'Benzene derivatives' are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring as the core structure, with various functional groups attached to it, and can have diverse chemical properties and uses, including as solvents, intermediates in chemical synthesis, and pharmaceuticals.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (1/635)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

Properties of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase and its relationship to microsomal mixed-function oxidation in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania). (2/635)

1. Activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was measured in the midgut and other tissues of the last larval instar of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer, formerly Prodenia eridania Cramer). 2. Optimum conditions for measuring the activity were established with respect to all variables involved and considerable differences from those reported for mammalian enzyme preparations were found. 3. Maximum activity (20 nmol/h per mg of protein) occurs 18-24 h after the fifth moult and thereafter decreases to trace amounts as the larvae age and approach pupation. 4. Synthetase activity was rapidly induced by oral administration (in the diet) of pentamethylbenzene, phenobarbital, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylate, and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. 5. Puromycin inhibited the induction of synthetase by pentamethylbenzene. 6. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase correlated well with the induction of microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro-N-methylaniline, except for phenobarbital, which induced the microsomal oxidase relatively more than the synthetase.  (+info)

Localization and comparative toxicity of methylsulfonyl-2,5- and 2,6-dichlorobenzene in the olfactory mucosa of mice. (3/635)

Several methylsulfonyl (MeSO2) metabolites formed from chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons have been identified in human milk, lung, and body fat, as well as in the tissues of Baltic grey seals and arctic polar bears. The tissue localization and nasal toxicity of two methylsulfonyl-substituted dichlorobenzenes (diCl-MeSO2-B), with the chlorine atoms in the 2,5-, and 2,6- positions, were investigated in female NMRI and C57B1 mice. Using tape-section autoradiography, animals dosed i.v. with 14C-labeled 2,5-, or 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) showed a preferential uptake of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa and the tracheobronchial epithelium. Histopathology showed that 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) is a potent toxicant that induces necrosis in the olfactory mucosa following a single dose as low as 4 mg/kg (i.p. injection), whereas 2,5-(diCl-MeSO2-B) induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa at doses as high as 130 mg/kg (i.p. injection). Necrosis of the Bowman's glands was the first sign of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B)-induced toxicity followed by degeneration of the neuroepithelium, which implies that the Bowman's gland may be the primary site of toxicity and degeneration of the neuroepithelium may be a secondary effect. Administration of the parent compounds, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, or the chlorinated analog 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (85, 85, and 105 mg/kg, respectively; i.p. injection), induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa. These and previous results suggest that 2,6-positioned chlorine atoms and an electron withdrawing substituent in the primary position is an arrangement that predisposes for toxicity in the olfactory mucosa.  (+info)

Ratio-fluorescence microscopy of lipid oxidation in living cells using C11-BODIPY(581/591). (4/635)

A ratio-fluorescence assay was developed for on-line localization and quantification of lipid oxidation in living cells. The assay explores the oxidative sensitivity of C11-BODIPY(581/591). Upon oxidation, the fluorescence of this fluorophore shifts from red to green. The probe incorporates readily into cellular membranes and is about twice as sensitive to oxidation as arachidonic acid. Using confocal microscopy, the cumene hydroperoxide-induced oxidation of C11-BODIPY(581/591) was visualized at the sub-cellular level in rat-1 fibroblasts. Preloading of the cells with tocopherol retarded this oxidation. The data demonstrate that C11-BODIPY(581/591) is a valuable tool to quantify lipid oxidation and anti-oxidant efficacy in single cells.  (+info)

Protective effect of dehydroepiandrosterone against lipid peroxidation in a human liver cell line. (5/635)

OBJECTIVE: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a widely studied steroid hormone with multi-functional properties. Reports suggest that some of the many activities of DHEA are due to its protective effect against lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the antioxidant properties of DHEA are still the subject of debate. The aim was to evaluate whether its two opposed effects on lipid peroxidation reported in the literature may be dependent on schedule and doses used. METHODS: Chang liver cells, a line derived from normal human liver, were grown in media containing either no steroids (control) or DHEA at concentrations ranging from 0.1 micromol/l to 50 micromol/l. At specific times, cultures were halted and cells received a pro-oxidant stimulus (cumene (CuOOH) 0.5 mmol/l), at which time cell viability (by trypan blue staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration (spectrophotometrical assay) were evaluated. RESULTS: At concentrations ranging from 0.1 micromol/l to 1 micromol/l, DHEA protects Chang liver cells against lipid peroxidation and/or death induced by cumene. This effect disappears if the concentration is increased to 10 micromol/l; at higher concentrations (50 micromol/l) a pro-oxidant/cytotoxic effect of DHEA appears. CONCLUSIONS: DHEA exhibits two opposed effects on lipid peroxidation; depending on its concentration it acts either to limit or to induce oxidative stress. The threshold concentration at which the pro-oxidant activity of DHEA prevails is not far in excess of that having an antioxidant effect. Either effect of DHEA on lipid peroxidation is only evident after a 'lag-phase'.  (+info)

