Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
A widely used industrial solvent.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.

Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene. (1/773)

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol. (2/773)

The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase alpha-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase gamma-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase beta-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with >60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of sigma54 (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase alpha-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not. Benzene was oxidized to phenol, which accumulated transiently before being further oxidized. Toluene was oxidized to a mixture of o-, m-, and p-cresols (39.8, 18, and 41.7%, respectively) and a small amount (0.5%) of benzyl alcohol, none of which were further oxidized. In growth studies Xanthobacter strain Py2 was found to grow on phenol and catechol but not on benzene or toluene; growth on phenol required a functional alkene monooxygenase. However, there is no evidence of genes encoding steps in the metabolism of catechol in the vicinity of the aam gene cluster. This suggests that the inducer specificity of the alkene monooxygenase may have evolved to benefit from the naturally broad substrate specificity of this class of monooxygenase and the ability of the host strain to grow on catechol.  (+info)

Benzene-induced uncoupling of naphthalene dioxygenase activity and enzyme inactivation by production of hydrogen peroxide. (3/773)

Naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) is a multicomponent enzyme system that oxidizes naphthalene to (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxy-1, 2-dihydronaphthalene with consumption of O2 and two electrons from NAD(P)H. In the presence of benzene, NADH oxidation and O2 utilization were partially uncoupled from substrate oxidation. Approximately 40 to 50% of the consumed O2 was detected as hydrogen peroxide. The rate of benzene-dependent O2 consumption decreased with time, but it was partially increased by the addition of catalase in the course of the O2 consumption by NDO. Detailed experiments showed that the total amount of O2 consumed and the rate of benzene-induced O2 consumption increased in the presence of hydrogen peroxide-scavenging agents, and further addition of the terminal oxygenase component (ISPNAP) of NDO. Kinetic studies showed that ISPNAP was irreversibly inactivated in the reaction that contained benzene, but the inactivation was relieved to a high degree in the presence of catalase and partially relieved in the presence of 0.1 mM ferrous ion. Benzene- and naphthalene-reacted ISPNAP gave almost identical visible absorption spectra. In addition, hydrogen peroxide added at a range of 0.1 to 0.6 mM to the reaction mixtures inactivated the reduced ISPNAP containing mononuclear iron. These results show that hydrogen peroxide released during the uncoupling reaction acts both as an inhibitor of benzene-dependent O2 consumption and as an inactivator of ISPNAP. It is proposed that the irreversible inactivation of ISPNAP occurs by a Fenton-type reaction which forms a strong oxidizing agent, hydroxyl radicals (. OH), from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferrous mononuclear iron at the active site. Furthermore, when [14C]benzene was used as the substrate, cis-benzene 1,2-dihydrodiol formed by NDO was detected. This result shows that NDO also couples a trace amount of benzene to both O2 consumption and NADH oxidation.  (+info)

Adenosylcobalamin-mediated methyl transfer by toluate cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0. (4/773)

We identified and characterized a methyl transfer activity of the toluate cis-dihydrodiol (4-methyl-3,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol-1-carboxylic acid) dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0 towards toluene cis-dihydrodiol (3-methyl-4,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol). When the purified enzyme from the recombinant Escherichia coli containing the xylL gene was incubated with toluene cis-dihydrodiol in the presence of NAD+, the end products differed depending on the presence of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12). The enzyme yielded catechol in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, while it gave 3-methylcatechol in the absence of the cofactor. Adenosylcobalamin was transformed to methylcobalamin as a result of the enzyme reaction, which indicates that the methyl group of the substrate was transferred to adenosylcobalamin. Other derivatives of the cobalamin such as aquo (hydroxy)- and cyanocobalamin did not mediate the methyl transfer reaction. The dehydrogenation and methyl transfer reactions were assumed to occur concomitantly, and the methyl transfer reaction seemed to depend on the dehydrogenation. To our knowledge, the enzyme is the first dehydrogenase that shows a methyl transfer activity as well.  (+info)

Determination of the urinary benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid and trans,trans-muconic acid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (5/773)

To investigate how various levels of exposure affect the metabolic activation pathways of benzene in humans and to examine the relationship between urinary metabolites and other biological markers, we have developed a sensitive and specific liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric assay for simultaneous quantitation of urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). The assay involves spiking urine samples with [13C6]S-PMA and [13C6]t,t-MA as internal standards and clean up of samples by solid-phase extraction with subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (LC-ES-MS/MS-SRM) in the negative ionization mode. The efficacy of this assay was evaluated in human urine specimens from smokers and non-smokers as the benzene-exposed and non-exposed groups. The coefficient of variation of runs on different days (n = 8) for S-PMA was 7% for the sample containing 9.4 microg S-PMA/l urine, that for t,t-MA was 10% for samples containing 0.07 mg t,t-MA/l urine. The mean levels of urinary S-PMA and t,t-MA in smokers were 1.9-fold (P = 0.02) and 2.1-fold (P = 0.03) higher than those in non-smokers. The mean urinary concentration (+/-SE) was 9.1 +/- 1.7 microg S-PMA/g creatinine [median 5.8 microg/g, ranging from not detectable (1 out of 28) to 33.4 microg/g] among smokers. In non-smokers' urine the mean concentration was 4.8 +/- 1.1 microg S-PMA/g creatinine (median 3.6 microg/g, ranging from 1.0 to 19.6 microg/g). For t,t-MA in smokers' urine the mean (+/-SE) was 0.15 +/- 0.03 mg/g creatinine (median 0.11 mg/ g, ranging from 0.005 to 0.34 mg/g); the corresponding mean value for t,t-MA concentration in non-smokers' urine was 0.07 +/- 0.02 mg/g creatinine [median 0.03 mg/g, ranging from undetectable (1 out of 18) to 0.48 mg/g]. There was a correlation between S-PMA and t,t-MA after logarithmic transformation (r = 0.41, P = 0.005, n = 46).  (+info)

Metabolism of [14C]phenol in the isolated perfused mouse liver. (6/773)

