A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
Antihistamine drug now withdrawn from the market in many countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.
Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The individuals employed by the hospital.
The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.
The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
Practices involved in preventing the transmission of diseases by hand.

Effects of benzalkonium chloride on growth and survival of Chang conjunctival cells. (1/234)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the action of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), used as a preservative in most ophthalmic topical solutions, on epithelial conjunctival cells in vitro. METHODS: A continuous human conjunctival cell line (Wong-Kilbourne derivative of Chang conjunctiva) was exposed to BAC solutions at various concentrations (0.1%-0.0001%) during a period of 10 minutes. Cells were examined before treatment and 3, 24, 48, and 72 hours later, after reexposure to normal cell culture conditions. Cell number and viability were assessed with crystal violet and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colorimetric assays. The expression of the apoptotic marker Apo 2.7, nuclear antigen p53, membrane proteins Fas and Fas ligand, and DNA content was studied by flow cytometry. Morphologic aspects of cell nuclei were analyzed on slides with a nucleic acid-specific dye, 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride. Cytoskeleton was labeled with a monoclonal anti-pancytokeratin antibody. In addition, apoptosis was measured by DNA electrophoresis assays in agarose gel. RESULTS: Cell exposure to 0.1% and 0.05% BAC induced cell lysis immediately after treatment. All cells (100%) treated with 0.01% BAC died in a delayed manner within 24 hours, with most of the characteristics of apoptosis (chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation, reduction in cell volume, expression of the apoptotic marker Apo 2.7, and apoptotic changes in DNA content). Aliquots of 0.005%, 0.001%, 0.0005%, and 0.0001% BAC induced growth arrest and apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner between 24 and 72 hours after treatment. The expressions of Fas and p53 did not vary after BAC treatment. Fas ligand was always negative. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that BAC induces cell growth arrest and death at a concentration as low as 0.0001%. The mode of BAC-induced cell death is dose-dependent. Cells die by necrosis after BAC treatment at high concentrations and by apoptosis if low concentrations of BAC are applied. This new aspect of in vitro toxicity of BAC could in part explain some ocular surface disorders observed in patients undergoing long-term topical treatments with preservative-containing drugs.  (+info)

Cluster of postinjection abscesses related to corticosteroid injections and use of benzalkonium chloride. (2/234)

Benzalkonium chloride (BC) is an unreliable disinfectant. A matched case-control study and environmental investigation were conducted to determine the cause of and risk factors for a cluster of postinjection abscesses at a private medical clinic where BC was used as a disinfectant. Twenty-eight case-patients who had an abscess at the injection site were matched with 126 control patients who had received an intramuscular injection at the clinic on the same day. Risk factors for abscess development in a multivariable logistic model were corticosteroid injection and being female. All case-patients had received a corticosteroid injection from a multidose vial. Cultures of abscesses from 20 of 23 case-patients grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cultures of BC prepared at the clinic also grew P aeruginosa, suggesting that BC was the source of infection. Injection site cleaning with BC did not appear to be the route of infection since use of BC at the time of injection was not associated with abscess development. A more likely route of infection was injection of contaminated corticosteroid from multidose vials that could have been inoculated with pseudomonads via needle puncture after vial septa were wiped with contaminated BC. Benzalkonium chloride should not be used to clean injection vial septa or injection sites.  (+info)

Using of thin-layer chromatography for identification and quantitative determination of benzalkonium chloride in eye drops. (3/234)

Conditions for thin-layer chromatographic separation of components (therapeutic and auxiliary substances) in selected eye drops have been established and next used for the densitometric determination of benzalkonium chloride content in the drugs.  (+info)

Safety and acceptability of vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride in HIV infected pregnant women in west Africa: ANRS 049b phase II randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial. DITRAME Study Group. (4/234)

OBJECTIVES: To study the tolerance and acceptability in Africa of a perinatal intervention to prevent vertical HIV transmission using benzalkonium chloride disinfection. DESIGN: A randomized, double blinded phase II trial. SETTING: Prenatal care units in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). PATIENTS: Women accepting testing and counselling who were seropositive for HIV-1 and under 37 weeks of pregnancy were eligible. A total of 108 women (54 in each group) enrolled from November 1996 to April 1997, with their informed consent. INTERVENTION: Women self administered daily a vaginal suppository of 1% benzalkonium chloride or matched placebo from 36 weeks of pregnancy, and a single intrapartum dose. The neonate was bathed with 1% benzalkonium chloride solution or placebo within 30 minutes after birth. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse events were recorded weekly, with a questionnaire and speculum examination in women through delivery, and examination of the neonate through day 30. The incidence of genital signs and symptoms in the women and cutaneous or ophthalmological events in newborns were compared between groups on an intent to treat basis. RESULTS: The median duration of prepartum treatment was 21 days (range 0-87 days). Compliance was 87% for prepartum and 69% for intrapartum treatment, and 88% for the neonatal bath, without differences between the two groups. In women, the most frequent event was leucorrhoea; the incidence of adverse events did not differ between treatment groups. In children, the incidence of dermatitis and conjunctivitis did not differ between the benzalkonium chloride and placebo groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.29, respectively). CONCLUSION: Vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride is a feasible and well tolerated intervention in west Africa. Its efficacy in preventing vertical HIV transmission remains to be demonstrated.  (+info)

Emergence of resistance to biocides during differentiation of Acanthamoeba castellanii. (5/234)

A synchronous encystment method was used to study the order of development of resistance of Acanthamoeba castellanii to a range of biocides. The emerging resistance during encystation to short-term exposure to the minimum amoebicidal concentrations of each biocide tested was recorded during the first 36 h of the differentiation process. Hydrochloric acid and moist heat were tested as possible resistance markers. Development of the acid-insoluble, proteincontaining, ectocyst wall and the cellulose endocyst wall was followed by quantification of the acid- and alkali-insoluble residues of cell samples removed from synchronous encystment cultures up to 36 h. Resistance to chemical agents (polyhexamethylene biguanide, benzalkonium chloride, propamidine isethionate, pentamidine isethionate, dibromopropamidine isethionate, hydrogen peroxide) and to moist heat was seen to develop between 14 and 24 h after trophozoites were inoculated into the encystment media. Resistance to hydrochloric acid developed between 0 and 2 h and to chlorhexidine diacetate between 24 and 36 h. Levels of acid-insoluble residues began to increase after 8 h and alkali-insoluble residues (cellulose) were detected after 16 h and coincided with the emergence of resistance to all the agents tested except hydrochloric acid. The results suggest that resistance to the biocides tested probably results largely from the physical barrier of the cyst walls rather than as a consequence of a metabolically dormant cyst.  (+info)