The branched-chain dodecylbenzene sulfonate degradation pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D involves a novel route for degradation of the surfactant lateral alkyl chain. (6/635)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa W51D is able to grow by using branched-chain dodecylbenzene sulfonates (B-DBS) or the terpenic alcohol citronellol as a sole source of carbon. A mutant derived from this strain (W51M1) is unable to degrade citronellol but still grows on B-DBS, showing that the citronellol degradation route is not the main pathway involved in the degradation of the surfactant alkyl moiety. The structures of the main B-DBS isomers and of some intermediates were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, and a possible catabolic route is proposed.  (+info)

Randomized phase II study of the neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist CJ-11,974 in the control of cisplatin-induced emesis. (7/635)

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and safety of the neurokinin type 1 receptor antagonist CJ-11,974 for the control of high-dose cisplatin-induced emesis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, phase II design with a group sequential stopping rule was used in this study. Sixty-one patients with cancer who were receiving cisplatin at a dose of at least 100 mg/m2 for the first time were enrolled. All patients received granisetron 10 microg/kg and dexamethasone 20 mg intravenously 30 minutes before they were given cisplatin. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 received CJ-11,974 100 mg, and group 2 received placebo orally 30 minutes before and 12 hours after cisplatin and then twice daily on days 2 through 5 after cisplatin. The primary end point was the percentage of patients who developed delayed emesis (emesis on the second to fifth days after cisplatin). RESULTS: Thirty patients were enrolled in group 1, and 31 patients were enrolled in group 2. Fifty-eight patients were assessable for efficacy. Complete control of emesis (expressed as the percentage of patients who had no emesis) was as follows: day 1, 85.7% (group 1) and 66.7% (group 2) (P = .090); days 2 through 5, 67.8% (group 1) and 36.6% (group 2) (P = .0425, adjusted); days 1 through 5, 64.3% (group 1) and 30% (group 2) (P = .009). Patients in group 1 experienced significantly less nausea than patients in group 2 on day 1 (P = .024). Treatment was well tolerated in both groups. CONCLUSION: We conclude from this exploratory phase II trial that CJ-11,974 is superior to placebo in controlling cisplatin-induced delayed emesis and may provide additive benefit in acute emesis and nausea control when combined with a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone. Additional larger trials are indicated to confirm the clinical value of CJ-11,974.  (+info)

In vitro studies on the initial reactions of anaerobic ethylbenzene mineralization. (8/635)

Anaerobic mineralization of ethylbenzene by the denitrifying bacterium Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 was recently shown to be initiated by dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to 1-phenylethanol. 1-Phenylethanol is converted to benzoate (benzoyl coenzyme A) via acetophenone as transient intermediate. We developed in vitro assays to examine ethylbenzene dehydrogenase and 1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase activities in cell extracts of this strain. With p-benzoquinone as the electron acceptor, cell extracts of Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 catalyzed ethylbenzene oxidation at a specific rate of 10 nmol min(-1) [mg of protein](-1) and an apparent K(m) for ethylbenzene of approximately 60 microM. The membrane-associated ethylbenzene dehydrogenase activity was found to oxidize 4-fluoroethylbenzene and propylbenzene but was unable to transform 4-chloro-ethylbenzene, the ethyltoluenes, and styrene. Enzymatic ethylbenzene oxidation was stereospecific, with (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol being the only enantiomer detected by chiral high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. Moreover, cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol but not of (R)-(+)-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. When cell extracts were dialyzed, (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol oxidation occurred only in the presence of NAD(+), suggesting that NAD(+) is the physiological electron acceptor of 1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase. Both ethylbenzene dehydrogenase and 1-phenylethanol dehydrogenase activities were present in Azoarcus sp. strain EB1 cells that were grown anaerobically on ethylbenzene, 1-phenylethanol, and acetophenone, but these activities were absent in benzoate-grown cells.  (+info)

Benzene derivatives are chemical compounds that are derived from benzene, which is a simple aromatic hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C6H6. Benzene has a planar, hexagonal ring structure, and its derivatives are formed by replacing one or more of the hydrogen atoms in the benzene molecule with other functional groups.

Benzene derivatives have a wide range of applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, and explosives. Some common examples of benzene derivatives include toluene, xylene, phenol, aniline, and nitrobenzene. These compounds can have different physical and chemical properties depending on the nature and position of the substituents attached to the benzene ring.

It is important to note that some benzene derivatives are known to be toxic or carcinogenic, and their production, use, and disposal must be carefully regulated to ensure safety and protect public health.

Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. It has the molecular formula C6H6 and is composed of six carbon atoms arranged in a ring, bonded to six hydrogen atoms. Benzene is an important industrial solvent and is used as a starting material in the production of various chemicals, including plastics, rubber, resins, and dyes. It is also a natural component of crude oil and gasoline.

