Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
A group of compounds with three aromatic rings joined in linear arrangement.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A family of gram-negative bacteria usually found in soil or water and including many plant pathogens and a few animal pathogens.
Mice selectively bred for hypersusceptibility to two-stage chemical skin carcinogenesis. They are also hypersusceptible to UV radiation tumorigenesis with single high-dose, but not chronic low-dose, exposures. SENCAR (SENsitive to CARcinogenesis) mice are used in research as an animal model for tumor production.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.
Phenanthrenes are aromatic hydrocarbons consisting of three benzene rings fused together in a linear arrangement, commonly found in various plants and some animals, and can act as precursors for certain steroid hormones or exhibit pharmacological activities with potential therapeutic uses.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES.
A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Enzymes that regulate the topology of DNA by actions such as breaking, relaxing, passing, and rejoining strands of DNA in cells. These enzymes are important components of the DNA replication system. They are classified by their substrate specificities. DNA TOPOISOMERASE I enzymes act on a single strand of DNA. DNA TOPOISOMERASE II enzymes act on double strands of DNA.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) is a synthetic, aromatic hydrocarbon that is commonly used in research as a carcinogenic compound. It is a potent tumor initiator and has been widely used to study chemical carcinogenesis in laboratory animals.

DMBA is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with two benzene rings fused together, and two methyl groups attached at the 9 and 10 positions. This structure allows DMBA to intercalate into DNA, causing mutations that can lead to cancer.

Exposure to DMBA has been shown to cause a variety of tumors in different organs, depending on the route of administration and dose. In animal models, DMBA is often applied to the skin or administered orally to induce tumors in the mammary glands, lungs, or digestive tract.

It's important to note that DMBA is not a natural compound found in the environment and is used primarily for research purposes only. It should be handled with care and appropriate safety precautions due to its carcinogenic properties.

Anthracene is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H6. It is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is composed of three benzene rings arranged in a linear fashion. Anthracene is used primarily for research purposes, including studying DNA damage and mutagenesis. It is not known to have any significant biological role or uses in medicine. Exposure to anthracene may occur through coal tar or coal tar pitch volatiles, but it does not have established medical definitions related to human health or disease.

Medical definitions typically focus on the relevance of a term to medicine or healthcare, so here's a medical perspective on polycyclic compounds:

Polycyclic compounds are organic substances that contain two or more chemical rings in their structure. While not all polycyclic compounds are relevant to medicine, some can have significant medical implications. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a type of polycyclic compound that can be found in tobacco smoke and certain types of air pollution. PAHs have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer, due to their ability to damage DNA.

Another example is the class of drugs called steroids, which include hormones like cortisol and sex hormones like testosterone and estrogen. These compounds are polycyclic because they contain several interconnected rings in their structure. Steroid medications are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including inflammation, asthma, and Addison's disease.

In summary, while not all polycyclic compounds are relevant to medicine, some can have important medical implications, either as harmful environmental pollutants or as useful therapeutic agents.

Benzopyrene is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). It is formed from the incomplete combustion of organic materials, such as tobacco, coal, and gasoline. Benzopyrene is a potent carcinogen, meaning it has the ability to cause cancer in living tissue.

Benzopyrene is able to induce genetic mutations by interacting with DNA and forming bulky adducts that interfere with normal DNA replication. This can lead to the development of various types of cancer, including lung, skin, and bladder cancer. Benzopyrene has also been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

In the medical field, benzopyrene is often used as a model compound for studying the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis. It is also used in research to investigate the effects of PAHs on human health and to develop strategies for reducing exposure to these harmful substances.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds characterized by the presence of two or more fused benzene rings. They are called "polycyclic" because they contain multiple cyclic structures, and "aromatic" because these structures contain alternating double bonds that give them distinctive chemical properties and a characteristic smell.

PAHs can be produced from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and the decomposition of organic matter. Anthropogenic sources include the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gasoline, as well as tobacco smoke, grilled foods, and certain industrial processes.

PAHs are known to be environmental pollutants and can have harmful effects on human health. They have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung, skin, and bladder cancers, as well as reproductive and developmental toxicity. PAHs can also cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and damage to the immune system.

PAHs are found in a variety of environmental media, including air, water, soil, and food. They can accumulate in the food chain, particularly in fatty tissues, and have been detected in a wide range of foods, including meat, fish, dairy products, and vegetables. Exposure to PAHs can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact.

