Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Flocculation Tests: Precipitin tests which occur over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Cation Exchange Resins: High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Terphenyl Compounds: Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Zeolites: Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Cetrimonium Compounds: Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.Carboxylesterase: Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Nylons: Polymers where the main polymer chain comprises recurring amide groups. These compounds are generally formed from combinations of diamines, diacids, and amino acids and yield fibers, sheeting, or extruded forms used in textiles, gels, filters, sutures, contact lenses, and other biomaterials.Calcium Fluoride: Calcium fluoride. Occurring in nature as the mineral fluorite or fluorspar. It is the primary source of fluorine and its compounds. Pure calcium fluoride is used as a catalyst in dehydration and dehydrogenation and is used to fluoridate drinking water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Diatomaceous Earth: A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Cimicidae: A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Gold Colloid: A suspension of metallic gold particles.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.WyomingDiffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Gold Colloid, Radioactive: A suspension of radioactive gold particles emitting negative beta particles and gamma irradiation. It was formerly used for liver scans and irradiation treatment of some metastatic malignancies.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Sebum: The oily substance secreted by SEBACEOUS GLANDS. It is composed of KERATIN, fat, and cellular debris.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Dermatitis, Seborrheic: A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Waxes: A plastic substance deposited by insects or obtained from plants. Waxes are esters of various fatty acids with higher, usually monohydric alcohols. The wax of pharmacy is principally yellow wax (beeswax), the material of which honeycomb is made. It consists chiefly of cerotic acid and myricin and is used in making ointments, cerates, etc. (Dorland, 27th ed)Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bombacaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida of tropical trees.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.

Effect of physical parameters on the in situ survival of Escherichia coli MC-6 in an estuarine environment. (1/98)

Survival of Escherichia coli MC-6 of fecal origin in an estuarine environment as affected by time, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and montmorillonite in diffusion chambers has been elucidated. Several in situ physical parameters were recorded simultaneously, and viable cell numbers were estimated. The survival of the bacteria varied seasonally. Montmorillonite addition extended the time needed for a 50% reduction of the viable cell population (t1/2) of cells by 40% over the t1/2 of cells in Rhode River water alone. The effect of this clay was not significantly greater between 50- to 1,000 mug/ml montmorillonite concentrations. In all experiments, the relationships among pairs of variables were studied by regression and correlation analysis. The slope between viable cell numbers and water temperatures increased about 50% for each 10 C increment in temperature and gave a correlation coefficient r = 0.617, significant at 95% confidence level. A similar correlation coefficient, r = 0.670, was obtained between water temperature and t1/2 of the initial cell population. In all experiments regressions were performed considering all variables after bacteria had been in the Rhode River environment for 3 days. Coefficient of multiple determination was estimated as R2 = 0.756. Approximately 75.6% of the variance of viable cell numbers can be explained by variation in water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and salinity. Simple correlation coefficients within the regression steps were also computed. Survival of bacteria was closely and negatively correlated with increasing water temperature (r = -0.717). It is suggested that water temperature is the most important factor in predicting fecal coliform survival from point and nonpoint sources in assessing water quality in an estuarine ecosystem.  (+info)

Delivery of extraterrestrial amino acids to the primitive Earth. Exposure experiments in Earth orbit. (2/98)

A large collection of micrometeorites has been recently extracted from Antarctic old blue ice. In the 50 to 100 micrometers size range, the carbonaceous micrometeorites represent 80% of the samples and contain 2% of carbon. They might have brought more carbon to the surface of the primitive Earth than that involved in the present surficial biomass. Amino acids such as "-amino isobutyric acid have been identified in these Antarctic micrometeorites. Enantiomeric excesses of L-amino acids have been detected in the Murchison meteorite. A large fraction of homochiral amino acids might have been delivered to the primitive Earth via meteorites and micrometeorites. Space technology in Earth orbit offers a unique opportunity to study the behaviour of amino acids required for the development of primitive life when they are exposed to space conditions, either free or associated with tiny mineral grains mimicking the micrometeorites. Our objectives are to demonstrate that porous mineral material protects amino acids in space from photolysis and racemization (the conversion of L-amino acids into a mixture of L- and D-molecules) and to test whether photosensitive amino acids derivatives can polymerize in mineral grains under space conditions. The results obtained in BIOPAN-1 and BIOPAN-2 exposure experiments on board unmanned satellite FOTON are presented.  (+info)

Stability of respiratory syncytial virus in a new bentonite holding medium. (3/98)

Stability of respiratory syncytial virus was determined in a new bentonite holding medium and compared with two other commonly used media. Eventual infectivity titers were similar with all three preparations.  (+info)