A previous report from this laboratory focused on the metabolism of [14C]benzene (BZ) in the isolated, perfused, mouse liver (C. C. Hedli, et al., 1997, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 146, 60-68). Whereas administration of BZ to mice results in bone marrow depression (R. Snyder et al., 1993, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 20, 191-194), administration of phenol (P), the major metabolite of BZ, does not. It was, therefore, of interest to determine whether the metabolic fate of P produced during BZ metabolism differed from that of P metabolized in the absence of BZ. Mouse livers were perfused with a solution of [14C]P in both the orthograde (portal vein to central vein) and retrograde (central vein to portal vein) direction to investigate the metabolic zonation of enzymes involved in P hydroxylation and conjugation. Perfusate samples were collected, separated by HPLC, and tested for radioactivity. Unconjugated metabolites were identified by comparing their retention times with nonradiolabeled standards, which were detected by UV absorption. Conjugated metabolites were identified and collected on the basis of radiochromatogram results, hydrolyzed enzymatically, and identified by co-chromatography with unlabeled BZ metabolites. The objective was to compare and quantify the metabolites formed during the perfusion of P in the orthograde and retrograde directions and to compare the orthograde P-perfusion results with the orthograde BZ results reported previously. Regardless of the direction of P perfusion, the major compounds released from the liver were P. phenylgucuronide, phenylsulfate, hydroquinone (HQ), and HQ glucuronide. A comparison of the results of perfusing P in the orthograde versus the retrograde direction showed that more P was recovered unchanged and more HQ was formed during retrograde perfusion. The results suggest that enzymes involved in P hydroxylation are generally closer to the central vein than those involved in conjugation, and that during retrograde perfusion, P metabolism may be limited by the sub-optimal conditions of perfusion. Comparison of the orthograde perfusion studies of P and BZ revealed that a larger percentage of the radioactivity released from the liver was identified as unconjugated HQ after BZ perfusion than after P perfusion. In addition, the amount of radioactivity covalently bound to liver macromolecules was measured after each perfusion and determined to be proportional to the amount of HQ and HQG detected in the perfusate samples.  (+info)

Environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds among workers in Mexico City as assessed by personal monitors and blood concentrations. (7/773)

Benzene, an important component in gasoline, is a widely distributed environmental contaminant that has been linked to known health effects in animals and humans, including leukemia. In Mexico City, environmental benzene levels, which may be elevated because of the heavy traffic and the poor emission control devices of older vehicles, may pose a health risk to the population. To assess the potential risk, portable passive monitors and blood concentrations were used to survey three different occupational groups in Mexico City. Passive monitors measured the personal exposure of 45 workers to benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene and m-/p-xylene during a work shift. Blood concentrations of the above volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methyl tert-butyl ether, and styrene were measured at the beginning and the end of a work shift. Passive monitors showed significantly higher (p > 0.0001) benzene exposure levels among service station attendants (median = 330 microg/m3; range 130-770) as compared to street vendors (median = 62 microg/m3; range 49-180) and office workers (median = 44 microg/m3, range 32-67). Baseline blood benzene levels (BBLs) for these groups were higher than those reported for similar populations from Western countries (median = 0.63 microg/L, n = 24 for service station attendants; median = 0.30 microg/L, n = 6 for street vendors; and median = 0.17 microgr;g/L, n = 7 for office workers). Nonsmoking office workers who were nonoccupationally exposed to VOCs had BBLs that were more than five times higher than those observed in a nonsmoking U.S. population. BBLs of participants did not increase during the work shift, suggesting that because the participants were chronically exposed to benzene, complex pharmacokinetic mechanisms were involved. Our results highlight the need for more complete studies to assess the potential benefits of setting environmental standards for benzene and other VOCs in Mexico.  (+info)

Microbial communities associated with anaerobic benzene degradation in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer. (8/773)

Microbial community composition associated with benzene oxidation under in situ Fe(III)-reducing conditions in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer located in Bemidji, Minn., was investigated. Community structure associated with benzene degradation was compared to sediment communities that did not anaerobically oxidize benzene which were obtained from two adjacent Fe(III)-reducing sites and from methanogenic and uncontaminated zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA sequences amplified with bacterial or Geobacteraceae-specific primers indicated significant differences in the composition of the microbial communities at the different sites. Most notable was a selective enrichment of microorganisms in the Geobacter cluster seen in the benzene-degrading sediments. This finding was in accordance with phospholipid fatty acid analysis and most-probable-number-PCR enumeration, which indicated that members of the family Geobacteraceae were more numerous in these sediments. A benzene-oxidizing Fe(III)-reducing enrichment culture was established from benzene-degrading sediments and contained an organism closely related to the uncultivated Geobacter spp. This genus contains the only known organisms that can oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III). Sequences closely related to the Fe(III) reducer Geothrix fermentans and the aerobe Variovorax paradoxus were also amplified from the benzene-degrading enrichment and were present in the benzene-degrading sediments. However, neither G. fermentans nor V. paradoxus is known to oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III), and there was no apparent enrichment of these organisms in the benzene-degrading sediments. These results suggest that Geobacter spp. play an important role in the anaerobic oxidation of benzene in the Bemidji aquifer and that molecular community analysis may be a powerful tool for predicting a site's capacity for anaerobic benzene degradation.  (+info)