Endocrine cells in the denervated intestine. (6/234)

This study deals with the effects of myenteric denervation of the proximal jejunum on endocrine cell population of the crypt-villus unit, 5 months after treatment with benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Male Wistar albino rats weighing on average 100 g were allocated to two groups: the BAC group - the proximal jejunal serosa was treated with 2 mM BAC for 30 min, and the control group - treated with saline solution (0,9% NaCl). There was a significant reduction in neurone number in the jejunal myenteric plexus of the BAC group and the endocrine cell population (serotoninergic and argyrophilic cells) was significantly increased in this intestine segment. In conclusion, the present findings provide further evidence that the myenteric denervation induced by BAC may lead to the development of a local imbalance of the neurotransmitters, with a consequent induction of enteroendocrine cell (argyrophilic and serotoninergic cells) hyperplasia in the crypt and villus.  (+info)

Low sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes to quaternary ammonium compounds. (7/234)

Ninety-seven epidemiologically unrelated strains of Listeria monocytogenes were investigated for their sensitivities to quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride and cetrimide). The MICs for seven serogroup 1/2 strains were high. Three came from the environment and four came from food; none were isolated from human or animal samples. All 97 strains carried the mdrL gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump, and the orfA gene, a putative transcriptional repressor of mdrL. The absence of plasmids in four of the seven resistant strains and the conservation of resistance after plasmid curing suggested that the resistance genes are not plasmid borne. Moreover, PCR amplification and Southern blot hybridization experiments failed to find genes phylogenetically related to the qacA and smr genes, encoding multidrug efflux systems previously described for the genus Staphylococcus. The high association between nontypeability by phages and the loss of sensitivity to quaternary ammonium compounds are suggestive of an intrinsic resistance due to modifications in the cell wall.  (+info)

In vitro inactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis and of a panel of DNA (HSV-2, CMV, adenovirus, BK virus) and RNA (RSV, enterovirus) viruses by the spermicide benzalkonium chloride. (8/234)

Kinetics of inactivation by the detergent spermicide benzalkonium chloride (BZK) of Chlamydia trachomatis and of a panel of DNA viruses [herpes simplex virus hominis type 2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), adenovirus (ADV) and BK virus (BKV)] and RNA [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and enterovirus (ENV)] were established in accordance with a standardized in vitro protocol. After a 5 min incubation, inactivation of >95% of HSV-2 and CMV was obtained at a concentration of 0.0025% (w/v) (25 Ig/L); concentrations as low as 0.0005%, 0.0050% and 0.0125%, induced a 3.0 log10 reduction in infectivity of HSV-2 and CMV, RSV and ADV, respectively. After a 60 min incubation, concentrations of 0.0125% and 0.050% provided a 3.0 log10 reduction in infectivity of ENV and BKV, respectively. These features indicate that sensitivity to BZK was very high (HSV-2 and CMV) or high (RSV) for enveloped viruses, intermediate (ADV) or low (ENV and BKV) for non-enveloped viruses. Furthermore, BZK had marked antichlamydial activity, showing >99% killing after only a 1 min incubation at a concentration of 0.00125%. BZK demonstrates potent in vitro activity against the majority of microorganisms causing sexually transmitted infectious diseases, including those acting as major genital cofactors of human immunodeficiency virus transmission. These attributes qualify BZK as a particularly attractive candidate for microbicide development.  (+info)

Benzalkonium compounds are a group of related chemicals that have antimicrobial properties. They are commonly used as disinfectants and preservatives in various products such as eye drops, nasal sprays, skin creams, and household cleaners. Benzalkonium compounds work by disrupting the cell membranes of bacteria, fungi, and viruses, leading to their death. They are often used in low concentrations and are generally considered safe for topical use, but they can cause irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Prolonged or frequent use of products containing benzalkonium compounds may also lead to the development of bacterial resistance.

Pharmaceutical preservatives are substances that are added to medications, pharmaceutical products, or biological specimens to prevent degradation, contamination, or spoilage caused by microbial growth, chemical reactions, or environmental factors. These preservatives help extend the shelf life and ensure the stability, safety, and efficacy of the pharmaceutical formulation during storage and use.

Commonly used pharmaceutical preservatives include:

1. Antimicrobials: These are further classified into antifungals (e.g., benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, thimerosal), antibacterials (e.g., parabens, phenol, benzyl alcohol), and antivirals (e.g., phenolic compounds). They work by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
2. Antioxidants: These substances prevent or slow down oxidation reactions that can degrade pharmaceutical products. Examples include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), tocopherols (vitamin E), sulfites, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
3. Chelating agents: These bind to metal ions that can catalyze degradation reactions in pharmaceutical products. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an example of a chelating agent used in pharmaceuticals.

The choice of preservative depends on the type of formulation, route of administration, and desired shelf life. The concentration of the preservative should be optimized to maintain product stability while minimizing potential toxicity or adverse effects. It is essential to conduct thorough safety and compatibility studies before incorporating any preservative into a pharmaceutical formulation.

Anti-infective agents, local, are medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. These agents include topical antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and anti-parasitic drugs. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the infectious organisms, thereby preventing their spread and reducing the risk of infection. Local anti-infective agents are often used to treat skin infections, eye infections, and other localized infections, and can be administered as creams, ointments, gels, solutions, or drops.

Ophthalmic solutions are sterile, single-use or multi-dose preparations in a liquid form that are intended for topical administration to the eye. These solutions can contain various types of medications, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, antihistamines, or lubricants, which are used to treat or prevent ocular diseases and conditions.

The pH and osmolarity of ophthalmic solutions are carefully controlled to match the physiological environment of the eye and minimize any potential discomfort or irritation. The solutions may be packaged in various forms, including drops, sprays, or irrigations, depending on the intended use and administration route.

It is important to follow the instructions for use provided by a healthcare professional when administering ophthalmic solutions, as improper use can lead to eye injury or reduced effectiveness of the medication.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Prostaglandins F (PGF) are a type of prostaglandin, which are naturally occurring hormone-like substances that have various effects on the body. They are produced in response to injury or infection and play a role in inflammation, fever, and pain. Prostaglandins F are synthesized for medical use and are available as drugs known as dinoprost and cloprostenol.

Dinoprost is a synthetic form of PGF2α (prostaglandin F2 alpha) used to induce labor and treat postpartum hemorrhage. It works by causing the uterus to contract, helping to expel the placenta and reduce bleeding.

Cloprostenol is a synthetic form of PGF2α used in veterinary medicine as a reproductive hormone to synchronize estrus cycles in cattle and sheep, as well as to induce parturition (giving birth) in cows. It works by stimulating the contraction of the uterus and promoting the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), which triggers ovulation.

