A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It has been used in the treatment of aberrant sexual behavior. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p567)
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Specific sites or molecular structures on cell membranes or in cells with which phencyclidine reacts or to which it binds to elicit the specific response of the cell to phencyclidine. Studies have demonstrated the presence of multiple receptor sites for PCP. These are the PCP/sigma site, which binds both PCP and psychotomimetic opiates but not certain antipsychotics, and the PCP site, which selectively binds PCP analogs.
A class of cell surface receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Sigma receptors were originally considered to be opioid receptors because they bind certain synthetic opioids. However they also interact with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, and their endogenous ligand is not known (although they can react to certain endogenous steroids). Sigma receptors are found in the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, and in some peripheral tissues.
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
The interactions between physician and patient.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.
An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.
Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.
A histamine H1 antagonist. It is used in hypersensitivity reactions, in rhinitis, for pruritus, and in some common cold remedies.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
The branch of pharmacology dealing especially with the action of drugs upon various parts of the nervous system.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
The study of the chemical and physical phenomena of radioactive substances.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A family of alicyclic hydrocarbons containing an amine group with the general formula R-C6H10NH2.
Antibodies, often monoclonal, in which the two antigen-binding sites are specific for separate ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS. They are artificial antibodies produced by chemical crosslinking, fusion of HYBRIDOMA cells, or by molecular genetic techniques. They function as the main mediators of targeted cellular cytotoxicity and have been shown to be efficient in the targeting of drugs, toxins, radiolabeled haptens, and effector cells to diseased tissue, primarily tumors.
Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha,alpha-trehalose and water to D-glucose. EC 3.2.1.28.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)
An antihyperlipoproteinemic agent and uricosuric agent.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.

Imaging of striatal dopamine D(2) receptors with a PET system for small laboratory animals in comparison with storage phosphor autoradiography: a validation study with (18)F-(N-methyl)benperidol. (1/10)

Several groups have developed high-resolution PET systems and shown the feasibility of in vivo studies on small laboratory animals. In this investigation, one of these systems was validated for the performance of receptor imaging studies. For this, the radiotracer concentrations obtained in the same animals with PET and with autoradiography were quantified, and the correspondence between both methods was assessed by means of correlation analysis. METHODS: Striatal radioactivity was measured in 10 Sprague-Dawley rats after injection of 60 +/- 10 MBq of the dopamine D(2) receptor ligand (18)F-(N-methyl)benperidol in 6 time frames of 6 min each. On completion of the scans, animals were killed, and their brains were removed and sectioned using a cryostat microtome. Coronal slices were subjected to storage phosphor autoradiography with BaFBr:Eu(2+)-coated imaging plates. Striatal radioactivity was quantified in both modalities using region-of-interest analysis and activity standards. RESULTS: After partial-volume correction, the median of striatal radioactivity concentration measured with PET was 0.40 MBq/cm(3) (25th percentile, 0.32; 75th percentile, 0.44). Radioactivity concentrations determined by means of storage phosphor autoradiography amounted to 0.42 MBq/cm(3) (25th percentile, 0.24; 75th percentile, 0.51). Correlation of striatal radioactivity values yielded a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.818 (P = 0.002). Radioactivity accumulation in Harder's glands led to an overestimation of striatal activity concentrations by approximately 5%. The median of striatal radioactivity concentration after spillover correction decreased slightly to 0.38 MBq/cm(3) (25th percentile, 0.30; 75th percentile, 0.43). Correlation of striatal radioactivity values after spillover correction yielded a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.824 (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: The results show a significant positive correlation between radioactivity values obtained with PET and storage phosphor autoradiography used as the gold standard. Because we applied a selective dopamine D(2) receptor radioligand and because radioactivity concentrations could be reliably quantified in the target region, we may infer that in vivo receptor binding studies will be possible in small laboratory animals.  (+info)

In vivo measurement of D2 receptor density and affinity for 18F-(3-N-methyl)benperidol in the rat striatum with a PET system for small laboratory animals. (2/10)