Wikiquote has quotations related to Benzene. Scholia has a chemical profile for Benzene. Benzene at The Periodic Table of ... Alkyne trimerisation of acetylene gives benzene. Complete decarboxylation of mellitic acid gives benzene. Benzene is used ... Benzene molecules have been detected on Mars. X-ray diffraction shows that all six carbon-carbon bonds in benzene are of the ... Benzene causes cancer in animals including humans. Benzene has been shown to cause cancer in both sexes of multiple species of ...
... (C6H6) is a hypothetical hydrocarbon and an isomer of benzene. It was proposed by Adolf Karl Ludwig Claus in ... Although it is often referred to alongside Dewar benzene and prismane, it is not possible to synthesise it, while Dewar benzene ... Warren, D. S.; Gimarc, B. M. (1992). "Valence isomers of benzene and their relationship to isomers of isoelectronic P6". ... 1867 as a possible structure for benzene at a time when the structure of benzene was still being debated. The molecule can be ...
Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon. Benzene or related words may also refer to: Benzene (data page) The homophones benzene and ... is a song by Rammstein Benzene Convention, 1971 Benzyne, the hydrocarbon 1,2-didehydrobenzene Benzene were an Israeli band ... Look up benzene (disambiguation) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... featuring Yehuda Poliker This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Benzene. If an internal link led you ...
... may refer to: Hexachlorocyclohexane Lindane, its gamma isomer, an insecticide Hexachlorobenzene, a ... fungicide This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Benzene hexachloride. If an internal link led you ...
... , also known as phenyliodine(III) diacetate (PIDA) is a hypervalent iodine chemical with the formula C 6H ... For example, it can be used to prepare (bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo)benzene (phenyliodine(III) bis(trifluoroacetate), PIFA) by ... 5, p. 660 Moriarty, Robert M.; Chany, Calvin J.; Kosmeder, Jerome W.; Du Bois, Justin (2001). "(Diacetoxyiodo)benzene". ... and benzene have been reported, using either sodium perborate or potassium peroxydisulfate as the oxidizing agent: C6H6 + I2 + ...
... , 1971 is an International Labour Organization Convention. It was established in 1971: Having decided upon ... the adoption of certain proposals with regard to protection against hazards arising from benzene,... As of 2013, the convention ...
... (C6D6) is an isotopologue of benzene (C6H6) in which the hydrogen atom ("H") is replaced with deuterium ( ... heavy hydrogen) isotope ("D"). The properties of deuterated benzene are very similar to those of normal benzene, however, the ... Deuterated benzene will undergo all the same reactions its normal analogue will, just a little more slowly due to the kinetic ... For example, deuterated benzene could be used in the synthesis of deuterated benzoic acid, if desired: Many simple ...
Unlike benzene, Dewar benzene is not flat because the carbons where the rings join are bonded to four atoms rather than three. ... Dewar benzene (also spelled dewarbenzene) or bicyclo[2.2.0]hexa-2,5-diene is a bicyclic isomer of benzene with the molecular ... Prismane and benzvalene were synthesized in the 1970s; Claus' benzene is impossible to synthesize. Hexamethyl Dewar benzene has ... van Tamelen, Eugene E.; Pappas, S. P. (1962). "Chemistry of Dewar Benzene. 1,2,5-Tri-t-Butylbicyclo[2.2.0]Hexa-2,5-Diene". J. ...
... benzene ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 2-aminophenol Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, (hydroxyamino)benzene, and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is (hydroxyamino)benzene hydroxymutase. Other names in common use include HAB mutase, ... In enzymology, a (hydroxyamino)benzene mutase (EC 5.4.4.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (hydroxyamino) ...
MSDS for benzene is available at AMOCO. Table data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 44th ed. Note: (s) ... "ETP Entropy of Benzene" (Queriable database). Dortmund Data Bank. Retrieved 7 October 2011. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry 10th ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on benzene. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety precautions. ... Material Safety Data Sheet for benzene: Brown; LeMay; Bursten (2006). Chemistry: The Central Science. Upper Saddle River, NJ: ...
Gilbert T. M. Bauer C. B., Rogers R. D. (1996). "Structures of (η6-benzene dimethylacetal)- and (η6-benzene diethylacetal) ... benzene)tricarbonylchromium is substantially more electrophilic than benzene itself, allowing it to undergo nucleophilic ... Benzene)tricarbonylchromium was first reported in 1957 by Fischer and Öfele, who prepared the compound by the carbonylation of ... Benzene)chromium tricarbonyl is an organometallic compound with the formula Cr(C6H6)(CO)3. This yellow crystalline solid ...
... is the organometallic compound with the formula Cr(η6-C6H6)2. It is sometimes called dibenzenechromium. ... It was first prepared by Hafner and Fischer by the reaction of CrCl3, aluminium, and benzene, in the presence of AlCl3. This so ... Seyferth, D. (2002). "Bis(benzene)chromium. 2. Its Discovery by E. O. Fischer and W. Hafner and Subsequent Work by the Research ... doi:10.1002/0470862106.ia137 Seyferth, D. (2002). "Bis(benzene)chromium. 1. Franz Hein at the University of Leipzig and Harold ...
... reacts with Lewis bases to give monometallic adducts: [(C6H6)RuCl2]2 + 2 PPh3 → 2 (C6H6) ... Benzene)ruthenium dichloride dimer is the organoruthenium compound with the formula [(C6H6)RuCl2]2. This red-coloured, ... As verified by X-ray crystallography, each Ru center is coordinated to three chloride ligands and a η6-benzene. The complex can ... J. Canivet; B. Therrien; G. Suss-Fink (2005). "Di-μ-chlorobis[(η6-benzene) chlororuthenium(II)] Chloroform Disolvate". Acta ...
In enzymology, a benzene 1,2-dioxygenase (EC 1.14.12.3) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction benzene + NADH + H+ ... Other names in common use include benzene hydroxylase, and benzene dioxygenase. This enzyme participates in naphthalene and ... I Enzymatic formation of catechol from benzene". Biochemistry. 7 (7): 2653-62. doi:10.1021/bi00847a031. PMID 4298226. Portal: ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is benzene,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1,2-hydroxylating). ...
... , C 6H 5I(OCOCF 3) 2, is a hypervalent iodine compound used as a reagent in organic chemistry ... benzene: It can also be prepared by dissolving diacetoxyiodobenzene (a commercially-available compound) with heating in ...
... is of potential concern due to the carcinogenic nature of the benzene molecule. This contamination is a ... "Dispute Over Benzene In Drinks", Chemical and Engineering News, April 24, [2006], Vol. 84, pg 10. A Follow up survey of benzene ... By 1993, FDA determined that most drinks had little benzene contamination. In 1993, research showed how benzene can form from ... May 19, 2006, "Data on Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages" Indications of the possible formation of benzene from ...
... is the organosulfur compound with the formula C6H4(SH)2. This colourless viscous liquid consists of a ... benzene ring with a pair of adjacent thiol groups. The conjugate base of this diprotic compound serves as chelating agent in ...
... is an organophosphorus compound with the formula C6H4(PCl2)2. A viscous colorless liquid, it ...
... (dppbz) is an organophosphorus compound with the formula C6H4(PPh2)2 (Ph = C6H5). Classified ... Csákÿ, Aurelio G.; Molina, María Teresa (2011). "1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic ... benzene". Chemical Communications (10): 1216-1218. doi:10.1039/B820879D. PMID 19240878. ...
... (diars) is the organoarsenic compound with the formula C6H4(As(CH3)2)2. The molecule consists of ... two dimethylarsino groups attached to adjacent carbon centers of a benzene ring. It is a chelating ligand in coordination ...
... is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(CCl3)2. A white solid, it is prepared industrially ... It reacts with hydrogen fluoride in 1,2-dichloroethane to form 1,4-bis(chlorodifluoromethyl)benzene in a yield of 79%. ... Dolbier, William R.; Duan, Jian-Xin; Rong, Xiao X. (2007). "Efficient synthesis of p-bis-(chlorodifluoromethyl)benzene". ...
The C3-benzenes are a class of organic aromatic compounds which contain a benzene ring and three other carbon atoms. For the ... Petrol (gasoline) can contain 3-4% C3-benzenes. 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene or Hemellitene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene or Pseudocumene 1, ...
The C4-benzenes are a class of organic aromatic compounds which contain a benzene ring and four other carbon atoms. There are ... C4-benzenes are found in petroleum. Petrol (gasoline) can contain 5-8% C4-benzenes. 1,2,3,4-Tetramethylbenzene or Prehnitene 1, ... "C4-benzene and C4-naphthalene thermal maturity indicators for pyrolysates, oils and condensates". The Geochemical Society ...