Lucigenin chemiluminescence assay as an adjunctive tool for assessment of various stages of inflammation: a study of quiescent inflammatory cells. (4/98)

A simple, fast, precise and biologically relevant toxicity assay for screening cytotoxicity of minerals would have distinct advantages due to its cost benefits and relative savings in time. Furthermore, a bioassay to differentiate acute and chronic in vivo pulmonary reactions could have potential value as predictors of fibrogenicity and pathogenicity. In this study we examined the potential use of lucigenin as a probe to evaluate the correlation between chemiluminescence (CL) generated by alveolar macrophages with the known cytotoxicity and patho genicity by conventional bioassays. In this study, we used small doses of dust (20 microg) to minimize cellular overload and to maintain homeostasis. Crystalline silica a highly fibrogenic dust was used as positive control and results are compared with those for bentonite, kaolin and talc. Among the three minerals compared with silica, bentonite was more reactive (27%) in CL assay and declined sharply compared to other minerals. This sudden decline in bentonite CL is caused by cytotoxicity leading to cell death. CL-induced by talc was comparable to silica and declines slowly. Kaolin on the other hand produced relatively a weaker (25%) CL compared to silica. Our data using relatively low doses of dust suggest that the CL assay may have a better predictive value in cytotoxicity evaluations compared to conventional toxicity assays.  (+info)

Desorption techniques for determination of metals mobility in soils. (5/98)

Three leaching techniques for assessment of fixed and mobile metal or radionuclides in soils are demonstrated on radiocaesium speciation. A new leaching technique based on the variation of the leaching solution volume to solid phase amount is proposed. It enables parallel treatment of large numbers of samples and, therefore, is suitable for a routine analysis of contaminant mobility in soils. As a leaching solution, 1 M ammonium acetate is proposed for caesium, but any other desorption solution harmonised with existing speciation schemes can be used.  (+info)

Activity of free and clay-bound insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis against the mosquito Culex pipiens. (6/98)

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis produces parasporal insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) that have larvicidal activity against some members of the order Diptera, such as blackflies and mosquitoes. Hydrolysis of the ICPs in the larval gut results in four major proteins with a molecular mass of 27, 65, 128, and 135 kDa. Toxicity is caused by synergistic interaction between the 25-kDa protein (proteolytic product of the 27-kDa protein) and one or more of the higher-molecular-mass proteins. Equilibrium adsorption of the proteins on the clay minerals montmorillonite and kaolinite, which are homoionic to various cations, was rapid (<30 min for maximal adsorption), increased with protein concentration and then reached a plateau (68 to 96% of the proteins was adsorbed), was significantly lower on kaolinite than on montmorillonite, and was not significantly affected by the valence of the cation to which the clays were homoionic. Binding of the toxins decreased as the pH was increased from 6 to 11, and there was 35 to 66% more binding in phosphate buffer at pH 6 than in distilled water at pH 6 or 7.2. Only 2 to 12% of the adsorbed proteins was desorbed by two washes with water; additional washings desorbed no more toxins, indicating that they were tightly bound. Formation of clay-toxin complexes did not alter the structure of the proteins, as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the equilibrium supernatants and desorption washes and by dot blot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the complexes, which was confirmed by enhanced chemiluminescence Western blot analysis. Free and clay-bound toxins resulted in 85 to 100% mortality of the mosquito Culex pipiens. Persistence of the bound toxins in nonsterile water after 45 days was significantly greater (mortality of 63% +/- 12.7%) than that of the free toxins (mortality of 25% +/- 12.5%).  (+info)

Non-enzymatic oligomerization of racemic adenosine 5'-phosphorimidazolide on Na(+)-montmorillonite. (7/98)

In this study, we have investigated non-enzymatic oligomerization of an activated racemic mononucleotide in the presence of Na(+)-montmorillonite. Oligomers up to the decamer in length were formed by oligomerization reactions of activated D- and L-mononucleotides. Similarly, oligomerization of an activated racemic mononucleotide results in the formation of oligomers up to the octamer. These results suggest that montmorillonite catalysis is quite efficient for the oligomerization of racemic monomers, though it is somewhat less efficient than that of D- and L-monomers.  (+info)

Effects of bentonite on wool growth and nitrogen metabolism in fauna-free and faunated sheep. (8/98)

