2-Hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamides. N-phenyl substituted salicylamides. Derivatives have been used as fungicides, anti-mildew agents and topical antifungal agents. In concentrated form may cause irritation of skin and mucous membranes.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase: conformational change in the flexible region around Arg334 is required during the transaldimination process. (1/1033)

Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalytic mechanism has been proposed to proceed through two consecutive intermediates (i.e., Michaelis complex and the external aldimine). Limited proteolysis of AADC that preferentially digested at the C-terminal side of Arg334 was slightly retarded in the presence of dihydroxyphenyl acetate that formed a stable Michaelis complex. On the contrary, AADC was scarcely digested in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester that formed a stable external aldimine. Similar protection by the substrate analogs was observed in the chemical modification experiment. From these results, we concluded that the region around Arg334 must be exposed and flexible in the unliganded state, and forming the Michaelis complex generated a subtle conformational change, then underwent marked conformational change during the subsequent transaldimination process prerequisite to forming the external aldimine. For further analyses, we constructed a mutant gene encoding in tandem the two peptides of AADC cleaved at the Asn327-Met328 bond inside the putative flexible region. The gene product, fragmentary AADC, was still active with L-dopa as substrate, but its k(cat) value was decreased 57-fold, and the Km value was increased 9-fold compared with those of the wild-type AADC. The absorption spectra of the fragmentary AADC in the presence of L-dopa methyl ester showed shift in the equilibrium of the transaldimination from the external aldimine to the Michaelis complex. Tryptic digestion of the fragmentary AADC removed seven amino acid residues, Met328-Arg334, and resulted in complete inactivation. Susceptibility of the fragmentary enzyme to trypsin was not changed by L-dopa methyl ester revealing the loss of appropriate conformational change in the flexible region induced by substrate binding. From these results we propose that the conformational change in the flexible region is required during the transaldimination process.  (+info)

Trefoil peptide TFF2 (spasmolytic polypeptide) potently accelerates healing and reduces inflammation in a rat model of colitis. (2/1033)

BACKGROUND: The trefoil peptides are major secretory products of mucus cells of the gastrointestinal tract and show increased expression after inflammatory or ulcerative damage. Recombinant human TFF2 (spasmolytic polypeptide) has been shown to be cytoprotective, and enhances repair in models of gastric injury. AIMS: To test the healing effects of recombinant human (h)TFF2 in a rat model of chronic colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in ethanol. Mucosal repair was quantified macroscopically, microscopically by image analysis of tissue histology, and by measuring myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: Initial validation studies showed that maximal injury and inflammation occurred at the end of the first week after colitis induction (active phase), and that spontaneous healing was complete by eight weeks. Once daily intrarectal application of hTFF2 (2.5 mg/kg; approximately 0.5 mg/rat) for five days after maximal damage had been sustained, reduced both microscopic and macroscopic injury by 80% and inflammatory index by 50% compared with vehicle controls. In addition, endogenous concentrations of rat TFF2 and TFF3 (intestinal trefoil factor) were increased in the active phase of colitis and were reduced to basal levels by hTFF2 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that hTFF2 enhances the rate of colonic epithelial repair, and reduces local inflammation in a rat model of colitis, and suggests that luminal application of trefoil peptides may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.  (+info)

KNR4, a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cwh mutants, is involved in the transcriptional control of chitin synthase genes. (3/1033)

The KNR4 gene, originally isolated by complementation of a K9 killer-toxin-resistant mutant displaying reduced levels of both 1,3-beta-glucan and 1,3-beta-glucan synthase activity, was recloned from a YCp50 genomic library as a suppressor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae calcofluor-white-hypersensitive (cwh) mutants. In these mutants, which were characterized by increased chitin levels, the suppressor effect of KNR4 resulted, for some of them, in a lowering of polymer content to close to wild-type level, with no effect on the contents of beta-glucan and mannan. In all cases, this effect was accompanied by a strong reduction in mRNA levels corresponding to CHS1, CHS2 and CHS3, encoding chitin synthases, without affecting expression of FKS1 and RHO1, two genes encoding the catalytic subunit and a regulatory component of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, respectively. Overexpression of KNR4 also inhibited expression of CHS genes in wild-type strains and in two other cwh mutants, whose sensitivity to calcofluor white was not suppressed by this gene. The physiological relevance of the KNR4 transcriptional effect was addressed in two different ways. In a wild-type strain exposed to alpha-factor, overexpression of this gene inhibited CHS1 induction and delayed shmoo formation, two events which are triggered in response to the pheromone, whereas it did not affect bud formation and cell growth in a chs1 chs2 double mutant. A chimeric protein made by fusing green fluorescent protein to the C terminus of Knr4p which fully complemented a knr4delta mutation was found to localize in patches at presumptive bud sites in unbudded cells and at the incipient bud site during bud emergence. Taken together, these results demonstrate that KNR4 has a regulatory role in chitin deposition and in cell wall assembly. A mechanism by which this gene affects expression of CHS genes is proposed.  (+info)