The C2benzenes are a class of organic aromatic compounds which contain a benzene ring and two other carbon atoms. For the ...
Benzene, in particular, has multiple biomarkers that can be measured to determine exposure. Benzene itself can be measured in ... For example, benzene has been shown to have a relationship with leukemia, however studies examining benzene exposure and ... BTX stands for benzene, toluene, xylene. This is a group of common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are found in the oil ... "Benzene". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. December 4, 2014. Archived from the original on May 13, 2022. ...
... benzene > naphthalene > fulvene > cyclopentadiene > anthracene > butadiene Dienophile: N2 > CO2 > naphthalene > benzene, ...
"Benzene". ToxTown. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 28 September 2017. "Chemical Profile: Benzene". Scorecard. ... Benzene is also a carcinogen, meaning it can cause cancer if one is exposed to it for a long period of time. It is ranked in ... Benzene is a clear liquid and can be described as being sweet smelling. It was once one of the top 20 used chemicals in the ... Chemicals dumped on the site are believed to be 1,2-Dichloroethane, arsenic, benzene, chloroform, lead, and vinyl chloride, all ...
... includes ... acetaldehyde; antimony compounds; arsenic; benzene; beryllium compounds; bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate ...
In 1899 this led to the prediction of the resonance that existed in benzene, and he proposed a resonance structure, by using a ... Benzene.), pages 125-129. Shorter, Edward (2005). A historical dictionary of psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press. ... He also recognized that these deeply colored species were related to but isomeric with benzene derivatives. According to one of ... With his associate Otto Holzinger, he synthesised an iminodibenzyl nucleus: two benzene rings attached together by a nitrogen ...
... benzene. The best description of benzene had been made by the German chemist Friedrich Kekulé. He had treated it as a rapid ... V. The Quantum-Mechanical Calculation of the Resonance Energy of Benzene and Naphthalene and the Hydrocarbon Free Radicals" ( ... Pauling, Linus (1934-01-06). "Benzene". Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections. Retrieved 2008-02-29. Pauling, ...
Information on Benzene. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ... A major source of benzene exposure is tobacco smoke. How benzene works *Benzene works by causing cells not to work correctly. ... What benzene is *Benzene is a chemical that is a colorless or light yellow liquid at room temperature. It has a sweet odor and ... First, if the benzene was released into the air, get fresh air by leaving the area where the benzene was released. Moving to an ...
Benzene can cause blood cancers like leukemia. Workers may be harmed from exposure to benzene. ... Benzene is a highly flammable, colorless liquid that evaporates quickly into the air. It is harmful to the eyes, skin, airway, ... American Cancer Society: Benzene. International Resources. *Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS): Benzene ... Benzene can cause blood cancers like leukemia. Workers may be harmed from exposure to benzene. The level of exposure depends ...
Breathing benzene can cause drowsiness, dizziness, and unconsciousness; long-term benzene exposure causes effects on the bone ... Benzene has been found in at least 813 of the 1,430 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection ... Benzene is a widely used chemical formed from both natural processes and human activities. ... How can benzene affect children?. Children can be affected by benzene exposure in the same ways as adults. It is not known if ...
Benzene is classified as a human carcinogen present in the environment from both natural sources and human activity, and it has ... "Daily exposure to benzene at the levels detected in these affected Coppertone aerosol sunscreen spray products would not be ... The presence of benzene has prompted voluntary company recalls of antifungal foot sprays and sunscreen products, all aerosol ... Cite this: Benzene Testing Prompts Recalls of Spray Antifungals and Sunscreens - Medscape - Oct 08, 2021. ...
Testing Status of Benzene 10389-Y. Testing Status of Benzene 10389-Y. CASRN: 71-43-2. Formula: C6-H6. Synonyms/Common Names. * ... Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei. ... Benzene dosimetry in experimental animals: relevance for risk assessment. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1992;374:93-105.Pubmed Abstract ... Metabolism of [14C]benzene by cynomolgus monkeys and chimpanzees. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1992 Jun;114(2):277-84.Pubmed ...
Oth, J.F.M., The kinetics and thermochemistry of the thermal rearrangement of hexamethyl(Dewar benzene) and of ...
Benzene poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in, or touches benzene. It is a member of a class of compounds known ... Benzene is a clear, liquid, petroleum-based chemical that has a sweet smell. ... Benzene poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in, or touches benzene. It is a member of a class of compounds known ... Benzene. www.atsdr.cdc.gov/sites/toxzine/benzene_toxzine.html. Updated October 14, 2015. Accessed April 20, 2022. ...
Benzene / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour ... Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to benzene, a naturally occurring chemical found in ... Preventing disease through healthy environments: exposure to benzene: a major public health concern  ...
Scalp Sunscreen Spray SPF 30 products after samples contained the cancer-causing chemical benzene. ... While benzene is not an ingredient in any Banana Boat products, the review showed that unexpected levels of benzene came from ... FLORIDA COMPANY RECALLS HAND SANITIZER DUE TO BENZENE. It's the same issue that led Procter & Gamble to recall over 30 of ... Edgewell said that no adverse events related to this recall have been reported, and that daily exposure to benzene in the ...
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Also known as: Benzol, Mineral Naphtha, Phenyl Hydride, Annulene What is benzene? Benzene is a widely used industrial chemical ... Benzene is found in crude oil and is a major part of gasoline. Its used to make plastics, resins, synthetic fibers, rubber ... Learn what you need to know about benzene. ... What is benzene?. Benzene is a widely used industrial chemical ... Where is benzene found?. Benzene is produced naturally by volcanoes and forest fires. In homes, benzene may be found in glues, ...
benzene-degrading enrichment culture. Taxonomy ID: 2014237 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid2014237). current ...
Benzene research in China informs EPA regulation September / October 2015 , Volume 14, Issue 5 * Full September / October 2015 ... Benzene is used in the production of shoes, leather, rubber goods, paint and pesticides, for example, and in the shipping and ... Benzene also is contained in gasoline, so vehicle exhaust and fumes at gas pumps can reach anyone, although the amounts are ... Linet says the benzene research conducted in China produced findings that couldnt have been achieved in the West because of ...
Information on Benzene. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ... A major source of benzene exposure is tobacco smoke. How benzene works *Benzene works by causing cells not to work correctly. ... What benzene is *Benzene is a chemical that is a colorless or light yellow liquid at room temperature. It has a sweet odor and ... First, if the benzene was released into the air, get fresh air by leaving the area where the benzene was released. Moving to an ...
... [ ... Prenatal Benzene Exposure in Mice Alters Offspring Hypothalamic Development Predisposing to Metabolic Disease in Later Life. ... Abstract Prenatal Benzene Exposure in Mice Alters Offspring Hypothalamic Development Predisposing to Metabolic Disease in Later ... Life] [Synopsis Prenatal Benzene Exposure in Mice Alters Offspring Hypothalamic Development Predisposing to Metabolic Disease ...
Natural sources of benzene include emissions from volcanoes and… ... Benzene is a volatile chemical formed from both natural processes and human activities. ... Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. Benzene is widely used in the United States, ... Benzene is a volatile chemical formed from both natural processes and human activities. Natural sources of benzene include ...
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... gum benzene, also known as Benjamin, was the source of the word benzene. An aromatic resin was thought to be gum benzoin. ... English scientist Michael Faraday made the initial discovery of benzene in lighting gas. German chemist Mitscherich gave ... Is benzene dangerous to people?. Ans. The chemical benzene does indeed pose some health risks. Constant benzene exposure causes ... Uses of Benzene. Benzene is used in several industry segments. Benzene, a chemical that is widely used in industry, can be ...
