Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
A widely used industrial solvent.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A venomous New World spider with an hourglass-shaped red mark on the abdomen.
Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.
Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
Persons whose profession is to give legal advice and assistance to clients and represent them in legal matters. (American Heritage Dictionary, 3d ed)
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.
An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.

Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene. (1/773)

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol. (2/773)

The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase alpha-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase gamma-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase beta-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with >60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of sigma54 (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase alpha-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not. Benzene was oxidized to phenol, which accumulated transiently before being further oxidized. Toluene was oxidized to a mixture of o-, m-, and p-cresols (39.8, 18, and 41.7%, respectively) and a small amount (0.5%) of benzyl alcohol, none of which were further oxidized. In growth studies Xanthobacter strain Py2 was found to grow on phenol and catechol but not on benzene or toluene; growth on phenol required a functional alkene monooxygenase. However, there is no evidence of genes encoding steps in the metabolism of catechol in the vicinity of the aam gene cluster. This suggests that the inducer specificity of the alkene monooxygenase may have evolved to benefit from the naturally broad substrate specificity of this class of monooxygenase and the ability of the host strain to grow on catechol.  (+info)

Benzene-induced uncoupling of naphthalene dioxygenase activity and enzyme inactivation by production of hydrogen peroxide. (3/773)

Naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) is a multicomponent enzyme system that oxidizes naphthalene to (+)-cis-(1R,2S)-1,2-dihydroxy-1, 2-dihydronaphthalene with consumption of O2 and two electrons from NAD(P)H. In the presence of benzene, NADH oxidation and O2 utilization were partially uncoupled from substrate oxidation. Approximately 40 to 50% of the consumed O2 was detected as hydrogen peroxide. The rate of benzene-dependent O2 consumption decreased with time, but it was partially increased by the addition of catalase in the course of the O2 consumption by NDO. Detailed experiments showed that the total amount of O2 consumed and the rate of benzene-induced O2 consumption increased in the presence of hydrogen peroxide-scavenging agents, and further addition of the terminal oxygenase component (ISPNAP) of NDO. Kinetic studies showed that ISPNAP was irreversibly inactivated in the reaction that contained benzene, but the inactivation was relieved to a high degree in the presence of catalase and partially relieved in the presence of 0.1 mM ferrous ion. Benzene- and naphthalene-reacted ISPNAP gave almost identical visible absorption spectra. In addition, hydrogen peroxide added at a range of 0.1 to 0.6 mM to the reaction mixtures inactivated the reduced ISPNAP containing mononuclear iron. These results show that hydrogen peroxide released during the uncoupling reaction acts both as an inhibitor of benzene-dependent O2 consumption and as an inactivator of ISPNAP. It is proposed that the irreversible inactivation of ISPNAP occurs by a Fenton-type reaction which forms a strong oxidizing agent, hydroxyl radicals (. OH), from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with ferrous mononuclear iron at the active site. Furthermore, when [14C]benzene was used as the substrate, cis-benzene 1,2-dihydrodiol formed by NDO was detected. This result shows that NDO also couples a trace amount of benzene to both O2 consumption and NADH oxidation.  (+info)

Adenosylcobalamin-mediated methyl transfer by toluate cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0. (4/773)

We identified and characterized a methyl transfer activity of the toluate cis-dihydrodiol (4-methyl-3,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol-1-carboxylic acid) dehydrogenase of the TOL plasmid pWW0 towards toluene cis-dihydrodiol (3-methyl-4,5-cyclohexadiene-cis-1, 2-diol). When the purified enzyme from the recombinant Escherichia coli containing the xylL gene was incubated with toluene cis-dihydrodiol in the presence of NAD+, the end products differed depending on the presence of adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12). The enzyme yielded catechol in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, while it gave 3-methylcatechol in the absence of the cofactor. Adenosylcobalamin was transformed to methylcobalamin as a result of the enzyme reaction, which indicates that the methyl group of the substrate was transferred to adenosylcobalamin. Other derivatives of the cobalamin such as aquo (hydroxy)- and cyanocobalamin did not mediate the methyl transfer reaction. The dehydrogenation and methyl transfer reactions were assumed to occur concomitantly, and the methyl transfer reaction seemed to depend on the dehydrogenation. To our knowledge, the enzyme is the first dehydrogenase that shows a methyl transfer activity as well.  (+info)

Determination of the urinary benzene metabolites S-phenylmercapturic acid and trans,trans-muconic acid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (5/773)

To investigate how various levels of exposure affect the metabolic activation pathways of benzene in humans and to examine the relationship between urinary metabolites and other biological markers, we have developed a sensitive and specific liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric assay for simultaneous quantitation of urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA) and trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA). The assay involves spiking urine samples with [13C6]S-PMA and [13C6]t,t-MA as internal standards and clean up of samples by solid-phase extraction with subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (LC-ES-MS/MS-SRM) in the negative ionization mode. The efficacy of this assay was evaluated in human urine specimens from smokers and non-smokers as the benzene-exposed and non-exposed groups. The coefficient of variation of runs on different days (n = 8) for S-PMA was 7% for the sample containing 9.4 microg S-PMA/l urine, that for t,t-MA was 10% for samples containing 0.07 mg t,t-MA/l urine. The mean levels of urinary S-PMA and t,t-MA in smokers were 1.9-fold (P = 0.02) and 2.1-fold (P = 0.03) higher than those in non-smokers. The mean urinary concentration (+/-SE) was 9.1 +/- 1.7 microg S-PMA/g creatinine [median 5.8 microg/g, ranging from not detectable (1 out of 28) to 33.4 microg/g] among smokers. In non-smokers' urine the mean concentration was 4.8 +/- 1.1 microg S-PMA/g creatinine (median 3.6 microg/g, ranging from 1.0 to 19.6 microg/g). For t,t-MA in smokers' urine the mean (+/-SE) was 0.15 +/- 0.03 mg/g creatinine (median 0.11 mg/ g, ranging from 0.005 to 0.34 mg/g); the corresponding mean value for t,t-MA concentration in non-smokers' urine was 0.07 +/- 0.02 mg/g creatinine [median 0.03 mg/g, ranging from undetectable (1 out of 18) to 0.48 mg/g]. There was a correlation between S-PMA and t,t-MA after logarithmic transformation (r = 0.41, P = 0.005, n = 46).  (+info)

Metabolism of [14C]phenol in the isolated perfused mouse liver. (6/773)

A previous report from this laboratory focused on the metabolism of [14C]benzene (BZ) in the isolated, perfused, mouse liver (C. C. Hedli, et al., 1997, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 146, 60-68). Whereas administration of BZ to mice results in bone marrow depression (R. Snyder et al., 1993, Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 20, 191-194), administration of phenol (P), the major metabolite of BZ, does not. It was, therefore, of interest to determine whether the metabolic fate of P produced during BZ metabolism differed from that of P metabolized in the absence of BZ. Mouse livers were perfused with a solution of [14C]P in both the orthograde (portal vein to central vein) and retrograde (central vein to portal vein) direction to investigate the metabolic zonation of enzymes involved in P hydroxylation and conjugation. Perfusate samples were collected, separated by HPLC, and tested for radioactivity. Unconjugated metabolites were identified by comparing their retention times with nonradiolabeled standards, which were detected by UV absorption. Conjugated metabolites were identified and collected on the basis of radiochromatogram results, hydrolyzed enzymatically, and identified by co-chromatography with unlabeled BZ metabolites. The objective was to compare and quantify the metabolites formed during the perfusion of P in the orthograde and retrograde directions and to compare the orthograde P-perfusion results with the orthograde BZ results reported previously. Regardless of the direction of P perfusion, the major compounds released from the liver were P. phenylgucuronide, phenylsulfate, hydroquinone (HQ), and HQ glucuronide. A comparison of the results of perfusing P in the orthograde versus the retrograde direction showed that more P was recovered unchanged and more HQ was formed during retrograde perfusion. The results suggest that enzymes involved in P hydroxylation are generally closer to the central vein than those involved in conjugation, and that during retrograde perfusion, P metabolism may be limited by the sub-optimal conditions of perfusion. Comparison of the orthograde perfusion studies of P and BZ revealed that a larger percentage of the radioactivity released from the liver was identified as unconjugated HQ after BZ perfusion than after P perfusion. In addition, the amount of radioactivity covalently bound to liver macromolecules was measured after each perfusion and determined to be proportional to the amount of HQ and HQG detected in the perfusate samples.  (+info)

Environmental exposure to volatile organic compounds among workers in Mexico City as assessed by personal monitors and blood concentrations. (7/773)

Benzene, an important component in gasoline, is a widely distributed environmental contaminant that has been linked to known health effects in animals and humans, including leukemia. In Mexico City, environmental benzene levels, which may be elevated because of the heavy traffic and the poor emission control devices of older vehicles, may pose a health risk to the population. To assess the potential risk, portable passive monitors and blood concentrations were used to survey three different occupational groups in Mexico City. Passive monitors measured the personal exposure of 45 workers to benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, o-xylene and m-/p-xylene during a work shift. Blood concentrations of the above volatile organic compounds (VOCs), methyl tert-butyl ether, and styrene were measured at the beginning and the end of a work shift. Passive monitors showed significantly higher (p > 0.0001) benzene exposure levels among service station attendants (median = 330 microg/m3; range 130-770) as compared to street vendors (median = 62 microg/m3; range 49-180) and office workers (median = 44 microg/m3, range 32-67). Baseline blood benzene levels (BBLs) for these groups were higher than those reported for similar populations from Western countries (median = 0.63 microg/L, n = 24 for service station attendants; median = 0.30 microg/L, n = 6 for street vendors; and median = 0.17 microgr;g/L, n = 7 for office workers). Nonsmoking office workers who were nonoccupationally exposed to VOCs had BBLs that were more than five times higher than those observed in a nonsmoking U.S. population. BBLs of participants did not increase during the work shift, suggesting that because the participants were chronically exposed to benzene, complex pharmacokinetic mechanisms were involved. Our results highlight the need for more complete studies to assess the potential benefits of setting environmental standards for benzene and other VOCs in Mexico.  (+info)

Microbial communities associated with anaerobic benzene degradation in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer. (8/773)

Microbial community composition associated with benzene oxidation under in situ Fe(III)-reducing conditions in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer located in Bemidji, Minn., was investigated. Community structure associated with benzene degradation was compared to sediment communities that did not anaerobically oxidize benzene which were obtained from two adjacent Fe(III)-reducing sites and from methanogenic and uncontaminated zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA sequences amplified with bacterial or Geobacteraceae-specific primers indicated significant differences in the composition of the microbial communities at the different sites. Most notable was a selective enrichment of microorganisms in the Geobacter cluster seen in the benzene-degrading sediments. This finding was in accordance with phospholipid fatty acid analysis and most-probable-number-PCR enumeration, which indicated that members of the family Geobacteraceae were more numerous in these sediments. A benzene-oxidizing Fe(III)-reducing enrichment culture was established from benzene-degrading sediments and contained an organism closely related to the uncultivated Geobacter spp. This genus contains the only known organisms that can oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III). Sequences closely related to the Fe(III) reducer Geothrix fermentans and the aerobe Variovorax paradoxus were also amplified from the benzene-degrading enrichment and were present in the benzene-degrading sediments. However, neither G. fermentans nor V. paradoxus is known to oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III), and there was no apparent enrichment of these organisms in the benzene-degrading sediments. These results suggest that Geobacter spp. play an important role in the anaerobic oxidation of benzene in the Bemidji aquifer and that molecular community analysis may be a powerful tool for predicting a site's capacity for anaerobic benzene degradation.  (+info)