In terms of medical relevance, benzene is classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene can cause various health effects, including anemia, leukemia, and other blood disorders. Occupational exposure to benzene is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to protect workers from potential health hazards.

It's important to note that while benzene has legitimate uses in industry, it should be handled with care due to its known health risks. Exposure to benzene can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or accidental ingestion, so appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling this chemical.

Sorbic acid is a chemical compound that is commonly used as a preservative in various food and cosmetic products. Medically, it's not typically used as a treatment for any specific condition. However, its preservative properties help prevent the growth of bacteria, yeast, and mold, which can improve the safety and shelf life of certain medical supplies such as ointments and eye drops.

The chemical structure of sorbic acid is that of a carboxylic acid with two double bonds, making it a unsaturated fatty acid. It's naturally found in some fruits like rowanberries and serviceberries, but most commercial sorbic acid is synthetically produced.

Food-grade sorbic acid is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and it has a wide range of applications in food preservation, including baked goods, cheeses, wines, and fruit juices. In cosmetics, it's often used to prevent microbial growth in products like creams, lotions, and makeup.

It is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to sorbic acid or its salts (sorbates), so caution should be exercised when introducing new products containing these substances into personal care routines or diets.

Benzene Derivatives". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 59 (1): 96-103. doi:10.1021/ja01280a022. ISSN 0002-7863. Ainley ...
Benzene Derivatives". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59 (1): 96-103. doi:10.1021/ja01280a022. Hansch, C.; Leo, A.; Taft, R. W. (1991). "A ... benzene, -toluene, -phenol, and -aniline". J. Org. Chem. 73 (7): 2607-2620. doi:10.1021/jo702513w. PMID 18324831. Kütt, A.; ...
Such a benzene derivative reacts with 1,7-octadiyne in the presence of a suitable catalyst to generate a naphthalene system. ... Formation of benzene derivatives". J. Mol. Catal. 60 (3): 313. doi:10.1016/0304-5102(90)85254-F. Lee, C. L.; Hunt, C. T.; Balch ... 2-disubstituted benzene to form an anthroquinone aromatic system: Benzyne, generated in situ from a benzene ring bearing ortho- ... An alkyne trimerisation is a [2+2+2] cycloaddition reaction in which three alkyne units (C≡C) react to form a benzene ring. The ...
Via hydrogenation, benzene and its derivatives convert to cyclohexane and derivatives. This reaction is achieved by the use of ... Sulfonated benzene derivatives are useful detergents. In nitration, benzene reacts with nitronium ions (NO2+), which is a ... Wikiquote has quotations related to Benzene. Scholia has a chemical profile for Benzene. Benzene at The Periodic Table of ... Alkyne trimerisation of acetylene gives benzene. Complete decarboxylation of mellitic acid gives benzene. Benzene is used ...
Silveira, J. F. R. V.; Muniz, A. R. (2017). "Functionalized diamond nanothreads from benzene derivatives". Physical Chemistry ... Degree 4 nanothreads have a double bond remaining from benzene and thus only two bonds formed between each pair of benzene ... Get Ready for Diamond Nanothread technologyreview.com Synthesizing Carbon Nanothreads from Benzene spie.org Liquid Benzene ... The distances between benzene molecules with van der Waals separations between them must shrink by 40% or more as the short, ...
part I.-benzene and its derivatives". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical ...
Benzene and derivatives Benzene is the parent. Toluene is a derivative of benzene. Porphyrins Porphine is the parent of ... Protoporphyrin IX is a natural derivative of the parent porphine. Octaethylporphyrin is a synthetic derivative of the parent ... Benzene (C6H6) is a chemical itself consisting of a hexagonal ring of carbon atoms with a hydrogen atom attached to each, and ... Phenylphosphine is a derivative of the parent phosphine. 3,3′,3′′-Phosphanetriyltris(benzenesulfonic acid) trisodium salt is a ...
The classical example is the derivatives of benzene. Its six hydrogens are all structurally equivalent, and so are the six ... Xylenol, which is benzene with one hydroxyl substituent and two methyl substituents, has a total of 6 isomers: Enumerating or ... This requirement applies also complex bonds that involve three or more atoms, such as the delocalized bonding in the benzene ...
Addition Reactions of Benzene Derivatives". Virtual Textbook of Organic Chemistry. Retrieved 2021-10-08. "Dow process , phenol ... Benzene can be easily converted to chlorobenzene by nucleophilic aromatic substitution via a benzyne intermediate. It is ...
... is an organic compound with the formula C6H3(NO2)3. It is one of three trinitrated benzene-derivatives. A ...
Acute toxicity of benzene derivatives to tadpoles (Rana japonica)". Journal of Molecular Modeling. 12 (3): 306-16. doi:10.1007/ ... 2. Fish toxicity of substituted benzenes". Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences. 44 (2): 559-67. doi:10.1021/ ...
Green, M. L.; Knowles, P. J. (1970). "Formation of a tungsten phenyl hydride derivatives from benzene". J. Chem. Soc. D. 24 (24 ... In 1969, Yuzo Fujiwara reported the synthesis of (E)-1,2-diphenylethene from benzene and styrene with Pd(OAc)2 and Cu(OAc)2, a ... in a benzene C-H bond and George M. Whitesides in 1979 was the first to carry out an intramolecular aliphatic C-H activation ... reported that benzene reacted with mercury(II) acetate (See: organomercury). Many electrophilic metal centers undergo this ...
Fernando Gomollon-Bel (September 29, 2016). "Chemists create stable bismuth benzene derivative". Chemistry World. Ashe, Arthur ... A stable derivative was reported in 2016. This derivative has two tri(isopropyl)silyl substituents in the ortho-positions and ... Bismabenzene (C5H5Bi) is the parent representative of a group of organobismuth compounds that are related to benzene with a ... An unstable derivative with 4-alkyl substituents was reported in 1982. ...