Nitrite determination in human plasma and synovial fluid using reactions of nitric oxide with 3, 5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulphonate (DBNBS). (4/1033)

DBNBS (3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulphonate) reacts with nitric oxide (NO) produced from nitrite ions in acid solution to give a radical with a characteristic electron spin resonance spectrum, attributable to a 'DBNBS-NO' product, and comprising a triplet with alphaN=0.96 mT. This is identical with the spectrum obtained when NO, introduced from the gas phase, reacts with DBNBS. Under certain conditions, an additional signal is observed, attributable to oxidation of DBNBS to the radical cation, DBNBS*+ (a triplet with alphaN=1.32 mT). Conditions are described for the determination of nitrite, which avoid this DBNBS oxidation. The height of the low-field signal from the DBNBS-NO product is directly proportional to the nitrite concentration up to about 0.08 mM nitrite. The method has been applied to the measurement of nitrite concentrations in whole blood, plasma and synovial fluid taken from rheumatoid arthritis patients. In order to avoid the oxidation of DBNBS when analysing biological samples of this type, it is necessary to treat the specimen by ultrafiltration as soon as possible after collection and before addition of DBNBS.  (+info)

Deletion of new covalently linked cell wall glycoproteins alters the electrophoretic mobility of phosphorylated wall components of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5/1033)

The incorporation of radioactive orthophosphate into the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied. 33P-labeled cell walls were extensively extracted with hot sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Of the remaining insoluble radioactivity more than 90% could be released by laminarinase. This radioactive material stayed in the stacking gel during SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but entered the separating gel upon treatment with N-glycosidase F, indicating that phosphate was linked directly or indirectly to N-mannosylated glycoproteins. The phosphate was bound to covalently linked cell wall proteins as mannose-6-phosphate, the same type of linkage shown previously for soluble mannoproteins (L. Ballou, L. M. Hernandez, E. Alvarado, and C. E. Ballou, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:3368-3372, 1990). From the phosphate-labeled glycoprotein fraction released by laminarinase, three cell wall mannoproteins, Ccw12p, Ccw13p and Ccw14p, were isolated and identified by N-terminal sequencing. For Ccw13p (encoded by DAN1 [also called TIR3]) and Ccw12p the association with the cell wall has not been described before; Ccw14p is identical with cell wall protein Icwp (I. Moukadiri, J. Armero, A. Abad, R. Sentandreu, and J. Zueco, J. Bacteriol. 179:2154-2162, 1997). In ccw12, ccw13, or ccw14 single or double mutants neither the amount of radioactive phosphate incorporated into cell wall proteins nor its position in the stacking gel was changed. However, the triple mutant brought about a shift of the 33P-labeled glycoprotein components from the stacking gel into the separating gel. The disruption of CCW12 results in a pronounced sensitivity of the cells to calcofluor white and Congo red. In addition, the ccw12 mutant shows a decrease in mating efficiency and a defect in agglutination.  (+info)

Perturbations in the control of cellular arachidonic acid levels block cell growth and induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells. (6/1033)

Our previous studies demonstrated that inhibitors of arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling [i.e. the enzyme CoA-independent transacylase (CoA-IT)] decrease cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in neoplastic cells. The goal of the current study was to elucidate the molecular events associated with arachidonate-phospholipid remodeling that influence cell proliferation and survival. Initial experiments revealed the essential nature of cellular arachidonate to the signaling process by demonstrating that HL-60 cells depleted of arachidonate were more resistant to apoptosis induced by CoA-IT inhibition. In cells treated with CoA-IT inhibitors a marked increase in free arachidonic acid and AA-containing triglycerides were measured. TG enrichment was likely due to acylation of arachidonic acid into diglycerides and triglycerides via de novo glycerolipid biosynthesis. To determine the potential of free fatty acids to affect cell proliferation, HL-60 cells were incubated with varying concentrations of free fatty acids; exogenously provided 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids caused a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, whereas oleic acid was without effect. Blocking 5-lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenases had no effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by arachidonic acid or CoA-IT inhibitors. An increase in cell-associated ceramides (mainly in the 16:0-ceramide fraction) was measured in cells exposed to free arachidonic acid or to CoA-IT inhibitors. This study, in conjunction with other recent studies, suggests that perturbations in the control of cellular arachidonic acid levels affect cell proliferation and survival.  (+info)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae mid2p is a potential cell wall stress sensor and upstream activator of the PKC1-MPK1 cell integrity pathway. (7/1033)