... synthesised and structurally characterised boron-nitrogen compounds that are isoelectronic and isostructural to benzene. ... In the Journal of the American Chemical Society, Lius team reports that, by using a structural approach, benzene surrogates ... Given the appearance of benzene derivatives in biomedical research and materials science, the boron-nitrogen substituted ... characterised boron-nitrogen compounds that are isoelectronic and isostructural to the fundamentally important benzene molecule ...
benzene-degrading enrichment culture. Taxonomy ID: 2014237 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid2014237). current ...
Benzene, which is used primarily as a solvent in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, is known to cause leukemia or other ... Dry Shampoo Added to List of Products Contaminated With Benzene. - Findings represent the highest levels found in a consumer ... For example, Not Your Mothers dry shampoo had a benzene concentration of up to 340 ppm. Other brands whose products contained ... "The detection of high levels of benzene in dry shampoos should be cause for significant concern since these products are likely ...
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... several large-scale studies of benzene concentrations in air, food, and blood have added to our knowledge of its environmental ... Environmental exposure to benzene: an update L Wallace. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Dec. ... Major sources of benzene exposure. Wallace LA. Wallace LA. Environ Health Perspect. 1989 Jul;82:165-9. doi: 10.1289/ehp.8982165 ... Benzene Exposures and Risk Potential for Vehicle Mechanics from Gasoline and Petroleum-Derived Products. Williams PR, Mani A. ...
The global benzene market size was estimated at USD 44.07 billion in 2021 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth ... Benzene Market Size, Share, Trends & Growth Report, 2030 GVR Report cover Benzene Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report ... What is the benzene market growth? b. The global benzene market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 6.1% ... How big is the Benzene market? b. The global benzene market size was estimated at USD 44.07 billion in 2021 and is expected to ...
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FDA found dangerous levels of benzene in Aveeno, Coppertone and Neutrogena sunscreens, but they didnt tell the public at the ... Benzene is a chemical that people are exposed to daily through both natural and human activities. Its used regularly in U.S. ... Benzene Contamination Found In Aerosol Sunscreen. Valisure, a patient advisory, consumer protection, and research and ... The FDA advises that the benzene levels of consumer products and drugs should be no more than two parts per million. ...
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  • Some women who breathed high levels of benzene for many months had irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. (cdc.gov)
  • Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia, cancer of the blood-forming organs. (cdc.gov)
  • Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia, particularly acute myelogenous leukemia, often referred to as AML. (cdc.gov)
  • Eating or drinking foods containing high levels of benzene can cause vomiting, irritation of · Industrial processes are the main source of benzene the stomach, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, rapid in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Certain metabolites can be measured in the Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the urine. (cdc.gov)
  • Those compounds can be found in the blood or urine of people who have been exposed to high levels of benzene within the past two days. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The detection of high levels of benzene in dry shampoos should be cause for significant concern since these products are likely used indoors, where benzene may linger and be inhaled for prolonged periods of time," David Light, CEO of Valisure, said in a press release. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Valisure , a patient advisory, consumer protection, and research and development group, published a report in May that its researchers had found high levels of benzene in several brands and batches of sunscreen and after-sun care products, both of which are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. (katc.com)
  • Because of the high levels of benzene, the FDA report concluded there was a likelihood of serious adverse effects, including potential for life-threatening issues 0r "permanent impairment of a body function. (katc.com)
  • A major source of benzene exposure is tobacco smoke. (cdc.gov)
  • The seriousness of poisoning caused by benzene depends on the amount, route, and length of time of exposure, as well as the age and preexisting medical condition of the exposed person. (cdc.gov)
  • Direct exposure of the eyes, skin, or lungs to benzene can cause tissue injury and irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • The major effect of benzene from long-term exposure is on the blood. (cdc.gov)
  • It is not known whether benzene exposure affects the developing fetus in pregnant women or fertility in men. (cdc.gov)
  • Moving to an area with fresh air is a good way to reduce the possibility of death from exposure to benzene in the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to benzene. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to benzene. (cdc.gov)
  • Criteria for a Recommended Standard (Revised): Exposure to Benzene. (cdc.gov)
  • Presents a revised standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to benzene over a working lifetime. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH Criteria Documents: Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Benzene - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 74-137 (1974). (cdc.gov)
  • long-term benzene exposure causes effects on the bone marrow and can cause anemia and leukemia. (cdc.gov)
  • Vapors (or gases) from products that contain benzene, such as glues, paints, furniture wax, and detergents, can also be a source of exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Children can be affected by benzene exposure in the same ways as adults. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risks of exposure to benzene? (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene exposure can be reduced by limiting contact with gasoline and cigarette smoke. (cdc.gov)
  • The metabolite S-phenylmercapturic acid in urine air can cause leukemia, particularly acute myelogenous is a sensitive indicator of benzene exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene is classified as a human carcinogen present in the environment from both natural sources and human activity, and it has been shown to cause cancer with long-term exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Daily exposure to benzene at the levels detected in these affected Coppertone aerosol sunscreen spray products would not be expected to cause adverse health consequences based on generally accepted exposure modeling by numerous regulatory agencies," according to the announcement. (medscape.com)
  • Genetic variation in isogenic strains of laboratory mice alters disposition after acute exposure to [14C]-benzene. (nih.gov)
  • Studies of genetic variation in isogenic mouse strains following exposure to [14C]-benzene. (nih.gov)
  • S-phenylcysteine formation in hemoglobin as a biological exposure index to benzene. (nih.gov)
  • Muconic acid determinations in urine as a biological exposure index for workers occupationally exposed to benzene. (nih.gov)
  • People who have regular exposure to low levels of benzene can also become sick. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposure to benzene, a naturally occurring chemical found in crude petroleum and manufactured in extremely large quantities worldwide. (who.int)
  • According to the recall notice, exposure to benzene can potentially 'result in cancers including leukemia and blood cancer of the bone marrow and blood disorders which can be life threatening. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Edgewell said that no adverse events related to this recall have been reported, and that 'daily exposure to benzene in the recalled products would not be expected to cause adverse health consequences according to an independent health assessment using established exposure modeling guidelines. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Benzene exposure through skin contact with gasoline or other solvents is possible. (wisconsin.gov)