An extremely well-conducted meta-analysis by researchers from the Netherlands has clearly shown that occupational benzene exposure is associated with lymphoid cancers.. The researchers performed meta-analyses of occupational cohort studies for five different lymphoma categories: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). They assessed three study quality dimensions to evaluate the impact of study quality variations on meta-relative risks (mRR): year-of-start of follow-up, strength of the reported AML association, and quality of benzene exposure assessment. Data synthesis mRRs for MM, ALL, and CLL increased with increasing study quality, regardless of the study quality dimension. mRRs for NHL also increased with increasing study quality, although less pronounced. The investigators concluded that their meta-analysis provides support for an association between occupational benzene exposure and ...
The research is to evaluate benzene metabolism after exposure at levels that can be found in the environment, such as the higher end concentrations in the air inside cars and buses while being driven in heavy traffic and inside private and public parking garages. To do so breath, urine, and blood samples prior to, during and after being exposed to benzene as well as benzene levels and benzene metabolites present are measured. The exposures take place in the Controlled Environmental Facility operated by the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI). This allows us to control the exact benzene air level and to use benzene containing 13C, a stable (non-radioactive) form of carbon, one of the atoms that make up benzene. Isotopes are different forms of the same atom. Using 13C will allow us to tell the difference between the benzene and the compounds it changes to in the body that come from our experiment compared to what is present in your body from other sources. In addition ...
Evaluation of benzene-induced hematotoxicity following exposure to low concentration is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity and determining the dose response at benzene levels close to the current occupational exposure limit (1 ppm). Male B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 1, 10, 100, or 200 ppm benzene by inhalation for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 1, 2, 4, or 8 weeks. At each sampling time, we evaluated primitive and committed progenitor cells, differentiating and maturing lineage-specific cells, and stromal cells in the bone marrow; T and B lymphocytes of the spleen and thymus; micronucleated reticulocytes and erythrocytes; and standard blood parameters. At 100 and 200 ppm benzene, there were rapid and significant reductions in number of reticulocytes in the blood, B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and spleen, and an increased frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes in the bone marrow. At 10 ppm, the only parameter affected was a transient reduction in the number of splenic B ...
Environmental benzene levels were measured in 26 petrol stations using both active and passive stationary and personal samplers. Simultaneously, benzene levels were measured in the petrol station operators on blood samples collected at the end of the work shift and the following morning before starting work. The petrol stations belonged to various different oil companies and were studied both during the winter (9 stations) and in the summer (17 stations). The environmental levels measured with active samplers in the 26 stations were on average 256 ng/l, were significantly lower (98 ng/l) in winter and higher (326 ng/l) in summer. The blood levels of benzene in 77 workers at the end of the work shift were on average 548 ng/l, were significantly lower (306 ng/l) in winter and higher (651 ng/l) in summer. The following morning, blood levels of benzene were lower than those found at the end of the work shift, on average 249 ng/l in winter and 427 ng/l in summer. Smokers had higher benzene levels ...
Meta-analysis on benzene exposure and non Hodgkin lymphoma June 30 2009 Gerard M H Swaen1 Shan P. Tsai2 Carol Burns1 1 Department of Epidemiology, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan USA. 2 Shell Health, Shell Oil Company, Houston Texas, USA. Corresponding Author: Gerard M H Swaen, The Dow Chemical Company, P.O. Box 444, 4530 AK Terneuzen, The Netherlands 31-(0)43-3626042. E- mail: [email protected] Key words: benzene, non Hodgkin lymphoma, epidemiology, meta- analysis, occupation, risk Sir, A recent meta-analysis on benzene exposure and non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) concluded that the reviewed epidemiological studies provide new evidence that benzene causes NHL. 1 The meta-analysis conducted by Steinmaus et al differed from the others in several aspects. Firstly, it selected subgroups with the highest putative exposure to avoid dilution. Secondly, cohort studies were adjusted for the Healthy Worker Effect (HWE) by considering the NHL deaths as cases and all other deaths as controls. A HWE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pressure-induced oligomerization of benzene at room temperature as a precursory reaction of amorphization. AU - Shinozaki, Ayako. AU - Mimura, Koichi. AU - Kagi, Hiroyuki. AU - Komatu, Kazuki. AU - Noguchi, Naoki. AU - Gotou, Hirotada. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Oligomerization of benzene at high pressures up to 16 GPa was investigated at room temperature using an opposed-anvil type pressure apparatus. The recovered samples were analyzed using GC-MS to identify and quantify the products after the high-pressure experiments. Some structural isomers of benzene dimer as well as biphenyl, naphthalene, and terphenyl isomers were detected at pressures higher than 13 GPa. The molar yield of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased concomitantly with increasing pressure, although benzene still remained. The oligomerization is likely to occur when the neighbor distance of the benzene molecules exceeds the threshold of the reaction distance. The oligomerization is regarded as a ...
Benzene is a known leukemogen and may cause lymphoma as well, but its ability to , cause these conditions below 10 parts per million (ppm) in air are unclear. It is currently regulated in the United States at 1 ppm as an 8-hour time-weighted average and at a 5 ppm short-term exposure level for 15 minutes. There is a critical need to assess risks related to benzene exposure under 10 ppm because it is widely used industrially and a ubiquitous contaminant in the environment.. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine (CAPM), whose name was recently changed to the China Center for Disease Control (CDC) previously established a cohort of 75,000 workers exposed to benzene in 12 cities in China and 35,000 unexposed comparison workers, to investigate the relationship between benzene exposure and cancer risk, from 1972 to 1987. We followed up each worker using factory records and reported results suggesting that benzene exposure under 10 ppm may be associated with ...
Gas phase photocatalysis is an effective way for decomposing toxic organics, but the studies on benzene decomposition are relatively little. Our objective was to assess the capability of TiO 2 to decompose benzene and establish reaction mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidation of benzene. The photocatalytic oxidation of benzene in gas phase was performed in a recirculation photoreactor including a UV lamp emitting around 254 nm and TiO 2 coated glass plate. When the initial mass concentration of benzene was 50 mg/m 3, it was almost decomposed completely after 460 min on 0 1 g of TiO 2 and 0 013 m 2 area of catalyst layer activated by ultraviolet. The reaction time was reduced from 460 to 240 min when the irradiated area was 0 026 m 2. At ambient temperature, the adsorption of benzene on TiO 2 surface was not obvious, but the intermediate reaction product had very good adsorptivity, occupied the active sites and deactivated the catalyst. The IR results showed that the intermediate product
The Benzene attorneys at Nadrich & Cohen LLP have long been committed to defending individuals and the families of individuals who have suffered or died as a result of benzene exposure. Benzene is a highly dangerous chemical which has been known for decades to contain carcinogens, and millions of people every year come into contact with dangerous levels of benzene. Mary Johnson was one such victim, who tragically died after excessive benzene exposure.. Now we have reports that Johnsons children have brought a wrongful death suit against Total Petrochemicals & Refining USA, one of the worlds leading petrochemical companies. The suit alleges that Total Petrochemicals exposed Johnson to benzene, ultimately contributing to her untimely death.. The suit was filed on November 9, 2012, in Jefferson County District Court. The plaintiffs, James, Robert and Richard Johnson, seek justice for their mother, a former employee of Finas Port Arthur Refinery. It was there that she allegedly come into contact ...
Urine samples were collected from 64 men and 88 women in shoe factories and printing plants at the end of a seven hour day shift in the latter half of a week in spring. Urine samples were also taken from 43 men and 88 women in the same factories but who were not exposed to solvents. Exposure to benzene during the shift was monitored by passive dosimeters. Both phenol in urine and benzene in activated carbon were analysed with FID gas chromatographs. The urinary concentrations of phenol were linearly related to the time weighted average concentrations of benzene in the breathzone air; the variation was so small that those exposed to 10 ppm benzene could be separated from the non-exposed at least on a group basis when the phenol concentration was corrected either for creatinine concentration or for specific gravity. The urinary phenol concentrations corresponding to 10 ppm benzene were 47.5 mg/l (as observed), 57.9 mg/g creatinine, or 46.6 mg/l (specific gravity 1.016).. ...
Resonance in benzene - Resonance form of a compound is nothing but another way of representing Lewis dot structure of that compound. Benzene shows resonance as it has more than one way to place double bonds in the ring. Benzene shows 2 resonating structures. Resonance forms or resonating structures only differ in arrangement of electrons. So, resonance structure of benzene differs only in arrangement of electrons, number of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms in benzene remain same. Double bonds present in benzene rotates in resonating structures of benzene and provide stability to benzene. Resonance structure shows possible structures of a compound. Resonance structures of benzene ring or benzene ring resonance structure - ...
Benzene is widely used in major industries throughout the world, including the United States. It ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production levels. Benzene is used in the production of plastics, resins, nylon, lubricants, rubbers, dyes, detergents and pesticides. Certain industries use benzene to make other chemicals that are used to produce plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make products such as lubricants, rubbers, glues, furniture wax, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Research has shown that in certain outdoor areas, ambient air may contain measurable levels of benzene from industrial emissions, service stations, exhaust from motorized vehicles and wood smoke. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), a major source of Benzene exposure is from tobacco smoke or tobacco exposure. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has classified benzene as a carcinogen. Benzene targets the liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain and has been ...
Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamps were used to enhance photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene. A series of transition metal modified TiO2 were developed to improve benzene removal efficiency and eliminate ozone byproduct. Among the prepared catalysts, Mn/TiO2 obtained the best catalytic activity toward benzene oxidation due to its superior capacity for ozone decomposition. The catalysts with better capacity for ozone decomposition have higher benzene removal efficiency. Photocatalytic oxidation efficiency of benzene under VUV irradiation reached 58%, which is over 20 times higher than that under 254nm UV irradiation. In addition, ozone can be completely eliminated by Mn/TiO2. Benzene degradation was greatly enhanced by ozone via catalytic ozonation. Water vapor played a dual role in benzene oxidation in the VUV-PCO process. Catalytic ozonation is mainly responsible for benzene abatement at low humidity while 185nm photooxidation is the dominant pathway at high humidity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V ...
Benzene exposure, whether through inhalation or skin absorption, can cause life-threatening diseases including Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), lymphomas and aplastic Anemia. If youve been diagnosed and suffered Benzene exposure contact one of our expert Benzene exposure attorneys today!
What would be the order of electron density in the benzene ring in the following compounds? Methyl Benzene. Ethyl Benzene. t-butyl benzene. I would say that t-butyl benzene would have the highest electron density as the alkyl group attached to it is bulkier than methyl and ethyl thus it will exert a greater +I effect pushing the electrons into the ring making it electron rich. Using same analogy ethyl benzene would have a greater electron density in the ring compared to methyl benzene.. However that is not the case. Something counter intuitive seems to be happening here. The order is methyl benzene >ethyl benzene >t-butyl benzene.. I think this phenomenon can somehow be explained using hyper conjugation, but i dont get it how?. ...
The kinetics of macromolecular binding of a 5 μg/kg body wt dose of [14C]benzene was studied over 48 h in B6C3F1, DBA/2, and C57BL/6 mice and Fischer rats to determine if adduct levels reflect known differences in metabolic capacity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenic potency. Previous studies have suggested that differences in benzene toxicity among strains result from differences in metabolism. Rats and mice were administered [14C]benzene (i.p.), followed by removal of liver and bone marrow at time intervals up to 48 h postexposure. Protein and DNA were isolated and analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry. Area under the curves for protein and DNA adducts in bone marrow were greatest in B6C3F1 mouse , DBA/2 mouse , C57BL/6 mouse , Fischer rat. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that metabolic capacity contributes to the difference in benzenes carcinogenicity among species. Additionally, these data suggest that target organ adduct levels correlate with tumorigenicity and thus may be ...
The degradation of benzene in pasteurized spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was assessed. Following a 3 month enrichment in the presence of a variety of BTEX compounds, the extent of [U-14C]benzene mineralization in the pasteurized SMS increased with increasing incubation temperature (18°C,37°C,50°C). The concentration as well as the chemical composition used to enrich the composts degradative activity was also shown to be involved in determining the extent of benzene mineralization. SMS induced on a 12.5 mM BTEX mixture mineralized more benzene than composts induced using 500 μM benzene, 500 μM o-xylene, or 2.5 mM BTEX mixture. In the absence of a pre-enrichment period, benzene mineralization was minimal.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benzene Dynamics and Biodegradation in Alluvial Aquifers Affected by River Fluctuations. AU - Batlle Aguilar, Jordi. AU - Morasch, Barbara. AU - Hunkeler, Daniel. AU - Brouyère, Serge. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of a benzene plume in an alluvial aquifer strongly affected by river fluctuations was studied. Benzene concentrations, aquifer geochemistry datasets, past river morphology, and benzene degradation rates estimated in situ using stable carbon isotope enrichment were analyzed in concert with aquifer heterogeneity and river fluctuations. Geochemistry data demonstrated that benzene biodegradation was on-going under sulfate reducing conditions. Long-term monitoring of hydraulic heads and characterization of the alluvial aquifer formed the basis of a detailed modeled image of aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic conductivity was found to strongly correlate with benzene degradation, indicating that low hydraulic conductivity areas are ...
Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following ... read more exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR in 43 workers exposed to high levels of benzene and 43 age and sex-matched unexposed workers in Shanghai, China. Benzene exposure levels were monitored using organic vapor passive dosimetry badges before phlebotomy. The median benzene exposure level in exposed workers was 31 ppm. The mean TL in controls, workers exposed to levels of benzene below the median (≤31 ppm), and above the median (,31 ppm) was 1.26±0.17, 1.25±0.16, and 1.37±0.23, respectively. Mean TL was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of urinary biomarkers of exposure to benzene. T2 - Correlation with blood benzene and influence of confounding factors. AU - Hoet, Perrine. AU - Lison, Dominique. AU - Haufroid, Vincent. AU - De Smedt, Erika. AU - De Wilde, Peter. AU - Ferrari, Massimo. AU - Imbriani, Marcello. AU - Maestri, Luciano. AU - Negri, Sara. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Purpose: trans,trans-Muconic acid (t,t- MA) is generally considered as a useful biomarker of exposure to benzene. However, because of its lack of specificity, concerns about its value at low level of exposure have recently been raised. The aim of this study was (a) to compare t,t-MA, S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and benzene (B-U) as urinary biomarkers of exposure to low levels of benzene in petrochemical workers and, (b) to evaluate the influence of sorbic acid (SA) and genetic polymorphisms of biotransformation enzymes on the excretion of these biomarkers. Method: A total of 110 workers (including 24 smokers; 2-10 ...
A pending lawsuit alleges that Texaco and Chevron are responsible for the death of a former employee who was exposed to dangerous levels of the chemical compound benzene while on the job. The dangerous, carcinogenic properties of benzene have been observed for nearly a century, and the California Benzene lawyers at Nadrich & Cohen have dedicated years to tirelessly defending the victims of benzene exposure. If you or someone you love has been affected by benzene, give us a call today at 1-800-722-0765.. The case involving Chevron and Texaco was filed by four plaintiffs: Keith Gebauer, Ronnie Gebauer, Lajunda Williams and Gaytha Guillot. The plaintiffs filed their suit on August 31, 2011, in Jefferson County District Court, claiming that their father-Fred Gebauer-died from lymphoma which he developed after a long career that involved working in close proximity to benzene and benzene-containing products.. The plaintiffs allege that the oil giants are legally responsible for their fathers death, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MODIFICATION OF BENZENE AND CARBON MONOXIDE ADSORPTION ON Pt(111) BY THE COADSORPTION OF POTASSIUM OR SULFUR.. AU - Garfunkel, Eric. AU - Farias, M. H.. AU - Somorjai, G. A.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - The effects of potassium and sulfur on the chemisorption of CO and benzene on the Pt(111) surface have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Potassium causes an increase in the desorption peak temperature of CO and a decrease in that of benzene. Sulfur, on the other hand, causes a decrease in the desorption peak temperatures for both benzene and CO. The authors interpret the effects of potassium on CO and benzene adsorption as electronic, while for sulfur, structural effects may dominate.. AB - The effects of potassium and sulfur on the chemisorption of CO and benzene on the Pt(111) surface have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Potassium causes an increase in the desorption peak temperature of CO and a decrease in that of benzene. ...
We present results of a combined vacuum ultravioloet (VUV) and infrared (IR) photoabsorption study of amorphous benzene:water mixtures and layers to investigate the benzene-water interaction in the solid phase. UV spectra of 1:1, 1:10 and 1:100 benzene:water mixtures at 24 K reveal a concentration dependent shift in the energies of the 1B2u, 1B1u and 1E1u electronic states of benzene. All the electronic bands blueshift from pure amorphous benzene towards gas phase energies with increasing water concentration. IR results reveal a strong dOH-π benzene-water interaction via the dangling OH stretch of water with the delocalised π system of the benzene molecule. Although this interaction influences the electronic states of benzene with the benzenewater interaction causing a redshift in the electronic states from that of the free benzene molecule, the benzene-benzene interaction has a more significant effect on the electronic states of benzene. VUV spectra of benzene and water layers show evidence ...
A pilot study was performed to assess the measurement of benzene body-burden for populations potentially environmentally exposed to benzene. Probability sampling was used to select the participants in the two study geographical sites, Harris County, TX and St. Louis, MO plus parts of Wood River, Roxana, South Roxana and Hartford, IL. Benzene levels were measured for the air and water environmental exposure for each participant and the benzene body-burden was measured through breath levels and, in a subsample, blood levels. A pretest of occupationally exposed and non-exposed individuals was used to test analytical methodology and the concept of breath as an indicator of body-burden. The blood benzene levels expected and observed required analytical methods capable of measuring - 1 micrograms/L or below. This methodology did not exist and had to be developed for the pretest and pilot study. Benzene levels for smokers and non-smokers were compared in the pretest. The range of air benzene levels ...
Scope of the Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) Market Report:. Due to heavy alkyl benzenes is a byproduct in the process of LAB and BAB production, there are some problems, such as the quality and production of heavy alkyl benzenes, the manufacturers of linear alkyl benzene (LAB) should solve. Scope of the Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) Market Report :. The worldwide Market for Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) is valued at 382 million USD in 2020 is expected to reach 458.2 million USD by the end of 2026, growing at a CAGR of 2.6% during 2021-2026.. This report focuses on the Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) in global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. This report categorizes the market based on manufacturers, regions, type and application.. Get a Sample Copy of the Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) Market Report 2020. Report further studies the market development status and future Heavy Aklyl Benzenes (HAB) Market trend across the world. Also, it splits Heavy ...