The MID2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein with structural features indicative of a plasma membrane-associated cell wall sensor. MID2 was isolated as a multicopy activator of the Skn7p transcription factor. Deletion of MID2 causes resistance to calcofluor white, diminished production of stress-induced cell wall chitin under a variety of conditions, and changes in growth rate and viability in a number of different cell wall biosynthesis mutants. Overexpression of MID2 causes hyperaccumulation of chitin and increased sensitivity to calcofluor white. alpha-Factor hypersensitivity of mid2Delta mutants can be suppressed by overexpression of upstream elements of the cell integrity pathway, including PKC1, RHO1, WSC1, and WSC2. Mid2p and Wsc1p appear to have overlapping roles in maintaining cell integrity since mid2Delta wsc1Delta mutants are inviable on medium that does not contain osmotic support. A role for MID2 in the cell integrity pathway is further supported by the finding that MID2 is required for induction of Mpk1p tyrosine phosphorylation during exposure to alpha-factor, calcofluor white, or high temperature. Our data are consistent with a role for Mid2p in sensing cell wall stress and in activation of a response that includes both increased chitin synthesis and the Mpk1p mitogen-activated protein kinase cell integrity pathway. In addition, we have identified an open reading frame, MTL1, which encodes a protein with both structural and functional similarity to Mid2p.  (+info)

Chs7p, a new protein involved in the control of protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum that is specifically engaged in the regulation of chitin synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/1033)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CHS7 gene encodes an integral membrane protein located in the ER which is directly involved in chitin synthesis through the regulation of chitin synthase III (CSIII) activity. In the absence of CHS7 product, Chs3p, but not other secreted proteins, is retained in the ER, leading to a severe defect in CSIII activity and consequently, to a reduced rate of chitin synthesis. In addition, chs7 null mutants show the yeast phenotypes associated with a lack of chitin: reduced mating efficiency and lack of the chitosan ascospore layer, clear indications of Chs7p function throughout the S. cerevisiae biological cycle. CHS3 overexpression does not lead to increased levels of CSIII because the Chs3p excess is retained in the ER. However, joint overexpression of CHS3 and CHS7 increases the export of Chs3p from the ER and this is accompanied by a concomitant increase in CSIII activity, indicating that the amount of Chs7p is a limiting factor for CSIII activity. Accordingly, CHS7 transcription is increased when elevated amounts of chitin synthesis are detected. These results show that Chs7p forms part of a new mechanism specifically involved in Chs3p export from the ER and consequently, in the regulation of CSIII activity.  (+info)

Salicylanilides are a group of synthetic compounds that contain a salicylic acid moiety (a phenolic ring with a hydroxyl and a carboxyl group) linked to an aniline part through a carbon chain. They are known for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Some common representatives of this class include salicylanilide, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid methyl ester, and 3-amino-5-chlorosalicylanilide. These compounds have been used in various medical and veterinary applications, such as topical antimicrobial agents, ovicides (agents that kill the eggs of parasites), and anthelmintics (agents that expel or destroy parasitic worms). However, due to concerns about potential toxicity and environmental persistence, their use has been limited in recent years.

Benzenesulfonates are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with a sulfonate group. In chemistry, a sulfonate group is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom connected to three oxygen atoms (-SO3). Benzenesulfonates are often used as detergents, emulsifiers, and phase transfer catalysts in various chemical reactions. They can also be found in some pharmaceuticals and dyes.