A recent investigation showed that intracerebral radioactivity concentrations can reliably be quantified in vivo with a small-animal PET device. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the binding characteristics of the D(2) receptor radioligand (18)F-(3-N-methyl)benperidol ((18)FMB) in rat striatum by determining receptor density (B(max)) and affinity (K(d)) in vivo. For validation, K(d) and B(max) additionally were determined in vitro using storage phosphor autoradiography. METHODS: Striatal radioactivity was measured with PET in 8 Sprague-Dawley rats after injection of (18)FMB in increasing specific activities. Free radioligand concentrations were estimated from cortical radioactivity concentrations and were subtracted from striatal radioactivity concentrations to obtain specific binding. In vitro saturation experiments were performed on 7 further rats according to the isotopic dilution method. Specific binding was determined by both subtraction of (18)FMB binding in the presence of raclopride and subtraction of cortical radioactivity concentrations from total radioligand binding. Saturation binding curves were obtained by plotting specifically bound radioligand concentrations against free radioligand concentrations and were evaluated with regression analysis. RESULTS: PET yielded a K(d) of 6.2 nmol/L and a B(max) of 16 fmol/mg for the striatal D(2) receptor. In vitro, K(d) and B(max) amounted to 4.4 nmol/L and 84.1 fmol/mg (subtraction of (18)FMB binding in the presence of raclopride), respectively, and 7.9 nmol/L and 70.1 fmol/mg (subtraction of cortical radioactivity concentrations), respectively. CONCLUSION: K(d) values measured with PET and autoradiography agreed and corresponded to inhibition constants obtained in previous in vitro studies. B(max) values lay within the same order of magnitude. The results of in vitro saturation binding analyses also agreed, irrespective of the mode of determination of free radioligand concentrations. Thus, B(max) and K(d) may be determined with PET in analogy to the evaluation of in vitro binding data by regression analysis of bound-versus-free ligand concentrations. Our results show that small-animal tomographs are valuable tools for the in vivo characterization of receptor radioligands as an alternative to autoradiography.  (+info)

Radiation dosimetry of N-([11C]methyl)benperidol as determined by whole-body PET imaging of primates. (3/10)

PURPOSE: N-([(11)C]methyl)benperidol ([(11)C]NMB) can be used for positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of D(2)-like dopamine receptor binding in vivo. We report the absorbed radiation dosimetry of i.v.-administered (11)C-NMB, a critical step before applying this radioligand to imaging studies in humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole-body PET imaging with a CTI/Siemens ECAT 953B scanner was done in a male and a female baboon. After i.v. injection of 444-1221 MBq of (11)C-NMB, sequential images taken from the head to the pelvis were collected for 3 h. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were identified that entirely encompassed small organs (whole brain, striatum, eyes, and myocardium). Large organs (liver, lungs, kidneys, lower large intestine, and urinary bladder) were sampled by drawing representative regions within the organ volume. Time-activity curves for each VOI were extracted from the PET, and organ residence times were calculated by analytical integration of a multi-exponential fit of the time-activity curves. Human radiation doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 and the standard human model. RESULTS: Highest retention was observed in the blood and liver, each with total residence times of 1.5 min. The highest absorbed radiation doses were to the heart (10.5 muGy/MBq) [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] and kidney (9.19 muGy/MBq), [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] making these the critical organs for [(11)C]NMB. A heart absorption of 50 mGy would result from an injected dose of 4,762 MBq [(11)C]NMB. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, this study suggests that up to 4,762 MBq of [(11)C]NMB can be safely administered to human subjects for PET studies. Total body dose and effective dose for [(11)C]NMB are 2.82 muGy/MBq [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] and 3.7 mSv/kBq, respectively.  (+info)

Validation of the reference tissue model for estimation of dopaminergic D2-like receptor binding with [18F](N-methyl)benperidol in humans. (4/10)

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In vivo labeling of the dopamine D2 receptor with N-11C-methyl-benperidol. (5/10)

A new dopamine D2 receptor radiotracer, N-11C-methyl-benperidol (11C-NMB), was prepared and its in vivo biologic behavior in mice and a baboon was studied. Carbon-11-NMB was determined to bind to specific sites characterized as dopamine D2 receptors. The binding was saturable, reversible, and stereospecific. Kinetic studies in the dopamine D2 receptor-rich striatum showed that 11C-NMB was retained five times longer than in receptor-devoid regions, resulting in a high maximum striatal-to-cerebellar ratio of 11:1 at 60 min after injection. From frontal cortex and cortex, on the other hand, the tracer washed out as rapidly as it did from cerebellum, resulting in tissue-to-cerebellar ratios close to one in these regions at any time after injection. Blocking studies confirmed the specificity and selectivity of the 11C-NMB binding to the dopamine D2 receptor. A PET study with 11C-NMB of the baboon brain revealed highly selective labeling of dopamine D2 receptor sites which was blocked by preinjection of raclopride.  (+info)

Characterization of extrastriatal D2 in vivo specific binding of [(1)(8)F](N-methyl)benperidol using PET. (6/10)

