Benzenaminium, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl)bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-), Dibromide: Proposed cholinesterase inhibitor.Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.Dansyl Compounds: Compounds that contain a 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulfonyl group.Picolines: A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hydrocarbons, BrominatedPyridinium CompoundsDimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Pimpinella: A plant genus in the family APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) that is used in SPICES and is a source of anethole.Cholinesterase Reactivators: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Aniline CompoundsBenzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Petunia: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
... bis(n,n-dimethyl-n-2-propenyl-), dibromide MeSH D02.092.146.325 --- p-dimethylaminoazobenzene MeSH D02.092.146.325.500 --- ... ethylene dibromide MeSH D02.455.526.368.700 --- polybrominated biphenyls MeSH D02.455.526.439 --- hydrocarbons, chlorinated ... benzenaminium, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl) ... bis(chloromethyl) ether MeSH D02.355.601.400 --- enflurane MeSH ... dimethyl adipimidate MeSH D02.478.400.200 --- dimethyl suberimidate MeSH D02.478.440.418 --- ethylmaleimide MeSH D02.478. ...
Organozirconium compounds are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to zirconium chemical bond. Organozirconium chemistry is the corresponding science exploring properties, structure and reactivity of these compounds. In general organozirconium compounds are stable and non-toxic. They are used in organic chemistry as an intermediate in the synthesis of chemical compounds and share characteristics with organotitanium compounds also a Group 4 element. Organozirconium compounds have been widely studied, in part because they are useful catalysts in Ziegler-Natta polymerization. The first organozirconium compound discovered (1953) was zirconocene dibromide, belongs to the metallocene family. It was prepared in a reaction of the cyclopentadienyl magnesium bromide and zirconium(IV) chloride. Zirconocenes are used as polymerization catalysts; their use partly replaced traditional heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts. The so-called Schwartz's reagent (1974) is a zirconocene hydrochloride and ...
Organozirconium compounds are organometallic compounds containing a carbon to zirconium chemical bond. Organozirconium chemistry is the corresponding science exploring properties, structure and reactivity of these compounds. In general organozirconium compounds are stable and non-toxic. They are used in organic chemistry as an intermediate in the synthesis of chemical compounds and share characteristics with organotitanium compounds also a Group 4 element. Organozirconium compounds have been widely studied, in part because they are useful catalysts in Ziegler-Natta polymerization. The first organozirconium compound discovered (1953) was zirconocene dibromide, belongs to the metallocene family. It was prepared in a reaction of the cyclopentadienyl magnesium bromide and zirconium(IV) chloride. Zirconocenes are used as polymerization catalysts; their use partly replaced traditional heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts. The so-called Schwartz's reagent (1974) is a zirconocene hydrochloride and ...
... (anhydroecgonine) is an alkaloid related to ecgonine and cocaine. It has a structure with a cycloheptene ring, with a nitrogen bridge, and a carboxylic acid side chain. Methylecgonidine is produced by pyrolysis in the process of smoking crack cocaine, and then subsequently metabolised to ecgonidine, and so these two compounds can be tested for as a specific biomarker for crack cocaine use. Ecgonidine is formed as a metabolite of methylecgonidine, and so the relative concentrations of the two compounds can be used to gauge how recently crack cocaine was smoked. If levels of methylecgonidine are higher, then the drug was smoked recently; however after a longer time period mainly ecgonidine will be present. Ecgonidine has a half-life in the body of around 94-137 minutes, and so can be used to detect use of crack cocaine up to 8-10 hours after the drug is consumed. Coca alkaloids Scheidweiler KB, Shojaie J, Plessinger MA, Wood RW, Kwong TC. Stability of methylecgonidine and ecgonidine in ...
Cilvēku virzītas ģenētiskās manipulācijas aizsākās ap 10 500 līdz 10 100 gadu p.m.ē.,[35] kad tika pieradināti pirmie augi un dzīvnieki, tādā veidā sekmējot mākslīgo selekciju. Selektīvās audzēšanas procesa laikā organismi ar vēlamajām iezīmēm (un tādējādi ar nepieciešamajiem gēniem) tika izmantoti nākamās paaudzes radīšanā, kamēr organismi, kuriem vēlamās iezīmes trūka, vairošanās iespēja tika apzināti ierobežota, kas kopumā ir ģenētisko modifikāciju pamats.[35][36] Iespēja veikt tiešas DNS modifikācijas sekmēja DNS atklāšana 20 gadsimta sākumā, kā arī dažādi sasniegumi ģenētisko metodžu pilnveidē 1970. gados.[37] Ģenētiski pārveidotu mikroorganismu fermenti bija pirmie pārtikas ražošanā izmantotie ģenētiski pārveidoto organismu produkti. FDA tos apstiprināja 1988. gadā.[38] 1990. gadu sākumā tika apstiprināta rekombinanta himozīna izmantošana vairākās valstīs.[38][39] Siera ražošanā parasti izmantoja ...