... benzenesulfonates (PIB-SOs) and phenyl 4-(2-oxoimidazolidin- 1-yl)benzenesulfonamides (PIB-SAs) are new, potent combretastatin ... oxoimidazolidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonates (PIB-SOs, 9-67) [43] and phenyl 4-(2-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl)benzenesul- fonamides (PIB-SAs ... Phenyl 4-(2-oxoimidazolidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonates (PIB-SOs) and phenyl 4-(2-oxoimidazolidin- 1-yl)benzenesulfonamides (PIB-SAs ... Novel Cytocidal Substituted Phenyl 4-(2-Oxoimidazolidin-1-yl) Benzenesulfonates and Benzenesulfonamides with Affinity to the ...
benzene sulfonates, such as sodium n-dodecylbenzenesulfonate; lignin. sulfonates; alkane and a-olefin sulfonates, such as Bio- ... fatty alcohol monoesters of sulfonic acids, linear alkyl benzene sulfonates, sodium n-dodecylbenzenesulfonate, lignin ...
Benzenesulfonates, Acid dyes). ...
... alkyl benzene sulfonates, benzalkonium chloride, etc., which can improve the solubility and dissolution process and stabilize ...
Especially preferred anionic organic salts are dialkylsulfosuccinates, diarylsulfosuccinates, benzenesulfonates, ...
Tituted benzenesulfonates and also immediately after operating to get a long time, there was no. Post author. EphB4 Inhibitor ... Tituted benzenesulfonates and also immediately after operating to get a long time, there was... ...
Linear dodecyl benzene sulfonates. Kimyasal Yapısı. Disponil® LDBS 25*. linear dodecyl benzene sulfonate, sodium salt. ...
ABS, alkylbenzene sulfonates, LABS, linear alkyl benzene sulfonates, DDBS, dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid or sulfonate; LAS (not ...
2023 The effect of aliphatic chain length on self-assembling of wedge-shaped cesium 3,4,5-tris(alkyloxy)benzenesulfonates ...
Amino Acids, Ascorbic Acid, Benzenesulfonates, Collagen, Collagenases, Copper, Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy, Hydrogen ...
We prepared and biologically evaluated 32 novel molecules named phenyl 4-(dioxoimidazolidin-1-yl)benzenesulfonates (PID-SOs) ...
... the most common chemical compounds are alkyl benzene sulfonates.. ...
Benzenesulfonates *Piperazines Receptors, Purinergic. Exp Eye Res 2010 Sep;91(3):425-32 P2RY9 receptor, mouse 0 *Receptors, ...
Benzenesulfonates [D02.455.426.559.389.097] Benzenesulfonates * Benzhydryl Compounds [D02.455.426.559.389.115] Benzhydryl ...
BACKGROUND COVID-19 can lead to multiorgan failure. Dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, has significant protective benefits for the heart and kidney. We aimed to see whether this agent might provide organ protection in patients with COVID-19 by affecting processes dysregulated during acute illness. METHODS DARE-19 was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and with at least one cardiometabolic risk factor (ie, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease). Patients critically ill at screening were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to dapagliflozin (10 mg daily orally) or matched placebo for 30 days. Dual primary outcomes were assessed in the intention-to-treat population: the outcome of prevention (time to new or worsened organ dysfunction or death), and the hierarchial composite outcome of recovery (change in clinical status by day 30). Safety outcomes, in patients ...
Benzenesulfonates [pharmacology] *Humans. *Muscle Contraction [physiology] *Muscle, Smooth [physiology] *Phenols [pharmacology ...
Benzenesulfonates / administration & dosage Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
MeSH Terms: Adsorption; Air/analysis*; Benzenesulfonates/chemistry; Environmental Monitoring/methods; Micelles; Porosity; ...
9. Antimycobacterial activity of salicylanilide benzenesulfonates.. Krátký M; Vinšová J; Rodriguez NG; Stolaříková J. Molecules ...
Calcofluor white 2MR, modified trichrome blue, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) staining methods were evaluated and compared for detecting microsporidia in stool. Serial 10-fold dilutions of Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis were prepared in three formalinized stool specimens or in …
Benzenesulfonates,N0000007527, Phenethylamines,N0000007526, Benzene Derivatives,N0000007525, Benzazepines,N0000007524, ...
Benzenesulfonates Preferred Term Term UI T004517. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1974). ... Benzenesulfonates [D02.886.645.600.080.050.100] * Calcium Dobesilate [D02.886.645.600.080.050.100.075] * 4- ... Benzenesulfonates [D02.455.426.559.389.097] * Calcium Dobesilate [D02.455.426.559.389.097.120] * 4- ... Benzenesulfonates Preferred Concept UI. M0002336. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic ...
Benzenesulfonates Preferred Term Term UI T004517. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1974). ... Benzenesulfonates [D02.886.645.600.080.050.100] * Calcium Dobesilate [D02.886.645.600.080.050.100.075] * 4- ... Benzenesulfonates [D02.455.426.559.389.097] * Calcium Dobesilate [D02.455.426.559.389.097.120] * 4- ... Benzenesulfonates Preferred Concept UI. M0002336. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic ...
Benzenesulfonates (1974). Hydroquinones (1974). Public MeSH Note:. 91; was see under BENZENESULFONATES 1975-90. ...
Antimycobacterial Activity of Salicylanilide Benzenesulfonates. Kratky, M., J. Vinsova, N.G. Rodriguez, and J. Stolarikova. ...
Benzenesulfonates *Polymers. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2010 Sep 1;79(2):480-7 Kryptonite bone cement 0 *Castor Oil * ...
Degradation and transformation of linear alkyl-benzene sulfonates (LAS) in integrated constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell ...
Benzenesulfonates Benzethonium Benzhydryl Compounds Benzidines Benzilates Benzimidazoles Benzo(a)pyrene Benzoate 4- ...
Dibromide Benzene Benzene Derivatives Benzeneacetamides Benzenesulfonates Benzethonium Benzhydryl Compounds Benzidines ...
  • 9. Antimycobacterial activity of salicylanilide benzenesulfonates. (nih.gov)

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