1903-04). "A New Derivative of Diazo-Amido-Benzene." Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 19: (1903-1904): 69-70. ... Bartow was awarded a PhD in organic chemistry in 1895 for his thesis, which dealt with derivatives of meta-isocymene. Bartow ...
Norman, R. O. C.; Parr, W. J. E.; Thomas, C. B. (1976). "The reactions of alkynes, cyclopropanes, and benzene derivatives with ...
The reaction product is a derivative of benzene. The reaction proceeds by a thermal reaction or pyrolysis (above 200 °C) ... It will react with any hydrogen donor such as 1,4-cyclohexadiene which converts to benzene. When quenched by tetrachloromethane ...
Like other difunctional benzene derivatives, catechol readily condenses to form heterocyclic compounds. Cyclic esters are ... Its methyl ether derivative, guaiacol, converts to catechol via hydrolysis of the CH3−O bond as promoted by hydroiodic acid (HI ... Catechol derivatives are found widely in nature. They often arise by hydroxylation of phenols.Arthropod cuticle consists of ... By 1852, Erdmann realized that catechol was benzene with two oxygen atoms added to it; in 1867, August Kekulé realized that ...
Her research team is particularly interested in the separation of benzene derivatives employing macrocycles and cages designed ... for Natural Gas and Benzene Derivatives Separations". Accounts of Chemical Research. 54 (1): 155-168. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts. ...
He worked in the laboratory of Emil Erlenmeyer working on benzene derivatives. He also spent time in Pisa, working on ... Borodin, A (1873). "Ueber einen neuen Abkömmling des Valerals" [On a new derivative of valerian aldehyde]. Berichte der ... "Method of manufacturing organic chlorine and bromine derivatives", published 1939-10-17, assigned to Hunsdiecker, C.; Vogt, E ...
... is a nitrated benzene-derivative. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene Parker, R. E.; Read, T. O. (1962). "The mechanism ...
Haas, Yehuda; Zilberg, Shmuel (1 July 2004). "Charge Separation in Ground-State 1,2,4,5-Tetra-Substituted Benzene Derivatives ... The benzene derivate 1,3-dihydroxy-4,6-diaminobenzene is easily oxidized by air in water or methanol to the quinonoid. This ...
The compound is a precursor to many 1,2-disubstituted derivatives of benzene. For example, it is a precursor to 1,2- ... "1,2-BIS(n-BUTYLTHIO)BENZENE". Organic Syntheses. 42: 22. 1962. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.042.0022. (Articles without InChI source, ...
reported Hf(OTf)4-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkenylation of benzene with alkenyl derivatives. In 2008, Zhu et al. demonstrated ... and enabled the alkylation of benzene with benzylic and tertiary alkyl chlorides. Hf(OTf)4-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts alkylation ... non-6-ene-1-methanol derivatives: Prins-type cyclization reaction catalyzed by hafnium triflate". Tetrahedron Letters. 50 (47 ...
He investigated the relation of benzene to benzoic acid and to other derivatives. As related by Gustav Rose Mitscherlich turned ...
... s are chemical compounds which are derivatives of thiazepine with two benzene rings. Examples include ...
Other benzene derivatives have been known to pollute many environments including the air; these compounds are known as BTEX ...
It is a derivative of benzene with three chloride substituents. It is a colorless liquid used as a solvent for a variety of ... Depending on the conditions and additives (e.g., sulfur), it can be the main product from the chlorination of benzene. It is ... Beck, U.; Löser, E. "Chlorinated Benzenes and other Nucleus-Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
The Molecular Volumes of the Saturated Vapours of Benzene, and of its Halogen Derivatives.' Dr Young is also the joint author ...
Benzene derivatives have from one to six substituents attached to the central benzene core. Examples of benzene compounds with ... Benzene, C 6 H 6 {\displaystyle {\ce {C6H6}}} , is the least complex aromatic hydrocarbon, and it was the first one named as ... Examples of non-benzene compounds with aromatic properties are furan, a heterocyclic compound with a five-membered ring that ... Key aromatic hydrocarbons of commercial interest are benzene, toluene, ortho-xylene and para-xylene. About 35 million tonnes ...
... is a group of chemical compounds which are dicarboxylic derivatives of benzene. Benzenedicarboxylic ...
It is a derivative of benzene with a cyclohexyl substituent (C6H11). It is a colorless liquid. Cyclohexylbenzene is produced by ... The process can proceed using benzene as the exclusive organic precursor. Its partial hydrogenation gives cyclohexene, which ... alkylates the unhydrogenated benzene. It is also generated by the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene. A route to phenol ... the acid-catalyzed alkylation of benzene with cyclohexene. ...
This highly distorted cyclophane photochemically converts to the Dewar benzene derivative. Heat reverses the reaction. With ... paracyclophane Derivative: Formation of Octahedrane by Photochemical Dimerization of Benzene". Journal of the American Chemical ... Because the two benzene rings are in close proximity this cyclophane type also serves as guinea pig for photochemical ... More complex derivatives with multiple aromatic units and bridges forming cagelike structures are also known. Cyclophanes are ...
It is a derivative of benzene, containing two adjacent nitrile groups. The compound has low solubility in water but is soluble ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Lorz, Peter M. "Phthalic Acid and Derivatives" in Ulmanns Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley- ... Pinnow, Johannes; Sämann, C. "Ueber Derivate des o-Amidobenzonitrils (Derivatives of Orthamidobenzonitrile)" Berichte der ...
... Hongjian Lu of Nanjing University used an Ir catalyst to mediate the ... phosphine catalyst to prepare the trisubstituted benzene 32 by the coupling of the cyclopropyl acetylene 30 with the alkyne 31 ...
Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene derivatives in tunable aryl alkyl ionic liquids (TAAILs) ... Reaction conditions: 1 mmol benzene derivative, 2 equiv anhydride, 10 mol % FeCl3·6H2O, T = 60 °C, 0.5 g TAAIL 6; a5% of the ... Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene derivatives in tunable aryl alkyl ionic liquids (TAAILs). * Swantje Lerch. , ... Different benzene derivatives were successfully used in the acylation with acetic anhydride with yields between 65% and 94% (8- ...
Chloranil;Benzyl alcohol;2-Phenylphenol

