPA is used in lining metal cans and in polycarbonate plastics such as baby bottles, although some manufacturers are switching to BPA-free products. In humans, BPA is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male sexual dysfunction in exposed workers, they state. Food is a major exposure source. We know of no studies reporting BPA in U.S. fresh food, canned food, and food in plastic packaging in peer reviewed journals. To fill that gap in scientific knowledge, the scientists measured BPA levels in 105 human, cat, and dog foods. They detected BPA in 63 of 105 human food samples from grocery stores in Dallas, and present a detailed list of foods, brands, and BPA levels in the text of the study. The levels were lower than the 50 micrograms per kilogram of body weight standard used by EPA and EFSA and comparable to levels detected in the past. Schecter noted that some studies have shown adverse effects associated with exposure to BPA at ...
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Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30-49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for
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background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs.5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0
Introduction: Octylphenol (OP) is a degradation product of alkylphenol ethoxylates that are widely used to in rubber, pesticides and paints. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound with two functional phenol groups and used to make polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, along with other applications. OP and BPA are known as endocrine disruptors that can induce inappropriate estrogenic action, and may disturb natural calcium metabolism. In the present study, the effects of OP and BPA on the calcium levels of serum and urine, and calcium transport genes were investigated in the duodenum, kidney and placenta of the pregnant mice.. Methods: From 6.5 to 16.5 days after post coitus (dpc), pregnant mice were orally given with ethylestradiol (EE, 0.2 mg/kg/day), OP (15, 45, or 135 mg/kg/day) or BPA (5 or 50 mg/kg/day) dissolved in corn oil. The duodenum, kidney, placenta, blood and urine were obtained from mice at day 18.5 of pregnancy.. Results: As a result, serum and urinary calcium levels were ...
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In recent years, numerous substances have been identified as so-called endocrine disruptors because exposure to them results in disruption of normal endocrine function with possible adverse health outcomes.. The pathologic and behavioral abnormalities attributed to exposure to endocrine disruptors like bisphenol-A (BPA) have been studied in animals. Mental conditions ranging from cognitive impairment to autism have been linked to BPA exposure by more than one investigation. Concurrent with these developments in BPA research, schizophrenia research has continued to find evidence of possible endocrine or neuroendocrine involvement in the disease.. Sufficient information now exists for a comparison of the neurotoxicological and behavioral pathology associated with exposure to BPA and other endocrine disruptors to the abnormalities observed in schizophrenia.. This review summarizes these findings and proposes a theory of endocrine disruption, like that observed from BPA exposure, as a pathway of ...
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Gene Expression Profiling Analysis of Bisphenol A-Induced Perturbation in Biological Processes in ER-Negative HEK293 Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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A recent study in a preclinical model of inflammatory bowel disease shows dietary exposure to bisphenol-A, or BPA, found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, can increase mortality and worsen its symptoms.
Benzhydryl compounds are compounds that are diphenylmethane-containing, i.e. containing two benzene rings adjoining a single methyl radical. This does not include compounds where these benzenes are fused to other rings.[1] Benzhydryl can be abbreviated to CHPh2 or Bzh.[2] ...
A newer medication called Provigil (Modafinil), which is used to promote wakefulness (eugeroic), has also been found to help manage symptoms of ADHD. Many
Last year, Breast Cancer UK awarded a research grant to Dr Michael Antoniou, along with his research associate Dr Robin Mesnage, at Kings College London, to evaluate the endocrine disrupting properties of herbicides and compounds used to make plastics. In this science blog, Dr Mesnage explains the background to their most recent findings which have just been published as a preprint. More than 80 years ago, bisphenol A (BPA) was discovered to have oestrogen hormone mimicking effects. Discarded by the pharmaceutical industry, it was nonetheless used as a plasticizer and added to polycarbonate plastic or epoxy resins for decades, before some researchers rediscovered its ability to disturb the hormonal system. Thousands of studies are now reporting adverse health effects of BPA in humans, including reproductive and neurobehavioural disorders. Due to mounting evidence of harm and public pressure, BPA is being phased out by plastics manufacturers and BPA-free products are now found in ...