It is important to limit exposure to PAHs by avoiding tobacco smoke, reducing consumption of grilled and smoked foods, using ventilation when cooking, and following safety guidelines when working with industrial processes that produce PAHs.

Methylcholanthrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is used in research to induce skin tumors in mice. It is a potent carcinogen and mutagen, and exposure to it can increase the risk of cancer in humans. It is not typically found in medical treatments or therapies.

A papilloma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that grows on a stalk, often appearing as a small cauliflower-like growth. It can develop in various parts of the body, but when it occurs in the mucous membranes lining the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary tracts, they are called squamous papillomas. The most common type is the skin papilloma, which includes warts. They are usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and can be removed through various medical procedures if they become problematic or unsightly.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

'Mammary neoplasms, experimental' is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide definitions for the individual terms:

1. Mammary: Pertaining to the breast or mammary glands in females, which are responsible for milk production.
2. Neoplasms: Abnormal growths of tissue, also known as tumors or masses, that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
3. Experimental: Relating to a scientific experiment or study, typically conducted in a controlled setting to test hypotheses and gather data.

In the context of medical research, 'experimental mammary neoplasms' may refer to artificially induced breast tumors in laboratory animals (such as rats or mice) for the purpose of studying the development, progression, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. These studies can help researchers better understand the biology of breast cancer and develop new therapies and strategies for its diagnosis and management.

Chrysenes are a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are found in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human activities such as combustion of fossil fuels, waste incineration, and cigarette smoke. They consist of four fused benzene rings and are highly stable, making them persistent in the environment. Chrysenes have been shown to have potential toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects on living organisms, including humans. They can accumulate in the food chain and pose a risk to human health through exposure via contaminated air, water, and food.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Cyclic ethers are a type of organic compound that contain an ether functional group (-O-) within a cyclic (ring-shaped) structure. In a cyclic ether, one or more oxygen atoms are part of the ring, which can consist of various numbers of carbon atoms. The simplest example of a cyclic ether is oxirane, also known as ethylene oxide, which contains a three-membered ring with two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.

Cyclic ethers have diverse applications in the chemical industry, including their use as building blocks for the synthesis of other chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and materials. Some cyclic ethers, like tetrahydrofuran (THF), are common solvents due to their ability to dissolve a wide range of organic compounds. However, some cyclic ethers can be hazardous or toxic, so they must be handled with care during laboratory work and industrial processes.

Cocarcinogenesis is a term used in the field of oncology to describe a process where exposure to certain chemicals or physical agents enhances the tumor-forming ability of a cancer-causing agent (carcinogen). A cocarcinogen does not have the ability to initiate cancer on its own, but it can promote the development and progression of cancer when combined with a carcinogen.

In other words, a cocarcinogen is a substance or factor that acts synergistically with a known carcinogen to increase the likelihood or speed up the development of cancer. This process can occur through various mechanisms, such as suppressing the immune system, promoting inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, or inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of cocarcinogens include tobacco smoke, alcohol, certain viruses, and radiation. These agents can interact with carcinogens to increase the risk of cancer in individuals who are exposed to them. It is important to note that while cocarcinogens themselves may not directly cause cancer, they can significantly contribute to its development and progression when combined with other harmful substances or factors.

Mutagenicity tests are a type of laboratory assays used to identify agents that can cause genetic mutations. These tests detect changes in the DNA of organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, after exposure to potential mutagens. The most commonly used mutagenicity test is the Ames test, which uses a strain of Salmonella bacteria that is sensitive to mutagens. If a chemical causes an increase in the number of revertants (reversion to the wild type) in the bacterial population, it is considered to be a mutagen. Other tests include the mouse lymphoma assay and the chromosomal aberration test. These tests are used to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of chemicals and are an important part of the safety evaluation process for new drugs, chemicals, and other substances.

Pseudomonadaceae is a family of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria within the class Gammaproteobacteria. The name "Pseudomonadaceae" comes from the type genus Pseudomonas, which means "false unitform." This refers to the fact that these bacteria can appear similar to other rod-shaped bacteria but have distinct characteristics.

Members of this family are typically motile, aerobic organisms with a single polar flagellum or multiple lateral flagella. They are widely distributed in various environments, including soil, water, and as part of the normal microbiota of plants and animals. Some species can cause diseases in humans, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is an opportunistic pathogen known to cause severe infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, cystic fibrosis, or burn wounds.