Author(s): Smith, Martyn T.; Yager, J; Steinmetz, K; Eastmond, D | Abstract: The metabolism of two of benzenes phenolic metabolites, phenol and hydroquinone, by peroxidase enzymes has been studied in detail. Studies employing horseradish peroxidase and human myeloperoxidase have shown that in the presence of hydrogen peroxide phenol is converted to 4,4-diphenoquinone and other covalent binding metabolites, whereas hydroquinone is converted solely to 1,4-benzoquinone. Surprisingly, phenol stimulates the latter conversion rather than inhibiting it, an effect that may play a role in the in vivo myelotoxicity of benzene. Indeed, repeated coadministration of phenol and hydroquinone to B6C3F1 mice results in a dramatic and significant decrease in bone marrow cellularity similar to that observed following benzene exposure. A mechanism of benzene-induced myelotoxicity is therefore proposed in which the accumulation and interaction of phenol and hydroquinone in the bone marrow and the peroxidase-dependent
Benzene is an organic chemical compoond wi the molecular formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is componed o sax caurbon atoms jynt in a ring wi ane hydrogen atom attached tae ilk. As it conteens anerly caurbon an hydrogen atoms, benzene is clessed as a hydrocaurbon. Benzene is a naitural constituent o crude ile an is ane o the elementar petrochemicals. Due tae the cyclic conteenous pi bond atween the caurbon atoms, benzene is clessed as an aromatic hydrocarbon, the seicont [n]-annulene ([6]-annulene). It is whiles abbreviatit PhH. Benzene is a colourless an heichly flammable liquid wi a sweet smell, an is responsible for the aroma aroond petrol stations. It is uised primarily as a precursor tae the manufacture o chemicals wi mair complex structur, uic as ethylbenzene an cumene, o that billions o kilogrammes are produced annually. As benzene haes a heich octane nummer, aromatic derivatives lik toluene an xylene teepically comprise up tae 25% o petrol. Benzene itsel haes been leemitit tae less than ...
In this process Benzene sulphonic acid is exposed to superheated steam leading to the formation of benzene. Get … The electrophilic partner is a carbocation; it will arrange to the most stable ion: allylic>3o>2o>1o. In this process, Ethyne is passed through a red-hot iron tube at 873 K. The ethyne molecule then undergoes cyclic polymerization to form benzene. This section is on the general mechanism of how an electrophilic atom becomes a part of a benzene ring through the substitution of a hydrogen. Ha ha ha. Benzene is among the 20 … Stir well and allow the mixtureto cool to room temperature in a cold water bath. Li W(1), Xie D, Frost JW. points Choose the best option for the immediate precursor to … It is an important industrial product as a pioneer to various materials and useful compounds. Discovery of benzene. Benzene is among the 20 … Contents. 1. reagent 1 2. reagent 2 its nice! Synthesis of nitrobenzene from benzene >>> CLICK HERE TO CONTINUE Mla citation research paper Back to ...
Summary of price adjustment of Sinopecs pure benzene in 2021 (unit: yuan / ton). Date, adjusted price, adjusted amount. May 7, 7700, + 300. May 10, 8000, + 300. May 12, 8200, + 200. May 24, 7900, - 300. May 28, 7600, - 300. June 4, 7900, + 300. On June 4, 2021, Sinopecs registered price of pure benzene was increased by 300 yuan / ton. At present, it implements 7900 yuan / ton, of which Qilu Petrochemical implements 7850 yuan / ton.. The crude benzene market was under pressure at the beginning of the week and rose at the end of the week. At the beginning of the week, the price trend of hydrogenated benzene was dragged down by the downward trend of pure benzene market price, and the crude benzene market which started bidding on Tuesday was affected by the downward trend of most prices. Since Wednesday, the international crude oil price continued to rise, the styrene market took the lead in boosting the price rise, the hydrogenation benzene market followed the trend of pure benzene, and the price ...
Learn about industries that increase the risk of benzene exposure. Contact a lawyer at (866) 588-0600 to see if you have a benzene exposure lawsuit.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biomarkers of internal dose for the assessment of environmental exposure to benzene. AU - Lovreglio, Piero. AU - DErrico, Maria Nicolà. AU - Fustinoni, Silvia. AU - Drago, Ignazio. AU - Barbieri, Anna. AU - Sabatini, Laura. AU - Carrieri, Mariella. AU - Apostoli, Pietro. AU - Soleo, Leonardo. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - The urinary excretion of t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) and urinary benzene and the influence of a smoking habit and of exposure to urban traffic on the urinary excretion of these biomarkers were investigated in 137 male adults from the general population. All subjects were not occupationally exposed to benzene and resident in two cities in Puglia (Southern-Italy). Environmental exposure to benzene was measured using passive personal samplers. The biomarkers t,t-MA, SPMA and urinary benzene were determined in urine samples collected from each subject at the end of the environmental sampling. The percentage of cases above the ...
Benzene exposure has serious health effects. Breathing high levels of the substance can result in death, while low levels can cause drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, tremors, confusion, and unconsciousness. Eating or drinking foods containing high levels of benzene can cause vomiting, stomach irritation, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, rapid heart rate, and death.. The major effect of benzene from chronic (long-term) exposure is on the blood. Benzene damages the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in the production of red blood cells, leading to anemia. It can also cause excessive bleeding and may depress the immune system, increasing the chances of infection.. It has been reported that some women who breathed high levels of benzene for many months had irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. It is not known whether benzene exposure affects the developing fetus in pregnant women or fertility in men.. Animal studies have shown low birth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution in S0 benzene at low vibrational energies. AU - Whetton, Narrelle T.. AU - Lawrance, Warren D.. PY - 1992/1/3. Y1 - 1992/1/3. N2 - Rotationally resolved dispersed fluorescene spectra from the 61 level of benzene have been used to probe intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution in the ground electronic state. The level 12 (Evib=1986 cm-1) and 13 (Evib=2979 cm-1) are observed to be each coupled to a single close-lying level. We propose that the pertubing levels are 52 in the case of 12 and 5211 in the case of 13. The coupling constant k1155 has been determined to be 1.4 cm-1.. AB - Rotationally resolved dispersed fluorescene spectra from the 61 level of benzene have been used to probe intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution in the ground electronic state. The level 12 (Evib=1986 cm-1) and 13 (Evib=2979 cm-1) are observed to be each coupled to a single close-lying level. We propose that the pertubing levels are 52 in ...
Work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.5 percent or less of benzene by volume, or the vapors released from such liquids until September 12, 1988; work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.3 percent or less of benzene by volume or the vapors released from such liquids from September 12, 1988, to September 12, 1989; and work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.1 percent or less of benzene by volume or the vapors released from such liquids after September 12, 1989; except that tire building machine operators using solvents with more than 0.1 percent benzene are covered by paragraph (i) of this section ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Probing the dynamics and structure of confined benzene in MCM-41 based catalysts. AU - Dervin, Daniel. AU - OMalley, Alexander. AU - Falkowska, Marta. AU - Chansai, Sarayute. AU - Silverwood, Ian. AU - Hardacre, Christopher. AU - Catlow, C. Richard A. PY - 2020/5/11. Y1 - 2020/5/11. N2 - A combination of Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and Quasielastic Neutron Scattering (QENS) experiments has been used to investigate the dynamics and structure of benzene in MCM-41 based catalysts. QENS experiments of benzene as both an unconfined liquid and confined in the catalyst Pt/MCM-41 find that the mobility of benzene decreases upon confinement as shown by the decreased diffusion coefficients. Complementary MD simulations on benzene in MCM-41 show agreement with the QENS experiments when using a novel fully flexible model of MCM-41. Structural information from the MD simulations show that benzene in MCM-41 has a significantly different structure from that of the bulk liquid; with ...
Segment 13, 14 and 15, Benzene and Its Derivatives deals channel, wholesalers, merchants, traders, Exploration Discoveries and End, appendix and data source.. Browse Full Global Benzene and Its Derivatives Market Report : Additionally, the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market is segmented on the basis of the region as well. It employs some practical tools to assess the expansion of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market in the upcoming time. The global Benzene and Its Derivatives market report also offers a synopsis of the market on a global level that helps users in the decision-making processes, which in turn helps to boost their businesses. This synopsis incorporates the index growth as well as the competitive framework of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market over the projected period.. The highlight of the global Benzene and Its Derivatives market research report is the in-depth market segmentation {Chlorobenzene, Toluene, ...
Biomass tar mainly consists of stable aromatic compounds such as benzene and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene being the biggest tar component in real biomass gasification gas. For the analysis of individual tar compounds, the solid-phase adsorption method was chosen. According to this method, tar samples are collected on a column with an amino-phase sorbent. With a high benzene concentration in biomass tar, some of the benzene will not be collected on the amino-phase sorbent. To get over this situation, we have installed another column with activated charcoal which is intended for collection of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, after the column with the amino-phase sorbent. The study of maximal adsorption amounts of various compounds on both adsorbents while testing different sampling volumes led to the conclusion that benzene is a limiting compound. The research proved that the use of two sorbents (500 mg + 100 mg) connected in series allows for assessment of tar in synthesis gas ...
1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene, also known as methylchavicol or estragol, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anisoles. These are organic compounds containing a methoxybenzene or a derivative thereof. 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene is a sweet, alcohol, and anise tasting compound. Outside of the human body, 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as anises, fennels, and sweet basils and in a lower concentration in cumins, tarragons, and parsley. 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as citrus, chinese cinnamons, caraway, fats and oils, and cloves. This could make 1-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. 1-Methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene, with regard to humans, has been linked to ...
It is highly flammable and is present abundantly in nature. NQ01 and GSH shift metabolism away from toxicity. [94] About 50% of the entire nationwide (United States) exposure to benzene results from smoking tobacco or from exposure to tobacco smoke. Next, the diol is newly reduced by NADH to catechol. [44] In 1870, the German chemist Viktor Meyer first applied Gräbes nomenclature to benzene.[45]. The High Stability of Benzene In the absence of the catalyst, benzene is impervious to hydrogen. Each carbon atom has a hydrogen attached to it. Benzene. For other uses, see, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Biological oxidation and carcinogenic activity, Critics pointed out a problem with Kekulés original (1865) structure for benzene: Whenever benzene underwent substitution at the ortho position, two distinguishable isomers should have resulted, depending on whether a double bond or a single bond existed between the carbon atoms to which the substituents were ...
Abstract : Benzene, toluene and p-xylene are derivatives of benzene, generally produced from crude petroleum and have numerous applications in industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on isotopic abundance of these benzene derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Benzene, toluene and p-xylene samples were divided into two parts: control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedis biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using GC-MS. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated samples were significantly increased from un-substituted to substituted benzene rings (where, PM- primary molecule, PM+1- isotopic molecule either for 13C/12C and/or 2H/1H). The isotopic abundance ratio of 13C/12C or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) in benzene was decreased significantly by 42.14% as compared to control. However, the isotopic ...
Manufacturing Science and Technology, AEMT2011: Synthesis, Properties and Application in Optical Memory of a Photochromic Diarylethene Based on Benzene Ring
Information about benzene and industries that use asphalt. Contact a lawyer for lawsuit info to see if you have a Benzene Exposure Lawsuit.
Benzene naturally occurs in crude oil and is used to make plastics, resins, synthetic fibers, dyes, detergents, additives and coatings, and pesticides. It is a widely used aromatic hydrocarbon which constitutes 1-2% of gasoline and other fuels. While benzene is a very useful hydrocarbon that offers diverse applications, it is also a known human carcinogen. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) lists the PEL-TWA at 1 ppm, and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) have the TLV-TWA at 0.5 ppm. Industry requires a means to measure low concentrations of benzene (typically below 1 ppm) in the presence of various hydrocarbons, often 100 to 1000X the concentration of benzene.. Uniphos Envirotronic Inc., a recognized leader in colorimetric detection tubes, has developed a PID pre-filter tube for selective determination of benzene in air containing a mixture of volatile organic compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene, ethyl benzene, octane, etc.). The measuring range ...
Benzene is found in crude oils and as a by-product of oil-refining processes. In industries, Benzene is primarily used as a chemical raw material in the synthesis of plastics, rubber, phenols, nylon, resins, detergents and other products used in the production of drugs, dyes, insecticides and plastics. As benzene has a high octane number, aromatic derivatives like toluene and xylene typically comprise up to 25% of gasoline (petrol).. It has a chemical formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. As it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon.. Specifications of Benzene:. ...
Benzene is an environmental toxicant found in many consumer products. It is an established human carcinogen and is known to cause acute myeloid leukemia in adults. Epidemiological evidence has since shown that benzene can cross the placenta and affect the fetal liver. Animal studies have shown that in utero exposure to benzene can increase tumor incidence in offspring. Although there have been risk factors established for acute myeloid leukemia, they still do not account for many of the cases. Clearly then, current efforts to elucidate the mechanism by which benzene exerts its carcinogenic properties have been superficial. Owing to the critical role of cell signaling pathways in the development of an organism and its various organ systems, it seems plausible to suspect that these pathways may have a role in leukemogenesis. This review article assesses current evidence of the effects of benzene on critical hematopoietic signaling pathways. Pathways discussed included Hedgehog, Notch/Delta, ...
IUPAC Name: Benzene. MCL: 0.005 ppm. Source: Produced in large quantities for organic synthesis, benzene is also used to produce rubber, dyes, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. There are many applications of synthetically-produced benzene, and it also occurs naturally in crude oil.. Water Treatment: Summary: Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is produced in large volumes in the United States. It occurs naturally in crude oil and is used in petroleum purification and refinery processes. It is synthetically produced to be used in the production of rubber, dyes, pharmaceuticals, detergents, and various pesticides. Benzene is widely used as a building block in organic synthesis and is also used as a solvent. It exists as a colorless liquid at room temperature and has a density of 0.8756 g/mL at 20 C. It is soluble in water up to 1,790 mg/L at 25 C. The compound has a measured biological half-life of 6.00 days. Benzene is classified by the EPA as a ...
Summary: Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. It evaporates into the air very quickly and dissolves slightly in water. It is highly flammable and is formed from both natural processes and human activities.. Benzene is widely used in the United States; it ranks in the top 20 chemicals for production volume. Some industries use benzene to make other chemicals which are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. Benzene is also used to make some types of rubbers, lubricants, dyes, detergents, drugs, and pesticides. Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. ...
This Benzene Awareness Program has been created to inform your workers that may come in contact with about the hazards of Benzene and the controls required to work safely. This program defines work practices, administrative procedures and engineering controls to protect employees exposed to benzene concentrations above the legislated safe level.. This Benzene Awareness Program/Safe Work Practice is designed to pass Industry Standards, OHS, COR, SECOR, ComplyWorks, Avetta and ISNetworld ® RAVS ® requirements for Benzene Awareness - Canada - Best Practices 100% Guaranteed!. NOTE: The material in this document does not take precedence over applicable government legislation which all employees must follow.. ...
Article Evaluation of benzene exposure in adults and urinary s-phenylmercapturic acid in children living in Adelaide, South Australia. Abstract: Benzene Exposure was evaluated in adults and children living in Adelaide, South Australia by measuring be...
US refiners are in the process of planning and executing capital projects to comply with the new MSAT (Mobile Source Air Toxics) II regulations that become effective January 1, 2011. These new rules will restrict the annual average benzene level in the gasoline sold in U.S. except California to 0.62 vol%. California has similar restrictions on gasoline benzene content. Of the various refinery streams that are blended into gasoline 70 ? 85% of the benzene is contributed by reformate from catalytic reforming and 10-25% by FCC gasoline. Most MSAT II compliance strategies focus on reducing benzene in reformate. The benzene content in reformate can be changed by either removing compounds in the reformer feed that form benzene in the reforming reaction or by removing benzene from reformate by hydrotreating or solvent extraction. Removal of benzene from FCC gasoline is less straight forward. The relationship of feed properties and reaction process conditions to the production of various compounds in a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mass spectra and photoelectron spectroscopy of negatively charged benzene clusters, (benzene)n- (n=53-124). AU - Mitsui, Masaaki. AU - Nakajima, Atsushi. AU - Kaya, Koji. AU - Even, Uzi. PY - 2001/10/1. Y1 - 2001/10/1. N2 - The threshold size and photoelectron study of neat negatively charged benzene clusters was carried out using a high-temperature and high-pressure valve to generate cold, large, negatively charged benzene clusters. It was found that there is an abrupt onset of formation of the (benzene)n- clusters occurring at size n=53, and the cluster distribution extended to above n,160. Benzene clusters smaller than the threshold size were also observed. Photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the VDES of (benzene)n- with n = 53-124 fell within 0.4-0.6 eV.. AB - The threshold size and photoelectron study of neat negatively charged benzene clusters was carried out using a high-temperature and high-pressure valve to generate cold, large, negatively charged benzene clusters. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of cyclohexane and benzene on ordered Sn/Pt(111) surface alloys. AU - Xu, C.. AU - Tsai, Y. L.. AU - Koel, B. E.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Cyclohexane conversion to benzene over bimetallic Pt catalysts is an important prototypical reaction for fundamental studies of selective catalytic dehydrogenation catalysis. We have studied the adsorption and dehydrogenation of cyclohexane and benzene on Pt(111) and two ordered Sn/Pt(111) surface alloys using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), and sticking coefficient measurements. Vapor-depositing Sn on the Pt(111) surface and annealing gives a (2 × 2) or (√ 3 × √ 3)R30° LEED pattern, producing well-defined surfaces identified as the (111) face of Pt3Sn and a substitutional alloy of composition Pt2Sn. Cyclohexane adsorbed onto all three surfaces at 100-155 K with an initial sticking coefficient of unity. Precursor mediated ...
Results: A total of 79 (47.88%) workers agreed to participate in the study. Seventeen atmospheric samples were usable and 79 urinary assays at the end of the shift were carried out. The average benzene concentration for all sites was 10 times lower than the regulatory average exposure value (1 ppm=3.25 mg/m3):average: 0.122pp, median: 0.053ppm and range: 0.019-1.448 ppm. All 79 urinary assays of trans, trans-muconic acid were below the biological exposure index (,500 µg/g creatinine) with an average of 37.34 µg/g creatinine, a median of 30 µg/g creatinine, and an extent from 10 to 150 µg/g creatinine. ...
Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences
Title:No Correlation between Blood Benzene Levels and Luteinizing Hormone Plasma Values in Outdoor Workers. VOLUME: 19 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):Francesco Tomei, Maria V. Rosati, Giovanna Lorusso, Lidia Ricci, Felice M. Damato, Tiziana Caciari, Roberto Giubilati, Teodorico Casale, Bendetta Pimpinella, Stefania Marchione, Nadia Nardone, Natale Mario di Luca, Francesco Massoni, Vincenza Anzelmo, Roberto Massimi, Gianfranco Tomei, Pasquale Ricci, Carmina Sacco and Serafino Ricci*. Affiliation:Spin off Sipro, Via Stimigliano 5, 00199 Rome, Department of Anatomy, Histology, Medical-Legal and the Orthopedics, Specialty Scool of Occupational Medicine, Unit of Occupational Medicine, University of Rome Sapienza, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome, Department of Anatomy, Histology, Medical-Legal and the Orthopedics, Specialty Scool of Occupational Medicine, Unit of Occupational Medicine, University of Rome Sapienza, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome, Department of Anatomy, Histology, Legal Medicine and ...