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The impact of exposures during two developmental windows - the prenatal and the adolescent periods - will be assessed. At the heart of the research will be two human cohort studies - a pilot birth cohort in Urbana-Champaign, IL (Project 1;S.Schantz, PI) and a pilot adolescent cohort to be studied in the context of an ongoing study in New Bedford, MA (project 2; S. Korrick, PI). These studies will assess the relation of BPA or phthalate exposure to sexually dimorphic aspects of physical development and cognition in newborn infants and cognition in adolescent. This Center includes animal studies that will model the timing of exposure in the human cohorts. These studies will investigate mechanisms through which BPA disrupts male and female gonad development using transgenic (with genes from other organisms) and knockout (with specific genes deactivated) mouse models (Project 3; H. Yao, PI), and the impact of in utero or peripubertal BPA exposure on development of sexually dimorphic cortical brain ...
A beverage container provided with unique pressure relief valve means designed to permit the escape of gaseous pressure that may build up within the container as through the inclusion of dry ice therein. The container also includes an interior container which is raised from the bottom of the primary container and includes interior finger-pull abutments. The inner container is designed for slipping downwardly into the interior of the outer container only a predetermined distance, this before a wedging effect occurs; thus, the bottom of the inner container is spaced above the bottom of the outer container so as to lessen chances of fracturing or cracking of the bottom of the outer container when dry ice is disposed in the inner container.
Well, not quite. But in recent years researchers have been exploring the potential of using biochar to remediate soil contaminated with organic chemicals. Similar to but definitely not the charcoal commonly used during barbecue season, biochar is made by heating biomass such as fruit peels in oxygen-limited conditions. Its physical and chemical characteristics impart an exceptional ability to sorb chemicals, especially organic chemicals, and reduce their bioavailability in soil.. A new study by Xu and co-workers at Peking University and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences focuses on two widespread organic chemicals: bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethylyneestradiol (EE2). BPA is used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Thus, it is found in a multitude of commonly used products such as cars, food storage containers, and electronic equipment. EE2 is a synthetic estrogen most commonly used as an ingredient in birth control pills.. Both of these chemicals have been found ...
Discarded plastic bottles are overflowing our ecosystems, Manufacturing with BPA is leading to disruptions in our health, Consumers ecological footprints are astonishing-weve all heard these statements. Its these scenarios that led an innovative company to produce a safe and eco-friendly beverage container. GoodLife Contemporary Drinkware offers a line of stainless …. Read More » ...
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Tomra Systems, a provider of reverse vending machines (RVMs) and sensor-based sorting equipment, has launched the next generation of RVMs with Flow Technology, Tomras patented sensor technology for retail store RVMs.. Flow Technology provides 360-degree recognition of containers, allowing RVMs to recognize bottles and cans of varying shapes and sizes, and accept up to 60 recyclable beverage containers per minute.. The company says RVMs with Flow Technology provide retailers with the fastest, cleanest and most versatile solution for medium- and high-volume stores where consumers bring containers to be recycled in exchange for cash. Tomra Flow Technology takes up to 1,000 pictures per second, making it possible for the RVMs to read container shape, material, barcodes and security marks without rotating the containers, allowing the user to insert recyclables in a rapid continuous flow.. Tomra is now offering three RVMs with this technology: the T-9 Bottle, the T-9 Combi and the T-90. The T-9 ...
Today As You Sow and the Container Recycling Institute released a report card on the performance of major U.S. beverage companies on recycling and recycled content in their containers. They found that except for Coke and Pepsi, the industry gets poor or failing grades.. Sales of beverages, especially bottled water, are increasing, while recycling rates plummet. Waste and Opportunity: U.S. Beverage Container Recycling Scorecard and Report, the result of a year of original research, evaluates use of recycled content in bottles by beverage companies and demonstrated commitment to container recovery efforts.. ...