  • If benzene concentrations in air are above the action level, we recommend taking an action to halt exposure. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Long-term exposure to benzene can increase the risk of developing leukemia. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Exposure to benzene can cause anemia and weaken the immune system. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Exposure to benzene in workplaces has caused menstrual variations. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Tests will prove an exposure to benzene occurred but will not predict the kind of illness that could result. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Studies of Chinese factory workers contributed to action in the U.S. and China to reduce exposure to benzene, a known carcinogen used in manufacturing and contained in gasoline. (nih.gov)
  • The research contributed to the U.S. decision limiting benzene in gasoline and Chinese regulations reducing workplace exposure to the cancer-causing chemical. (nih.gov)
  • Benzene also is contained in gasoline, so vehicle exhaust and fumes at gas pumps can reach anyone, although the amounts are substantially lower than in occupational exposure. (nih.gov)
  • The findings played a role in China's decision in 2002 to lower the permitted occupational exposure level for benzene. (nih.gov)
  • We have shown a number of different cancers appear to be related to benzene exposure," Linet says. (nih.gov)
  • Other studies of Chinese factory workers by different research teams have shown a link between occupational exposure to benzene and abnormalities in sperm, even at levels near what's allowed in the U.S. And small studies have found links between benzene exposure and sperm with abnormal chromosomes and genetic mutations that can cause intellectual disability. (nih.gov)
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recognizes benzene as a hazardous material and imposes strict exposure limits in the workplace. (skillsoft.com)
  • This course presents an overview of benzene and its health risks, and provides information on the occupational requirements and methods to protect against exposure to benzene. (skillsoft.com)
  • The new studies of food concentrations have confirmed earlier indications that food is not an important pathway for benzene exposure. (nih.gov)
  • humans exposed to benzene can suffer from a number of dangerous symptoms, and long-term exposure is linked to disorders of the blood and reproductive effects. (katc.com)
  • In addition, the report stated that "individuals with altered skin absorption (i.e., infants, elderly, broken skin) and individuals who are exposed to benzene from other sources (e.g. smokers or occupational/environmental exposure) may be at greater risk. (katc.com)
  • HarrisMartin's Benzene & Emerging Toxic Torts Litigation Report will track recent developments in litigation stemming from exposure to benzene, as well as a number of other emerging areas of toxic tort litigation, such as talc, silica, pesticides and other chemical exposures. (harrismartin.com)
  • Human exposure to benzene is widespread through the air, in consumer products, and in industry. (who.int)
  • Because benzene is a well-established human carcinogen, the book gives particular attention to data relating patterns, levels, and duration of exposure to health hazards in both the general population and exposed workers. (who.int)
  • For indoor environments, data show that cigarette smoke results in the exposure of non-smokers as well as smokers to important levels of benzene. (who.int)
  • Because the health risk of low-level benzene exposure is not yet clearly established, the report concludes that exposure should be avoided as much as possible. (who.int)
  • During the 1990s, several large-scale studies of benzene concentrations in air, food, and blood have added to our knowledge of its environmental occurrence. (nih.gov)
  • The most extensive section reviews the large number of toxicity studies of benzene. (who.int)
  • Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. (cdc.gov)
  • The most common way people are exposed to benzene is when they fill their car with gasoline. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Although the recall statement from Johnson & Johnson notes that people are exposed to benzene daily from multiple sources, experts express that the levels found in these products are alarming. (katc.com)
  • The air around hazardous waste sites or gas stations can contain higher levels of benzene than in other areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Air around hazardous waste sites or gas stations will contain higher levels of benzene. (cdc.gov)
  • contain higher levels of benzene. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that benzene is a known carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Human Services (DHHS) has determined that benzene is a exposed to, since the metabolites may be present in urine known carcinogen. (cdc.gov)
  • Dry shampoo has joined the growing list of cosmetic and hygiene products that contain benzene, a known human carcinogen, according to an analysis from the independent laboratory Valisure . (medpagetoday.com)
  • The suit alleged independent laboratory tests had shown both companies had drinks contaminated with benzene, a known carcinogen, above the five parts per billion legal limit for benzene in tap water across the US. (beveragedaily.com)
  • Benzene is produced naturally by volcanoes and forest fires. (wisconsin.gov)
  • If the level of benzene in your water is higher than 100 ppb, you may also need to avoid washing, bathing or using the water for other purposes. (wisconsin.gov)
  • We do not know what level of benzene break-down products are common in most people, since most people are regularly exposed to some amount of benzene. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Industrial processes are the main source of benzene in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • While Valisure has detected benzene in other household products, Light said this assessment makes it much more evident that propellants in aerosol products are a potential source of benzene contamination. (medpagetoday.com)
  • No standards exist for regulating the amount of benzene allowed in the air of homes. (wisconsin.gov)
  • I think that it is even more concerning that we may be underestimating -- pretty significantly -- the amount of benzene that we're finding," Light noted, adding that the SIFT-MS technology should be rapidly adopted to evaluate consumer spray products. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The presence of benzene has prompted voluntary company recalls of antifungal foot sprays and sunscreen products, all aerosol spray products. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, Coppertone has issued a voluntary recall of specific lots of five spray sunscreen products because of the presence of benzene, according to a Sept. 30th company announcement , also posted on the FDA website. (medscape.com)
  • Then, in July, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc. issued a voluntary recall of specific Neutrogena and Aveeno aerosol sunscreen products due to the presence of benzene. (katc.com)
  • The presence of benzene in gasoline and in cigarette smoke, combined with its widespread use as an industrial solvent, has resulted in the presence of this chemical in the environment. (who.int)
  • Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene is found in crude oil and is a major part of gasoline. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The studies also influenced the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) regulations that reduced the permitted benzene in gasoline and tailpipe emissions to improve outdoor air quality. (nih.gov)
  • Naturally occurring benzene is present in crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • The automotive industry is increasing continuously with the introduction of a new range of electric vehicles has also resulted in an increase in demand for benzene as styrene is used in the production of tires and several body parts of both diesel or gasoline-powered vehicles and electric vehicles. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • This is attributed to an increase in the usage of low octane straight run naphtha containing the naphthenes for the production of low-sulfur fuel used in gasoline and high-octane aromatic benzene. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Ethyl Benzene among all the derivatives of benzene dominated the market with a revenue share of 53.69 % in 2022. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Given the appearance of benzene derivatives in biomedical research and materials science, the boron-nitrogen substituted analogues could potentially play a pivotal role in these areas. (scientistlive.com)
  • 1 In another study, an equilibrium between H‐azepines and benzene-imine and their N-derivatives was described at room and low temperatures. (nih.gov)
  • Tthe report concludes that most humans are exposed to trace levels, with much higher levels seen in cigarette smokers, those exposed to sidestream smoke, residents in areas of heavy automobile traffic, and workers involved in the production, handling, and use of benzene and its derivatives. (who.int)