Pseudomonadaceae bacteria are metabolically versatile and can utilize various organic compounds as carbon sources. They often produce pigments, such as pyocyanin and fluorescein, which contribute to their identification in laboratory settings. The family Pseudomonadaceae includes several genera, with Pseudomonas being the most well-known and clinically relevant.

SENCAR (skin tumor-prone, cancer-prone) mice are an inbred strain of laboratory mice that were developed through selective breeding for their high susceptibility to developing skin tumors when exposed to certain chemical carcinogens. They are particularly sensitive to two-stage chemical carcinogenesis, making them a valuable tool in cancer research.

The SENCAR mouse strain was developed at the Southern Research Institute (SRI) in Birmingham, Alabama, by crossing various strains of mice and then selectively breeding the offspring for high tumor susceptibility. The resulting SENCAR mice are highly sensitive to both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis, displaying rapid tumor development when exposed to tumor-promoting agents.

These mice have been widely used in dermatology and oncology research to study the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, skin tumor development, and potential chemopreventive agents. They are also used to investigate the genetic factors contributing to cancer susceptibility and the role of the immune system in tumor development.

It is important to note that SENCAR mice are specifically bred for research purposes and should not be confused with wild mice or other strains of laboratory mice.

Epoxy compounds, also known as epoxy resins, are a type of thermosetting polymer characterized by the presence of epoxide groups in their molecular structure. An epoxide group is a chemical functional group consisting of an oxygen atom double-bonded to a carbon atom, which is itself bonded to another carbon atom.

Epoxy compounds are typically produced by reacting a mixture of epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A or other similar chemicals under specific conditions. The resulting product is a two-part system consisting of a resin and a hardener, which must be mixed together before use.

Once the two parts are combined, a chemical reaction takes place that causes the mixture to cure or harden into a solid material. This curing process can be accelerated by heat, and once fully cured, epoxy compounds form a strong, durable, and chemically resistant material that is widely used in various industrial and commercial applications.

In the medical field, epoxy compounds are sometimes used as dental restorative materials or as adhesives for bonding medical devices or prosthetics. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergic reactions to certain components of epoxy compounds, so their use must be carefully evaluated and monitored in a medical context.

Epoxide hydrolases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides, which are molecules containing a three-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. This reaction results in the formation of diols, which are molecules containing two hydroxyl groups (-OH).

Epoxide hydrolases play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) and the metabolism of endogenous compounds. They help to convert toxic epoxides into less harmful products, which can then be excreted from the body.

There are two main types of epoxide hydrolases: microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). mEH is primarily responsible for metabolizing xenobiotics, while sEH plays a role in the metabolism of endogenous compounds such as arachidonic acid.

Impaired function or inhibition of epoxide hydrolases has been linked to various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, these enzymes are considered important targets for the development of drugs and therapies aimed at treating these conditions.

Anthraquinones are a type of organic compound that consists of an anthracene structure (a chemical compound made up of three benzene rings) with two carbonyl groups attached to the central ring. They are commonly found in various plants and have been used in medicine for their laxative properties. Some anthraquinones also exhibit antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, long-term use of anthraquinone-containing laxatives can lead to serious side effects such as electrolyte imbalances, muscle weakness, and liver damage.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

Mucorales is a order of fungi that includes several genera of mold-like fungi, such as Mucor, Rhizopus, and Absidia. These fungi are commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and animal manure. Some species can cause mucormycosis, a serious and often life-threatening invasive fungal infection that primarily affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with uncontrolled diabetes, cancer, or organ transplants. The infection typically begins in the respiratory tract, but it can spread to other parts of the body, including the sinuses, brain, and lungs. Mucormycosis is difficult to diagnose and treat, and it has a high mortality rate.

Phenanthrenes are not typically defined in a medical context, but they are a class of organic compounds that have a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon structure consisting of three benzene rings fused together. They can be found in some natural products and have been studied for their potential pharmacological properties. Some phenanthrenes have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities, among others. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and safety profile.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

A "cheek" is the fleshy, muscular area of the face that forms the side of the face below the eye and above the jaw. It contains the buccinator muscle, which helps with chewing by moving food to the back teeth for grinding and also assists in speaking and forming facial expressions. The cheek also contains several sensory receptors that allow us to perceive touch, temperature, and pain in this area of the face. Additionally, there is a mucous membrane lining inside the mouth cavity called the buccal mucosa which covers the inner surface of the cheek.