Redemption Centers School Resources Rules, Regulations & Additional Links Contact Us. Since January 2005, Hawaiis Deposit Beverage Container (DBC) program has assisted residents to recycle over 7 billion containers. Through recycling, consumers are helping to remove these containers from the waste stream and also reducing litter in the community.. The DBC program certifies independent recycling companies to operate Certified Redemption Centers (CRCs) statewide. These CRCs provide Hawaii consumers with refunds of the 5¢ deposit fee that is paid for eligible containers.. Recycling Bin Stickers ...
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In the 1967 film classic The Graduate, a businessman corners Benjamin Braddock at a cocktail party and gives him a bit of career advice. Just one word…plastics.. Although Benjamin didnt heed that recommendation, plenty of other young graduates did. Today, the planet is awash in products spawned by the plastics industry. Residues of plastics have become ubiquitous in the environment-and in our bodies.. A federal government study now reports that bisphenol A (BPA)-the building block of one of the most widely used plastics-laces the bodies of the vast majority of U.S. residents young and old.. Manufacturers link BPA molecules into long chains, called polymers, to make polycarbonate plastics. All of those clear, brittle plastics used in baby bottles, food ware, and small kitchen appliances (like food-processor bowls) are made from polycarbonates. BPA-based resins also line the interiors of most food, beer, and soft-drink cans. With use and heating, polycarbonates can break down, leaching BPA ...
The benzhydryl compounds are a group of organic compounds whose parent structures include diphenylmethane (which is two benzene ... U.S. Patent 4,022,786 Benzhydryl+Compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... tyrima Olanzapine Benzhydryl Compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Abbreviations ... Bromodiphenylmethane from PubChem, a.k.a. called benzhydryl bromide 1-Benzyl-2-bromobenzene from PubChem, not called benzhydryl ...
... is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CHOH. Also known as benzhydrol, it is a white solid and the ... It is used in the synthesis of Modafinil and the benzhydryl group is present in the structure of many histamine H1 antagonists ... Benzhydrol is also used in the production of agrochemicals as well as other organic compounds and as a terminating group in ...
Tert-butyl compounds. *Benzhydryl compounds. *Nervous system drug stubs. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ...
Benzhydryl compounds. Hidden categories: *All articles with dead external links. *Articles with dead external links from June ...
One was the photolysis of the Mariano Compound, 3,3-methyl-1,1,5,5-tetraphenyl-1,4-pentadiene. Another was the reaction of the ... Process a is preferred since it leaves benzhydryl odd-electron stabilization intact. Equation 2. The mechanism of the Pratt ...
For example, in a typical acyl substitution reaction, the starting carbonyl compound is coordinated to the catalyst through one ... the formation of the Strecker product from benzhydryl amines and aqueous HCN. Hydrolysis of the nitrile and deprotections ... Furthermore, analogous reactions involving oxyanion intermediates such as enolate addition to nitroso compounds or opening of ... In addition, aza-Friedel-Crafts reactions of furans, amidoalkylations of diazocarbonyl compounds, asymmetric ...
Reduction of the ketone with zinc/NaOH followed by treatment with HCl in ether affords the benzhydryl chloride. Displacement of ...
2S,3S)-2-Benzhydryl-N-[(5-isopropyl-2-methoxy-phenyl)methyl]quinuclidin-3-amine ... Isopropyl compounds. *Gastrointestinal system drug stubs. Hidden categories: *Drugs with non-standard legal status ...
Benzhydryl compounds are compounds that are "diphenylmethane"-containing, i.e. containing two benzene rings adjoining a single ... This does not include compounds where these benzenes are fused to other rings.[1] Benzhydryl can be abbreviated to CHPh2 or Bzh ... Benzhydryl+Compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Benzhydryl+Compounds at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Benzhydryl Compounds / therapeutic use* * Central Nervous System Stimulants / therapeutic use* * Clinical Trials as Topic ...