  • The sort of reaction that produces most benzene reactions is an aromatic electrophilic substitution that replaces one of the hydrogen atoms connected to it while maintaining the structure of the ring. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • The smell of benzene is aromatic. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Benzene, a simple aromatic hydrocarbon, occurs naturally and as a result of human activity, notably as a result of combustion, and it is a high-volume chemical now used mostly as a chemical intermediate. (who.int)
  • Benzene is a chemical that is a colorless or light yellow liquid at room temperature. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are near a release of benzene, emergency coordinators may tell you to either evacuate the area or to "shelter in place" inside a building to avoid being exposed to the chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • If you work in an industry that uses benzene, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene is a widely used chemical formed from both natural processes and human activities. (cdc.gov)
  • HIGHTLIGHTS: Benzene is a widely used chemical formed from both natural processes and human activities. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene is a clear, liquid, petroleum-based chemical that has a sweet smell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Edgewell Personal Care Company expanded the recall of its Banana Boat Hair & Scalp sunscreen products due to the presence of the cancer-causing chemical benzene. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Benzene is a widely used industrial chemical. (wisconsin.gov)
  • In the chemical molecule benzene, these atoms are hydrogens. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • The chemical compound known as benzene is colourless and liquid. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • In the Journal of the American Chemical Society, Liu's team reports that, by using a structural approach, benzene surrogates known as 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborines possess electron-localised structures consistent with aromaticity -- a core concept in chemistry. (scientistlive.com)
  • Benzene, which is used primarily as a solvent in chemical and pharmaceutical industries, is known to cause leukemia or other blood disorders in humans. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Benzene is a chemical that people are exposed to daily through both natural and human activities. (katc.com)
  • More lawsuits have been filed against soft drinks firms alleging their drinks were contaminated with the cancer-causing chemical benzene above America's legal limit for drinking water. (beveragedaily.com)
  • This volume presents an evaluation of the carcinogenicity of benzene, updating with new data the most recent evaluation provided in Volume 100F of the IARC Monographs . (who.int)
  • An IARC Monographs Working Group reviewed epidemiological studies, animal cancer bioassays, and mechanistic data to assess the carcinogenicity of benzene and conducted quantitative analyses of data on genotoxicity and human cancer risks. (who.int)
  • Particular attention is given to the numerous animal studies demonstrating carcinogenicity and exploring the mechanisms by which benzene damages bone marrow and exerts its other toxic effects. (who.int)
  • Ress NB, Witt KL, Xu J, Haseman JK, Bucher JR. Micronucleus induction in mice exposed to diazoaminobenzene or its metabolites, benzene and aniline: implications for diazoaminobenzene carcinogenicity. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the new studies found that personal exposures exceeded indoor concentrations of benzene, which in turn exceeded outdoor concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • In May 2021, online pharmacy Valisure, which routinely tests their medications, petitioned the FDA to recall specific sunscreens after detecting high benzene levels in several brands and batches of sunscreen products. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Benzene Testing Prompts Recalls of Spray Antifungals and Sunscreens - Medscape - Oct 08, 2021. (medscape.com)
  • The global benzene market size was estimated at USD 44.07 billion in 2021 and is expected to expand at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.1% from 2022 to 2030. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Dry shampoos often contain propellants such as butane, isobutane, or propane, which may all be sources of benzene contamination. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The FDA has alerted drug manufacturers to benzene contamination in recent months, clarifying that they should appropriately test their products for levels above 2 ppm. (medpagetoday.com)
  • As a result, Valisure requested a recall and better-defined limits for benzene contamination in drug and cosmetic products. (katc.com)
  • Quality concerns of benzene contamination have been recognized in drug products across many different formulations. (nih.gov)
  • Offices within OPQ are collaborating to develop and validate a universal gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to assess drug products for benzene contamination. (nih.gov)
  • Under the guidance of the mentor, the participant will gain knowledge on the development of an analytical method based upon multiple standards for industry guidance, and the quality assessment of drug products for benzene contamination. (nih.gov)
  • Benzene is used in the production of shoes, leather, rubber goods, paint and pesticides, for example, and in the shipping and refinement of crude oil. (nih.gov)
  • Benzene evaporates into the air very quickly. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene (C 6 H 6 ) is a highly flammable, colorless liquid that evaporates quickly into the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Outdoor air contains low levels of benzene from evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly tobacco smoke, automobile service stations, exhaust in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene quickly evaporates from water or soil. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Benzene evaporates quickly from contaminated water. (wisconsin.gov)
  • In the body, benzene is converted to products called metabolites. (cdc.gov)
  • The effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and species on tissue and blood levels of benzene metabolites. (nih.gov)
  • A high pressure liquid chromatographic method for the separation and quantitation of water-soluble radiolabeled benzene metabolites. (nih.gov)
  • Useful search terms for benzene include "benzol" and "phenyl hydride. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene can cause blood cancers like leukemia. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Valisure has previously detected unlawful levels of benzene in hand sanitizers , sunscreens , and spray deodorants . (medpagetoday.com)
  • When Johnson & Johnson issued a voluntary recall of Neutrogena and Aveeno sunscreens containing benzene, the company said they posed no threat to the general public. (katc.com)
  • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH) of Benzene - NIOSH reviews relevant scientific data and researches methods for developing IDLH values. (cdc.gov)
  • Some industries use benzene to make other chemicals that are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. (cdc.gov)
  • it ranks in the benzene, such as glues, paints, furniture wax, and top 20 chemicals for production volume. (cdc.gov)
  • use benzene to make other chemicals which are used to · Air around hazardous waste sites or gas stations will make plastics, resins, and nylon and other synthetic fibers. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene is widely used in the United States, ranking in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. (skillsoft.com)
  • Benzene is used as a feedstock in the petrochemical industry for the production of different chemicals such as resin, plastic , synthetic fibers , and nylon by using different methods such as steam cracking or catalytic reforming of crude oil. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • While benzene is not an ingredient in any Banana Boat products , the review showed that unexpected levels of benzene came from the propellant that sprays the product out of the can,' the company said in its recall announcement. (foxbusiness.com)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has determined that benzene causes cancer in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia. (cdc.gov)