Topoisomerase inhibitors are a class of anticancer drugs that work by interfering with the function of topoisomerases, which are enzymes responsible for relaxing supercoiled DNA during processes such as replication and transcription. Topoisomerase I inhibitors selectively bind to and stabilize the cleavage complex formed between topoisomerase I and DNA, preventing the relegation of the broken DNA strand and resulting in DNA damage and cell death. Examples include irinotecan and topotecan. Topoisomerase II inhibitors, on the other hand, bind to and stabilize the cleavage complex formed between topoisomerase II and DNA, leading to double-stranded DNA breaks and cell death. Examples include doxorubicin, etoposide, and mitoxantrone. These drugs are used in the treatment of various types of cancer.

Sphingomonadaceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical samples. They are characterized by the presence of sphingophospholipids in their outer membrane, which differentiates them from other gram-negative bacteria.

Members of this family are often rod-shaped or coccoid and may be motile or nonmotile. Some species have the ability to degrade various organic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons.

Sphingomonadaceae includes several genera of medical importance, such as Sphingomonas, Sphingopyxis, and Novosphingobium. These bacteria have been associated with various infections in humans, including bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, and urinary tract infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. However, they are generally considered to be opportunistic pathogens, and their clinical significance is not well understood.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Anticarcinogenic agents are substances that prevent, inhibit or reduce the development of cancer. They can be natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the process of carcinogenesis at various stages, such as initiation, promotion, and progression. Anticarcinogenic agents may work by preventing DNA damage, promoting DNA repair, reducing inflammation, inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death), or modulating immune responses.

Examples of anticarcinogenic agents include chemopreventive agents, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and retinoids; phytochemicals found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods; and medications used to treat cancer, such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies.

It is important to note that while some anticarcinogenic agents have been shown to be effective in preventing or reducing the risk of certain types of cancer, they may also have potential side effects and risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any anticarcinogenic agent for cancer prevention or treatment purposes.

Mammary glands are specialized exocrine glands found in mammals, including humans and other animals. These glands are responsible for producing milk, which is used to nurse offspring after birth. The mammary glands are located in the breast region of female mammals and are usually rudimentary or absent in males.

In animals, mammary glands can vary in number and location depending on the species. For example, humans and other primates have two mammary glands, one in each breast. Cows, goats, and sheep, on the other hand, have multiple pairs of mammary glands located in their lower abdominal region.

Mammary glands are made up of several structures, including lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules contain clusters of milk-secreting cells called alveoli, which produce and store milk. The ducts transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple, where it is released during lactation.

Mammary glands are an essential feature of mammals, as they provide a source of nutrition for newborn offspring. They also play a role in the development and maintenance of the mother-infant bond, as nursing provides opportunities for physical contact and bonding between the mother and her young.

DNA topoisomerases are enzymes that play a crucial role in the regulation of DNA topology, which refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of the DNA molecule. These enzymes control the number of twists or coils in the DNA helix by creating temporary breaks in the strands and allowing them to rotate around each other, thereby relieving the torsional stress that builds up during processes such as replication and transcription.

There are two main types of DNA topoisomerases: type I and type II. Type I enzymes create a single-stranded break in the DNA helix, while type II enzymes create a double-stranded break. Both types of enzymes can change the linking number (Lk) of the DNA molecule, which is a topological invariant that describes the overall degree of twist in the helix.

Type I topoisomerases are further divided into two subtypes: type IA and type IB. Type IA enzymes, such as topo I from Escherichia coli, create a transient break in one DNA strand and then pass the other strand through the break before resealing it. In contrast, type IB enzymes, such as human topo I, create a covalent bond with the 3'-phosphate end of the broken strand and then pass the 5'-end through the break before rejoining the ends.

Type II topoisomerases are also divided into two subtypes: type IIA and type IIB. Type IIA enzymes, such as bacterial topo IV and eukaryotic topo II, create a double-stranded break in the DNA helix and then pass another segment of double-stranded DNA through the break before resealing it. Type IIB enzymes, such as bacterial topo III and eukaryotic topo IIIα and β, create a double-stranded break and then pass a single strand of DNA through the break before resealing it.