Benzhydryl Compounds * Calibration * Cats * Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid * Dogs * Food Contamination / analysis* ...
0 (Benzhydryl Compounds); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); MLT3645I99 (bisphenol A). ... They contain not only nutrients but also xenobiotics, such as Bisphenol A (BPA). These compounds are not regulated in the use ... 0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Organometallic Compounds); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); HS813P8QPX (bismuth tripotassium dicitrate). ... bismuth sequestered by metal-binding compounds. After 28 days of exposure bismuth concentrations in earthworms tissue increased ...
0 (Aromatase Inhibitors); 0 (Benzhydryl Compounds); 0 (Endocrine Disruptors); 0 (Ligands); 0 (Nitriles); 0 (Phenols); 0 ( ... Due to this role, it is likely to be a target of the so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals, a series of compounds able to ... If on one side the toxicity of some compounds such as bisphenol A is well known, on the other side the toxic concentrations of ... Here the so-called alkali assay previously developed in our laboratory is applied to test the effect of different compounds on ...
Eugeroics / Benzhydryl compounds. Adrafinil • Armodafinil • Modafinil. Histamine H3 receptor antagonists. A-349,821 • ABT-239 ... List of 504 Compounds Similar to Amphetamine (PubChem) - Similar Compounds for PubChem Compound (Select 3007) - PubChem ... Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu in Berlin, Germany.[5] He named the compound ... The related compound methamphetamine was first synthesized from ephedrine in Japan in 1918 by chemist Akira Ogata, via ...
Eugeroics / Benzhydryl compounds. Adrafinil • Armodafinil • Modafinil. Histamine H3 receptor antagonists. A-349,821 • ABT-239 ...
Benzhydryl Compounds (toxicity) *Cathepsin D (metabolism) *Cell Line, Tumor (drug effects) *Cell Movement (drug effects) ...
Benzhydryl Compounds/metabolism. *Environmental Pollution. *Estradiol/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology. *Female. *In Situ ... This suggests that the two compounds have opposite effects: on the one hand, BPA promotes multiplication and aggregation of ... This suggests that the two compounds have opposite effects: on the one hand, BPA promotes multiplication and aggregation of ...
Benzhydryl Compounds/metabolism. *Environmental Pollution. *Estradiol/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology. *Female. *In Situ ...
Benzhydryl Compounds [D02.455.426.559.389.115]. *Methylenebis(chloroaniline) [D02.455.426.559.389.115.500]. Below are MeSH ...
Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Glucose, Global Health, Glucosides, Benzhydryl Compounds, Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, ...
N-Benzhydryl-4-methylquinolin-2-amine , C23H20N2 , CID 273581 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
Novel tricyclic compounds having a TXA2 -antagonizing activity represented by formul (I): ##STR1## which strongly antagonize an ... which are known carbocyclics; the aralkyl, by benzyl, phenethyl and benzhydryl having 7 to 15 carbon atoms, etc.; and the ... to Compound (IXb) and Compound (IXc) and from Compound (IXb) to Compound (IXc), described in Method 1-2. ... Compound (XV) can be converted into Compound (IXg-1) [in Compound (IXg), n is 1 and Hal is chlorine] according to the following ...
Said cephalosporin compound is useful as an antimicrobial agent. ... A cephalosporin compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein R 1 ... butyl or benzhydryl, said group or groups may be removed by treating the compound (IV) with an acid. Suitable examples of such ... the starting compound (II) may be prepared by hydrolyzing the compound (VI) to give a compound of the formula: ##STR22## ... Cephalosporin compounds and the production thereof US4952578A (en) 1990-08-28. Cephem compound and a process for preparation ...
3-Benzhydryl-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid , C22H17NO2 , CID 40928 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties ...