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The mechanism of benzene C−H bond activation by [Ir(μ-acac-O,O,C^3)(acac-O,O)(OAc)]_2 (4) and [Ir(μ-acac-O,O,C^3)(acac-O,O)(TFA)]_2 (5) complexes (acac = acetylacetonato, OAc = acetate, and TFA = trifluoroacetate) was studied experimentally and theoretically. Hydrogen−deuterium (H/D) exchange between benzene and CD_(3)COOD solvent catalyzed by 4 (ΔH^‡ = 28.3 ± 1.1 kcal/mol, ΔS^‡ = 3.9 ± 3.0 cal K^(−1) mol^(−1)) results in a monotonic increase of all benzene isotopologues, suggesting that once benzene coordinates to the iridium center, there are multiple H/D exchange events prior to benzene dissociation. B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that this benzene isotopologue pattern is due to a rate-determining step that involves acetate ligand dissociation and benzene coordination, which is then followed by heterolytic C−H bond cleavage to generate an iridium-phenyl intermediate. A synthesized iridium-phenyl intermediate was also shown to be competent for H/D ...
Benzene is a widely used chemical produced mainly from petroleum and coal tar (13). It is one of the top 20 chemicals in the United States in terms of production volume, is listed in at least 57% of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites ( ), and is considered a priority pollutant by the Environmental Protection Agency ( ). Long-term benzene exposure affects bone marrow and can cause anemia and leukemia (16, 30); therefore, benzene should be removed from contaminated sites. Monooxygenases may be used to hydroxylate and remove benzene, but since phenol, the monohydroxylated product, is also listed as a priority pollutant, double hydroxylation of benzene to catechol is more efficient for combining bioremediation and biocatalysis.. Catechols are important intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, flavors, polymerization inhibitors, and antioxidants (10, 11). Currently, catechol is ...
Benzene (also known as benzol) is an organic chemical compound used to make a variety of other materials. Benzene can be found in plastic, rubber, lubricant, drugs, and pesticides.. Because it is a carcinogen, benzene can be quite toxic. It’s difficult to avoid exposure, since we can come in contact with benzene through cigarette smoke, gasoline, or automobile exhaust. Once a person is exposed, it can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, lungs, heart, brain, and even DNA. It’s also known to cause cancer and affect fertility.. The maximum permissible level of benzene for water set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency is 0.005mg per liter. While the EPA requires that all accidental spills into the environment over 10lbs be reported, they can’t prevent them.. Refrigerator water filters that can remove benzene include:. ...
Define Benzene derivatives. Benzene derivatives synonyms, Benzene derivatives pronunciation, Benzene derivatives translation, English dictionary definition of Benzene derivatives. n. A colorless, flammable, toxic, liquid aromatic hydrocarbon, C6H6, derived from petroleum and used in or to manufacture a wide variety of chemical...
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Selbyville, Delaware. The report Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid Market Analysis and forecast 2025 maintains enhanced dynamics and is overshadowed by a top player across the globe. The research report provides Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid Market analysis and information corresponding to market segments such as geographies, product type, application, and end-use industry. Experts use the most recent Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid Market research techniques and tools to assemble widespread and precise marketing research reports. A detailed outline about Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid market size and share were combined in this report which gives a comprehensive analysis of different verticals of businesses.. The ratio of shares and breakdowns are defined using verified primary sources. The Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid Market forecast report could be a collection of first-hand info, qualitative and quantitative assessment by Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid industry ...
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However, it is already too late for many, and because benzene exposure related diseases can have a long latency period of several decades in some cases some people may be unaware that they have been affected.. It is important to seek both medical and legal assistance in the event that you think you may have been affected by exposure to this chemical.. An experienced Benzene lawyer can provide the necessary tools and support to put together a strong case and get as much compensation as possible for Benzene related injury.. Both those affected and the family of those that may have passed away due to the effects of exposure may be eligible to claim, and this can be determined by contacting a suitably qualified and experienced lawyer.. An experienced Benzene lawyer will have established links with groups and organizations that will enable you to get support and assistance as well as claim compensation for your injuries.. By going through a trained Benzene lawyer you can avoid many of the pitfalls ...
The United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have all recognized that Benzene is a carcinogen and have set permissible exposure limits in various workplace and environmental settings. Your employer has an obligation to protect you from both dermal (skin) and inhalation exposure to Benzene. The law imposes an obligation on your employer to provide you with a safe place to work. If your employer failed to provide you with the proper safety equipment when working around Benzene, then you may have a claim against your employer for failing to provide you with a safe place to work.. In addition, depending upon when your exposure took place, the manufacturers of the Benzene may be liable for damages. Investigation into your work history and exposure history to Benzene is a critical component in determining whether you have a claim ...
Enviro-Mich message from Pam Ortner ,[email protected], ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Please see attached flyer. I will be traveling to Sarnia to meet at an occupational health clinic for a presentation on Benzene. There was a recent large spill of Benzene at the plant there, and the managers have threatened workers not to talk about what happened, not even to the occupational health clinic. Workers are fearful of the effects of Benzene and afraid of losing their jobs. They are in contract negotiations with plant and are getting ready to strike. Dr. Peter Infante is with OSHA. At the presentation will be workers, members of a breast cancer coaltion, occupational health nurses, industrial hygienists and docs. If you are interested in hearing the presentation, I can drive several folks with me; Al Cholger with P.A.C.E. International is planning on attending and could drive as well. We could meet at SEMCOSH if you like. If you are interested in a ...
Dec 18, 1989 · Looking at Table 1 one notes that the maximum 8-hour TWA airborne benzene concentration in which a full facepiece respirator with organic vapor cartridges may be used is 50 ppm. Since the 8-hour TWA PEL for benzene is 1 ppm, the protection factor for that respirator is 50, i.e., 50 ppm divided by 1 ppm. Benzene also has a 15-minute STEL of 5 ppm ...
Benzene and toluene mixing ratios were measured in the indoor air of homes with attached garages for several seasons using a thermal desorption GC-FID sampling and analysis protocol (EPA T0-17). Benzene in the living area of these homes ranged from 1--72 ppbv and toluene ranged 3--111 ppbv. The garage levels of benzene ranged from 8--304 pbbv and the toluene levels ranged from 14--591 ppbv. Numerous experiments and a model support the hypothesis of a single source of toluene and benzene. Source strength estimate calculations supported the hypothesis that gasoline in the attached garage is the primary source of these compounds in living area air. They also showed that the home with the air-to-air heat exchangers and forced ventilation had less transport of aromatics than an unventilated home. Perturbation experiments showed that a metal gas can filled with gasoline in the garage and an indoor window open were important factors for benzene and toluene levels in the living areas of the homes. For ...
The FDA currently recommends a limit of two ppm (part per million) for liquid hand sanitizer, but does not have recommendations for others such as sprays.. For its analysis, Valisure sampled 260 bottles from 168 brands sold at various big box stores, supermarkets pharmacies and online retailers across the country.. Of the liquid and non-liquid products tested, 44 batches or 17 percent, had detectable levels of benzene.. A total of 21 bottles, or eight percent of the supply, contained levels of benzene above two parts per million. An eight-ounce bottle of hand sanitizer made by company artnaturals had the highest level of benzene at 16 parts per million.. Test results by the online pharmacy were verified by Yale Universitys Chemical and Biophysical Instrumentation Center and Boston Analytics, a private laboratory.. All of the products with the highest levels of benzene began selling their products in either April or May 2020, according to FDA records, when mainstays were disappearing off of ...
benzene nucleus n : a closed chain of 6 carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached [syn: {benzene formula}, {benzene ring}, {Kekule formula}] dictd_www.dict.org_gcide Benzene nucleus Benzene \Benzene\, n. [From {Benzoin}.] (Chem.) A volatile, very inflammable liquid, {C6H6}, contained in the naphtha produced by the destructive distillation of coal, from which it is separated by fractional distillation. The name is so
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Advanced report on Ethyl Benzene Market Added by, offers details on current and future growth trends pertaining to the business besides information on myriad regions across the geographical landscape of the Ethyl Benzene Market. The report also expands on comprehensive details regarding the supply and demand analysis, participation by major industry players and market share growth statistics of the business sphere. Download Free Sample Copy of Ethyl Benzene Market Report: This research report on Ethyl Benzene Market entails an exhaustive analysis of this business space, along with a succinct overview of its various market segments. The study sums up the market scenario offering a basic overview of the Ethyl Benzene Market with respect to its present position and the industry size, based on revenue and volume. The research also highlights important insights pertaining to the regional ambit of the market as well as the key ...
Los Angeles, United State - The report is a brilliant presentation of critical dynamics, regional growth, competition, and other important aspects of the global Ethyl Benzene Market. It provides accurate market figures and statistics including CAGR, revenue, volume, consumption, production, market shares, price, and gross margin. Each regional market studied in the report is carefully analyzed to explore key opportunities and business prospects they are expected to offer in the near future. The authors of the report profile some of the leading names of the global Ethyl Benzene market on the basis of various factors. This equips players with crucial information and data to improve their business tactics and ensure a strong foothold in the global Ethyl Benzene market.. All of the segments shed light upon in the report are examined for their future growth in the global Ethyl Benzene market. The report also shows their current growth in the global Ethyl Benzene market so that players could cash in ...
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Phil Dennis and Sandra Dworatzek of SiREM will present a platform presentation Advances in Anaerobic Bioremediation of Benzene at Smart Remediation 2019 Toronto and Ottawa events, respectively. The presentation covers advances in our ability to implement anaerobic bioremediation for benzene and other BTEX compounds. These processes have great potential for cost-effective bioremediation of gasoline contamination and at other BTEX sites. The research has been performed under a Genomic Applications Partnership Program grant (Genome Canada) in collaboration with University of Toronto and Federated Cooperatives.. SiREM is a Bronze Sponsor at the Toronto and Ottawa events. The Toronto event will be held January 24th at Lionhead Golf Club and Conference Centre in Brampton and the Ottawa event on February 7th at the Ottawa Conference and Event Centre.. Contact Smart Remediation to Register. ...
Air testing over one of the nations biggest natural gas fields revealed two sites with extremely high levels of cancer-causing benzene and 19 more with
Certain trades put workers at particularly high risk for developing certain benzene-related diseases. Painters, mechanics and workers in the printing industry are at high risk for significant, chronic benzene exposure. But workers have also been exposed in many other industries as well, such as workers in the rubber and plastics industries, machinists, railroad workers, ship & shipyard workers, and refinery workers. Any job that puts workers in regular contact with materials that contain benzene puts those workers at risk for exposure to benzene-particularly because of the chemicals high rate of evaporation. Materials containing benzene may include lubricants, pesticides, detergents, and dyes. If benzene exposure is a risk in your workplace, please take precautions to protect yourself from the effects of this toxic chemical. Even if you dont feel those effects now, you could suffer a devastating disease later in life because of these exposures. ...
Large-scale separation of substances present at low concentrations is readily performed by adsorption in packed beds that requires recurring energy-intensive regeneration of the adsorbent. The present work uses numerical simulations previously developed for industrial-scale packed-bed benzene sorption on activated carbon with temperature-swing regeneration by steam to investigate the influence of steam properties and regeneration strategy on total energy performance and breakthrough behaviour. It is shown that using saturated steam lowers both the steam mass and energy consumption during regeneration of a fixed amount of benzene, whereas using superheated steam returns the bed to a more fresh-like state after each regeneration stage. The most promising variation tried implies a 19% reduction in the energy consumption. Furthermore, the importance of accounting for the real industrial cycling conditions in the optimization of packed-bed adsorbers is highlighted. It is shown that the participation of
Description: Benzene occurs naturally in crude oil. Benzene is a component of petroleum products including diesel fuel and gasoline. Benzene cases have resulted in a wide range of verdicts and settlements. For your information, contact Benzene Lawyers today ...
Ni catalysts supported on Nano porous catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method and tested for vapor phase hydrogenation of benzene. The textural and physico-chemical properties of Ni catalysts were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The catalytic evaluation revealed that the best selectivity to benzene (| 84%) and high stability with the low coke deposition (| 1.1%) are related to Ni/Folded Sheets Mesoporous Materials-No. 16. The kinetics of benzene hydrogenation has been examined as a function of benzene and hydrogen pressures at various temperatures. Two kinetic models based on power law and Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanisms were developed for the reaction and compared with the obtained experimental data. The apparent kinetic parameters were estimated using the multiple regression analysis. Both these models present the good results.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative investigation of benzene steam reforming over spinel supported Rh and Ir catalysts. AU - Mei, Donghai. AU - Lebarbier, Vanessa M.. AU - Rousseau, Roger. AU - Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra. AU - Albrecht, Karl O.. AU - Kovarik, Libor. AU - Flake, Matt. AU - Dagle, Robert A.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - In a combined experimental and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) study, benzene steam reforming (BSR) over MgAl2O 4-supported Rh and Ir catalysts was investigated. Experimentally, it has been found that both highly dispersed Rh and Ir clusters (1-2 nm) on the spinel (e.g., MgAl2O4) support are stable during the BSR in the temperature range of 700-850 C. Compared to the Ir/MgAl2O 4 catalyst, the Rh/MgAl2O4 catalyst is more active with higher benzene turnover frequency and conversion. At steam conditions with the molar steam-to-carbon ratio ,12, the benzene conversion is only a weak function of the H2O concentration in the feed. This suggests that the initial ...
The word benzene derives historically from gum benzoin, sometimes called benjamin (i.e., benzoin resin), an aromatic resin known to European pharmacists and perfumers since the fifteenth century as a product of southeast Asia. Benzoin is itself a corruption of the Arabic expression luban jawi, or frankincense of Java. An acidic material was derived from benzoin by sublimation, and named flowers of benzoin, or benzoic acid. The hydrocarbon derived from benzoic acid thus acquired the name benzin, benzol, or benzene.[1] Benzene has been the subject of many studies by scientists ranging from Michael Faraday to Linus Pauling. Faraday first isolated benzene in 1825 from the oily residue derived from the production of illuminating gas, giving it the name bicarburet of hydrogen.[2][3] In 1833, Eilhard Mitscherlich produced it via the distillation of benzoic acid (from gum benzoin) and lime. Mitscherlich gave the compound the name benzin.[4] In 1836 the French chemist Auguste Laurent named ...
Incorporated as Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) in 2016 Benzene Media LLP kicks off its business in primarily government and Corporate Sector later expand its business for everyone. Located in North West Delhi, Benzene Media LLP is providing world class printing service and digital marketing solution to all its customer since its inception. Providing a range of printing solution such as Flex Printing, Vinyl Printing, Sunboard Printing, Oneway Vision Printing, Banner Printing, Hoarding Printing, Poster printing, Pamphlets printing, Visiting Card printing, T-Shirt Printing, Cap Printing, Key Chain Printing, Bag and carry bag printing, Benzene Media LLP always keep its clients satisfied by providing them best quality printing at most cost effective prices. In indoor and outdoor signage, Benzene Media LLP provides Glow Sign Board Printing, Light Board Printing, Letter Cutting Printing, Cut outs printing, Selfie Cutout Printing, ACP Board printing, PVC Stickers Printing, LED Board Printing, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A simple, rapid and mild one pot synthesis of benzene ring acylated and demethylated analogues of harmine under solvent-free conditions. AU - Begum, Sabira. AU - Ali, Syed Nawazish. AU - Farhat, AU - Hassan, Syed Imran. AU - Siddiqui, Bina S.. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - A simple, rapid, solvent-free, room temperature one pot synthesis of benzene ring acylated and demethylated analogues of harmine using acyl halides/acid anhydrides and AlCl3 has been developed. Eight different acyl halides/acid anhydrides were used in the synthesis. The resulting mixture of products was separated by column chromatography to afford 10- and 12-monoacyl analogues, along with 10,12-diacyl-11-hydroxy products. In five cases the corresponding 10-acyl-11-hydroxy analogues were also obtained. Yields from the eight syntheses (29 products in total) were in the 6-34% range and all compounds were fully characterized.. AB - A simple, rapid, solvent-free, room temperature one pot synthesis of benzene ring ...
A series of silica supported Mn-Ce composite oxides with different Mn/Ce molar ratios were obtained by a simple and environment-friendly oxalate route. The physical and chemical properties were characterized by TG, BET, SEM, TEM, XPS and TPR analysis. All catalysts showed excellent activity towards deep oxidation of benzene. The effects of Mn/Ce ratio, calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic activity of catalysts were investigated. Catalyst from nitrate precursor was also characterized to compare the influence of different precursors. The 6Mn4Ce sample from oxalate route sintered at 400 A degrees C showed the maximum reaction rate of 0.50 mmol gcat(-1)h(-1); T90 of the catalyst is 216 A degrees C. The catalytic activity is related to surface area, pore size distribution, surface elemental species, particle size distribution and low temperature reducibility which may derived from synergistic effect between manganese and cerium oxide. Compared with nitrate precursors, catalyst from ...
MnOx nanoparticles were synthesized by spray pyrolysis, with and without citric acid assistance. The prepared MnOx particles were calcined between 600 and 1000°C and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and temperature-programmed reduction. The use of citric acid made it possible to reduce the particle size and increase the surface area of the MnOx particles. The highest surface area and reduction activity were achieved with citric acid. As a result, the MnOx nanoparticles prepared with citric acid and calcined at 600°C showed the highest catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzene using ozone ...
BATON ROUGE, La. -- A Louisiana benzene plaintiff whose lawsuit was dismissed has filed an appeal with the 5th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals, in which he will contest the lower courts finding that the plaintiffs reliance on an MSDS report on benzene and an informational paper on vinyl chloride was insufficient to meet the burden of either general or specific causation. The appeal was filed with the 5th Circuit in January; on Feb. 14, the electronic record on appeal was requested from the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Louisiana, according to the appellate courts online docket. ...
Firm Shareholders James L. Ware and Wes Sprague won a summary judgment in a benzene case in a traditionally difficult venue for defendants, Beaumont, Jefferson County, Texas. The plaintiff was a long time welder who worked for a leading contractor in several refineries and rubber manufacturing facilities in Jefferson County, Harris County, and Galveston County. The allegations were that the welder helped wash tools in benzene on a daily basis leading to his development of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) leaving him unable to work and in need of lifetime medical care. The plaintiffs deposition as to the firm client varied from the initial testimony of exposure which were identical as to each premise. At most the testimony supported there being a residue of liquid inside pipes on occasion which the plaintiff asked his helper to dry with rags before he welded them. In addition to the contradictions in liability evidence, the plaintiffs condition of MDS was refuted and his symptoms may have been ...