DNA topoisomerases are important targets for cancer chemotherapy because they are essential for cell division and can be inhibited by drugs such as doxorubicin, etoposide, and irinotecan. However, these drugs can also have significant side effects, including cardiotoxicity and myelosuppression. Therefore, there is ongoing research to develop new topoisomerase inhibitors with improved efficacy and safety profiles.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Benz[a]anthracene is one of carcinogenic constituents of tobacco smoke. Tetracene, also known as benz[b]anthracene "Front ... Benz[a]anthracene or benzo[a]anthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C18H12. It is produced ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. "Benzo[a]anthracene [MAK Value Documentation, 2012]". The MAK-Collection for Occupational Health and ...
"Piezochromism and structural and electronic properties of benz[a]anthracene under pressure". Physical Chemistry Chemical ...
It is an alkylated derivative of benz[a]anthracene and has a similar UV spectrum. The most common isomer is 3- ...
New Mechanistic Insights from the Thermal Rearrangement of Benz[a]anthracene-5-13C. Tetrahedron Letters 1984, 25 (16), 1661- ... benz[a]anthracene and even benzene have been described. While the existence of these reactions has been confirmed, the ...
... is more resonance stable than its isomers chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and tetracene. For ...
In recent testing, PAH compounds were reduced by 75-85%, except for benz(a)anthracene, which was reduced by roughly 50%. ... The introduction of motor-vehicle diesel engines, such as the Mercedes-Benz OM 138, in the 1930s meant that higher-quality ...
This component was later linked to a characteristic fluorescent pattern that was similar but not identical to benz[a]anthracene ... Light emitted by the Red Rectangle nebula possesses spectral signatures that suggest the presence of anthracene and pyrene. ... Other authors consider PAHs to start with the tricyclic species phenanthrene and anthracene. Most authors exclude compounds ... The simplest representative is naphthalene, having two aromatic rings, and the three-ring compounds anthracene and phenanthrene ...
Macromolecular forms consisting of seven fused benzene rings Heptacene [7]Phenacene M-heptahelicene Benz[a]anthracene, an ...
Ammonia Aldehydes 1-Aminonaphthalene 2-Aminonaphthalene 4-Aminobiphenyl Benzine Benz(a)anthracene Benzo(a)pyrene 1,3-Butadiene ...
... benz(a)anthracene, and Benzofluoranthene, are bioavailable and responsible for liver diseases like cancer in wild fish ...
... and benz(a)anthracene (BA) of cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) in mouse embryo fibroblasts (C3H10T1/2 cells)". Mol. Cell. Biochem. ...
Tetraphene, also known as benz[a]anthracene Doxycycline Daniel Oberhaus, New Designs Could Boost Solar Cells Beyond Their ...
Inside the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, the Pyrolytics (Benz-Anthracene, Benzo(k)Fluoranthene, Fluoranthene, Indeno[1,2,3- ...
... benz(a)anthracene, and fluoranthene. Contaminants that were reported as having low accuracies included nickel, mercury, ... anthracene, p,p'-DDE, total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and total Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Importantly, one ...
The molecular formula C18H12 may refer to: Benz[a]anthracene, or benzo[a]anthracene Benzo[c]phenanthrene Chrysene Tetracene, ...
4-thiadiazole Amsacrine Arecoline Aspartame Benz[j]aceanthrylene Benz[a]anthracene Benzo[b]fluoranthene Benzo[j]fluoranthene ...
... anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd) ... PAHs - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified seven PAH compounds as probable human carcinogens: benz[a] ...
... or 7-H can refer to: A-7H, a model of LTV A-7 Corsair II 7H-Benz(de)anthracene-7-one, or Benzanthrone Hydrogen-7 (7H), an ...
... ethanol Aziridyl benzoquinone Azobenzene 11H-Benz[bc]aceanthrylene Benz[l]aceanthrylene Benz[a]acridine Benz[c]acridine Benzo[g ... anthracene Dibenz[a,j]anthracene Dibenzo-p-dioxin Dibenzo[a,e]fluoranthene 13H-Dibenzo[a,g]fluorene Dibenzo[h,rst]pentaphene ... anthracene 6-Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene 4-Nitrobiphenyl 3-Nitrofluoranthene Nitrofural (Nitrofurazone) Nitrofurantoin 1- ... volatile Angelicin plus ultraviolet A radiation para-Anisidine Anthanthrene Anthracene Anthranilic acid Antimony trisulfide ...
Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Nobusue, Shunpei; Shimizu, Akihiro; Hisaki, Ichiro; Miyata, Mikiji; Tobe, Yoshito (2013-11-26). "Benz[c] ... "Diindeno-fusion of an anthracene as a design strategy for stable organic biradicals". Nature Chemistry. 8 (8): 753-759. Bibcode ...
The State Transit Authority purchased 100 Scania L113CRB, 283 Mercedes-Benz O405NH and 254 Euro 5-compliant Mercedes-Benz ... "Metal-Organic Framework from an Anthracene Derivative Containing Nanoscopic Cages Exhibiting High Methane Uptake". Journal of ... ISBN 978-0-19-537664-7. "Mercedes-Benz OC500LE - CNG". Sydney Buses. New South Wales Government. Archived from the original on ... Currently Fiat, Opel, Volkswagen, Citroën, Renault, Volvo and Mercedes sell various car models and small trucks that are petrol ...
Toolan, H.W., Rhode, S.L. and Gierthy, J.F. (1982) Inhibition of 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumors in Syrian ... Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Collado, Manuel; Tendero, Mercedes J.; Rodriguez-Pinilla, Socorro M.; Garcia- ...
Mercedes-Benz used the alloy Elektron in the bodywork of an early model Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR; these cars competed in the 1955 ... A prominent organomagnesium reagent beyond Grignard reagents is magnesium anthracene with magnesium, forming a 1,4-bridge over ...
They are known to undergo Diels-Alder reactions with dienes such as 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene, anthracene, and 2- ... Martín, Roberto; Jiménez, Liliana; Alvaro, Mercedes; Scaiano, Juan C.; Garcia, Hermenegildo (2010-06-25). "Two-Photon Chemistry ...
Benz[a]anthracene is one of carcinogenic constituents of tobacco smoke. Tetracene, also known as benz[b]anthracene "Front ... Benz[a]anthracene or benzo[a]anthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C18H12. It is produced ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. "Benzo[a]anthracene [MAK Value Documentation, 2012]". The MAK-Collection for Occupational Health and ...
... anthracene-7-methanol, 5-methoxy-12-methyl- , C21H18O2 , CID 152050 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical ...
... anthracene; 10 pounds of benz[a]anthracene; 100 pounds of acenaphthene, chrysene, fluoranthene, or indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene; or ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined the following: benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene are ... EPA has determined that benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz[a,h] ... Several of the PAHs, including benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[k] ...
Benz[a]anthracene. Carbon monoxide. Chrysene. Diesel engine exhaust. Formaldehyde (gas). Gasoline engine exhaust (condensates/ ...
MCL¶ for benz(a)anthracene. 0.0002 mg/L. MCL for benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene. ...
Benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione (C18H10O2) ... Benz(a)anthracene, 7-nitro- (C18H11NO2). *1-Methylbenzo(a) ...
LR: 20160512; JID: 101134327; 0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Anthraquinones); 0 (Benz(a)Anthracenes); 0 (Dust); 0 (Gonanes); 0 ( ... 12-benz[a]anthraquinone, was 0.7 pg-43.3 ng with limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) on the order of ...
Benz[a]anthracene. 56-55-3, 1718-53-2. 0. Cadmium nitrate ... Anthracene oil, anthracene paste, anthracene fraction. 91995-15 ...
FR: fluoranthene; Pyr: pyrene; BaA: benz[a]anthracene; Chr: chrysene; BbF: benzo[b]fluoranthene; BkF: benzo[k]fluoranthene; BaP ... Nine PAHs, fluoranthene (FR), pyrene (Pyr), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k] ...
... anthracene (3-ring PAH), fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene (4-ring PAH) each accounting for ca. 3 to 10 %. ... The effects noted are of low severity and unspecific character (compare also the structure-related anthracene oil, B(a)P ,50 ... No data on repeated dose toxicity have been identified for the substance distillates (coal tar), heavy oils (anthracene oil ... anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene (3- and 4-ring PAH). These substances are also present in AOH and can be used to describe ...
Sharoni, Y., Giron, E., Rise, M., and Levy, J. Effects of lycopene-enriched tomato oleoresin on 7,12-dimethyl- benz[a] ... anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors. Cancer Detect.Prev. 1997;21:118-123. View abstract. ...