Modafinil originated with the late 1970s invention of a series of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds, including adrafinil, which was ... U.S. Patent 4,927,855 was issued to Laboratoire L. Lafon on May 22, 1990, covering the chemical compound modafinil. After ... Modafinil is a highly researched compound, with many derivatives created and studied, some examples and their differences ... It is also a schedule IV compound. Robertson P, Hellriegel ET (2003). "Clinical pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil". Clinical ...
Benzhydryl β-diethylaminopropionate and related compounds. 1950, Vol. 15, pp. 671-676 [Abstract] ... Neurotropic and psychotropic compounds. LV. New syntheses of 8-chloro-10-(4-methylpiperazino)-10,11-dihydrodibenzo[b,f]thiepin ... Neurotropic and psychotropic compounds. LI. 8-Acetamido- and 8-methylseleno derivatives of 10-(4-methylpiperazino)dibenzo[b,f] ... Basic benzhydryl ketones. II.. 1951, Vol. 16, pp. 151-157 [Abstract] *M. Protiva and M. Borovička. Antihistamine substances. ...
Benzhydryl β-diethylaminopropionate and related compounds. 1950, Vol. 15, pp. 671-676 [Abstract] ... I. N-Substituted derivatives of 5-amino-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-benzocycloheptene and some other compounds. 1971, Vol. 36, Issue ... 1-(4-Alkanesulfonylphenacyl)-4-arylpiperazines and related compounds: A new series of central depressants. 1975, Vol. 40, Issue ...
Bodsworth, N., Bloch, M., McNulty, A., Denham, I., Doong, N., Trottier, S., Adena, M., Bonney, M. A., Agnew, J., Abdurahman, I., Ajam, A., Alexander, R., Aung, A., Barry, S., Becker, B., Belbin, M., Bishop, C., Bisshop, F., Bourne, C., Brett, T. & 158 others, Brown, K., Butler, A., Carmody, C., Chan, D., Chuah, J., Conway, D., Daly, C., Davies, S., Davis, C., Davis, B., Dever, N., Donovan, B., Eisen, D., Eliades, C., Elisha, B., Fairley, C., Feiglin, A., Freeman, A., Furner, V., Garland, S., Genn, W., Giannakopoulos, J., Glass, F., Gold, J., Goswami, J., Gowers, A., Grech, J., Hackney, P., Hanson, B., Hartnell, K., Harvey, C., Hasan, M., Hawkins, S., Heley, S., Herbst, D., Hespe, C., Irlicht, M., Isaacs, A., Katahanas, L., Kelly, M., Komarowski, P., Kostic, G., Kozminsky, M., Lagios, K., Lee, D., Lewis, P., Liang, T., Lyttle, H., Mackellar-Michelmore, H., Macleod, H., Marsh, L., Marshall, L., McCloskey, J., McCurdy, D., McEvoy, P., McFarlane, R., McKeegan, P., McMurchie, M., McNamee, K., ...
... originated with the late 1970s invention of a series of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds, also including adrafinil, by ...
Benzhydryl Compounds, Registries, Stroke, Heart Failure, Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins, Hospitalization ...
Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Phenols; ...
A series of benzhydryl piperazines was found to inhibit synaptic vesicular Mg++-ATPase. These compounds were also found to ... An investigation into the roles of synaptic vesicular Mg++-ATPase in neurotransmitter release, using benzhydryl piperazines. ... Synthesis and Ca-antagonist activity of some benzhydryl derivatives. (opens in new tab) ...
Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; ... Organophosphorus Compound. A1.4.1.2.1.7. Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein. A1.4.1.2.1.8. Carbohydrate. A1.4.1.2.1.9. Lipid. A1.4 ...
The structure of the synthesized compound BFC was confirmed by spectral data. Weight loss measurement indicates that the ... The mixture of CFC (0.0130 mol, 3 g), benzhydryl piperazine (0.0130 mol, 1.1363 g), and formaldehyde (0.01956 mol, 0.587 g) ... The corrosion inhibition effect of N-(4-((4-Benzhydryl piperazin-1-yl) methyl Carbamoyl) Phenyl) Furan-2-Carboxamide (BFC) on ... Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Corrosion Inhibition of Brass in Hydrochloric Acid by N-(4-((4-Benzhydryl Piperazin ...