It is important to note that these synthetic prostaglandins should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional or veterinarian, as they can have side effects and interactions with other medications.

The conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the front part of the eye, also known as the sclera. It helps to keep the eye moist and protected from irritants. The conjunctiva can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions such as conjunctivitis (pink eye).

Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin analog used primarily in veterinary medicine for the treatment and prevention of various conditions. The main therapeutic uses of Cloprostenol include:

1. Induction of parturition (labor) in cows, helping to synchronize calving in managed herds.
2. Termination of pregnancy in cattle, especially in cases where the fetus is nonviable or the pregnancy poses a risk to the animal's health.
3. Treatment of uterine and oviductal disorders, such as pyometra (infection of the uterus) and salpingitis (inflammation of the oviduct), in cattle and pigs.
4. Prevention of postpartum disorders, like endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus) and mastitis (inflammation of the mammary glands), by promoting uterine involution and improving overall reproductive performance in cattle.
5. Control of estrus (heat) in cattle, as an aid in estrous synchronization programs for artificial insemination.

Cloprostenol is available in various formulations, such as intramuscular or subcutaneous injectable solutions, and is typically administered by a veterinarian or trained personnel. It is important to note that the use of Cloprostenol and other prostaglandin analogs should be carried out under the guidance and supervision of a veterinary professional, as improper usage can lead to adverse effects or complications.

Astemizole is a second-generation antihistamine that was previously used to treat symptoms associated with allergies, such as hay fever, hives, and other allergic skin reactions. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. However, astemizole has been withdrawn from the market in many countries due to rare but serious side effects on the heart.

Peracetic acid (PAA) is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field as a disinfectant and sterilant. Medically, it's often used for high-level disinfection of medical devices and equipment, especially those that are heat-sensitive or cannot be sterilized using traditional methods like steam sterilization.

Peracetic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO3H. It's a colorless liquid with a pungent, acrid smell, similar to that of acetic acid (vinegar). In solution, it's a strong oxidizing agent and can effectively kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores.

It's important to note that peracetic acid should be used with caution due to its potential irritant effects on the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Proper handling and use according to manufacturer instructions are essential to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent used for its broad-spectrum germicidal properties. It is effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is commonly used as a surgical scrub, hand sanitizer, and healthcare disinfectant. Chlorhexidine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and sprays. It works by disrupting the microbial cell membrane, leading to the death of the organism. It is also used in mouthwashes and skin cleansers for its antimicrobial effects.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

Timolol is a non-selective beta blocker drug that is primarily used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and glaucoma. It works by blocking the action of certain hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline) on the heart and blood vessels, which helps to lower heart rate, reduce the force of heart muscle contraction, and decrease blood vessel constriction. These effects can help to lower blood pressure, reduce the workload on the heart, and improve oxygen supply to the heart muscle. In glaucoma treatment, timolol reduces the production of aqueous humor in the eye, thereby decreasing intraocular pressure.

The medical definition of Timolol is:

Timolol (tim-oh-lol) is a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, and glaucoma. It works by blocking the action of epinephrine on the heart and blood vessels, which results in decreased heart rate, reduced force of heart muscle contraction, and decreased blood vessel constriction. In glaucoma treatment, timolol reduces aqueous humor production, thereby decreasing intraocular pressure. Timolol is available as an oral tablet, solution for injection, and ophthalmic solution.

Drug contamination refers to the presence of impurities or foreign substances in a pharmaceutical drug or medication. These impurities can include things like bacteria, chemicals, or other drugs that are not intended to be present in the final product. Drug contamination can occur at any stage during the production, storage, or distribution of a medication and can potentially lead to reduced effectiveness, increased side effects, or serious health risks for patients. It is closely monitored and regulated by various health authorities to ensure the safety and efficacy of medications.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Irritants, in a medical context, refer to substances or factors that cause irritation or inflammation when they come into contact with bodily tissues. These substances can cause a range of reactions depending on the type and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Common examples include chemicals found in household products, pollutants, allergens, and environmental factors like extreme temperatures or friction.

When irritants come into contact with the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or mucous membranes, they can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, pain, coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, prolonged exposure to irritants can lead to more serious health problems, including chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and disease.

It's important to note that irritants are different from allergens, which trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. While both can cause similar symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are different: allergens cause a specific immune reaction, while irritants directly affect the affected tissues without involving the immune system.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Soaps" is not a medical term, but rather refers to cleaning agents that are widely used in daily life for personal and household hygiene.

However, if you're referring to "saponification," it is a chemical process that occurs when fats or oils react with an alkali, resulting in the formation of soap and glycerin. This term can be relevant in medical contexts, such as in the production of medicated soaps used for various skin conditions.

If you meant something else by "Soaps," please clarify your question, and I will do my best to provide an accurate answer.

Deodorants are substances that are applied to the body, usually under the arms, to help prevent or mask body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of sweat. Deodorants typically contain alcohol and fragrances, which can help to kill bacteria and cover up any remaining odor. Some deodorants also contain antiperspirants, which work by blocking the sweat glands and reducing the amount of sweat that is produced. This can help to further reduce body odor.

It's important to note that while deodorants can help to mask body odor, they do not prevent sweating. If you are looking for a product that can help to control sweating, you may want to consider using an antiperspirant instead. Some products combine both deodorant and antiperspirant in one product.

Deodorants are available in several forms, including sprays, roll-ons, gels, creams, and solid sticks. It's important to choose a deodorant that is right for your skin type and personal preferences. If you have sensitive skin, you may want to look for a deodorant that is labeled as "hypoallergenic" or "unscented."

It's also a good idea to apply deodorant to clean, dry skin, as this can help the product to work more effectively. If you are using an antiperspirant deodorant, it's best to apply it at night before bed, as this can help to reduce sweating and body odor throughout the day.

'Hospital Personnel' is a general term that refers to all individuals who are employed by or provide services on behalf of a hospital. This can include, but is not limited to:

1. Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, and technicians.
2. Administrative staff who manage the hospital's operations, including human resources, finance, and management.
3. Support services personnel such as maintenance workers, food service workers, housekeeping staff, and volunteers.
4. Medical students, interns, and trainees who are gaining clinical experience in the hospital setting.

All of these individuals play a critical role in ensuring that the hospital runs smoothly and provides high-quality care to its patients.

Off-label use refers to the practice of prescribing or using pharmaceutical drugs for purposes, dosages, patient populations, or routes of administration that are not included in the approved labeling of the drug by the regulatory authority, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is not illegal or unethical for physicians to prescribe medications off-label when they judge that it is medically appropriate for their patients. However, manufacturers are prohibited from promoting their drugs for off-label uses.