The earliest flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were banned in the U.S. in 1977 when it was discovered that they were toxic.[25] Industries used brominated flame retardants instead, but these are now receiving closer scrutiny. In 2004 and 2008 the EU banned several types of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).[26] Negotiations between the EPA and the two U.S. producers of DecaBDE (a flame retardant that has been used in electronics, wire and cable insulation, textiles, automobiles and airplanes, and other applications), Albemarle Corporation and Chemtura Corporation, and the largest U.S. importer, ICL Industrial Products, Inc., resulted in commitments by these companies to phase out decaBDE for most uses in the United States by December 31, 2012, and to end all uses by the end of 2013.[27] The state of California has listed the flame retardant chemical chlorinated Tris (tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate or TDCPP) as a chemical known to cause cancer.[28] In December 2012, ...
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens. They are a subset of the general class of halocarbons, although the distinction is not often made. Haloalkanes are widely used commercially and, consequently, are known under many chemical and commercial names. They are used as flame retardants, fire extinguishants, refrigerants, propellants, solvents, and pharmaceuticals. Subsequent to the widespread use in commerce, many halocarbons have also been shown to be serious pollutants and toxins. For example, the chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to lead to ozone depletion. Methyl bromide is a controversial fumigant. Only haloalkanes which contain chlorine, bromine, and iodine are a threat to the ozone layer, but fluorinated volatile haloalkanes in theory may have activity as greenhouse gases. Methyl iodide, a naturally occurring substance, however, does not have ozone-depleting properties and the ...
The details of polar ozone hole formation differ from that of mid-latitude thinning, but the most important process in both is catalytic destruction of ozone by atomic halogens.[1] The main source of these halogen atoms in the stratosphere is photodissociation of man-made halocarbon refrigerants (CFCs, freons, halons.) These compounds are transported into the stratosphere after being emitted at the surface.[2] Both types of ozone depletion were observed to increase as emissions of Halocarbons increased. CFCs and other substances contributing to this effect are referred to as ozone-depleting substances (ODS). Since the ozone layer prevents most harmful UVB wavelengths (280-315 nm) of ultraviolet light (UV light) from passing through the Earth's atmosphere, observed and projected decreases in ozone have generated worldwide concern. As a result, the Montreal Protocol has been adopted. The treaty bans the production of CFCs, halons as and other ozone-depleting chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride ...
Examples of nucleophiles are anions such as Cl−, or a compound with a lone pair of electrons such as NH3 (ammonia).. In the example below, the oxygen of the hydroxide ion donates an electron pair to bond with the carbon at the end of the bromopropane molecule. The bond between the carbon and the bromine then undergoes heterolytic fission, with the bromine atom taking the donated electron and becoming the bromide ion (Br−). This is a SN2 reaction occurs by backside attack. This means that the hydroxide ion attacks the carbon atom from the other side, exactly opposite the bromine ion. Because of this backside attack, SN2 reactions result in a reversal of the configuration of the electrophile. If the electrophile is chiral, it typically keeps its chirality, though the SN2 product's configuration is flipped as compared to that of the original electrophile (Walden inversion).. ...
The PhostrEx fire suppression system addresses many of the problems with halon, from system weight to environmental concerns. These concerns, including halon's ozone-depleting and global warming characteristics, prompted the Montreal Protocol to outlaw its use. The only exception allowed by this international treaty was in aviation applications, and only until a suitable replacement became available. PhostrEx meets the requirements of both the Montreal Protocol and the Clean Air Act, and is the first commercially viable Federal Aviation Authority and United States Environmental Protection Agency certified halon replacement fire extinguishing agent. The EPA awarded the company with a 2007 Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award for the development of its PhostrEx fire-suppression system.[2] PhostrEx reacts very quickly with atmospheric moisture, breaking down into phosphorus acid and hydrogen bromide. Neither of these harms the ozone layer. High concentrations of PhostrEx can cause skin blistering ...
... is a common soil fumigant that acts as a herbicide, fungicide, and nematicide. Dazomet is a chemical used to kill pests that inhibit plant growth through gaseous degradation. Dazomet is used as a soil sterilant on a variety of sites such as golf courses, nurseries, turf sites, and potting soils. Dazomet is used for soil sterilization as an alternative to methyl bromide. Although less effective it is still used to kill pests because of its comparatively lower toxicity. Dazomet is applied to wet soil, which causes dazomet itself to decompose into a gaseous form, which is what actively controls pests. The decomposition of dazomet releases methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) a gas toxic to pests that would prevent or kill plant growth. Dazomet is synthesized from carbon disulfide (CS2) and diluted methylamine (CH3NH2). After stirring for 1-2 hours, an oily substance is formed, which is the intermediate methylcarbamodithioic acid (HS2CNHCH3). Then, formaldehyde (CH2O) is added to the intermediate to ...