volume IV, Benzo[a]pyrene, acenaphthylene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[g, h, i] ... An exposure and risk assessment for benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons : volume III, anthracene, ... perylene, chrysene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, and indeno[1,2,3-c, d]pyrene /. 1982. ...
Benz[a]anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, Benzo[e]pyrene, Benzo[a]pyrene, Perylene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene Benzo[ghi] ... anthracene, Picene, Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, Dibenzo[b,k]fluoranthene. Reference/Informational value is provided for the following ... 9-Nitrophenanthrene, 3-Nitrophenanthrene, 2-Nitrofluoranthene, 3-Nitrofluoranthene, 1-Nitropyrene, 7-Nitrobenz[a]anthracene, 6- ... perylene, Dibenz[a,j]anthracene, Benzo[b]chrysene, Coronene, 2-Methylnaphthalene, 1-Methylnaphthalene, Acenaphthene, Benzo[ghi] ...
C1 Known ROC Edition 14 56-55-3 Benz(a)anthracene DTXSID5023902 C1=CC2=C(C=C1)C=C1C(C=CC3=C1C=CC=C3)=C2 DXBHBZVCASKNBY- ... anthracene" DTXSID9020409 C1=CC2=CC=C3C=C4C(C=CC5=CC=CC=C45)=CC3=C2C=C1 LHRCREOYAASXPZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N C1=CC2=CC=C3C=C4C(C=CC5=CC= ...
Benz (a) anthracene. - Benz (b) fluranthene. - Benzo (a) pyrene. - Chrysene. ANTIBIOTICS AND VETERINARY DRUGS ...
Benz(a)anthracene. 16.8. 12.5. n.a.. 14.7. 5. Benzo(a)pyrene [BaP] ...
Benzanthracenes. Benz(a)Anthracenes. Polycyclic Hydrocarbons. Polycyclic Compounds. D08 - ENZYMES, COENZYMES, AND ENZYME ...
Benzanthracenes. Benz(a)Anthracenes. Polycyclic Hydrocarbons. Polycyclic Compounds. D08 - ENZYMES, COENZYMES, AND ENZYME ...
Benzanthracenes. Benz(a)Anthracenes. Polycyclic Hydrocarbons. Polycyclic Compounds. D08 - ENZYMES, COENZYMES, AND ENZYME ...
Juhasz A. L., Britz M. L., Stanley G. A. 1997; Degradation of fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene ... Jerina D. M., Selander H., Yagi H., Wells M. C., Davey J. F., Mahadevan V., Gibson D. T. 1976; Dihydrodiols from anthracene and ... Fernley H. N., Griffiths E., Evans W. C. 1964; Oxidative metabolism of phenanthrene and anthracene by soil bacteria: the ...
The highest increase was found for benz[a]anthracene, and the lowest was for BaP. ... Strong roasting conditions led to significant levels of chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene (near 13 μg/kg), whereas low levels of ... anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene were also noted in those samples. ...
Additionally, DSA could also utilize benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and benz[a]anthracene as carbon sources. ...
Food analysis - Determination of benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in foodstuffs by high ... Food analysis - Determination of benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in foodstuffs by gas ...
Benz[a]anthracene,Benzene,Benzene,Benzidine [and its salts],Benzidine-based dyes, Benzodiazepines, Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[ ... anthracene,Dibenz[a,h]anthracene,Dibenz[a,j]anthracene,7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole, Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, ... anthracene,3,3-Dimethylbenzidine (ortho-Tolidine),3,3-Dimethylbenzidine-based dyes metabolized to 3,3-dimethylbenzidine,3,3 ...
... exposed to 4 µM of benz[a]anthracene (BAA) or benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione (BAQ). By integrating multivariate, univariate and ...
  • Benz[a]anthracene or benzo[a]anthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C18H12. (
  • Oxidative metabolism of phenanthrene and anthracene by soil bacteria: the initial ring-fission step. (
  • Anthracene Oil Extract Residue [A complex combination of hydrocarbons from the base-freed fraction obtained from the distillation of coal tar and boiling in the range of approxi mately 325 °C to 365 °C (617 °F to 689 °F). It contains predominantly anthracene and phenanthrene and their alkyl derivatives. (
  • Anthracene Oil Fraction [A complex combination of hydrocarbons from the distillation of anthracene obtained by the crystallization of anthracene oil from bituminous high temperature tar and boiling in the range of 330 °C to 350 °C (626°F to 662°F). It contains chiefly anthracene, carbazole and phenanthrene. (
  • Anthracene oil, anthracene paste, distn. (
  • Detectable levels of anthracene, a PNA compound, were present in trace quantities. (
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Mammalian Cell Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Benz(a)anthracene (56-55-3). (