Hand disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms on the hands, using a medically approved product such as an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or soap and water. The goal of hand disinfection is to prevent the spread of infections and maintain a clean and hygienic environment, particularly in healthcare settings. It is an essential component of standard precautions to prevent the transmission of pathogens and ensure patient safety. Proper hand disinfection techniques include applying enough product to cover all surfaces of the hands, rubbing the product over all areas for at least 20-30 seconds, and allowing the product to dry completely before touching anything else.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Hand hygiene refers to the practices of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) and preventing their spread. It is an important component of infection prevention and control in healthcare settings as well as in everyday life. The two main techniques for hand hygiene are handwashing with soap and water, and using alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Proper hand hygiene can help prevent the transmission of respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses, as well as various healthcare-associated infections.

Germicides consist of halogenated salicylanilides, hexachlorophene, neomycin sulfate and benzalkonium quaternary compounds. ... The compound that uses for softening, contains tallow fatty acid, which reacts with dimethylamine to form dimethylamino ... The compound is esterified with hardened rapeseed oil fatty. Outerwear fabrics consist hydrophobic synthetic fibers, which ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds ("quats"), such as benzalkonium chloride, are a large group of related compounds. Some ... Occasionally, chlorine-releasing compounds and their salts are included in this group. Frequently, a concentration of < 1 ppm ... Chlorine and oxygen are strong oxidizers, so their compounds figure heavily here. Electrolyzed water or "Anolyte" is an ... A disinfectant is a chemical substance or compound used to inactivate or destroy microorganisms on inert surfaces. Disinfection ...
Benzalkonium chloride, stearalkonium chloride, and cetrimonium are all quaternary ammonium compounds containing nitrogen. The ... This is evidenced by a broad variety of new classes of compounds that have been prepared and studied in the past few years. ... Polymer quaternary ammonium compounds containing nitrogen induce cell death through electrostatic interactions and the ... Optimal antimicrobial activity is generally seen in quaternary ammonium compounds with a long chain length, containing 8-18 ...
... benzylammonium compounds MeSH D02.092.877.096.019 - ambenonium chloride MeSH D02.092.877.096.040 - benzalkonium compounds MeSH ... benzalkonium compounds MeSH D02.675.276.090 - benzethonium MeSH D02.675.276.102 - bephenium compounds MeSH D02.675.276.125 - ... trialkyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.910 - triethyltin compounds MeSH D02.691.850.900.950 - trimethyltin compounds MeSH ... mustard compounds MeSH D02.455.526.728.468 - mustard gas MeSH D02.455.526.728.650 - nitrogen mustard compounds MeSH D02.455. ...
Triclosan and triclocarban are the most common compounds used as antibacterials in soaps. However, other common antibacterial ... ingredients in soaps include benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride, and chloroxylenol. Claims that antibacterial soap is ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds have antimicrobial activity. Quaternary ammonium compounds, especially those containing long ... A typical synthesis is for benzalkonium chloride from a long-chain alkyldimethylamine and benzyl chloride: CH 3 ( CH 2 ) n N ( ... This compound was discontinued because the cation biodegrades too slowly. Contemporary fabric softeners are based on salts of ... Quaternary ammonium compounds are prepared by the alkylation of tertiary amine. Industrial production of commodity quat salts ...
... benzalkonium, 0.5 - 4% chlorhexidine, 0.1 - 2% octenidine solutions. Others are generally not applicable as safe antiseptics, ... non-quaternary compounds, such as chlorhexidine, glucoprotamine, octenidine dihydrochloride etc.), strong oxidizers, such as ... such as benzalkonium chloride, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide or chloride, didecyldimethylammonium chloride, cetylpyridinium ... lactic acid and salicylic acid some phenolic compounds, such as hexachlorophene, triclosan and Dibromol, and cationic ...
In 2011, several compounds (antifungals, fungicides, and biocides) where shown to effectively inhibit the growth of P. ... destructans including benzalkonium chloride, chloroacetoxyquinoline, chloroxine, ciclopirox olamine, econazole, phenylmercuric ... P. destructans can tolerate elevated levels of environmental inhibitory sulfur compounds (cysteine, sulfite, and sulfide), grow ... A recent study (2014) identified several volatile organic compounds (benzaldehyde, benzothiazole, decanal, nonanal, N,N- ...
"TOXNET Benzalkonium Chloride Compounds". "Haz-Map Benzalkonium Chloride". Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved ... Benzalkonium chloride is a mainstay of phase-transfer catalysis, an important technology in the synthesis of organic compounds ... Benzalkonium chloride has also been shown to be a spermicide. In Russia and China, benzalkonium chloride is used as a ... Depending on purity, benzalkonium chloride ranges from colourless to a pale yellow (impure). Benzalkonium chloride is readily ...
The usual concentration in these products is 0.01% (w/w). However, it isn't known as a potent bactericidal compound, mainly ... For example, US and European pharmacopeias enforce suppliers of benzalkonium chloride to limit the amount of cetalkonium ... Even though cetalkonium chloride belongs to the family of benzalkonium chloride, the ophthalmic use of cetalkonium chloride ... Cetalkonium chloride (CKC) is a quaternary ammonium compound of the alkyl-benzyldimethylammonium chloride family, the alkyl ...
In addition, several compounds of natural origin have also shown in vitro antiparasitic activity: the polyphenols mangiferin ... Bath treatments consisting of a combination of benzalkonium chloride and bronopol have also proved to be effective in reducing ... Several compounds of well-known antiprotozoal activity, including niclosamide, oxyclozanide, bithionol sulfoxide, toltrazuril, ... Other studies investigating the in vitro effects of several new synthetic compounds, including 2 naphthyridines, 2 ...
Compounds such as glycerol may be added to prevent drying of the skin. Some versions contain fragrances; however, these are ... Where alcohol sanitizers utilize 62%, or higher, alcohol by weight, only 0.1 to 0.13% of benzalkonium chloride by weight ... For DCDD, one of the non-toxic compounds of the dioxin family, a conversion rate of 1% has been reported and estimated half- ... Non-alcohol based versions typically contain benzalkonium chloride or triclosan; but are less effective than alcohol-based ones ...
Benzalkonium chloride is commonly used in oil field industry. In oil refineries, hydrogen sulfide can corrode steels so it is ... Compounds derived from tannic acid or zinc salts of organonitrogens (e.g. Alcophor 827) can be used together with anticorrosive ... In chemistry, a corrosion inhibitor or anti-corrosive is a chemical compound that, when added to a liquid or gas, decreases the ...