The availability and low cost of shale gas has boosted its use as fuel and as a raw material to produce value-added compounds. Benzene is one of the chemicals that can be obtained from methane, and represents one of the most important compounds in the petrochemical industry. It can be synthesized via direct methane aromatization (DMA) or via indirect aromatization (using oxidative coupling of methane). DMA is a direct-conversion process, while indirect aromatization involves several stages. In this work, an economic, energy-saving, and environmental assessment for the production of benzene from shale gas using DMA as a reaction path is presented. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to observe the effect of the operating conditions on the profitability of the process. The results show that production of benzene using shale gas as feedstock can be accomplished with a high return on investment.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catalytic transformation of methyl benzenes over zeolite catalysts. AU - Al-Khattaf, S.. AU - Akhtar, M. N.. AU - Odedairo, T.. AU - Aitani, A.. AU - Tukur, N. M.. AU - Kubů, M.. AU - Musilová-Pavlačková, Z.. AU - Čejka, J.. N1 - KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01 Acknowledged KAUST grant number(s): K-C1-019-12 Acknowledgements: This publication was supported by Award No. K-C1-019-12 made by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The support of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) is also highly appreciated. The work of M.K. was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (203/08/H032). This publication acknowledges KAUST support, but has no KAUST affiliated authors.. PY - 2011/2. Y1 - 2011/2. N2 - Catalytic transformation of three methyl benzenes (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene) has been investigated over ZSM-5, TNU-9, mordenite and SSZ-33 catalysts in a novel riser simulator at different operating ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conversion of methane to benzene over Mo2C and Mo2C/ZSM-5 catalysts. AU - Solymosi, F.. AU - Szöke, A.. AU - Cserényi, J.. PY - 1996/6. Y1 - 1996/6. N2 - The activation and dehydrogenation of CH4 on Mo2C and Mo2C/ZSM-5 have been investigated under non-oxidizing conditions. Unsupported Mo2C exhibited very little activity towards methane decomposition at 973 K. The main reaction pathway was the decomposition of methane to give hydrogen and carbon with a trace amount of ethane. Mixing Mo2C with ZSM-5 support somewhat enhanced its catalytic activity, but did not change the products of the reaction. A dramatic change in the product formation occurred on partially oxidized Mo2C/ZSM-5 catalyst; besides some hydrocarbons benzene was produced with a selectivity of 70-80% at a conversion of 5-7%. Carburization of highly dispersed MoO3 on ZSM-5 also led to a very active catalyst: the conversion of methane at the steady state was 5-6% and the selectivity of benzene formation was 85% ...
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The question is addressed of whether the triruthenium cluster cation [Ru-3(mu(2)-H)(3)(eta(6)C(6)H(6))(eta(6)-C6Me6)(2)(mu(3)-O)](+), 1, is a supramolecular, outer-sphere benzene hydrogenation catalyst or is 1 a precatalyst to well-known Ru(0)(n) catalysis of benzene hydrogenation. This question of "is it homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis?" is especially important in the present case since if 1 is a supramolecular, homogeneous catalyst as postulated in the literature that is, if 1 can in fact accomplish catalysis of reactions as difficult as benzene reduction with no inner-sphere, d-orbital-mediated ligand dissociation, oxidative addition, migratory insertion, or reductive elimination-then that finding holds promise of rewriting the rules of organometallic-based catalysis. The identity of the true catalyst derived from 1 is, therefore, addressed by a collaborative effort between research groups at the Universite de Neuchatel and Colorado State University. The methodology employed is that
Benzene[edit]. Main article: Benzene. One VOC that is a known human carcinogen is benzene, which is a chemical found in ... Benzene evaporates into the air quickly and the vapor of benzene is heavier than air allowing the compound to sink into low- ... Benzene also has natural sources such as volcanoes and forest fires. It is frequently used to make other chemicals in the ... Benzene has also been known to contaminate food and water and if digested can lead to vomiting, dizziness, sleepiness, rapid ...
Mesoporous aerogel - selective oxidation of benzene[edit]. Silver nanoparticles supported on aerogel are advantageous due to ... "Silver Nanoparticles in Mesoporous Aerogel Exhibiting Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Benzene in CO2 Free Air". Catalysis ... the higher number of active sites.[64] The highest selectivity for oxidation of benzene to phenol was observed at low weight ... benzene, carbon monoxide, and likely other compounds. ... 3.1.2 Mesoporous aerogel - selective oxidation of benzene. *3.1 ...
Benzene and heterocycle linked through a non-carbon[edit]. *Olanzapine. References[edit]. *^ Benzhydryl+Compounds at the US ... Benzenes linked by a non-carbon atom[edit]. *Nitrogen: promethazine, imipramine, acepromazine, chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, ... This does not include compounds where these benzenes are fused to other rings.[1] Benzhydryl can be abbreviated to CHPh2 or Bzh ... Benzhydryl compounds are compounds that are "diphenylmethane"-containing, i.e. containing two benzene rings adjoining a single ...
... (brand name Parkinsan) is an antiparkinson agent marketed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[2][3][1] While its exact mechanism of action is not well characterized,[2] it is believed to be an NMDA receptor antagonist,[4][5] but also promoting the synthesis of dopamine.[6] Because it provides additional benefits relative to existing treatments, it probably does not precisely mimic the mechanism of an existing known treatment.[6][7] ...
Benzene. Dichloromethane. Chloroform. Ether (anhydrous). Ethyl Acetate (anhydrous). Acetone (anhydrous). methanol. ethanol. ...
... is an antimicrobial medication used to treat African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Balamuthia infections,[2] babesiosis, and to prevent and treat pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in people with poor immune function.[1] In African trypanosomiasis it is used for early disease before central nervous system involvement, as a second line option to suramin.[1] It is an option for both visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis.[1] Pentamidine can be given by injection into a vein or muscle or by inhalation.[1] Common side effects of the injectable form include low blood sugar, pain at the site of injection, nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, and kidney problems.[1] Common side effects of the inhaled form include wheezing, cough, and nausea.[1] It is unclear if doses should be changed in those with kidney or liver problems.[1] Pentamidine is not recommended in early pregnancy but may be used in later pregnancy.[1] Its safety during breastfeeding is unclear.[3] Pentamidine is in the ...
... (CHF-3381, V-3381) is a drug which was formerly being investigated as an anticonvulsant and neuroprotective and is now under development for the treatment of neuropathic pain and chronic cough in Europe by Vernalis and Chiesi.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] It acts as a competitive, reversible, and non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitor,[5][6][9] and as a low affinity, non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist.[1][2][10] A pilot study of indantadol for chronic cough was initiated in October 2009 and in April 2010 it failed to achieve significant efficacy in neuropathic pain in phase IIb clinical trials.[7][8][11][12] ...
In 2001, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfR) objected to the addition of isolated theanine to beverages.[39][40] The institute stated the amount of theanine consumed by regular drinkers of tea or coffee is virtually impossible to determine. While it was estimated the quantity of green tea consumed by the average Japanese tea drinker per day contains about 20 mg of the substance, there are no studies measuring the amount of theanine being extracted by typical preparation methods, or the percentage lost by discarding the first infusion. Therefore, with the Japanese being exposed to possibly much less than 20 mg per day, and Europeans presumably even less, it was the opinion of the BfR that pharmacological reactions to drinks typically containing 50 mg of theanine per 500 milliliters could not be excluded-reactions such as impairment of psychomotor skills and amplification of the sedating effects of alcohol and hypnotics.[41] In 2006, a study ...
... is generally considered a non-polar solvent. Owing to the good polarizability of the chlorine atoms, it is a superior solvent for organic compounds that do not dissolve well in hydrocarbons such as hexane. It is an excellent solvent for many organic materials and also one of the least toxic of the chlorinated hydrocarbons. Prior to the Montreal Protocol, it was widely used for cleaning metal parts and circuit boards, as a photoresist solvent in the electronics industry, as an aerosol propellant, as a cutting fluid additive, and as a solvent for inks, paints, adhesives, and other coatings. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is also used as an insecticidal fumigant. It was also the standard cleaner for photographic film (movie/slide/negatives, etc.). Other commonly available solvents damage emulsion, and thus are not suitable for this application. The standard replacement, Forane 141 is much less effective, and tends to leave a residue. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was used as a thinner in ...
Transcrocetinate sodium can be prepared by reacting saffron with sodium hydroxide and extracting the salt of the trans crocetin isomer from the solution.[10] John L. Gainer and colleagues have investigated the effects of transcrocetinate sodium in animal models.[10][11] They discovered that the drug could reverse the potentially fatal decrease in blood pressure produced by the loss of large volumes of blood in severe hemorrhage, and thereby improve survival.[11] Early investigations of transcrocetinate sodium suggested that it had potential applications in battlefield medicine, specifically in treatment of the many combat casualties with hemorrhagic shock.[8][11] Additional studies, carried out in animal models and in clinical trials in humans, indicated that transcrocetinate sodium might prove beneficial in the treatment of a variety of conditions associated with hypoxia and ischemia (a lack of oxygen reaching the tissues, usually due to a disruption in the circulatory system), including ...
Benzene 0.604 25 [62] Water 1.0016 20 Mercury 1.526 25 Whole milk 2.12 20 [65] ...
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel found in neurons. The NMDA receptor is one of three types of ionotropic glutamate receptors, the other two being AMPA and kainate receptors. Depending on its subunit composition, its ligands are glutamate and glycine (or D-serine). However, the binding of the ligands is typically not sufficient to open the channel as it may be blocked by Mg2+ ions which are only removed when the neuron is sufficiently depolarized. Thus, the channel acts as a "coincidence detector" and only once both of these conditions are met, the channel opens and it allows positively charged ions (cations) to flow through the cell membrane.[2] The NMDA receptor is thought to be very important for controlling synaptic plasticity and mediating learning and memory functions.[3] The NMDA receptor is ionotropic, meaning it is a protein which allows the passage of ions through the cell membrane.[4] The NMDA receptor ...
... producing algal blooms are associated with the phenomenon of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Domoic acid can bioaccumulate in marine organisms such as shellfish, anchovies, and sardines that feed on the phytoplankton known to produce this toxin. It can accumulate in high concentrations in the tissues of these plankton feeders when the toxic phytoplankton are high in concentration in the surrounding waters. Domoic acid is a neurotoxin that inhibits neurochemical processes, causing short-term memory loss, brain damage, and, in severe cases, death in humans. In marine mammals, domoic acid typically causes seizures and tremors. Studies have shown that there are no symptomatic effects in humans at levels of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight. In the 1987 domoic acid poisoning on Prince Edward Island concentrations ranging from 0.31-1.28 mg/kg of muscle tissue were noted in people that became ill (three of whom died). Dangerous levels of domoic acid have been calculated based on cases such as the ...
Talyzin, A.V. (1997). "Phase Transition C60−C60*4C6H6 in Liquid Benzene". Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 101 (47): 9679-9681 ... Talyzin, A.V.; Engström, I. (1998). "C70 in Benzene, Hexane, and Toluene Solutions". Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 102 (34 ... Like other solvates, this one readily releases benzene to give the usual fcc C60. Millimeter-sized crystals of C60 and C. 70 ... 60 crystallises with some solvents in the lattice ("solvates"). For example, crystallization of C60 in benzene solution yields ...
Each AMPAR has four sites to which an agonist (such as glutamate) can bind, one for each subunit.[5] The binding site is believed to be formed by the N-terminal tail and the extracellular loop between transmembrane domains three and four.[16] When an agonist binds, these two loops move towards each other, opening the pore. The channel opens when two sites are occupied,[17] and increases its current as more binding sites are occupied.[18] Once open, the channel may undergo rapid desensitization, stopping the current. The mechanism of desensitization is believed to be due to a small change in angle of one of the parts of the binding site, closing the pore.[19] AMPARs open and close quickly (1ms), and are thus responsible for most of the fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system.[17] The AMPAR's permeability to calcium and other cations, such as sodium and potassium, is governed by the GluA2 subunit. If an AMPAR lacks a GluA2 subunit, then it will be permeable to sodium, ...
Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, and benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making ... benzene - the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon *ethylbenzene - made from benzene and ethylene *styrene made by dehydrogenation of ... Benzene. Butadiene. Ethylene. p-Xylene. Propylene Intermediates. 2-Ethylhexanol (2-EH). Acetic acid. Acrylonitrile (AN). ... Linear alkyl benzene (LAB). Methanol. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) Phenol. Propylene oxide. Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) ...
Intravenous and oral formulations of acetylcysteine are available for the treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.[13] When paracetamol is taken in large quantities, a minor metabolite called N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) accumulates within the body. It is normally conjugated by glutathione, but when taken in excess, the body's glutathione reserves are not sufficient to deactivate the toxic NAPQI. This metabolite is then free to react with key hepatic enzymes, thereby damaging liver cells. This may lead to severe liver damage and even death by acute liver failure. In the treatment of acetaminophen overdose, acetylcysteine acts to maintain or replenish depleted glutathione reserves in the liver and enhance non-toxic metabolism of acetaminophen.[14] These actions serve to protect liver cells from NAPQI toxicity. It is most effective in preventing or lessening hepatic injury when administered within 8-10 hours after overdose.[14] Research suggests that the rate of liver toxicity ...
William T. G. Morton participated in a public demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846 at the Ether Dome in Boston, Massachusetts. However, Crawford Williamson Long, M.D., is now known to have demonstrated its use privately as a general anesthetic in surgery to officials in Georgia, as early as March 30, 1842, and Long publicly demonstrated ether's use as a surgical anesthetic on six occasions before the Boston demonstration.[14][15][16] British doctors were aware of the anesthetic properties of ether as early as 1840 where it was widely prescribed in conjunction with opium.[17] Diethyl ether largely supplanted the use of chloroform as a general anesthetic due to ether's more favorable therapeutic index, that is, a greater difference between an effective dose and a potentially toxic dose.[18] Diethyl ether depresses the myocardium and increases tracheobronchial secretions.[19] Diethyl ether could also be mixed with other anesthetic agents such as chloroform to make C.E. mixture, or ...
Benzene. *Benzonitrile. *Buckminsterfullerene (C60, C60+, fullerene, buckyball). *C70 fullerene ...
... s are a small family of helical peptides that are derived from the venom of predatory marine snails of the genus Conus. Conantokins act as potent and specific antagonists of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).[1] They are the only naturally-derived peptides to do so.[2] The subtypes of conantokins exhibit a surprising variability of selectivity across the NMDAR subunits, and are therefore uniquely useful in developing subunit-specific pharmacological probes.[3][4][5] Chemically, conantokins are unique in that they possess a number (generally 4 or 5) of gamma-carboxyglutamyl (Gla) residues, generated by the post-translational modification of glutamyl (Glu) residues. These Gla residues induce a conformational change from a 3 10 helix to an alpha helix on binding to Calcium.[6] In the broader scheme of genetic conotoxin classification, Conanotokins are also known as "Conotoxin Superfamily B."[7] The word "conantokin" is derived from the Filipino word antokin, meaning sleepy.[8] ...
Benzene 10μg/l 1.0 μg/l 5 μg/l " " Benzo(a)pyrene " 0.010 μg/l 0.2 μg/l 0.0028 μg/l " ...
In coordination chemistry, it serves as a tridentate ligand forming complexes such as Co(dien)(NO2)3.[5] Like some related amines, it is used in oil industry for the extraction of acid gas. Like ethylenediamine, DETA can also be used to sensitize nitromethane, making a liquid explosive compound similar to PLX. This compound is cap sensitive with an explosive velocity of around 6200 m/s and is discussed in patent #3,713,915. Mixed with unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine it was used as Hydyne, a propellent for liquid-fuel rockets. DETA has been evaluated for use in the Countermine System under development by the U.S. Office of Naval Research, where it would be used to ignite and consume the explosive fill of land mines in beach and surf zones.[6] ...
... (ACC) is a disubstituted cyclic α-amino acid in which a three-membered cyclopropane ring is fused to the Cα atom of the amino acid. ACC plays an important role in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene.[2][3] It is synthesized by the enzyme ACC synthase ( EC from methionine and converted to ethylene by ACC oxidase (EC[4] ACC is also an exogenous partial agonist of the mammalian NMDA receptor.[5] ...
... is extracted from Huperzia serrata.[2] It is a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor[6][7][8][9] and NMDA receptor antagonist[10] that crosses the blood-brain barrier.[11] Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. The structure of the complex of huperzine A with acetylcholinesterase has been determined by X-ray crystallography (PDB code: 1VOT; see the 3D structure).[12] For some years, huperzine A has been investigated as a possible treatment for diseases characterized by neurodegeneration, particularly Alzheimer's disease.[2][13] A 2013 meta-analysis found that huperzine A may be efficacious in improving cognitive function, global clinical status, and activities of daily living for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. However, due to the poor size and quality of the clinical trials reviewed, huperzine A should not be recommended as a treatment for ...
Benzene 1.1[1] Toxic, flammable. Liquid oxygen 2.4 Cryogenic. Highly flammable with combustible materials. ...
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system.[21] At chemical synapses, glutamate is stored in vesicles. Nerve impulses trigger release of glutamate from the presynaptic cell. Glutamate acts on ionotropic and metabotropic (G-protein coupled) receptors.[21] In the opposing postsynaptic cell, glutamate receptors, such as the NMDA receptor or the AMPA receptor, bind glutamate and are activated. Because of its role in synaptic plasticity, glutamate is involved in cognitive functions such as learning and memory in the brain.[22] The form of plasticity known as long-term potentiation takes place at glutamatergic synapses in the hippocampus, neocortex, and other parts of the brain. Glutamate works not only as a point-to-point transmitter, but also through spill-over synaptic crosstalk between synapses in which summation of glutamate released from a neighboring synapse creates extrasynaptic signaling/volume transmission.[23] In addition, glutamate plays ...
... has been used since the 1970s in Australia as an emergency analgesic for short-term use, mostly by the Australian and New Zealand Defence Forces,[13] the Australian ambulance services,[10][35][36] and since 2018 by some Emergency medical services in Germany.[57] All of the currently used volatile anesthetic agents are organofluorine compounds. Aside from the synthesis of Freon (Thomas Midgley, Jr. and Charles F. Kettering, 1928)[58] and the discovery of Teflon (Roy J. Plunkett, 1938),[59] the field of organofluorine chemistry had not attracted a great deal of attention up to 1940 because of the extreme reactivity of elemental fluorine, which had to be produced in situ for use in chemical reactions. The development of organofluorine chemistry was a spin-off from the Manhattan Project, during which elemental fluorine was produced on an industrial scale for the first time. The need for fluorine arose from the need to separate the isotope 235U from 238U because the former, present in ...
benzene. 2.3. 298 diethyl ether. 4.3. 293 tetrahydrofuran (THF). 7.6. 298 dichloromethane. 9.1. 293 ...