Urine patches in cattle pastures generate large concentrations of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide through nitrification and denitrification processes in urine-contaminated soils. Over the past few decades, the cattle population has increased more rapidly than the human population. Between the years 2000 and 2050, the cattle population is expected to increase from 1.5 billion to 2.6 billion. When large populations of cattle are packed into pastures, excessive amounts of urine soak into soils. This increases the rate at which nitrification and denitrification occur and produce nitrous oxide. Currently, nitrous oxide is one of the single most important ozone-depleting emissions and is expected to remain the largest throughout the 21st century. Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 298 times that of carbon dioxide. Global warming potential is a way to compare global warming impacts of different gases relative to carbon dioxide emissions. Since nitrous oxide has such a ...
... may refer to: an Israeli corporation based in the north of Israel. Files-11 (On-Disk Structure), a DEC filesystem OpenDocument Spreadsheet file format Online dating service Operational data store, an intermediate data warehouse for databases OpenDNSSEC, a security extension of DNS Protocol Optical data storage a technology for storing information Octadecylsilane, also known as C18, a surface coating used in reversed-phase chromatography Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys Ozone-depleting substance, chemicals which contribute to ozone depletion Operation Defensive Shield Operation Desert Storm Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health (ods.od.nih.gov) The Civic Democratic Party (Czech: Občanská demokratická strana) Odessa Airport, an airport in Odessa, Ukraine (IATA code ODS) L'Officiel du jeu Scrabble, the reference dictionary for Scrabble in French-speaking countries One Day School, a gifted education program in New Zealand. Operating Deflection Shape, a method ...
... s may contribute to engine knock - the undesirable, erratic, and noisy combustion of low-octane fuels in internal combustion engines.[2] In a normal regime, the conventional flame front travels smoothly in the combustion chamber from the spark plug, compressing the fuel/air mixture ahead. However, the concomitant increase in pressure and temperature may produce a cool flame in the last unburned fuel-air mixture (the so-called end gasses) and participate in the autoignition of the end gasses. This sudden, localized heat release generates a shock wave which travels through the combustion chamber, with its sudden pressure rise causing an audible knocking sound. Worse, the shock wave disrupts the thermal boundary layer on the piston surface, causing overheating and eventual melting. The output power decreases and, unless the throttle (or load) is cut off quickly, the engine can be damaged as described in a few minutes. The sensitivity of a fuel to a cool-flame ignition strongly depends on ...
... bis(n,n-dimethyl-n-2-propenyl-), dibromide MeSH D02.092.146.325 --- p-dimethylaminoazobenzene MeSH D02.092.146.325.500 --- ... ethylene dibromide MeSH D02.455.526.368.700 --- polybrominated biphenyls MeSH D02.455.526.439 --- hydrocarbons, chlorinated ... benzenaminium, 4,4-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl) ... bis(chloromethyl) ether MeSH D02.355.601.400 --- enflurane MeSH ... dimethyl adipimidate MeSH D02.478.400.200 --- dimethyl suberimidate MeSH D02.478.440.418 --- ethylmaleimide MeSH D02.478. ...
... bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-), Dibromide. DDD. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane. ... Benzenaminium, 4,4-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl) ... Ro 4-1284. 2H-Benzo(a)quinolizin-2-ol 2-Ethyl-1,3,4,6,7,11b- ... 6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester. BW-755C. 4,5-Dihydro-1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-1H-pyrazol- ... Pregnancy-Specific beta 1-Glycoprotein. Pregnancy-Specific beta 1-Glycoproteins. Tissue Inhibitor of-Metalloproteinase-3. ...
... bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-), Dibromide *Fenamates *Kynuramine *p-Aminoazobenzene *p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene + * ... Benzenaminium, 4,4-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl) ... C6H5NH2).. Examples of aniline and substituted anilines ...
... bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-), Dibromide - pharmacology , Hydrolysis , Animals , Chickens , Organophosphorus Compounds - ... Benzenaminium, 4,4-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl) ... Ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic ... Lef1 , Calcium , Q-Pcr , Tbst , Cns , Wnt/Ca , Lrp , Edta , Egta , Bsa , Wnt5a , Fbs , Pmsf , Tbi , Bca , Frizzled-2 , Camkii ... 14-3-3 , Phosphorylation , Tau protein , Protein-protein interaction , PKB , PKA , τ3 phosphorylated by protein kinase A , PMSF ...

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