Such a compound is called amphiphilic or amphipathic. Amphiphilic compounds include surfactants (these detergents are commonly ... Some typical members of this group are: sodium dodecyl sulfate (anionic), benzalkonium chloride (cationic), cocamidopropyl ... Organic compounds containing hydrophilic groups at both ends of the molecule are called bolaamphiphilic. The micelles they form ... An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις amphis, both, and φιλíα philia, love, friendship), or amphipath, is a chemical compound ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds, Cosmetics chemicals, Cationic surfactants, Benzyl compounds, All stub articles, Aromatic ... Stearalkonium chloride is a type of benzalkonium chloride which is used as an anti-static agent, a surfactant and an ... Benzalkonium chloride - Surfactant and antiseptic agent Polyaminopropyl biguanide - chemical compoundPages displaying wikidata ... chemical compound used for industrial and chemical purposePages displaying wikidata descriptions as a fallback Triclosan - ...
These compounds are used in some pharmaceutical formulations to enhance the penetration of APIs in transdermal drug delivery ... The most commonly used penetration enhancers in ocular formulations are benzalkonium chloride and ethylenediamine tetraacetate ... Many different compounds have been explored as potential penetration enhancers to facilitate transdermal drug delivery. These ... Several classes of compounds have been researched as potential penetration enhancers through ocular membranes. These include ...
"Carbachol". PubChem Compound. Retrieved 6 March 2014. Sanders KM, Zhu MH, Britton F, Koh SD, Ward SM (February 2012). " ... Since carbachol is poorly absorbed through topical administration, benzalkonium chloride is mixed in to promote absorption. ... Carbachol is a choline carbamate and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound. It is not well absorbed in the gastro- ...
... Antibacterial Surface Cleanser and Dettol Antibacterial Wipes contain benzalkonium chloride as the active ingredient. ... an aromatic chemical compound. Chloroxylenol comprises 4.9% total admixture, with the rest made up of pine oil, isopropanol, ...
Dial replaced these ingredients with benzalkonium chloride (for bar soaps) and benzethonium chloride (for liquid hand soaps). ... a synthetic antibacterial compound. Dial became the leading deodorant soap brand in the U.S. From 1953 until the mid-1990s, ... In its 2016 ruling, the FDA also stated that it is deferring the final rule on benzalkonium chloride, benzethonium chloride and ...
... s are compounds, mixtures, or materials that block or absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. One of the major applications of ... Camphor benzalkonium methosulfate (CBM) The use of UV filters has increased recently due to growing concern about UV radiation ... UV classifications include UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (290-320 nm) and UVC (200-280 nm). UV-absorbing compounds are used not only in ... Inorganic UV-filters (i.e. TiO2) can also generate ROS, another compound toxic for marine phytoplankton. UV filters have shown ...
In the United States, its use has thus been superseded by other agents (e.g., povidone iodine, benzalkonium chloride, ... is an organomercuric disodium salt compound used as a topical antiseptic for minor cuts and scrapes and as a biological dye. ... "Aqueous solution of benzalkonium chloride and lidocaine hydrochloride") play on the brand recognition history of Mercurochrome ... "Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Mercury Compounds in the List". Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). U.S. ...
Organomercury compounds, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... "Antifungal effect of ophthalmic preservatives phenylmercuric nitrate and benzalkonium chloride on ocular pathogenic filamentous ... It was once commonly used as a topical solution for disinfecting wounds, but as with all organomercury compounds it is highly ... Phenylmercuric nitrate is an organomercury compound with powerful antiseptic and antifungal effects. ...
The compound is an isothiazolinone, a class of heterocycles used as biocides. These compounds have an active sulphur moiety ... Methylchloroisothiazolinone may be used in combination with other preservatives including ethylparaben, benzalkonium chloride, ... Methylchloroisothiazolinone, also referred to as MCI, is the organic compound with the formula S(C2HCl)C(O)N(CH3). It is a ...
Takeoka GR, Dao LT, Wong RY, Harden LA (September 2005). "Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed ... Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 18: 445-7. doi:10.1007/BF00579640. S2CID 4814220. Bailey, D. G.; Dresser, G.; Arnold, J. M. O ...
These are chemical compounds which have been registered as fungicides. The names on the list are the ISO common name for the ... azithiram azoxystrobin barium polysulfide benalaxyl benodanil benomyl benquinox bentaluron benthiavalicarb benzalkonium ... advises on the use of fungicides in crop protection and classifies the available compounds according to their chemical ...
Some inorganic compounds are known since antiquity for their algicidal action due to their simplicity. Copper(II) sulfate ... Synthetic algicides include: benzalkonium chloride - "quat" disinfectant that attacks membranes bethoxazin - "new broad ... Martin, Hubert (1933). "Uses of Copper Compounds: Copper Sulfate's Role in Agriculture". Annals of Applied Biology. 20 (2): 342 ...
The lipid layer consists of fatty compounds that are responsible for decreasing evaporation of the tear film. The mucous layer ... For instance, high concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) can cause cytotoxicity, cause cell lysis, and reduce tear and ... The aqueous layer consists of a mixture of electrolytes, enzymes, antibodies, antimicrobial proteins, and other compounds. ... Preservatives include benzalkonium chloride (BAK), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), purite, chlorobutanol, sodium ...
Formulae based on benzalkonium chloride are common in oilfield industry. Microbial corrosion can also apply to plastics, ... They can grow using oxidized sulfur compounds present in the effluent as electron acceptor and excrete hydrogen sulfide (H2S). ...
It produces a variety of pigmented and non-pigmented antifungal and antibacterial compounds. These antimicrobial compounds are ... "Antifungal activity of selected essential oils and biocide benzalkonium chloride against the fungi isolated from cultural ... Flavipin, and epirodins A and B are pigmented antifungal agents; non-pigmented compounds include epicorazines A and B. ... doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(61)80028-4. Brown, Averil E.; Finlay, Ruth; Ward, J.S. (January 1987). "Antifungal compounds produced by ...
against' and σηπτικός, sēptikos, 'putrefactive') is an antimicrobial substance or compound that is applied to living tissue to ... Quat salts such as benzalkonium chloride/Lidocaine (trade name Bactine among others), cetylpyridinium chloride, or cetrimide. ... is an antimicrobial compound suitable for clinical use in critically colonized or infected acute and chronic wounds. The ... small molecules that indiscriminately react with organic compounds and kill microorganisms (peroxides, iodine, phenols) and ...
"Benzalkonium Compounds" by people in this website by year, and whether "Benzalkonium Compounds" was a major or minor topic of ... "Benzalkonium Compounds" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Benzalkonium Compounds" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Benzalkonium Compounds". ...