Two experiments were carried out with sheep that originated from a fauna-free flock and were fed a soybean meal-corn silage diet with or without a bentonite supplement. One-half of the sheep fed each diet in each experiment were faunated with a mixed population of ruminal protozoa, whereas the other half of the sheep remained fauna-free until the end of both experiments. Wool growth and daily gain were measured in Exp. 1. (eight rams per treatment), which lasted 110 d, and the metabolic effects in the rumen and intestinal tract of protozoa and dietary bentonite supplement were tested with cannulated wethers (four wethers per treatment) in Exp. 2. The results of Exp. 1 showed decreased wool growth (P less than .05) due to the presence of protozoa in the rumen. Dietary supplementation with bentonite partly offset the decreased wool growth in sheep with protozoa, but there were no effects of dietary bentonite and no protozoa x bentonite interaction (P greater than .05). Daily gain was decreased by the dietary bentonite (P less than .05) supplement but was not affected (P greater than .05) by the ruminal presence of protozoa. In Exp. 2, protozoa increased (P less than .01) the ruminal concentrations of ammonia and decreased (P less than .05) the acetic:propionic acid molar ratio. Fractionation of N in the duodenal digesta flowing from the stomach to the small intestine showed that protozoa decreased (P less than .05) the flow of nonammonia N and bacterial N, and there was a protozoa x bentonite interaction for these effects (P less than .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

  • Sand equivalent test results for samples without clay and samples with various amounts of bentonite and kaolinite clays. (
  • Methylene Blue Capacity Test for Bentonite The methylene blue capacity of drilling fluid is an indication of the amount of reactive clays (bentonite and/or drill solids) present as determined by the methylene blue test. (
  • Sauvignon blanc often requires large amounts of bentonite in order to remove haze proteins and make the wine heat stable. (
  • We studied the effect of adding small amounts of bentonite before fermentation on the subsequent amount required after fermentation to heat stabilize the wine. (
  • A correlation was observed between the turbidity of heated juices treated with different amounts of bentonite and protein measured by the Bradford Protein method. (
  • Waterproofing for contaminated sites shall be composed of contaminant resistant granular sodium bentonite clay and polymers at a rate of 1.1 lbs. per sq. ft. (53 kg per m2) sandwiched between two polypropylene geotextile fabrics - a nonwoven and a woven fabric. (
  • Aug 29, 2018· The uses of Bentonite Slurry in Pile Foundation and diaphragm walling wherein the bentonite is defined as excavation supporting slurry, lining tube or drilling mud are very similar and are considered one and the same. (
  • 2018-10-23 10 sodium bentonite clay with molten elemental sulfur. (
  • Bentonite clay exerts a 'magnetic' negative attraction on positively charged particles and in this way acts as a selective internal cleansing agent helping facilitate the removal of toxins via the bowel. (
  • Bentonite helps in retaining the mechanical shape of the mould by making the particles of sands adhere and also making the surface impermeable. (
  • What are the best skincare products with bentonite? (
  • Bentonite is used to make a whole host of products that you use every day.Some are obvious like facial mud mask, soap, and tooth paste. (
  • Bentonite gels are used as a carrier for a number of cosmetic preparatios, tooth-pastes, creams for skin and other similar products. (
  • Bentonite waterproofing products to waterproof concrete casting joints of the underground structures based on natural sodic bentonite. (
  • The range of products comprises self hooking sheets to concrete hydro expanded bentonite joints suitable to be used for structure in contact with the ground water basins and artificial lakes. (
  • Even before either of these products was available commercial builders used cardboard panels filled with bentonite for waterproofing. (
  • India sulphur bentonite plant cost indonesia sulphur bentonite plant cost - india sulphur bentonite grinder plant cost as a global leading manufacturer of products and services for the mining industry, our company can provide you with advanced, rational solutions for any size-reduction requirements, including quarry, aggregate, grinding production and complete plant plan. (
  • Bentonite is a highly absorbent clay-like substance that helps to lift impacted waste matter which has accumulated on the walls of the gastrointestinal tract. (
  • Organoclay, Organophilic Clay, Rheological Additive manufacturer / supplier in China, offering Organophilic Clay (modified bentonite) for Solvent, Acid Thick Agent - Polyacrylamide, Talcum for Soap Manufacturing of Good Quality and so on. (
  • A study published in the February 1983 "Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology" used bentonite clay on mesh gauze for absorbing sebum to determine the skin's secretion rate. (
  • the production of pig iron from crushing plant waste using 24 nov 2016 the next process was preparing the composite pellet with the particle size of 80 100 mesh and with the composition of 80 iron ore, 15 wood charcoal, and 5 bentonite. (
  • Bentonite grinding machine Abstract: Bentonite is widely used in agriculture, light industry and cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and other fields. (
  • Bentonite (Volclay KWK, American Colloid Co.), 4.6 g suspended in 200 mL water, was added to 19 L of juice prior to fermentation. (