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Syntheses and specific activity determinations of no-carrier-added (NCA) F-18-labeled butyrophenone neuroleptics--benperidol, haloperidol, spiroperidol, and pipamperone. (7/10)

A general method for the syntheses of no-carrier-added (NCA) 18F-labeled butyrophenone neuroleptics--benperidol, haloperidol, spiroperidol, and pipamperone is described. These 18F-labeled neuroleptic drugs are synthesized by a multistep synthesis in an overall radiochemical yield of 10-20% at end of bombardment (EOB) in a synthesis time of 90 min from EOB. The sequence involves the synthesis of NCA p-[18F]fluorobenzonitrile from NCA [18F]-fluoride and p-nitrobenzonitrile using the rapidly converted to gamma-chloro-p-[18F]fluorobutyrophenone which is alkylated with appropriate amines to give NCA 18F-labeled benperidol, haloperidol, spiroperidol, and pipamperone. The final product is purified by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The 18F solution used in the synthesis as determined by ion chromatography contains 15.3 +/- 9.0 nmol of stable fluoride. The specific activities of the resulting butyrophenone neuroleptics were determined to be 3 Ci/mumol (at EOB) (range 1-6 Ci/mumol) as determined by radioreceptor assay and HPLC assay.  (+info)

A comparative study of conventional premedication (pethidine, promethazine, and atropine) and neuroleptanalgesia (droperidol and phenoperidine) for peroral endoscopy. (8/10)