Dye intermediate:1,4-Diaminoanthraquinone; 1,4-Dioxyanthraquinone;Solvent Violet 47

Iron chlorides Series:FeCl2.4(H2O);FeCl2.2H2O;Ferric Chloride solution
... nomenclature of benzene derivatives nomenclature of benzene derivatives. Gallery. ... You are here: Home ∼ Infographics ∼ Simple Benzene Derivatives and Their Nomenclature in Organic Chemistry ∼ ...
Carboxylic acids and derivatives*Carboxylic acid derivatives*Alpha-halocarboxylic acids and derivatives*Alpha-halocarboxylic ... Organic sulfonic acids and derivatives*Organosulfonic acids and derivatives*Alkanesulfonic acids and derivatives*Alkanesulfonic ... Naphthalene sulfonic acids and derivatives*1-naphthalene sulfonic acids and derivatives. *2-naphthalene sulfonic acids and ...
Benzene Derivatives". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 59 (1): 96-103. doi:10.1021/ja01280a022. ISSN 0002-7863. Ainley ...
Title: Beyond Jablonski diagrams in organic systems: ab initio studies of substituted benzene derivatives ... Beyond Jablonski diagrams in organic systems: ab initio studies of substituted benzene derivatives. ...
Derivatives of benzene. Derivatives of phenol. Quinones. Amines. Amides. Triazoles. And others ...
Determination of benzene and some derivatives - Part 2: Method using extraction and gas chromatography ... Determination of benzene and some derivatives. Part 2: Method using extraction and gas chromatography. Status : Published ( ...
The Influence and Mechanism of Benzodihydropyran Benzene and Dihydro Pyran Derivatives xy2004 Effect on Breast Cancer Cell ...
In Vitro Anti-Microbial Analysis and Molecular Docking Study of Aliphatic Hydrazide-Based Benzene Sulphonamide Derivatives as ... In Vitro Anti-Microbial Analysis and Molecular Docking Study of Aliphatic Hydrazide-Based Benzene Sulphonamide Derivatives as ... In Vitro Anti-Microbial Analysis and Molecular Docking Study of Aliphatic Hydrazide-Based Benzene Sulphonamide Derivatives as ... In Vitro Anti-Microbial Analysis and Molecular Docking Study of Aliphatic Hydrazide-Based Benzene Sulphonamide Derivatives as ...
Tsunoyama, H., Ohshimo, K., Misaizu, F., & Ohno, K. (2004). Intracluster cyclization reaction producing a benzene derivative: ... Tsunoyama H, Ohshimo K, Misaizu F, Ohno K. Intracluster cyclization reaction producing a benzene derivative: Photoionization ... Tsunoyama, H, Ohshimo, K, Misaizu, F & Ohno, K 2004, Intracluster cyclization reaction producing a benzene derivative: ... T1 - Intracluster cyclization reaction producing a benzene derivative. T2 - Photoionization mass spectrometric study of alkali ...
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Benzene derivative Phenyl RC6H5 phenyl-. -benzene Cumene. (2-phenylpropane) ... Chemical class: Alcohol • Aldehyde • Alkane • Alkene • Alkyne • Amide • Amine • Azo compound • Benzene derivative • Carboxylic ... Toluene derivative Benzyl RCH2C6H5. RBn benzyl- 1-(substituent)toluene Benzyl bromide. (1-Bromotoluene) ... Pyridine derivative • Sulfone • Sulfonic acid • Sulfoxide • Thioether • Thiol • Toluene derivative ...
Filters: Keyword is Benzene Derivatives/chemistry/metabolism; Drug Design; Models [Clear All Filters] ...
and benzene derivatives (Lonsdale, 1929. , 1931. ). These early structures were determined by the logic of symmetry and by ... whereas derivative 2 gives alternatives Q and R′. The anomalous scattering from derivative 1 gives alternatives Q and Q′. ... Note that the f′ spectrum is roughly the negative of the first derivative of the f′′ spectrum. Thus, the f′ minimum is at the ... and for a lead derivative of a translation-factor domain (Biou et al., 1995. ) and a selenomethionyl enzyme (Turner et al., ...
Enhanced photoredox chemistry in surface-modified Mg2TiO4 nano-powders with bidentate benzene derivatives. Medi?, Mina M.,Vasi ...
QSAR of benzene derivatives: comparison of classical descriptors, quan... J Comput Aided Mol D.... 2002. ...
Benzene Derivatives); 0 (Gasoline); 0 (Xylenes); 3FPU23BG52 (Toluene); J64922108F (Benzene); L5I45M5G0O (ethylbenzene); OID: ... Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non- ... Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the ... The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), which are significant due to their high ...
Air Pollutants/analysis, Benzene/analysis, Benzene Derivatives/analysis, Environmental Monitoring/methods, Industrial Waste, ... Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis, Benzene/analysis, Benzene Derivatives/analysis, Chromatography, Gas/methods, Environmental ... LR: 20131121; JID: 9426367; 0 (Benzene Derivatives); 3FPU23BG52 (Toluene); J64922108F (Benzene); L5I45M5G0O (ethylbenzene); ... LR: 20131121; JID: 8804476; 0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Benzene Derivatives); 0 (Industrial Waste); 0 (Oxidants, Photochemical); 0 ( ...