NAAG is catabolized via NAAG peptidase activity. Two enzymes with NAAG peptidase activity have been cloned, glutamate carboxypeptidase II and glutamate carboxypeptidase III. These enzymes mediate the hydrolysis of NAAG to NAA and glutamate. Their inhibition can produce therapeutic benefits. Two main types of inhibitors of this enzyme are known: compounds related to 2-(phosphonomethyl)pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA) and urea-based analogs of NAAG, including ZJ43, ZJ17, and ZJ11. In rat models, ZJ43 and 2-PMPA reduce perception of inflammatory and neuropathic pain when administered systemically, intracerebrally, or locally, suggesting that NAAG modulates neurotrasmission in pain circuits via mGlu3 receptors. The inhibition of NAAG hydrolysis increases the concentration of NAAG in the synaptic space analogous to the effects of SSRIs in increasing the concentration of serotonin. This elevated NAAG gives greater activation of presynaptic mGluR3 receptors, which decrease release of transmitter (glutamate) ...
2OH. Its molecule can be described as that of ethanol, with the three hydrogen atoms at position 2 (the methyl group) replaced by chlorine atoms. It is a clear flammable liquid at room temperature, colorless when pure but often with a light yellow color.[1][2] The pharmacological effects of this compound in humans are similar to those of its prodrug chloral hydrate, and of chlorobutanol. Historically, it has been used as a sedative hypnotic.[3] The hypnotic drug triclofos (2,2,2-trichloroethyl phosphate) is metabolized in vivo to 2,2,2-trichloroethanol. Chronic exposure may result in kidney and liver damage.[4] 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol can be added to SDS-PAGE gels in order to enable fluorescent detection of proteins without a staining step, for immunoblotting or other analysis methods.[5] ...
Information on Benzene. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ... A major source of benzene exposure is tobacco smoke. How benzene works *Benzene works by causing cells not to work correctly. ... What benzene is *Benzene is a chemical that is a colorless or light yellow liquid at room temperature. It has a sweet odor and ... First, if the benzene was released into the air, get fresh air by leaving the area where the benzene was released. Moving to an ...
Benzene can cause blood cancers like leukemia. Workers may be harmed from exposure to benzene. The level of exposure depends ... Benzene (C6H6) is a highly flammable, colorless liquid that evaporates quickly into the air. It is harmful to the eyes, skin, ... Benzene can cause blood cancers like leukemia. Workers may be harmed from exposure to benzene. The level of exposure depends ... Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS): Benzeneexternal icon. *European Chemicals Agency (ECHA): Benzene ...
Present in crude petroleum, benzene is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. ... BENZENE Benzene is a ubiquitous component of the petrochemical era. ... BENZENE. Benzene is a ubiquitous component of the petrochemical era. Present in crude petroleum, benzene is produced from the ... The health effects of exposure to liquid benzene or benzene fumes depends on the amount of benzene taken into the body. The ...
Breathing benzene can cause drowsiness, dizziness, and unconsciousness; long-term benzene exposure causes effects on the bone ... Benzene has been found in at least 813 of the 1,430 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection ... Benzene is a widely used chemical formed from both natural processes and human activities. ... How can benzene affect children?. Children can be affected by benzene exposure in the same ways as adults. It is not known if ...
... is a aromatic annulene (CHEBI:33842) benzene (CHEBI:16716) is a benzenes (CHEBI:22712) benzene (CHEBI: ... benzene (CHEBI:16716) has role environmental contaminant (CHEBI:78298) benzene (CHEBI:16716) has role non-polar solvent (CHEBI: ... 1,2-phenylenediamine (CHEBI:34043) has parent hydride benzene (CHEBI:16716). alkylbenzene (CHEBI:38976) has parent hydride ... 3-phenylpropanal (CHEBI:39940) has functional parent benzene (CHEBI:16716). nitrosobenzene (CHEBI:27986) has functional parent ...
Benzene is used to make chemicals used in the manufacture of industrial products such as dyes, detergents, explosives, ... Benzene is a solid below 42°F (5.6°C).. *DESCRIPTION: Benzene is used to make chemicals used in the manufacture of industrial ... Benzene has a sweet, aromatic, gasoline-like odor. Most individuals can begin to smell benzene in air at 1.5 to 4.7 ppm. The ... Food: Benzene can be used to contaminate food.. *Outdoor Air: Benzene can be released into outdoor air as a liquid spray ( ...
Toxicological profile for Benzene. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
... benzene (sco); Benzol (lb); benzen (nn); benzen (nb); Benzol (az); 苯 (lzh); بەنزین (ckb); benzene (en); بنزين (ar); 苯 (yue); ... Benzene (en-ca); பென்சீன் (ta); benzene (it); Benzen (sh); Benzenum (la); benzen (cs); Benseen (et); бэнзоль (be-tarask); ... Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond, spin.jpg 1 536 × 1 152 ; 323 Kio. ... Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond, vectors summation.jpg 930 × 698 ; 142 Kio. ...
Benzene and coal. Benzene and coal mining. Benzene in coal mining poses a potential health threat to coal miners and those who ... Benzene is an emission produced in the coking process of coal mining. Exposure to long term low levels of benzene in the work ... Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C6H6. It is sometimes abbreviated Ph-H. Benzene is both an ... Benzene and fracking regulation. Due to the Halliburton loophole, the Safe Drinking Act regulates benzene containing diesel- ...
Benzene is a petroleum product, originally manufactured from coal tar that is used as a component in multiple industrial and ... Benzene is also a known carcinogen according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Toxicology Program. ... Benzene is a petroleum product, originally manufactured from coal tar that is used as a component in multiple industrial and ... Benzene is also a known human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans, according to ...
Benzene is a ubiquitous pollutant in the environment and in many workplaces. It is known to produce aplastic anemia, leukemia, ... A. Tunek, T. Olofsson, and M. Berlin, Toxic effects of benzene and benzene metabolites on granulopoietic stem cells and bone ... L.E. Bolcsak and D.E. Nerland, Inhibition of erythropoiesis by benzene and benzene metabolites, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 69: ... M. Wolf, V. Rowe, D. McCollister, R. Hollingsworth, F. Oyen Toxicological studies of certain alkylated benzenes and benzene, A ...
... benzene. It is highly flammable and presents a risk of fire/explosion. Benzene can also be absorbed into your body through the ... Benzene in motor vehicle repair. Benzene is a natural component of both crude oil and petrol. It can be absorbed into your body ... the risk of exposure to benzene from petrol is very small as its content in the EU is restricted to less than 1%. Sensible ... more than adequate to protect against benzene. ... Benzene and you - INDG329. *. Safe use of petrol in garages - ...
Benzene poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in, or touches benzene. It is a member of a class of compounds known ... Benzene is a clear, liquid, petroleum-based chemical that has a sweet smell. ... Benzene poisoning occurs when someone swallows, breathes in, or touches benzene. It is a member of a class of compounds known ... People may be exposed to benzene in factories, refineries, and other industrial settings. Benzene may be found in:. *Additives ...
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Benzene is highly flammable. Most people can begin to smell benzene in air at approximately 60 parts of benzene per million ... Industrial processes are the main sources of benzene in the environment.. Benzene is commonly found in the environment. Benzene ... and storage or transport of benzene and petroleum products containing benzene. Other workers who may be exposed to benzene ... Measured levels of benzene in outdoor air have ranged from 0.02 to 34 parts of benzene per billion parts of air (ppb) (1 ppb is ...
Lin, C.-Y.; Dunbar, R.C., Radiative Association Kinetics and Binding Energies of Chromium Ions with Benzene and Benzene ... Davico, G.E.; Bierbaum, V.M.; Depuy, C.H.; Ellison, G.B.; Squires, R.R., The C-H bond energy of benzene, J. Am. Chem. Soc., ... Field, F.H.; Hamlet, P.; Libby, W.F., Effect of Temperature on the Mass Spectrum of Benzene at High Pressures, J. Am. Chem. Soc ... Guo, B.C.; Purnell, J.W.; Castleman, A.W., The Clustering Reactions of Benzene with Sodium and Lead Ions, Chem. Phys. Lett., ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
... IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans 120 Format:. Corporate Author:. IARC Working Group ... Benzene, a simple aromatic hydrocarbon, occurs naturally and as a result of human activity, notably as a result of combustion, ... Human exposure to benzene is widespread through the air, in consumer products, and in industry. An IARC Monographs Working ... This volume presents an evaluation of the carcinogenicity of benzene, updating with new data the most recent evaluation ...
Benzene definition, a colorless, volatile, flammable, toxic, slightly water-soluble, liquid, aromatic compound, C6H6, obtained ... benzene. in Science. benzene. [bĕn′zēn′]. *A colorless flammable liquid derived from petroleum. Benzene is used to make ... benzene. Contemporary Examples. of benzene. *. Benzene causes cancer, thins the blood to cause symptoms resembling hemophilia, ... benzene. *. Benzene, the first member of the benzene series, is a liquid boiling at 80°. ...
Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical to those set forth at 1910.1028 of this chapter. ...
Benzene (C6H6) (CAS Registry No. 71-43-2) means liquefied or gaseous benzene. It includes benzene contained in liquid mixtures ... Work operations where the only exposure to benzene is from liquid mixtures containing 0.5 percent or less of benzene by volume ... The storage, transportation, distribution or sale of benzene or liquid mixtures containing more than 0.1 percent benzene in ... The employer shall assure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of benzene in excess of one part of benzene ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of benzene in cyclohexane at different concentrations measured using Taylor ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of benzene in cyclohexane. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of benzene in cyclohexane at different concentrations measured using Taylor ...
Benzene is formed from both natural and man-made processes. Natural sources include volcanoes and forest fires. Benzene is also ... The major effects of benzene are manifested via long-term exposure (exposure of one year or more) through the blood. Benzene ... Benzene dissolves only slightly in water and floats on top of it. Its molecular formula is C6H6 (sometimes abbreviated Ph-H). ... Benzene is an organic compound that is a colorless or light-yellow liquid that has a relatively high melting point. It is ...
As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a four-step conversion of benzene to cyclohexene with varying degrees of deuterium ... isotopologues and stereoisotopomers with varying degrees of deuteration are formed by binding a tungsten complex to benzene, ... Leong, V. S. & Cooper, N. J. Electrophilic activation of benzene in [Cr(η 4-C6H6)(CO)3]2−. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2644-2646 ( ... Harman, W. D. & Taube, H. The selective hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexene on pentaammineosmium(II). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110 ...
Benzene, a clear liquid, is one of the most common industrial chemicals. It is a basic ingredient in the production of plastics ... Benzene is known to cause leukemia and other human blood disorders. But there is wide disagreement on how much exposure it ... The new findings of genetic damage from low-level benzene exposure in a study of 52 workers were reported to Dow medical ... But Dows acknowledgement was based on exposures to benzene which the company said were at times much higher than at the levels ...
Reuters Health) - Traffic pollution near the home - and specifically, benzene in the air - increases the risk of one type of ... Though benzene is carcinogenic for adults, it is not clear how benzene exposure would cause AML in children, Hemon said. ... Though benzene levels have sharply decreased in Europe in recent years, and the levels in the current study are largely well ... There seems to be a stronger link between benzene and leukemia in Europe than in the U.S., though it is unclear why, he said. ...
Benzene molecules have been detected on Mars. X-ray diffraction shows that all six carbon-carbon bonds in benzene are of the ... Benzene causes cancer in animals including humans. Benzene has been shown to cause cancer in both sexes of multiple species of ... Pure benzene, for example, oxidizes in the body to produce an epoxide, benzene oxide, which is not excreted readily and can ... Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms ...
... - (1-ETHYLDODECYL)BENZENE 3-Phenyltetradecane 3-phenyltetradecane 4534-58-1 Benzene, (1-ethyldodecyl)-
The bacteria then oxidized a supplied benzene source, needing only glucose as fuel. ... Researchers at Nagoya University used bacteria to convert benzene into phenol. They developed decoy molecules -- modified ... Now supply benzene (C6H6), and the bacteria get busy, oxidizing C6H6 to C6H6O (phenol). No need for the usual lab kit - living ... Tricking bacteria into hydroxylating benzene. Nagoya University. Journal. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. Funder. ...
  • A major source of benzene exposure is tobacco smoke. (
  • The seriousness of poisoning caused by benzene depends on the amount, route, and length of time of exposure, as well as the age and preexisting medical condition of the exposed person. (
  • Direct exposure of the eyes, skin, or lungs to benzene can cause tissue injury and irritation. (
  • The major effect of benzene from long-term exposure is on the blood. (
  • It is not known whether benzene exposure affects the developing fetus in pregnant women or fertility in men. (
  • Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia, cancer of the blood-forming organs. (
  • Moving to an area with fresh air is a good way to reduce the possibility of death from exposure to benzene in the air. (
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to benzene. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to benzene. (
  • Criteria for a Recommended Standard (Revised): Exposure to Benzene. (
  • Presents a revised standard to prevent the adverse effects of exposure to benzene over a working lifetime. (
  • NIOSH Criteria Documents: Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Benzene - DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 74-137 (1974). (
  • long-term benzene exposure causes effects on the bone marrow and can cause anemia and leukemia. (
  • Vapors (or gases) from products that contain benzene, such as glues, paints, furniture wax, and detergents, can also be a source of exposure. (
  • Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene in the air can cause leukemia, particularly acute myelogenous leukemia, often referred to as AML. (
  • Children can be affected by benzene exposure in the same ways as adults. (
  • How can families reduce the risks of exposure to benzene? (
  • Benzene exposure can be reduced by limiting contact with gasoline and cigarette smoke. (
  • Exposure to long term low levels of benzene in the work environment or acute short term exposure can lead to a number of health problems ranging from nausea, insomnia, headache and dizziness to convulsions, coma, cancer, chromosomal aberrations, anemia and even death. (
  • There are several types of leukemia that have been linked to benzene exposure, which hinders or disables an individual's bone marrow from properly producing red blood cells, white blood cells and/or platelet cells in the blood. (
  • Exposure to benzene in coal mining at the beginning of the 1900s was as high as one thousand parts per million. (
  • B192-652) alleging her husband developed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and died as a result of his regular exposure to benzene during work at the Port Arthur facilities of the defendants. (
  • In the Report on Carcinogens , Twelfth Edition (2011) it is mentioned that the strongest epidemiological evidence that benzene causes cancer is from several cohort studies in various industries and geographical locations, which found that occupational exposure to benzene increased the risk of mortality from leukemia (mainly acute myelogenous leukemia). (
  • D.E. Rickert, T.S. Baker, J.S. Bus, C.S. Barrow, and R.D. Irons, Benzene disposition in the rat after exposure by inhalation, Toxicol. (
  • People who have regular exposure to low levels of benzene can also become sick. (
  • Exposure of the general population to benzene mainly occurs through breathing air that contains benzene. (
  • The major sources of benzene exposure are tobacco smoke, automobile service stations, exhaust from motor vehicles, and industrial emissions. (
  • Auto exhaust and industrial emissions account for about 20% of the total national exposure to benzene. (
  • About half of the exposure to benzene in the United States results from smoking tobacco or from exposure to tobacco smoke. (
  • For most people, the level of exposure to benzene through food, beverages, or drinking water is not as high as through air. (
  • In addition, exposure can result from breathing in benzene while showering, bathing, or cooking with contaminated water. (
  • Human exposure to benzene is widespread through the air, in consumer products, and in industry. (
  • Exposure to benzene is a global health problem and has serious health hazards. (
  • Immediate signs and symptoms of exposure to benzene - effects that can appear within minutes or several hours - include drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, tremors, confusion and unconsciousness. (
  • The major effects of benzene are manifested via long-term exposure (exposure of one year or more) through the blood. (
  • The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a permissible exposure limit of 1 part of benzene per million parts of air (1 ppm) in the workplace during an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek. (
  • The short term exposure limit for airborne benzene is 5 ppm for 15 minutes. (
  • Study links benzene exposure to sperm abnormality. (
  • The new findings of genetic damage from low-level benzene exposure in a study of 52 workers were reported to Dow medical officials in June 1977 by a Dow geneticist, Dr. Dante Picciano, who resigned last March in protest against the corporation's refusal to disclose the information. (
  • The petrochemical industry, in hearings, petitions and litigation, has persistently fought attempts by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to lower benzene exposure levels from 10 to 1 ppm averaged over an eight-hour workday, contending there is no evidence to support such a standard. (
  • He also found a correlation between the degree of benzene exposure and chromosome damage. (
  • Short-term benzene exposure may cause drowsiness, dizziness, and headaches, as well as eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation, while long-term inhalation exposure in occupational settings has caused various disorders in the blood, including reduced numbers of red blood cells and aplastic anemia, according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (
  • Though benzene is carcinogenic for adults, it is not clear how benzene exposure would cause AML in children, Hemon said. (
  • A plume of benzene has been detected in the air over Houston after four fossil fuel companies reported leaks of the highly toxic compound that can increase the risk of cancer - even from brief exposure. (
  • Short-term high benzene exposure can definitely result in harmful health effects," Smith said in an interview with IBT. (
  • As nasty as some chemical and industrial plants can be on the benzene front, cigarette smoke accounts for as much as half of benzene exposure in the United States, and 89 per cent of exposure among smokers. (
  • Second-hand smoke represents 10 percent of benzene exposure among non-smokers in the U.S. (
  • When these combinations are present in the final product, benzene formulation can be triggered by exposure to heat or light in the shipping, or storage environment. (
  • With little evidence of exposure to any chemical other then benzene, the study determined an increase in leukemia, and multiple myeloma - a cancer of immune system cells in bone marrow. (
  • This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to benzene exposure. (
  • Genetic variation in isogenic strains of laboratory mice alters disposition after acute exposure to [14C]-benzene. (
  • Studies of genetic variation in isogenic mouse strains following exposure to [14C]-benzene. (
  • S-phenylcysteine formation in hemoglobin as a biological exposure index to benzene. (
  • Muconic acid determinations in urine as a biological exposure index for workers occupationally exposed to benzene. (
  • The site with the highest benzene level was a wellhead owned by Oklahoma City-based Devon Energy Corp. Benzene was one of 35 airborne chemicals leaking at the well in amounts above the environmental commission's level for short-term effects, signaling the potential for health problems with only brief exposure. (
  • Benzene: What to do After Benzene Exposure? (
  • You can expect to hear about benzene and benzene exposure fairly soon in the next few years. (
  • Certain people, however, are more prone to benzene exposure. (
  • Even if you only intermittently use a product that contains benzene you should still be on the lookout for symptoms of benzene exposure. (
  • If you have experienced any symptoms of benzene exposure, it is necessary to seek immediate medical attention. (
  • The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. (
  • Along with Wells, Scott Monroe has filed a lawsuit against Shell, alleging he developed acute myelogenous leukemia after exposure to benzene in Roxana. (
  • The study reveals that benzene is harmful to human blood cells even when inhaled at levels below the US exposure limits for the workplace of 1 part per million over eight hours. (
  • Schnatter et al 2020 derived an occupational exposure limit for benzene using quality assessed data. (
  • Occupational exposure to benzene at levels of ≥10 ppm has been associated with increased risk of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). (
  • Benzene exposure can result in haematotoxic (including immunotoxic), genotoxic and carcinogenic (i.e. leukaemogenic) effects. (
  • 1939) found that high benzene exposure had a suppressive effect on peripheral blood cell counts. (
  • An extensive literature review of epidemiological studies of benzene exposure reveals that most early studies (before 1980), focused on higher exposures, with benzene concentrations often exceeding 50 ppm in air. (
  • Especially for genotoxicity, study groups exposed to lower concentrations often come from environments with co-exposure to chemicals, making it more difficult to attribute the effects to benzene or other chemical exposure such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (
  • Johnson & Johnson said Wednesday that it is recalling five of its sunscreen products after some samples were found to contain low levels of benzene, a chemical that can cause cancer with repeated exposure. (
  • Benzene Exposure: What Are the Long-Term Health Effects? (