... benzhydryl compounds, benzodiazepines, benzofurans, cannabinoids, cyclic peptides, dibenzazepines, digitalis gylcosides, ergot ... TABLE-US-00009 TABLE 9 Compounds synthesized using additional cyclization procedures Avg. Compound IC.sub.50 No. Structure ... SEQ Compound IC.sub.50 ID No. Sequence Cyclic (nM) NO. R2147 [mXylyl(1,5)](des-NH2)C- Yes ,2190 147 AcPyr-A-Chg-C-AzaTrp-Tbg- ... SEQ Compound IC.sub.50 ID No. Sequence Cyclic (nM) NO. R2003 [mXylyl(2,11)] Yes 3.1 3 MCNYWSPWTECSR-NH2 R2004 [mXylyl(2,6)] Yes ...
The present invention provides compounds of formula (I), ##STR00001## or pharmaceutically acceptable salts or solvates thereof ... For example, a benzhydryl group on a compound of formula C-1 can be removed using conditions known to those of ordinary skill ... The terms "anti-HIV compound" and "HIV-inhibiting agent," as used herein, mean a compound or combination of compounds capable ... to afford compounds B-3 to B-6, respectively. ##STR00019## As depicted in Scheme C, a pyrazole compound, such as compound A-3, ...
... after removal of the benzhydryl group and subsequent reaction with 2,6-dichloropyridine, gives a compound which, by acid ... C07D-HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS * C07D403/00-Heterocyclic compounds containing two or more hetero rings, having nitrogen atoms as ... C07D-HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS * C07D205/00-Heterocyclic compounds containing four-membered rings with one nitrogen atom as the ... La 1-benzhydryl-3-phtalimidoazétidine et ses sels daddition avec des acides inorganiques ou organiques. 11. The 1-benzhydryl-3 ...
  • The benzhydryl compounds are a group of organic compounds whose parent structures include diphenylmethane (which is two benzene rings connected by a single methane), with any number of attached substituents, including bridges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzhydrol is also used in the production of agrochemicals as well as other organic compounds and as a terminating group in polymerizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This group typically excludes compounds in which either benzene is fused to another ring (bicyclic, tricyclic, polycyclic) or includes a heteroatom, or where the methane connects to three or four benzenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used in the synthesis of Modafinil and the benzhydryl group is present in the structure of many histamine H1 antagonists like diphenylhydramine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modafinil was first discovered after the development of several benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds, including Adrafinil . (nootriment.com)
  • It was first developed in France by professor Michel Jouvet, a neurophysiologist, and Lafon Laboratories in the late 1970s while experimenting on a series of benzhydryl sulfinyl compounds, including adrafinil, for narcolepsy treatment [1] . (transitionalcare.info)
  • While Adrafinl's mechanism of action was being studied, Modafinil was discovered as its active compound that causes effects in the body. (nootriment.com)
  • The most active compound 22 exhibited excellent antiplasmodial in vitro activity with nanomolar inhibition of chloroquine-sensitive and multidrug-resistant parasite strains of Plasmodium falciparum (with IC50 values of 5 and 12 nM against 3D7 and Dd2 strains, respectively) as well as low cytotoxicity in human cells. (malariaworld.org)
  • Also, the saturated derivatives of oxindole and aza derivatives via H2/Pd/C reduction were obtained in good yields, leading to racemic mixtures of each compound. (malariaworld.org)
  • This chemical is widely used in chemical synthesis and derivatives for other compounds. (alphachemikaindia.com)
  • Benzidine - A compound used mainly for dyeing textiles and paper that is a known human carcinogen (cancer causing agent). (en-academic.com)
  • A member of the class of piperidines that is the benzhydryl ether derivative of 1-methyl-4-hydroxypiperidine. (zfin.org)