Intermediates and Derivatives(2). * Benzene Derivatives(1). * Phenol (1) * Ethylene Derivatives(1). ...
Intermediates and Derivatives(12). * Benzene Derivatives(1). * Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (mdi) (1) ...
We demonstrated new blue fluorescence compounds based on hexaphenyl benzene derivatives. Those chemical structures can be ... Park H, Lee J, Kang I, Chu HY, J-Ik L, Kwon S-K, Kim Y-H: Highly rigid and twisted anthracene derivatives: a strategy for deep ... Lyu Y-Y, Kwak J, Kwon O, Lee S-H, Kim D, Lee C, Char K: Silicon-cored anthracene derivatives as host materials for highly ... Pentaphenyl(4-methylphenyl)benzene-triphenylphosphonium bromide (11). A mixture of 9 (5.0 g, 7.8 mmol) and triphenylphosphine ( ...
Categories: Benzene Derivatives Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Benzene, Toluene, and Monosubstituted Derivatives: Diabatic Nature of the Oscillator Strengths of S-1 -> S-0 Transitions ...
Benzene Derivatives [D02.455.426.559.389]. *Benzylidene Compounds [D02.455.426.559.389.150]. *Styrenes [D02.455.426.559.389.150 ...
A benzene derivative containing chromophoric groups. Chromogen. Ionizing group required to enable the dye to link firmly to ...
Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biphenyls and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing to benzene ... Derivative Name / Structure. SMILES. Kovats RI Value. Column Type. Reference. Olmesartan,1TMS,isomer #1. CCCC1=NC(C(C)(C)O)=C(C ... These are organic compounds containing to benzene rings linked together by a C-C bond. In humans, olmesartan is involved in the ... Olmesartan, also known as DE-092, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biphenyls and derivatives. ...
  • 1993. A comparative study of the kinetic and bioavailability of pure and soil-adsorbed benzene, toluene, and m -xylene after dermal exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The pollutants released include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), which are significant due to their high level of toxicity. (who.int)
  • Additionally, there were incidences where individuals were at potential hazard risk of benzene and toluene that may pose non-carcinogenic effects to employees. (who.int)
  • OBJECTIVE: To set up a method for the low concentration of benzene and its homologues (toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene, BTEX) in indoor air monitored simultaneously by portable gas chromatography (GC). (who.int)
  • Toluene is a benzene derivative (CH3) and is less volatile than acetone and has been known to make people stupid. (woodweb.com)
  • An iron(III) chloride hexahydrate-catalyzed Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene derivatives in tunable aryl alkyl ionic liquids (TAAILs) has been developed. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Benzene, mono-C11-13-branched alkyl derivs. (europa.eu)
  • Aromatic solvents are benzene derivatives with high vapor pressures and low boiling points that increase with increasing molecular weight. (cdc.gov)
  • Aromatic solvents are derivatives of coal and petroleum refining. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, this method provides a direct approach for the synthesis of fluorinated drug derivatives, which has important application for drug discovery and development. (nature.com)
  • Olmesartan, also known as DE-092, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as biphenyls and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • These are organic compounds containing to benzene rings linked together by a C-C bond. (hmdb.ca)
  • Although some hydrocarbons prepared by chemists around the turn of the century were thought to be ionic - e.g. a group of compounds formed from benzene and methane ("triarylmethane derivatives") these were largely regarded as curiosities. (nobelprize.org)
  • The compounds 1,3-bis(diethylgallyl)benzene (3) and 1,4- bis(diethylgallyl)benzene (6) were prepared by reaction of the corresponding chloromercuriobenzenes with an excess of triethylgallium by applying pressure and higher temperatures. (researchgate.net)
  • 2005. Effect of methyl substitution of benzene in the percutaneous absorption and skin irritation in hairless rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Ionic liquids 1 - 6 were synthesized via a three-step procedure starting from commercially available aniline derivatives (see Scheme 1 ). (beilstein-journals.org)
  • First, the arylimidazole is obtained through a ring closing reaction using an aniline derivative, glyoxal, formaldehyde and ammonium chloride. (beilstein-journals.org)