A double blind comparison of conventional premedication (pethidine, promethazine, and atropine) and neuroleptanalgesia (droperidol and phenoperidine) failed to demonstrate any difference in either the comfort of the patient or ease of instrumentation in 70 upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopies. Further trials are needed before conventional premedication is abandoned.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiosynthesis of (N-[11C]methyl)benperidol for PET investigation of D2 receptor binding. AU - Moerlein, Stephen M.. AU - Perlmutter, Joel S.. AU - Welch, Michael J.. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgment. We thank the Division of Radiological Sciences for their excellent support, especially C. Dence for helpful discussions regarding the MeI Microlab, K. Lechner for HPLC expertise, and W. Margenau and D. Ficke for radioisotope production. This work was supported by the Greater St. Louis Chapter of the American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA), the APDA Center for Advanced Research in Parkinson Disease, the Ruth Kopolow Fund, the Barnes-Jewish Hospital Foundation (Jack Buck Fund for PD Research), the Elliot H. Stein Family Fund, and by an internal grant from the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology.. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. N2 - A procedure for the reliable production of the novel PET D2 receptor ligand (N-[11C]methyl)benperidol ([11C]NMB) is described. The method is based on ...
Supplementary Materialssupplementary information 41598_2018_38159_MOESM1_ESM. PAD created with this scholarly research for UTI testing offers a fast, cost-effective diagnostic way for make use of in remote control areas. Intro In the developing globe, infectious diseases will be the most common reason behind illness, leading to a lot more than 1.2 million fatalities every year in those countries1,2. The introduction of simple, inexpensive, solid and portable point-of-care diagnostic products for the first recognition of infectious illnesses remains an immediate need for make use of purchase Ruxolitinib generally in most developing countries1C4. To hide the guidelines suggested by the Globe Health Firm (WHO)5, the perfect diagnostic test should follow the ASSURED criteria, including being affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free and deliverable5. Among all the types of point of care diagnostic devices, paper-based sensors have become attractive and ...
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the anterior pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex produces In attempting to assess animal well-being, a number of glucocorticoids, the most important being cortisol and cor- precautionary factors must be considered. Principal con- ticosterone. Glucocorticoids are central to many of the siderations in any assessment of well-being are recogni- physiologic responses to aversive situations. Although an tion and control of independent variables and interaction increase in glucocorticoid concentrations in response to of physical and psychological states (38). The multitude of aversive stimuli can represent a sensitive index of the in- responses to aversive situations complicates the assessment tensity of discomfort or distress experienced by animals, of well-being and limits the significance of any single mea- the adrenal cortex does not respond to all aversive stimuli sure. Thorough evaluation of well-being requires consider- (21). Thus, a simple determination of the plasma concen- ation of multiple ...
Background: Pipamperone is a frequently prescribed antipsychotic in children and adolescents in the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany. However, pediatric pharmacokinetics and the relationship with side effects and efficacy are unknown. Currently, divergent pediatric dosing recommendations exist. Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of pipamperone in children and adolescents; to correlate measured and predicted pipamperone trough concentrations and predicted 24-h area under the curves with effectiveness, extrapyramidal symptoms, and sedation; and to propose dose recommendations based on simulations. Methods: Pipamperone concentrations were collected from Dutch pediatric patients in a prospective naturalistic trial (n = 8), and German pediatric patients in a therapeutic drug monitoring service (n = 22). A total of 70 pipamperone concentrations were used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model with non-linear mixed-effects modeling ...
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The robot incorporates the functionality of Agilents larger automated microplate handlers in a compact design for use in small laboratory spaces, enabling the automation of a variety of changing, science-driven workflows.. The Benchbot can be integrated with a range of laboratory equipment, increasing its utility for applications from next-generation sequencing and microarray sample preparation to high-throughput LC/MS sample management and cell-based assays.. The compact size of the Benchbot enables scientists to use it right where they need it most - on a bench, in a fumehood or on a docking table.. With the Benchbot robot, automated solutions move from large, specialised machines to compact, flexible robots that any scientist can use, according to the company.. The simplicity of the Benchbots one-touch programming in an application requiring the automation of sealing, labelling, spinning, bulk dispensing, plate reading, washing and incubating is demonstrated in an online video that shows ...
Our objective was to identify and characterize the types of vocalization other than meowing (VOM) in two contexts, a pleasant and an aversive situation, and to study the effect of the sex of the animal. A total of 74 cats (32 tom cats and 42 queens) living in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, participated in the study; in total, 68 (29 tom cats and 39 queens) were divided into two groups according to the stimulus they were exposed to: either a pleasant situation (PS), when they were offered a snack, or an aversive situation (AS), with the simulation of a car transport event. The other six animals (three tom cats and three queens) participated in both situations. Only the PS group presented VOM; of the 40 PS animals, 14 presented VOM, mostly acknowledgment or trill and squeak. No correlation was observed between vocalization and cat sex (p = 0.08; Pearson’s Chi-Square). Results show that VOM is exclusively associated with positive situations, suggesting that these vocalizations may be relevant for
Introduction: The morphological and functional information provided by micro-CT and micro-PET allows monitoring of acute and chronic disease states in small laboratory animals. We examined in-vivo micro-CT and micro-PET as non-invasive tools to assess pulmonary fibrosis in mice.. Material/Methods: Pulmonary fibrosis was induced in mice by intratracheal delivery of an adenoviral gene vector encoding biologically active TGF-β1. Respiratory gated and ungated micro-CT was performed in 18 mice at 1 to 4 weeks after pulmonary adenoviral gene vector delivery. In 5 additional mice 18F-FDG micro-PET and micro-CT was performed. Imaging was correlated to histopathology and findings in animals exposed to a control vector. Radiation doses were measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters.. Results: Significant correlation between Ashcroft histology scoring and micro-CT was found for visual assessment scoring (p,0.001) and automated quantification by a region growing segmentation algorithm (p=0.004 for gated ...