  • Animal studies have shown low birth weights, delayed bone formation, and bone marrow damage when pregnant animals breathed benzene. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the increasing petrochemical industry in the U.S. and North America as a whole as well as the availability of crude oil is acting as a driving factor for increasing the demand for benzene in the region. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Benzene has been found in at least 1,000 of the 1,684 National Priority List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene is soluble in certain organic solvents but benzene is not miscible in water. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • 1.1 This test method covers the determination of asphalt fume particulate matter(as benzene soluble fraction) and total particulate matter weight in workplace atmospheres using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter methodology. (astm.org)
  • Outdoor air contains low levels of benzene from tobacco smoke, gas stations, motor vehicle exhaust, and industrial emissions. (cdc.gov)
  • Indoor air generally contains levels of benzene higher than those in outdoor air. (cdc.gov)
  • People working in industries that make or use benzene may be exposed to the highest levels of it. (cdc.gov)
  • Outdoor air contains low levels of benzene from tobacco smoke, automobile service stations, exhaust from motor vehicles, and industrial emissions. (cdc.gov)
  • The recall was first issued after the company discovered that some samples of the product contained trace levels of benzene. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Roughly one year ago, Sure and Brut-branded deodorants and antiperspirant aerosol sprays distributed across North America were also recalled after officials discovered 'unexpected levels' of benzene that came from propellant that sprays the product out of the can. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Drowsiness, headaches, and dizziness have been reported when people breathed air with benzene levels of more than 10 ppm (10,000 ppbv) for a short time. (wisconsin.gov)
  • and that benzene can have a toxic effect on blood even at or below levels generally considered acceptable in workplaces in Western countries. (nih.gov)
  • While China's occupational benzene levels have decreased in recent years, the environment was quite different in the 1980s. (nih.gov)
  • Of 148 batches of dry shampoo spray from 34 different companies, 70% contained quantifiable levels of benzene. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Other brands whose products contained benzene levels above the FDA limit included Paul Mitchell, Sun Bum, Batiste, Sebastian, and Redken, among others. (medpagetoday.com)
  • They also asked the agency to redefine and clarify benzene limits in cosmetics and other regulated products, noting that their findings represent the highest and most broadly detected levels of benzene that it has found in a consumer product to date. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The company's analysis of dry shampoo products follows a voluntary recall from Unilever, which pulled several dry shampoo products due to elevated levels of benzene, including those from Dove, Nexxus, Suave, Bedhead, and TRESemmé. (medpagetoday.com)
  • For their analysis, Valisure collaborated with Syft Technologies to conduct tests of benzene levels in the air after spraying dry shampoo products, using Selected Ion Flow Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) technology, which may be able to capture more benzene than previously used methods, Light said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, according to an investigation from Consumer Reports , a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) "Health Hazard Evaluation" on these products completed ahead of the recall found that they contained levels of benzene that were likely to cause serious adverse effects, including "permanent impairment of a body function. (katc.com)
  • The FDA advises that the benzene levels of consumer products and drugs should be no more than two parts per million. (katc.com)
  • The FDA and soft drinks industry have known for 15 that these two ingredients could react to form benzene in drinks, as well as that exposing such a drink to heat could significantly raise benzene levels. (beveragedaily.com)
  • The FDA has stressed that benzene levels it has found in recent testing did not pose an immediate health risk to consumers, but that some reformulation would be required. (beveragedaily.com)
  • Benzene leaks from underground storage tanks or from hazardous waste sites containing benzene can contaminate well water. (cdc.gov)
  • If benzene leaks from buried storage tanks or landfills, it can contaminate nearby drinking water wells. (wisconsin.gov)
  • You can smell benzene when the level reaches 5,000 ppbv. (wisconsin.gov)
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the EPA have determined that benzene is carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • The benzene in indoor air comes from products that contain benzene such as glues, paints, furniture wax, and detergents. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene is found in products that are made from coal and petroleum. (cdc.gov)
  • Where is benzene found? (wisconsin.gov)
  • Some products contained up to 170 times the FDA-imposed benzene limit of 2 parts per million (ppm), Valisure found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Renewed concerns about its presence in soft drinks have grown since a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientist revealed to BeverageDaily.com ​ in February that recent tests had again found some soft drinks with benzene above the US water limit. (beveragedaily.com)
  • Benzene is widely used in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • If a person vomits because of swallowing foods or beverages containing benzene, the vomit could be sucked into the lungs and cause breathing problems and coughing. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene in the air can attach to rain or snow and be leading to anemia. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene causes harmful effects on the down within a few days. (cdc.gov)
  • Benzene can be harmful if it is swallowed, inhaled, or touched. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Breathing benzene for a lifetime at 0.95 ppbv is very unlikely to be harmful to people. (wisconsin.gov)
  • How well someone does depends on how much benzene they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some industries, benzene is used to make other compounds that are utilised to make synthetic fibres like nylon, plastics, and resins. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Bayer has voluntarily recalled batches of its Lotrimin and Tinactin products because of benzene detected in some samples, according to an Oct. 1 company announcement , available on the Food and Drug Administration website. (medscape.com)
  • Other products may also contain benzene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People who work with benzene products should only do so in areas with good air flow. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most benzene in the environment comes from our use of petroleum products. (wisconsin.gov)
  • People are also exposed to benzene when they use household products that contain benzene. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Unfortunately, it's not so surprising that we continue to see benzene in consumer products, especially in aerosol consumer products," Light told MedPage Today . (medpagetoday.com)
  • The remaining sections assess the risks to human health posed by benzene in both the general population and in exposed workers, giving particular attention to the numerous epidemiological and case studies that have established benzene as a human leukaemogen. (who.int)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results for benzene - NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Emergency Response Safety and Health Database (ERSH-DB) Benzene: Systemic Agent - ERSH-DB search results for benzene. (cdc.gov)
  • Fully rotationally resolved spectra of three isotopic species of 1:1 clusters of benzene with water (H_2O, D_2O, and HDO) were fit to yield moments of inertia that demonstrate unambiguously that water is positioned above the benzene plane in nearly free internal rotation with both hydrogen atoms pointing toward the π cloud. (caltech.edu)
  • People may be exposed to benzene in factories, refineries, and other industrial settings. (medlineplus.gov)
  • She is co-principal investigator of the benzene collaboration, which has followed more than 110,000 Chinese workers in hundreds of factories in a dozen cities. (nih.gov)
  • Also, because China has so many factories, the workforce was large enough to provide the statistical power to show whether benzene increased the risk of cancer overall and for specific malignancies. (nih.gov)
  • Another benefit was that the Chinese scientists identified government-run factories that had been measuring benzene for a long time, which allowed the researchers to study dose-response. (nih.gov)
  • However, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) has set a residential indoor air action level for benzene at 0.95 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). (wisconsin.gov)