  • Due to poor ventilation and high exposure duration, the average benzene concentration over the sampling campaign exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency's chronic inhalation exposure reference concentration. (who.int)
  • Lifetime cancer risk estimation showed that on average there is a 3.78 x 10-4 cancer risk, corresponding to an average chronic daily intake of 1.38 x 10-3 mg/kg/day of benzene exposure. (who.int)
  • The authors point out that further studies are needed to describe exposure pathways of petroleum and its closest derivatives (e.g. benzene), in order to identify the drivers of the observed modifiers of cancer risk. (who.int)
  • Barbituric acid [ and derivatives ] [ CH2. (nih.gov)
  • A unique series of sulphonamide derivatives was attempted to be synthesized in this study using a new and effective method. (nottingham.edu.cn)
  • In this chapter, electrophilic agents nogenicity from studies of exposed (benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and eth- include direct-acting electrophilic humans. (who.int)
  • For example, polymorphisms of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), an enzyme that metabolizes benzene derivatives, are associated with an increased risk of AML. (medscape.com)
  • The following table gives an overview about the physicochemical properties considered for the rating of strategic bonds linked to benzene ring systems. (uni-erlangen.de)
  • The main products of chlorobenzene degradation were O-3, CON, benzene derivatives, and nitrogenous organics. (cheric.org)
  • Benzene is discussed in a separate chapter. (cdc.gov)
  • 1993. A comparative study of the kinetic and bioavailability of pure and soil-adsorbed benzene, toluene, and m -xylene after dermal exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Linear Relationships Between Total Hydrocarbons and Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylene, and n-Hexane during the Deepwater Horizon Response and Clean-up. (nih.gov)
  • By using Bio-TCat technology, Anellotech and its partners are accelerating the development of biobased paraxylene and other widely-used chemicals including benzene, toluene and other xylenes (commonly known as BTX) from non-food sources. (plasticstoday.com)
  • Although some hydrocarbons prepared by chemists around the turn of the century were thought to be ionic - e.g. a group of compounds formed from benzene and methane ("triarylmethane derivatives") these were largely regarded as curiosities. (nobelprize.org)
  • The reaction between diphenylmethanols and substituted benzenes is useful to yield triarylmethane derivatives which are important skeletons in various functional materials and biologically relevant substances. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, a Friedel-Crafts diphenylmethylation reaction using iron(III) chloride as a catalyst was developed for the environmentally friendly synthesis of triarylmethane derivatives. (scirp.org)
  • The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring. (umassmed.edu)
  • Diphenylmethanols (0.2 mmol) and substituted benzenes (0.2 mmol) were dissolved in 20 mL of cyclohexane in the presence of iron(III) chloride (0.2 mmol). (scirp.org)
  • Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of N-ferrocenylmethyl amino acid benzene carboxamide derivatives and N-ferrocenyl benzoyl amino alkane derivatives as anti-cancer agents. (dcu.ie)
  • The synthesis of N-(ferrocenylmethylamino acid) fluorinated benzene carboxamide derivatives was achieved by coupling the free N-terminus of the ferrocenylmethylamine with the carboxylic acid group of the N-(fluorobenzoyl)-amino acid using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt) coupling protocol. (dcu.ie)
  • The synthesis of the N-{(ferrocenyl)-benzoyl}-aminoalkanes derivatives involved the coupling of the free N-terminus of the amine group of the aminoalkanes to the carboxylic acid group of the ferrocenyl-benzoic acid (ortho-, meta- and para-) using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) coupling protocol. (dcu.ie)
  • Synthesis and biological activity of novel 1,2-disubstituted benzene derivatives as factor Xa inhibitors. (wikigenes.org)
  • Synthesis and biological activity of novel 1,4-diazepane derivatives as factor Xa inhibitor with potent anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity. (wikigenes.org)
  • Orally active factor Xa inhibitor: synthesis and biological activity of masked amidines as prodrugs of novel 1,4-diazepane derivatives. (wikigenes.org)
  • Tückmantel, W. Synthesis and Reactions of Oligomethylene-Clamped 1 H-Azepines and Benzene Imines. (nih.gov)