Benzalkonium chloride, Dimethylcocobenzalkonium chloride, Quaternary ammonium compounds (24)). General Information. *Product ... Magic Germicide (ABC Compounding) Super Grit ( ABC Compounding). Pine-Sol (Clorox) Lemon-Sol (Clorox) ... Quaternary ammonium compounds and occupational asthma. [Purohit A, Kopferschmitt-Kubler MC, et al. 2000. Int Arch Occup Environ ... Benzalkonium chloride induced bronchoconstriction in patients with stable bronchial asthma. [Lee BH, Kim SH. 2007. Korean J ...
Germicides consist of halogenated salicylanilides, hexachlorophene, neomycin sulfate and benzalkonium quaternary compounds. ... The compound that uses for softening, contains tallow fatty acid, which reacts with dimethylamine to form dimethylamino ... The compound is esterified with hardened rapeseed oil fatty. Outerwear fabrics consist hydrophobic synthetic fibers, which ...
Of this large group of compounds, alkyl benzalkonium chlorides are the most widely used as antiseptics. Other compounds that ... Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Quaternary ammonium compounds are composed of a nitrogen atom linked directly to four alkyl ... The antimicrobial activity of these compounds was first studied in the early 1900s, and a quaternary ammonium compound for ... Quaternary ammonium compounds have relatively weak activity against mycobacteria and fungi and have greater activity against ...
Zoflora contains among other ingredients Benzalkonium Chloride (1.90%), concentrated perfume compound.- Contains linalool, ... Benzalkonium Chloride; What It Does: Kills 99.9% of viruses & bacteriaIngredient: Perfume; What It Does: Fragrances your home ...
Effects of Sterols on the Interaction of SDS, Benzalkonium Chloride, and A Novel Compound, Kor105, with Membranes by Irene ... and benzalkonium chloride (BAC). We also tested a novel benzalkonium-like substance, Kor105. Our data suggest that benzalkonium ... and benzalkonium chloride (BAC). We also tested a novel benzalkonium-like substance, Kor105. Our data suggest that benzalkonium ... Compound 19 can inhibit all four types of tested cancer cells, i.e., MCF-7, A549, PC-9, and PC-3 cells. Most of the compounds ...
... triclosan has been replaced with quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride. These compounds have a variety of ...
Among the popular compounds are Zephiran (benzalkonium chloride) and Cepacol (cetylpyridinium chloride) (Figure 1 ). ... The oxygen released by the compound inhibits anaerobic growth. Ozone can be used to disinfect water, where it oxidizes the ... The cationic detergents are quaternary ammonium compounds.They solubilize the cell membranes of microorganisms. ... a similar compound, is also valuable as a sterilant. ...
Avoid ingredients that are known to cause asthma, like bleach (sodium hypochlorite), quaternary ammonium compounds ( ... benzalkonium chlorides), and glutaraldehyde. Disinfectants and sanitizers are classified as pesticides so there are extra ...
... were resistant to quaternary ammonium compound-based disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC). The frequencies of resistance to ...
Disinfectants containing ≥ 70% alcohol, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride) or diluted household ...
As a cationic detergent in the family of quaternary ammonium compounds, benzalkonium chloride (BZK) shows strong antiseptic ... Adjuvant Effect of Benzalkonium Chloride on the Allergen-Specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a Antibody Formation in BALB/cJ Mice. Basic ... Flexural allergic contact dermatitis to benzalkonium chloride in antiseptic bath oil. Br J Dermatol. 2007;157:795-8 doi:10.1111 ... Allergic contact dermatitis due to benzalkonium chloride in plaster of Paris. Australas J Dermatol. 2001;42:33-5 ...
Well-established examples are quaternary ammonium compounds, such as the benzalkonium chlorides that form the basis of many ... toxins-and other compounds can favor genetic exchange and increase genetic diversity, thus offering grist for the natural ... What are the concentrations of the compounds that actively amplify resistance and promote HGT, and what are the minimum ... and elevated concentrations and chemical diversity of compounds (including antimicrobial drugs) foster HGT in these hot spots. ...
The product is called Soapopular..it uses the organic compound benzalkonium chloride as the active ingredient...more info at ...
The compound targets the catalytic subunit Spt14 (also referred to as Gpi3) of the fungal UDP-glycosyltransferase, the first ... a Cytotoxicity assessment by dose-response testing of jawsamycin and the control compound benzalkonium chloride against human ... as shown for compounds JD-2 and JD-3. In line with the identification that the compound inhibits the UDP-glycosyltransferase ... were involved in isolation and purification of the natural compound; synthesis of compound derivatives was performed by M.M., S ...
The composition according to this embodiment is free of any quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride which ... 150000001875 compounds Chemical class 0.000 description 4 * 230000004406 elevated intraocular pressure Effects 0.000 ... CZMRCDWAGMRECN-UGDNZRGBSA-N D-sucrose Chemical compound O[C@H]1[C@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@@]1(CO)O[C@@H]1[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C ... PXGPLTODNUVGFL-YNNPMVKQSA-N 9α,11α-PGF2 Chemical compound CCCCC[C@H](O)\C=C\[C@H]1[C@H](O)C[C@H](O)[C@@H]1C\C=C/CCCC(O)=O ...
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Benzalkonium Chloride. The quaternary ammonium compounds are chemicals that alter the surface ... Benzalkonium chloride was unable to eradicate a mature Salmonella biofilm . Bacterial adaptation to quaternary ammonium ... Scorza and Lappin claimed that the compound Roccal, Winthrop Labortories, New York) were effective at inactivating Giardia ... The Australian Animal Poisons Centre highlights the chemical Benzalkonium Chloride, a disinfecting surfactant found in many ...
Do you use quaternary ammonium compounds (such as BAC and DDAC) for cleaning dairy equipment? Here is the guide of the action ... Please read if you use quaternary ammonium compounds such as BAC (benzalkonium chloride) or DDAC (didecyldimethylammonium ... BAC and DDAC are also referred to as quaternary ammonium compounds or QACs/QUATs and are used in disinfectants and cleaner- ...
Benzalkonium Chloride 80%, Benzalkonium Chloride 50%), By Application (Biocide (Water treatment chemical, Disinfectant, ... Quaternary ammonium compounds or benzalkonium chloride is widely used as anti-static, preservative and emulsifier in the ... Benzalkonium Chloride Market Size. By Type (Benzalkonium Chloride 80%, Benzalkonium Chloride 50%), By Application (Biocide ( ... Benzalkonium chloride is widely used as a general microbicide for slime control as well as odor management in pulp mills. It ...
Benzalkonium. Benzalkonium is a quaternary ammonium compound used as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and as a phase transfer ... Benzalkonium is a quaternary ammonium compound used as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and as a phase ... Benzalkonium is ... Benzalkonium Chloride and Lidocaine Hydrochloride … Matched Salts name: … Benzalkonium chloride … Matched Categories: … ... Matched Description: … A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves, and also prepared ...
Benzalkonium Compounds Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Albuterol Medicine & Life Sciences 84% * Pharmacies Medicine & Life ... Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) added to nebulized albuterol may induce bronchospasm. The objective of this study was to determine ... N2 - Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) added to nebulized albuterol may induce bronchospasm. The objective of this study was to ... AB - Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) added to nebulized albuterol may induce bronchospasm. The objective of this study was to ...