  • This public health statement tells you about benzene and the effects of exposure to it. (
  • Health Details: Those working with Benzene products are classed as a high risk group, and this is because these people are at increased risk of dangerous exposure levels of Benzene, which can result in …Aplastic Anemia. (
  • By WhatGo - 6:21 AM. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the health consequences of benzene exposure in children following a flaring incident at … Do not handle the plastic bags yourself. (
  • Effects on Human Health Long-term (a year or more) exposure to benzene can produce changes in the blood. (
  • Benzene exposure can result in a number of neurological symptoms, and these include dizziness, drowsiness, headaches, and loss of consciousness. (
  • Headaches, sleep disturbances, irritability, confusion, memory loss and nerve damage in the extremities (arms and legs) may occur with persistent exposure to benzene vapors. (
  • The long-term effects of chronic exposure to benzene can be seriously damaging and cause life-altering health conditions such as: 8 Cancer: Because benzene is known to cause genetic damage, it's a well-established carcinogen. (
  • Ultimately, excessive exposure to benzene kills the plant. (
  • The exposure can be lethal solely through soil-, air- or water-borne means, or a combination thereof depending on duration and concentration of benzene. (
  • The American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) and the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) are using a recent study indicating that benzene can be harmful at levels lower than the OSHA-mandated permissible exposure limit (PEL) to call for a review of the PEL-setting process and to applaud occupational health and safety research efforts, while the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine wants to see more studies. (
  • The study, published in Science magazine, shows that even minimal exposure to benzene at levels below that of the PEL set by OSHA caused significant changes in the blood including a decrease in white blood cells of 240 workers who work at a shoe factory in China. (
  • The benzene exposure also negatively impacted progenitor cells (platelets), which are crucial to the formation of blood cells. (
  • To evaluate the possible association between occupational exposure to benzene and subsequent death from leukemia, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of workers who had been exposed to benzene in the manufacture of rubber hydrochloride at two locations in Ohio. (
  • Mean duration of exposure to benzene was brief, and 437 (58%) of the cohort were exposed for less than 1 year. (
  • Reconstruction of past exposures to benzene at the two locations indicates that in some areas of the plant airborne benzene concentrations rose occasionally to several hundred parts per million (ppm), but that for the most part, employee eight-hour time-weighted averages (TWA) fell within the limits considered permissible at the time of exposure. (
  • Benzene exposure monitoring of Tunisian workers. (
  • To monitor benzene exposure and to check reliability of urinary trans,trans-Muconic Acid (t,t-MA) as a bio-marker of benzene exposure in local conditions, a study was conducted on 30 Tunisian exposed workers (20 tanker fillers and 10 filling station attendants). (
  • Analysis of urinary t,t-MA offers a relatively simple and suitable method for benzene exposure monitoring. (
  • Benzene exposure at below 1 part per million (1 ppm) causes hematotoxicity in exposed workers. (
  • Benzene exposure in parts per billion has been shown to adversely effect DNA in a manner consisent with increased risk for lymphoma and leukemia. (
  • Benzene exposure is associated with hypertension, possibly due to disturbance of nitric oxide process. (
  • Benzene exposure is associated with leukemia-associated changes in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers. (
  • Benzene exposure near the US permissible limit is associated wtih sperm aneuploidy (chromosomal abnormality). (
  • Crude oil exposure has been linked to acute myelogenous leukemia and multiple myeloma, in part due to benzene. (
  • We review the evidence implicating benzene in the etiology of hematopoietic disorders, clarify methodologic aspects of the NCI/CAPM study, and examine the study in the context of the broader literature on health effects associated with occupational benzene exposure. (
  • Quantitative relationships for cancer risk from China and the U.S. show a relatively smooth increase in risk for acute myeloid leukemia and related conditions over a broad dose range of benzene exposure (below 200 ppm-years mostly from the China study and above 200 ppm-years mostly from the U.S. study). (
  • Risks of acute myeloid leukemia and other malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic disorders associated with benzene exposure in China are consistent with other information about benzene exposure, hematotoxicity, and cancer risk, extending evidence for hematopoietic cancer risks to levels substantially lower than had previously been established. (
  • In this article, the historical benzene content of various petroleum-derived products is reviewed and the airborne concentrations of benzene associated with the typical handling or use of these products in the United States are characterized, based on indoor exposure modeling and industrial hygiene air monitoring data collected since the late 1970s. (
  • The air around hazardous waste sites or gas stations can contain higher levels of benzene than in other areas. (
  • Air around hazardous waste sites or gas stations will contain higher levels of benzene. (
  • Due to the Halliburton loophole, the Safe Drinking Act regulates benzene containing diesel-based fluids but no other petroleum products with much higher levels of benzene. (
  • People living in cities or industrial areas are generally exposed to higher levels of benzene in air than those living in rural areas. (
  • People may be exposed to higher levels of benzene in air by living near hazardous waste sites, petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing sites, or gas stations. (
  • It conducted a food-testing program called the Total Diet Study between 1995 to 2000 during which it found that out of the 24 samples of diet soda that were studied for the benzene presence, 19 samples (79%) had higher levels of benzene. (
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the EPA have determined that benzene is carcinogenic to humans. (
  • TNO experts have now built a sensor that is capable of quickly detecting very low concentrations of a group of substances (aromatics) The next phase, which will require at least another year of research, construction and testing, should produce a sensor that can very specifically determine the presence of the carcinogenic benzene. (
  • Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. (
  • Benzene is found in crude oil and is a hazardous and carcinogenic substance as well as a significant pollutant. (
  • Benzene, a chemical is carcinogenic in humans. (
  • The lawsuit alleges property damage stemming from benzene and other carcinogenic chemical releases that have allegedly contaminated the groundwater, land and air of Roxana, according to a Simmons firm news release. (
  • Useful search terms for benzene include "benzol" and "phenyl hydride. (
  • The hydrocarbon derived from benzoic acid thus acquired the name benzin, benzol, or benzene. (
  • Benzene (also known as benzol or [6]-annulene ) is a colorless, flammable, sweet-smelling liquid. (
  • Benzene , or Benzol (see also Benzine ) is an organic chemical compound with the formula C 6 H 6 . (
  • Some industries use benzene to make other chemicals that are used to make plastics, resins, and nylon and synthetic fibers. (
  • In October 2010, farmers near a coal seam gas " fracking " site in Queensland announced that they will have their water supplies tested for toxic benzene and other chemicals after Origin Energy found contaminated water near drilling sites. (
  • Because of its wide use, benzene ranks in the top 20 in production volume for chemicals produced in the United States. (
  • Various industries use benzene to make other chemicals, such as styrene (for Styrofoam® and other plastics), cumene (for various resins), and cyclohexane (for nylon and synthetic fibers). (
  • Once in the air, benzene reacts with other chemicals and breaks down within a few days. (
  • Butane purchased at a hardware store often contains chemicals like benzene , which is known to cause cancer. (
  • Benzene, a clear liquid, is one of the most common industrial chemicals. (
  • A growing demand for rubber processing chemicals, nylon reins and synthetic fibers is also driving the downstream market for Benzene derivatives. (
  • In fact, benzene ranks among the top 20 chemicals produced, and is used as a solvent for a wide variety of industrial applications - notably the rubber industry, shoe manufacturing, oil refineries and other plants where chemicals are routinely used. (
  • Many important chemicals are derived from benzene, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced with other functional groups . (
  • To steer clear of chemicals in foods and drinks that can mix together to form benzene, consumers should avoid products that contain both ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and either sodium benzoate or potassium benzoate. (
  • In the state's latest tests, two of the 94 places checked for airborne toxic chemicals had extremely high benzene levels - in one case, as much as a person might breathe in at a gasoline nozzle during a fill-up. (
  • Our proposed standards would reduce emissions of chemicals such as benzene, toluene, and xylene by 5,600 tons per year. (
  • Yes, the plastics in automobiles can offgas many unsavory chemicals and this report lists them ALL but benzene is not singled out because it isn t a major constituent. (
  • North America's major merchant benzene suppliers are ExxonMobil Chemical Co., BP Chemicals, Shell Chemical Co. and Equistar Chemicals LP. (
  • He added that the beverage industry should not add chemicals that produce the carcinogen benzene to sodas and juices. (
  • The Simmons firm of Alton filed the suit in 2012 against Shell Oil Co., ConocoPhillips and WRB Refining, among others, seeking to hold the former and current owners and operators of the refineries responsible for releasing benzene and other chemicals into the water. (
  • Workers are fearful of the effects of Benzene and afraid of losing their jobs. (
  • Wells alleges that BP and Shell were negligent in including benzene in their products and that they failed to properly test the effects of benzene on residents who lived near the plant. (
  • However breathing very high levels of benzene, or eating or drinking foods contaminated with high levels of benzene, can cause serious health effects or … What are the health effects of Benzene? (
  • however, in order to evaluate the chronic effects, consideration must be given to the myelotoxic and possible chromosome damaging and leukemogenic effects of benzene. (
  • For example, the substitution of a single methyl, hydroxyl, or amino group in benzene results in the formation, respectively, of toluene (C 6 H 5 CH 3 ), phenol (C 6 H 5 OH), or aniline (C 6 H 5 NH 2 ). (
  • The discovery of BTEX - a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene - around eight coal seam gas wells near Miles, west of Brisbane, marks the first time a resources company has admitted to contaminating water at a fracking site. (
  • Examples of simple benzene derivatives are phenol (C 6 H 5 OH, or PhOH), toluene (C 6 H 5 CH 3 , or PhMe), and aniline ((C 6 H 5 NH 2 , or PhNH 2 ). (
  • The airmoVOC BTX is a gas chromatograph for the analysis and monitoring of trace amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene (m/p/o) xylene by FID detection. (
  • The Syntech Spectras GC955 series 600 BTX analyser is built for the measurement of benzene, toluene and xylene isomers in ambient air. (
  • The kit is suitable for soil sampling to determine presence of volatile components such as benzene, toluene, chlorine compounds and other hydrocarbons where oxidization of the soil samples is to be avoided. (
  • The first batch contained four test results showing benzene levels over 500 parts per billion, one of which was as high as 918 parts per billion. (
  • 1984. Depression in B- and T-lymphocyte mitogen- induced blastogenesis in mice exposed to low concentrations of benzene. (
  • Clifton Water District officials want customers to know they started testing the water about a month ago and haven't detected any concentrations of benzene. (
  • Observed concentrations of benzene in 2015. (
  • Overall findings indicate that the vast majority of products manufactured in the United States after 1978 contained less than 0.1% benzene by volume, and 8-hr TWA airborne concentrations of benzene in the workplace during the use of these products would not have been expected to exceed 0.5ppm under most product use scenarios. (
  • Benzene can cause blood cancers like leukemia. (
  • Implications for benzene induced leukemia and the relationship to chromosome damage will be examined. (
  • Benzene causes leukemia, particularly Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukaemia (AML & ANLL) and is associated with other blood cancers. (
  • Benzene is known to cause leukemia and other human blood disorders. (
  • Reuters Health) - Traffic pollution near the home - and specifically, benzene in the air - increases the risk of one type of childhood leukemia, according to a nationwide study in France. (
  • There seems to be a stronger link between benzene and leukemia in Europe than in the U.S., though it is unclear why, he said. (
  • Though benzene levels have sharply decreased in Europe in recent years, and the levels in the current study are largely well below European regulations, childhood leukemia cases have not decreased, Vinceti said. (
  • Initially, studies of industrial employees exposed to high levels of benzene in the workplace linked the chemical to an increased risk of leukemia amongst workers in the chemical, shoemaking and oil refinery sectors. (
  • The plaintiff alleges he developed benzene leukemia, and that Shell knew about the link between benzene and cancer for years but minimized those risks. (
  • Wells, who grew up in Wood River, near a Shell oil plant, alleges benzene from the Shell plant contaminated the air, water and homes in the area, exposing residents to an increased risk of leukemia and other diseases linked to benzene. (
  • Benzene can cause leukemia and can also pass through the placenta and affect the fetus. (
  • Leukemia in benzene workers. (
  • In 1990, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) learned that certain soft drinks marketed to children contain two ingredients that can mix in the soda to form the toxic carcinogen benzene. (
  • Hi Chris, Is it true that the carcinogen Benzene is given off by the material of which the dashboard, seats etc. of cars are made? (
  • Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C6H6. (
  • Benzene, a simple aromatic hydrocarbon, occurs naturally and as a result of human activity, notably as a result of combustion, and it is a high-volume chemical now used mostly as a chemical intermediate. (
  • Due to the cyclic continuous pi bonds between the carbon atoms, benzene is classed as an aromatic hydrocarbon. (
  • Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon and the second [ n ]-annulene ([6]-annulene), a cyclic hydrocarbon with a continuous pi bond. (
  • Benzene is also a natural part of crude oil, gasoline, and cigarette smoke. (
  • Benzene is found in gasoline and trace amounts are found in cigarette smoke. (
  • Benzene has a sweet, aromatic, gasoline-like odor. (
  • Benzene is also present in crude oil and gasoline and cigarette smoke. (
  • Benzene levels in the air can be elevated by emissions from burning coal and oil, benzene waste and storage operations, motor vehicle exhaust, and evaporation from gasoline service stations. (
  • Industrial discharge, disposal of products containing benzene, and gasoline leaks from underground storage tanks release benzene into water and soil. (
  • Leakage from underground gasoline storage tanks or from landfills and hazardous waste sites that contain benzene can result in benzene contamination of well water. (
  • Benzene is also a natural constituent of crude oil and gasoline. (
  • Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell, and is partially responsible for the aroma around petrol (gasoline) stations. (
  • The vast majority were found within the boundaries of a 184-acre advisory zone where the city first discovered elevated levels of benzene, a chemical commonly found in plastics and gasoline that can cause cancer. (
  • PCL Industrial Construction provided construction services for the installation of a Gasoline Benzene Reduction (GBR) unit in the Commerce City, CO, refinery. (
  • People who are exposed to benzene e.g. workers from chemical industry, gas stations, gasoline distribution jobs, rubber industry, printing industry and leather industry have an increased risk. (
  • Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. (
  • Now supply benzene (C6H6), and the bacteria get busy, oxidizing C 6 H 6 to C 6 H 6 O (phenol). (
  • Claus' benzene (C6H6) is a hypothetical hydrocarbon and an isomer of benzene. (
  • Benzene (C 6 H 6 ) is a highly flammable, colorless liquid that evaporates quickly into the air. (
  • Benzene is a clear, colorless, highly flammable liquid with a pronounced characteristic odor. (
  • Benzene is highly flammable. (
  • Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid characterized by a distinctive smell mainly emitted by vehicles and other combusting processes. (
  • 1. Any of three colorless flammable isomeric benzene derivatives, C 8 H 10 , obtained from wood and coal tar. (
  • It is sometimes abbreviated Ph-H. Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell and a relatively high melting point. (
  • The halogens, nitric acid , sulfuric acid , and alkyl halides all react with benzene to form substituted derivatives. (
  • A number of the substituted benzene derivatives are well known and commercially important compounds. (
  • Growing consumption of Benzene derivatives in the automotive industry for manufacturing synthetic rubber has increased Benzene demand in the global market and demand is anticipated to increase further due to robust growth in the automotive market. (
  • Ethylbenzene which is one of the derivatives of Benzene, finds application in producing styrene and growing demand of styrene-based polymers such as polystyrene, styrene-acrylonitrile reins, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene rubber in the disposable medical devices and consumer electronics is also boosting the Benzene market globally. (
  • The flourishing paints and coatings industry (PCI) is another major growth-inducing factor as it incorporates benzene derivatives in the manufacturing of paints and lacquers. (
  • This data, they say, indicates that benzene exposures to the Dow workers studied were consistently below 10 ppm. (
  • Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei. (
  • These data corroborate an initial analysis of the same cohort by Infante et al, and indicate that benzene is a human carcinogen at a range of exposures not greatly above the current legal standard. (
  • Benzene and Aspergillus exposures are associated with sick building syndrome. (
  • An epidemiologic investigation in China (NCI/CAPM study) extended quantitative evaluations of cancer risk to a broader range of benzene exposures, particularly at lower levels. (
  • Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz is usually credited with being the first to deduce the ring structure of benzene, in 1865. (
  • Three different xylene molecules are possible depending on whether the methyl groups are adjacent to each other on the benzene ring (ortho-xylene), separated by one carbon atom (meta-xylene), or opposite each other on the ring (para-xylene). (
  • Now, scientists have used E.coli bacteria to oxidize the C-H bonds in benzene to generate phenol, with a genetically inserted enzyme (cytochrome P450BM3), that originally evolved to target other molecules, long-chain fatty acids. (
  • In a discovery that promises to make this carbon-carbon bond manipulation much easier and more efficient, Zhaomin Hou, Shaowei Hu and Takanori Shima from the Advanced Catalysis Research Group at the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science have developed a technique that allows carbon-carbon bonds in benzene to be broken at low temperature in a highly selective manner 1 . (
  • Hou's discovery of an easy and selective way to break carbon-carbon bonds in benzene arose out of a long-standing interest in catalysts consisting of complexes of rare-earth metals combined with hydrogen atoms and other chemical groups. (
  • Ingestion of large amounts of benzene may result in vomiting, dizziness, and convulsions in humans. (
  • Trace amounts of benzene included in the watering of plants results in increased root formation. (
  • I received a copy of an article claiming that, when we get into our car, especially if it is a hot car, we will breathe in copious amounts of Benzene, and should therefore open the windows and not put on the air conditioner until the interior has been aired. (
  • Natural sources of benzene, which include gas emissions from volcanoes and forest fires, also contribute to the presence of benzene in the environment. (
  • On the other hand, they do not always pick up the presence of benzene well, which means that exposed workers can develop diseases such as cancer unnoticed in the long run. (
  • The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. (
  • Tests conducted on 100 soft drinks and beverages by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration), US indicated that five of these showed the presence of benzene, a carcinogen in much higher amount than the recommended 5 parts per billion for drinking water. (
  • Presence of benzene in the soft drinks is a sensitive subject these days. (
  • An NGO Environmental Working Group criticized FDA for not giving a serious thought to the presence of benzene. (
  • Further more, its senior vice president Richard Wiles added that the presence of benzene in soda/juices was serious as reported by FDA. (
  • It was only in the 1990s that FDA highlighted the presence of benzene in soft drinks. (
  • Letting the consumer know the presence of benzene will naturally force manufacturers to reformulate the soft drinks/juices as some have done already and this is what FDA wanted in 1990. (
  • The concentration of Benzene varies from under 1 to above 50 micrograms per m3. (
  • PARACHUTE - The concentration of benzene at a particular point on Parachute creek dropped by an appreciable amount on May 2, according to a report from the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE). (
  • The mean concentration of benzene over four weeks for this low dose group was 2.26 ppm (1.35 SD). (
  • Benzene is a colorless liquid with a sweet odor. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has set the maximum permissible level of benzene in drinking water at 0.005 milligrams per liter (0.005 mg/L). The EPA requires that spills or accidental releases into the environment of 10 pounds (4.5 kg) of benzene or more should be reported to the EPA. (