  • This is based on the observation that hepatic metabolism of this agent results in the production of benzene derivatives during hepatic metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • They are generally synthesized by the reaction between benzyl derivative 1 as an electrophile and arene 2 as a nucleophile (Scheme 1). (scirp.org)
  • The reaction between benzyl derivatives and arenes. (scirp.org)
  • The Benzene and Its Derivatives Market was valued at USD 34.52 Bn in 2021, at CAGR of 6.34% during the forecast period (2022-2030), and the Market is projected to be worth USD 60.03 Bn by 2030. (marketresearchcommunity.com)
  • 10. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of human cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V with a series of benzene sulfonamide derivatives. (nih.gov)
  • Some derivatives of benzene-sulphonamides were synthesized via condensation reaction. (hilarispublisher.com)
  • 3-phenyl propene on reaction with HBr undergoes hydrohalogenation reaction to form 1-bromo-1-phenyl benzene. (presenternet.com)
  • Synthetic guanethidine derivative that locates phaeochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. (drugbank.com)
  • Cancer patients have been shown to have traces of chemicals â€" like alkanes and benzene derivatives â€" in their breath, and other studies have shown dogs can detect chemicals in concentrations as small as a few parts per trillion. (blather.net)
  • The report provides comprehensive coverage of all parameters of the Benzene industry. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The increased adoption of Benzene and Its Derivatives in the Petrochemicals industry is due to high workability, Stability of structure, good quality, and Demand for making things better. (marketresearchcommunity.com)
  • The demand for Benzene and Its Derivatives also has other significant aspects, such as analysis, purchasing volume, costs, pricing analysis, and regulatory framework. (marketresearchcommunity.com)
  • Additionally, the increased demand of Benzene and Its Derivatives in many sectors also boosts the market growth during the forecast period. (marketresearchcommunity.com)
  • The report offers historical and forecast market size, demand and production forecasts, end-use demand details, price trends, trade balance data, and company shares of the country's leading Benzene producers. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • A series of N-(ferrocenylmethylamino acid)-fluorinated-benzene carboxamide derivatives and a series of N-(ferrocenyl)-benzoyl-aminoalkane derivatives have been synthesised, structurally characterised and biologically evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity on various cancer cell lines, principally, the (estrogen receptor positive) MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. (dcu.ie)
  • As part of the primary SAR study, a series of N-(ferrocenylmethylamino acid)-fluorinated-benzene carboxamide derivatives have been synthesised, structurally characterised and biologically evaluated. (dcu.ie)
  • The publisher's report, 'Benzene Industry Outlook in Canada to 2026 - Market Size, Company Share, Price Trends, Capacity Forecasts of All Active and Planned Plants', provides up to date in-depth information on Canada's Benzene industry. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Hydroquinone, the major benzene metabolite, is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment due to its widespread application in human and industrial activities. (hindawi.com)
  • These agents are derivatives of vitamin A and lead to increased keratinocyte turnover and decreased melanocyte activity. (medscape.com)
  • Benzene and Its Derivatives Market Research Report" was just released by Market Research Community. (marketresearchcommunity.com)
  • The report covers Canada's Benzene plants and presents installed capacity by process and technology. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Anellotech's proprietary thermal catalytic biomass conversion technology (Bio-TCat) produces "drop in" green aromatics, including paraxylene and benzene, from non-food biomass. (plasticstoday.com)
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial negative influence on the Benzene and Its Derivatives market in many different regions of the world. (marketresearchcommunity.com)
  • Given the appearance of benzene derivatives in biomedical research and materials science, the boron-nitrogen substituted analogues could potentially play a pivotal role in these areas. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The contribution of benzene and its metabolites to this issue is well recognized, making them a public health problem. (hindawi.com)