Quaternary ammonium compounds. 1.2 Group Benzalkonium Chloride. Benzethonium Chloride. Cetalkonium Chloride. Cetrimide. ... Quaternary ammonium compounds have curare-like depolarising properties (Van Berkel & de Wolff, 1988). Benzalkonium chloride may ... Quaternary ammonium compounds are also used as surface active agents. These compounds are strongly adsorbed by many substances ... People exposed to quaternary ammonium compounds can exhibit irritant contact dermatitis, particularly with benzalkonium ...
Benzalkonium. Benzalkonium is a quaternary ammonium compound used as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and as a phase transfer ... It belongs to the opioid family of compounds and it is widely used. Pholcodine activity is the suppression of unproductive ... agent [FDA Label]. Benzalkonium is more commonly contained in consumer products in its salt form, benzalkonium chloride [FDA ...
Benzalkonium Compounds 31% * Biomedical Research 22% * Blood Cells 18% * Blood Group Antigens 23% ...
Benzalkonium Compounds 33% * Physiological Characterization and Data Integration Core. Linden, D. R. ...
Benzalkonium Compounds 23% * Escherichia coli 21% * Bacteria 20% * Shiga Toxin 19% * Muscidae 19% ...
Susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant and -sensitive Enterococcus faecium obtained from Danish hospitals to benzalkonium ...
155 Pages Report] Benzalkonium Chloride Market categorizes the global market By Function (Phase Transfer Agents) Application ( ... Benzalkonium chloride is an organic salt called as quaternary ammonium compound. They are a mixture of ... Figure 14 Global Benzalkonium Chloride Market - By Geography. Figure 15 Global Benzalkonium Chloride Market Value & Volume, By ... Figure 59 Europe Benzalkonium Chloride Market Value & Volume, 2021-2026 ($). Figure 60 U.K Benzalkonium Chloride Market Value ...
N2 - Purpose: To compare the ocular surface tolerability of latanoprost 0.005% preserved with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK ... AB - Purpose: To compare the ocular surface tolerability of latanoprost 0.005% preserved with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK ... Purpose: To compare the ocular surface tolerability of latanoprost 0.005% preserved with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), ... abstract = "Purpose: To compare the ocular surface tolerability of latanoprost 0.005% preserved with 0.02% benzalkonium ...
Benzalkonium Compounds Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Disinfectants Medicine & Life Sciences 86% * Endoscopes Medicine & Life ...
  • The global benzalkonium chloride market is expected to pick up significant momentum in terms of growth over 2021-2027. (asdreports.com)
  • The global benzalkonium chloride market is bifurcated into various segments in terms of type, applications, end-use, and regional landscape. (asdreports.com)
  • Benzalkonium chloride market is categorized based on function, application and end-users. (industryarc.com)
  • As a cationic detergent in the family of quaternary ammonium compounds, benzalkonium chloride (BZK) shows strong antiseptic activity against both gram-positive and -negative bacteria. (medsci.org)
  • These usually contain antimicrobial compounds like benzalkonium chloride that provide a lasting protection against bacteria. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • These compounds have been shown to be effective against viruses and bacteria. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • Purpose: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of four oral antiseptics (two solutions of cetylpyridinium chloride, chlorhexidine gluconate and benzalkonium chloride) on facultative bacteria using two methods. (bvsalud.org)
  • [ 2 ] However, available evidence indicates benzalkonium chloride has less reliable activity against certain bacteria and viruses than either of the alcohols. (cdc.gov)
  • The antimicrobial compound you find in hand sanitizer is called TRICLOSAN. (greencleanlife.com)
  • Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound used in pharmaceutical formulations as an antimicrobial preservative in applications similar to other cationic surfactants. (atamankimya.com)
  • Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium compound and it is the most commonly used antimicrobial preservative. (shreekrishnaenviroventure.in)
  • Such synthetic compounds like benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride are used in the cosmetics industry and are very toxic antimicrobial preservatives. (brainreference.com)
  • Benzalkonium chloride has antimicrobial activity against the causative agents of chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, trichomoniasis and Staphylococcus aureus. (ladyjanet.biz)
  • BAC and DDAC are also referred to as quaternary ammonium compounds or QACs/QUATs and are used in disinfectants and cleaner-sanitisers. (soilassociation.org)
  • Antimicrobials of concern include halogenated aromatic compounds such as triclosan and triclocarban, nanosilver, and quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) such as benzalkonium chloride. (healthymaterialslab.org)
  • Benzalkonium chloride or BAC, also termed as ammonium alkyl dimethyl (phenylmethyl) chloride, benzyl ammonium chloride are a group of quaternary ammonium compounds or QACs. (asdreports.com)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds or cationic detergents are synthetic derivatives of ammonium chloride (Arena et al. (inchem.org)
  • The MIC analyses revealed that 118 isolates (50%) were resistant to quaternary ammonium compound-based disinfectant benzalkonium chloride (BC). (nofima.no)
  • Disinfectants containing ≥ 70% alcohol, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride) or diluted household bleach (including products containing sodium hypochlorite) are suitable for use. (tga.gov.au)
  • Please read if you use quaternary ammonium compounds such as BAC (benzalkonium chloride) or DDAC (didecyldimethylammonium chloride) for cleaning of milking equipment, vats, bulk tanks or any other equipment or surfaces that come into contact with your organic milk, or other organic products. (soilassociation.org)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds or benzalkonium chloride is widely used as anti-static, preservative and emulsifier in the coatings industry such as electronics, wood treatment, and paints among others. (asdreports.com)
  • QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS International Programme on Chemical Safety Poisons Information Monograph G022 (Group PIM) Chemical 1. (inchem.org)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds can cause toxic effects by all routes of exposure including inhalation, ingestion, dermal application and irrigation of body cavities. (inchem.org)
  • Concentrated solutions of quaternary ammonium compounds are corrosive and can cause burns to the skin and the mucous membranes. (inchem.org)
  • The quaternary ammonium compounds show a variety of physical, chemical, and biological properties and most compounds are soluble in water miscible solvents. (inchem.org)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds are the active ingredients in disinfectants and sanitizers for homes, farms, hospitals, offices and public transportation vehicles. (inchem.org)
  • Benzalkonium is a quaternary ammonium compound used as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and as a phase transfer agent [FDA Label]. (drugbank.com)