  • But the levels detected have been right around the allowable level of benzene in drinking water, which is 5 ppb. (
  • If you work in an industry that uses benzene, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheet for hazard information. (
  • Benzene is also a known human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Toxicology Program. (
  • Benzene is a known human carcinogen. (
  • Natural sources of benzene include volcanoes and forest fires. (
  • Current interest in interactions among benzene metabolites leading to toxic effects observed with benzene will be analyzed. (
  • If you work with benzene and are concerned about your health and safety, or were exposed to benzene as a result of an improperly labeled product, it would also be wise to consult a toxic torts attorney about your options . (
  • Benzene toxic, shock! (
  • The structure of the benzene molecule proved to be a challenge for chemists for more than 40 years after the compound ' s discovery by Faraday. (
  • He awoke to the realization that the benzene molecule might be a ring consisting of six carbon atoms, with one hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom. (
  • Two, three, or more substitutions can occur on the same benzene molecule, although the ease and location on the benzene ring of these substitutions varies depending on the earlier substitutions. (
  • The removal of one hydrogen atom from the benzene molecule results in a radical known as the phenyl group. (
  • The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a planar ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. (
  • He said that he had discovered the ring shape of the benzene molecule after having a reverie or day-dream of a snake seizing its own tail (this is a common symbol in many ancient cultures known as the Ouroboros or Endless knot). (
  • General catalytic cycle of P450BM3 (black) and a plausible catalytic cycle (blue) for benzene hydroxylation catalyzed by P450BM3 with assistance of the decoy molecule. (
  • They knew that each molecule of benzene contained six carbon atoms, but the substance did not behave as though each molecule was an open-ended chain. (
  • In 1865 chemists knew that a benzene molecule consisted of six carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. (
  • In 2006, a computer investigation by Environmental Working Group (EWG) uncovered results from a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) testing program that contradicted safety assurances about benzene contamination in soft drinks made by a top agency official on March 21, 2006. (
  • New tests have recently detected benzene just outside an area north and south of Fountain Grove Parkway around Fir Ridge Drive, where residents were instructed in November to stop drinking and boiling water while the city investigated the source of the contamination. (
  • According to the ACS, cigarettes are known to release between 50 and 150 micrograms of benzene per cigarette, and therefore remains a sustained source for benzene contamination of the air - and your lungs. (
  • The manufacturer has since re-formulated the soft drink to mitigate benzene contamination. (
  • For a pocket of residents in Fayetteville, North Carolina benzene contamination represents a stinky odor to their water. (
  • Their (plaintiffs') expert, a hydrologist, intends to measure contamination by the benzene levels in the groundwater beneath the class members' property, event though their water supply does not come from groundwater, but from Roxana's uncontaminated aquifer," the order stated. (
  • Some houses along the western fence line of the ConocoPhillips refinery have been evacuated and demolished because of the risk harm from benzene contamination. (
  • The defendants have denied allegations of harm attributed to benzene contamination. (
  • Outdoor air contains low levels of benzene from tobacco smoke, gas stations, motor vehicle exhaust, and industrial emissions. (
  • Indoor air generally contains levels of benzene higher than those in outdoor air. (
  • People working in industries that make or use benzene may be exposed to the highest levels of it. (
  • Some women who breathed high levels of benzene for many months had irregular menstrual periods and a decrease in the size of their ovaries. (
  • Outdoor air contains low levels of benzene from tobacco smoke, automobile service stations, exhaust from motor vehicles, and industrial emissions. (
  • The standards set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) require that levels of benzene in coal mining and other workplace environments cannot exceed one part per million for an eight hour day and five parts per million in a fifteen minute period. (
  • Employers are required to monitor benzene in coal mining and other industries when levels reach 0.5 parts per million. (
  • FDA data showed that 79 percent of diet soda samples tested over a six-year period from 1995 through 2001 were contaminated with benzene at levels above the federal limit for benzene in tap water. (
  • The EPA has also set the level of benzene permissible in outdoor air levels at five parts per billion. (
  • Measured levels of benzene in outdoor air have ranged from 0.02 to 34 parts of benzene per billion parts of air (ppb) (1 ppb is 1,000 times less than 1 ppm). (
  • Benzene levels in the home are usually higher than outdoor levels. (
  • A former Dow Chemical researcher has reported significant levels of chromosome damage among Dow workers exposed to less benzene than the current federal standard allows. (
  • The chemical industry has long contended to federal regulatory agencies that benzene has not been shown to be dangerous at any but high levels - above 100 parts per million (ppm). (
  • There were similar results specifically in the Paris metro area when benzene levels were included in the analysis, as reported in the American Journal of Epidemiology. (
  • According to the Air Quality in Europe Report 2014 by the European Environmental Agency, the limit to environmental levels of benzene should be 5 micrograms per cubic meter, although the World Health Organization has not set an air quality guideline for benzene. (
  • The city has now detected elevated levels of benzene in 145 samples taken from the water system in Fountaingrove. (
  • While levels of benzene found in air are generally low, they can spike much higher in a big city with higher vehicular use. (
  • Most contained benzene levels well below the standard. (
  • Back in July a number of beverage manufacturers including PepsiCo, Sunny Delight Beverages Inc, Rockstar Inc., Polar Beverages Inc. and Shasta Beverages Inc. were named as defendants in a lawsuit over the levels of benzene found in their products. (
  • However, two recent studies have focussed on workers exposed to lower levels of benzene. (
  • So far in 2006, two news outlets have reported that the Agency is again testing soft drinks, finding benzene sometimes at levels above the safe limit for drinking water, and asking companies to change their formulas. (
  • The levels reported are well below the standard for benzene in non-drinking-water sources, which is 5,300 ppb. (
  • The effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and species on tissue and blood levels of benzene metabolites. (
  • Nearly one-fourth of the sites monitored in North Texas' Barnett Shale natural-gas region had levels of cancer-causing benzene in the air that could raise health concerns, state regulators said Wednesday. (
  • They emphasized, however, that gas companies have fixed the worst emission problems and are working on less-serious sites where the state still wants benzene levels to come down. (
  • The town commissioned its own monitoring last year that found extremely high benzene levels. (
  • At 19 other Barnett Shale sites - in Tarrant, Johnson, Hood, Parker, Wise and Denton counties - tests found benzene levels that were lower but still high enough to require reductions. (
  • The other 73 sites in the commission's investigation had benzene levels that were below the commission's long-term effects screening level. (
  • None of the companies that had been emitting high benzene levels has been fined, Sadlier said, since the state is relying on a "find-and-fix" program that encourages voluntary compliance. (
  • This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. (
  • Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1-10 ppb. (
  • Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. (
  • Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food. (
  • Benzene is dangerous even at low levels according to a study from China and the US. (
  • The occurrence of cytogenetic damage in individuals exposed to high levels of benzene has been recognised from the 1960s. (
  • A toxicologist testified today that the eight victims of a fun house fire last year had levels of benzene in their blood that were ''exceptionally high and unusual for fire victims. (
  • The witness, Steven C. Packham, told a Superior Court jury here that burning the materials in the structure of the Haunted Castle at the Six Flags Great Adventure amusement park in Jackson Township could not have produced nearly enough benzene to account for the high blood levels. (
  • This study considerably expanded the health effects associated with benzene beyond AML and suggested benzene produced effects at levels lower than previously thought. (
  • People who inhale benzene for long periods of time (months or years) at high enough levels may experience harmful effects in the tissues that form blood cells, especially the bone marrow. (
  • Air testing over one of the nation's biggest natural gas fields revealed two sites with extremely high levels of cancer-causing benzene and 19 more with elevated levels of the chemical, Texas environmental regulators said. (
  • Nova said it can supply about 20 percent of its benzene needs internally, while industry estimates of the benzene integration levels of other PS makers range from 10-60 percent. (
  • the increased benzene levels were only in one of the production samples and hence not necessarily in all the products from that lot or in all the lots of a given product. (
  • Low levels of benzene were detected in most of the drinks studied by FDA, says Laura Tarantino, MD, Director of Food Additive Safety, FDA. (
  • She further added that most of the products they studied had low or negligible amount of benzene and very few had higher levels. (
  • Benzene can be harmful at very low levels. (
  • That general structure is still accepted today, although the concept of resonance has replaced that of simple single and double bonds between adjacent carbon atoms in the benzene ring. (
  • The six carbon atoms of benzene are arranged in a ring, called a benzene ring , having alternating single and double bonds, with a hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom. (
  • Awakened by the image, Kekulé realized that the six carbon atoms in benzene formed a ring. (
  • These difficulties are particularly pronounced for benzene, an organic compound consisting of six hydrogen and six carbon atoms (C 6 H 6 ) that is the best-known example of the vast range of ring-like 'aromatic' compounds. (
  • After a few days, they found that dark green crystals had formed, which x-ray diffraction analysis revealed to be a new complex containing a cyclopentenyl ring of five linked carbon atoms-a complex formed by breaking a carbon-carbon bond of the benzene ring and forming a new, single carbon-carbon bond to attach a methyl (CH 3 ) group to a five-membered carbon ring (Fig. 2). (
  • In 2014, the Obama administration's EPA proposed a new rule designed to strengthen the requirement for refineries to take corrective action when benzene emissions are detected. (
  • The rule was aimed at curbing emissions from companies such as Valero , ExxonMobil , Shell and Chevron - all of which reported benzene emissions in Texas after Hurricane Harvey, according to state records reviewed by IBT. (
  • The American Petroleum Institute - a lobbying group that counts ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron and other major oil and gas companies as members - also sent a letter to the EPA criticizing the benzene rules, saying the agency "has overstated the risk associated with refinery emissions" and challenging the EPA's estimates of benzene's cancer risks. (
  • However, after lobbying by Valero, ExxonMobil and API, the EPA rejected calls for a stricter overall benzene emissions limit . (
  • Emissions from petroleum processing, hazardous waste landfills and underground storage tanks contaminate drinking water with benzene. (
  • Any benzene in the automobile compartment is from outside the car due to the emissions from petroleum products (leaks, tank venting, exhausts, etc.) and it is worse in the wintertime, not the summer. (
  • By far the most important use of benzene, however, is in the production of other aromatic compounds. (
  • The largest volume of compounds made from benzene goes toward the production of commercially valuable polymers, such as polystyrene, nylon, and synthetic rubber. (
  • However studies have found dangerous compounds like benzene and formaldehyde in inhaled or secondhand vapor. (
  • The new understanding of benzene, and hence of all aromatic compounds, proved to be so important for both pure and applied chemistry that in 1890 the German Chemical Society organized an elaborate appreciation in Kekulé's honor, celebrating the twenty-fifth anniversary of his first benzene paper. (
  • In the section Aromatischen Verbindungen (aromatic compounds), p. 315-347, Claus presents Kekulé's hypothetical structure for benzene (p. 317), presents objections to it, presents an alternative geometry (p. 320), and concludes that his alternative is correct (p. 326). (
  • Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil, but it is usually synthesized from other compounds present in petroleum. (
  • Selective cleavage of the carbon-carbon bonds of some aromatic compounds has been shown to be possible under particular conditions using transition metals, but whether this more efficient cleavage process is possible for benzene under mild conditions was unknown. (
  • Aromatic compounds were initially given that name due to the distinctive aroma of those first discovered, including benzene, but many are actually odorless. (
  • Benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia. (
  • Benzene can be harmful if it is swallowed, inhaled, or touched. (
  • Given that benzene is a common chemical compound, there are a myriad of ways to be exposed to its harmful effects. (
  • The benzene in indoor air comes from products that contain benzene such as glues, paints, furniture wax, and detergents. (
  • Benzene is used to make detergents, insecticides, motor fuels, and many other chemical products. (
  • Benzene, also called phenyl hydride, is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that occurs naturally from volcanic eruptions and forest fires, but also is a man-made chemical used to make plastics, resins, dyes, detergents and petroleum-based fabric fibers. (
  • The current PEL for benzene was adopted by OSHA in 1987. (
  • The article, "Whole-Cell Biotransformation of Benzene to Phenol Catalysed by Intracellular Cytochrome P450BM3 Activated by External Additives," was published in Angewandte Chemie International Edition at DOI:10.1002/anie.201804924. (
  • If an employee is exposed to benzene in an emergency situation, the employer shall have the employee provide a urine sample at the end of the employee's shift and have a urinary phenol test performed on the sample within 72 hours. (
  • this is the root of the word phenol , which is hydroxylated benzene, and phenyl, which is the radical formed by abstraction of a hydrogen atom from benzene. (
  • M. Wolf, V. Rowe, D. McCollister, R. Hollingsworth, F. Oyen Toxicological studies of certain alkylated benzenes and benzene, A. M. A. Arch. (
  • The word aromatic was originally applied to benzene because of its distinctive odor, but it later took on a broader meaning, referring to any compound whose molecular structure includes one or more benzene rings. (
  • Although a major industrial chemical, benzene finds limited use in consumer items because of its toxicity. (
  • We are investigating the role of an enzyme (NQO1) in protection against the bone marrow toxicity of the occupational and environmental toxicant benzene. (
  • Benzene 2009--Health effects and mechanisms of bone marrow toxicity: implications for t-AML and the mode of action framework. (
  • Animal studies have shown low birth weights, delayed bone formation, and bone marrow damage when pregnant animals breathed benzene. (
  • Benzene is a carcinogen that also damages bone marrow and the central nervous system. (
  • This discussion will consider mechanisms by which benzene produces decrements in bone marrow function, alters the production of cytokines, and impairs the hematopoietic system. (
  • Shell has assumed responsibility for cleaning up a plume of benzene on the surface of the groundwater beneath part of Roxana. (
  • The legal limit for benzene, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. (
  • Decreased WBC counts followed by neutropenia correspond to the main hematologic effect of benzene secondary to hypoplasia and, less frequently, only thrombocytopenia or associated with neutropenia [5, 23]. (
  • People who work with benzene products should only do so in areas with good air flow. (
  • Industrial processes are the main source of benzene in the environment. (
  • Tobacco smoke is another source of benzene in air, particularly indoors. (
  • If you are near a release of benzene, emergency coordinators may tell you to either evacuate the area or to "shelter in place" inside a building to avoid being exposed to the chemical. (
  • Shell has reportedly been cited for environmental violations related to the release of benzene into groundwater in the Wood River area. (
  • Below are symptoms of benzene poisoning in different parts of the body. (
  • As science tells us more and more about the link between benzene and cancer, the harms associated with the chemical will become better known. (
  • It is not known whether benzene will affect fertility in men. (
  • This image inspired him to think of a ring structure for benzene. (
  • It now appears that a lesser known scientist, Josef Loschmidt (1821-1895), had posited a cyclic structure for benzene in a booklet published in 1861. (
  • It was proposed by Adolf Karl Ludwig Claus in 1867 as a possible structure for benzene at a time when the structure of benzene was still being debated. (
  • Benzene evaporates into the air very quickly. (
  • Benzene is a light-colored liquid that, when heated, evaporates into the air. (
  • Benzene is not to be confused with benzine, which is not a pure chemical compound but a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons used as a solvent and a fuel. (
  • Benzene is a chemical that is a colorless or light yellow liquid at room temperature. (
  • However, benzene exhibits none of the chemical properties associated with such a structure, the property of addition, for example. (
  • The most common chemical property of benzene is that it undergoes substitution reactions. (
  • Nearly half of all benzene used in chemical synthesis is used for this process. (
  • Benzene is a widely used chemical formed from both natural processes and human activities. (
  • It is sometimes abbreviated Ph-H. Benzene is both an anthropogenically produced and naturally occurring chemical. (
  • Benzene is a clear, liquid, petroleum-based chemical that has a sweet smell. (
  • Gradually, the sense developed among chemists that a number of substances were chemically related to benzene, comprising a diverse chemical family. (
  • Curiously, a similar, humorous depiction of benzene had appeared in 1886 in a pamphlet entitled Berichte der Durstigen Chemischen Gesellschaft (Journal of the Thirsty Chemical Society), a parody of the Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, only the parody had monkeys seizing each other in a circle, rather than snakes as in Kekulé's anecdote. (
  • But you've never been around a chemical plant, so you should be safe from benzene, right? (
  • Scientists who were familiar with the chemical formula of benzene (C 6 H 6 ) were mystified about its molecular structure. (
  • WASHINGTON, Feb 28) - Today the Environmental Working Group (EWG) sent a letter to the FDA requesting that the Agency notify the public about the presence of two ingredients in many popular children's drinks that can mix together to form the cancer-causing chemical benzene. (
  • The beverage industry appears to have flagrantly ignored the 1990 agreement to eliminate chemical combinations that can form benzene in their products and the FDA, by all accounts, has done nothing about it. (
  • Benzene quickly reacts with other chemical in the air and is removed within a few days of release. (
  • Benzene can be found naturally, such as emanating from volcanoes and fires, but is more likely to be a chemical additive. (
  • Gradually the sense developed among chemists that substances related to benzene formed a natural chemical family. (
  • Benzene is a key ingredient that influences pricing of PC resin, said Ben Smith, who covers phenolics and nylon raw materials for Chemical Market Associates Inc. of Houston. (
  • Benzene at $3.07 is atrocious,'' said Jeff Denton, PS marketing manager for Dow Chemical Co. of Midland, Mich. ``Then it's hit $4 in the last five to seven days. (
  • Dow, Nova and North America's three other major PS makers - BASF Corp. of Mount Olive, N.J., Atofina Petrochemicals of Houston and Chevron Phillips Chemical Co. LP of Houston - all are net buyers of benzene. (
  • Because it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon. (
  • Michael Faraday first isolated and identified benzene in 1825 from the oily residue derived from the production of illuminating gas, giving it the name bicarburet of hydrogen. (
  • The empirical formula for benzene was long known, but its highly polyunsaturated structure, with just one hydrogen atom for each carbon atom, was challenging to determine. (
  • Benzene leaks from underground storage tanks or from hazardous waste sites containing benzene can contaminate well water. (
  • According to the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), products containing 5% or more by weight of benzene are considered hazardous and require special labeling. (
  • It is one of the most dangerous substances threatening the health of workers, particularly in the petrochemical industry: benzene. (
  • The benzene derivative produced in largest quantity is ethylbenzene (C 6 H 5 C 2 H 5 ). (
  • The form benzene dates from 1872 in English. (
  • On February 24 and February 27, 2006, EWG staff found many juices and sodas at major national retail outlets containing the ingredients that can form benzene. (
  • We urge the FDA to immediately issue a statement telling consumers which ingredients in foods and drinks can combine to form benzene,' Wiles added. (
  • The form benzene (with hydrocarbon suffix -ene ) was proposed in 1835 and began to be used from 1838 in English, but in mid-19c. (
  • Vitamin C/ Ascorbic acid reacts with sodium/potassium benzoate from the soft drinks or beverages to form benzene. (
  • Our goal in the immediate future is to secure enough benzene so our needs are met. (