  • Benzalkonium chloride is an organic salt called as quaternary ammonium compound. (industryarc.com)
  • Active agent is a quaternary ammonium compound - benzalkonium chloride. (who.int)
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds, such as benzalkonium chloride, are hard antibacterial agents. (rais.is)
  • GSE liquid concentrate is very effective against pathogens due to its natural quaternary compounds which are molecularly similar to the ones that belong to a family of synthetic quaternary ammonium. (brainreference.com)
  • Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and dimethyldioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDAB), two common quaternary ammonium compounds, cause genotoxic effects in mammalian and plant cells at environmentally relevant concentrations. (boku.ac.at)
  • These can be in the form of a water-based solution often containing quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride- brand names include 'Wet and Forget' or Preventor. (sgroup.dev)
  • It is Quaternary ammonium compound. (alphachemicals.in)
  • A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. (jefferson.edu)
  • Another popular (but toxic) ingredient in hand sanitizers is Quaternary compounds (Benzalkonium chloride), which is NOT effective against norovirus either. (hypoair.com)
  • Thirty-six 9-mm paper discs were immersed in the experimental solutions (0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, and 0.13% benzalkonium chloride) for 1 minute. (bvsalud.org)
  • The antibacterial effect of 0.13% benzalkonium chloride against the biological indicators was observed after five minutes in direct exposure, while cetylpyridinium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate had an antibacterial effect against all the microorganisms after 10 minutes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cetylpyridinium chloride, Chlorhexidine, Benzalkonium. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5% Non-ionic surfactants, Benzisothiazolinone, Octylisothiazolinone, Isotridecanol Ethoxylate and concentrated perfume compound. (poundland.co.uk)
  • Most are slowly phasing out TRICLOSAN in favor of BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE. (greencleanlife.com)
  • NC/Nga mice were subcutaneously injected with mite allergen (Dp) to induce AD-like skin lesions (ADSLs), and an application of 0.2% (w/v) benzalkonium chloride (BZK), 10% (w/v) povidone-iodine (PVP-I), 80% (v/v) ethanol (Et-OH), or 0.5% (v/v) chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was applied to the ear envelope. (medsci.org)
  • Benzalkonium chloride, a common ophthalmic preservative, compromises rat corneal cold sensitive nerve activity. (jefferson.edu)
  • Purpose: To compare the ocular surface tolerability of latanoprost 0.005% preserved with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), bimatoprost 0.03% preserved with 0.005% BAK, and travoprost 0.004% preserved with the proprietary preservative system sofZia in patients previously treated with latanoprost. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The FDA regulates the use of these compounds for a preservative that helps keep eye shadows and other eye make-up "fresh and new" on the shelves. (greencleanlife.com)
  • Benzalkonium Chloride Solution we provide is used as biocide in water treatment chemicals. (alphachemicals.in)
  • Benzalkonium Chloride must not be applied to areas which have not been fully rinsed as it is inactivated by organic compounds. (chemicalland21.com)
  • BAK mixtures containing several compounds with different alkyl chain lengths are typically used. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aqueous solutions of benzalkonium chloride foam when shaken, have a low surface tension and possess detergent and emulsifying properties (Wade & Weller, 1994). (inchem.org)
  • The report provides detailed analysis on various applications of Benzalkonium chloride which includes: Water treatment, timber protection, preservation, pest control, detergent-sanitization, emulsifying agents and others. (industryarc.com)
  • One of the biggest differences between acetone and denatured alcohol is that acetone is a non-toxic, organic, naturally occurring chemical compound, while denatured alcohol is ethanol based and has denaturants added to it, making it poisonous if consumed. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • CAUTION - Zoflora contains among other ingredients Benzalkonium Chloride (1.90%), concentrated perfume compound. (tesco.com)
  • The compound that uses for softening, contains tallow fatty acid, which reacts with dimethylamine to form dimethylamino propanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Universidade da Coruña in Zapateira, Spain have developed a new method for determining benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in pharmaceutical formulations using mixed-mode chromatography (1). (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) compounds are commonly used in topical ophthalmic products as preservatives and stabilizers. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Effects of Latanoprost With Benzalkonium Chloride Versus Travoprost With SofZia on the Ocular Surface. (jefferson.edu)
  • BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE and other related quaternary ammonia compounds are known respiratory irritants. (greencleanlife.com)
  • Overall, the study highlights the importance of developing new chromatographic methods for the analysis of ionizable compounds such as BAK, and the potential of mixed-mode chromatography for pharmaceutical applications. (chromatographyonline.com)
  • Benzalkonium is more commonly contained in consumer products in its salt form, benzalkonium chloride [FDA Label]. (drugbank.com)
  • Benzalkonium application many include disinfecting instruments and preservativing drugs in low concentration form. (chemicalland21.com)
  • Applications of benzalkonium chloride include higher oil extraction through de-emulsification as well as sludge breaking. (asdreports.com)
  • Offering you a complete choice of products which include benzalkonium chloride bkc, ginodet bkc 50, cresmer 1000, cressemer ew , croda and tween 20 polysorbate 20. (shreekrishnaenviroventure.in)
  • Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) added to nebulized albuterol may induce bronchospasm. (elsevierpure.com)
  • While many of the first generations of anti-glaucoma eye drops were preserved with benzalkonium chloride, their repeated use may induce chronic ocular surface toxicity that leads to ocular surface disease (OSD) signs and symptoms. (bvsalud.org)
  • Benzalkonium chloride is widely used as a general microbicide for slime control as well as odor management in pulp mills. (asdreports.com)
  • It belongs to the opioid family of compounds and it is widely used. (drugbank.com)
  • We are counted among the prominent Benzalkonium ChlorideExporters, rendering superior quality to a widespread network of clients that is based all over the world. (alphachemicals.in)
  • Nutribiotic's Maximum GSE Liquid Concentrate contains Citricidal, which is a natural quaternary compound synthesized from the seed and pulp of grapefruit that has been proven highly effective in numerous applications. (brainreference.com)
  • it uses the organic compound benzalkonium chloride as the active ingredient. (momgogreen.com)
  • As part of the modern preparations of this plan, surface-active chemical compounds (benzalkonium chloride or nonoxynol-9) are used as active components. (ladyjanet.biz)
  • Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of mammals including humans and is an extremely important intermediate in the chemical industry. (drugbank.com)