Phoenix MICRON IV is a retinal imaging microscope for in vivo retinal imaging of small laboratory animals such as mice and rodents. Learn more.
A method was developed to estimate respiratory parameters of small laboratory animals. This method utilized a least squares estimation technique applied to a third order model of an animal respiring in a two chamber plethysmograph. The animal respiratory system was represented as generic second order model. This was followed by a fat order filter representing the thermal effects of respiration of
The standard elevated plus maze is commonly used to assess anxiety-like behavior in small laboratory animals (rat/mice). The maze is usually a cross s...
Passive avoidance is fear-motivated tests classically used to assess short-term or long-term memory on small laboratory animals (rat, mice).
Studies of the pathogenesis of human diseases have benefited from the availability of small laboratory animal models for many years. Mutant mice are particularly useful for investigating the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of common, but multifactorial, diseases (5). However, there is a major handicap for studies involving the endogenous redox systems of humans and mice: humans (and other primates) lack the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid because of a loss of function in the gene (Gulo) coding for a key synthetic enzyme, l-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase (6), whereas mice have the functional gene. As a consequence, mouse tissues generally have high levels of ascorbic acid, which are only slightly influenced by exogenous vitamin C. In contrast, humans depend entirely on vitamin C derived from the diet. Guinea pigs also have lost this enzyme function and depend on dietary vitamin C (7). Hence severe deficiency of vitamin C causes disease (scurvy) in both primates ...
In small laboratory animals it may take only a few seconds before the distributional equilibrium of the drug between the plasma and the central compartment is achieved.glutamate, nitric oxide, TNF-a) released from astrocytes. Neurol Propecia calo del desiderio 1997; 19558в562. Challenges to the Management of NutrientвDrug Interactions Five challenges must be overcome rpopecia analyzing data to identify potential nutrientвdrug interactions 1.
The saying in the design world is that form follows function. But in biology, and protein biology in particular, it would be more correct to say that form begets function. Shape and structure are the foundation for most protein-based interactions in cells, and are why basic functions like receptor binding, antibody neutralization and gene transcription work.. Two enzymes in the immune systems B cells, called RAG1 and RAG2, are a perfect example. Together, they form a complex that splices antibody-producing genes together in unique combinations through a process called V(D)J recombination. They do a similar job in T cells to build antigen-binding T-cell receptors (TCRs). In either case, the enzymes are essential to a robust immune response.. In a recent Cell paper, a team led by Hao Wu, PhD, of the Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine (PCMM) at Boston Childrens Hospital and Maofu Liao, PhD, at Harvard Medical School used electronic microscopy to reveal how RAG1 and 2 interact at a ...
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One of the core symptoms of anxiety disorders, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is the failure to overcome feelings of danger despite being in a safe environment. This inability likely stems from an inability to fully process safety signals, which are cues in the environment, that enable healthy individuals to over-ride fear in aversive situations. Studies examining safety signal learning in rodents, humans, and non-human primates currently rely on between-groups designs. Because repeated-measures designs reduce the number of subjects required, and facilitate a broader range of safety signal studies, the current project sought to develop a repeated-measures safety-signal learning paradigm in non-human primates. Twelve healthy rhesus macaques of both sexes received three rounds of auditory fear-potentiated startle training and testing using an AX+/BX− design with all visual cues. Cue AX was paired with an aversive blast of air, whereas the same X cue in compound with another B cue (BX) ...
On October 15, 1951, in a small laboratory in Mexico City, one of the key episodes in 20th century social history occurred: the first synthesis of a steroid oral contraceptive--an event that triggered the development of the Pill. Carl Djerassi has been honored worldwide for that accomplishment, which ultimately changed the life of women and the nature of human reproduction in ways that were not then foreseeable.
HumaMeter A1c enables for immediate and highly accurate testing of HbA1c at the point of care. Processing only 4 µl of capillary blood in less than 5 minutes HumaMeter A1c is the ideal device for intuitive and accurate determination of HbA1c at the point of care or for small laboratories. The HumaMeterA1c system is intended for the diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and for monitoring longterm glycaemic control in patients diagnosed with diabetes.. ...
A steep drop in the cost of next-generation sequencing during recent years has made the technology affordable to the majority of researchers, but downstream bioinformatic analysis still poses a resource bottleneck for smaller laboratories and institutes that do not have access to substantial computational resources. Sequencing instruments are typically bundled with only the minimal processing and storage capacity required for data capture during sequencing runs. Given the scale of sequence datasets, scientific value cannot be obtained from acquiring a sequencer unless it is accompanied by an equal investment in informatics infrastructure. Cloud BioLinux is a publicly accessible Virtual Machine (VM) that enables scientists to quickly provision on-demand infrastructures for high-performance bioinformatics computing using cloud platforms. Users have instant access to a range of pre-configured command line and graphical software applications, including a full-featured desktop interface, documentation and
Butyrophenone is a chemical compound; some of its derivatives (called commonly butyrophenones) are used to treat various psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, as well as acting as antiemetics. Examples of butyrophenones include: Haloperidol, the most widely used classical antipsychotic drug in this class Benperidol, the most potent commonly used antipsychotic ( 200 times more potent than chlorpromazine ...
Antipsychotic drugs come in many different and confusing names. These include Acepromazine (Plegicil), Amisulpride (Solian), Amoxapine (Asendin), Aripiprazole (Abilify), Asenapine (Saphris, Sycrest), Benperidol (Anguil, Benguil, Frenactil, Glianimon), Blonanserin (Lonasen), Bromperidol (Bromodol, Impromen), Carpipramine (Defekton, Prazinil), Clocapramine (Clofekton, Padrasen), Chlorpromazine (Largactil, Thorazine), Chlorprothixene (Cloxan, Taractan, Truxal), Clopenthixol (Sordinol), Clotiapine (Entumine, Etomine, Etumine), Clozapine (Clozaril), (Haldol), Cyamemazine (Tercian), Dixyrazine (Esucos), Droperidol (Droleptan, Inapsine), Fluphenazine (Modecate, Permitil, Prolixin), Flupentixol (Depixol, Fluanxol), Fluspirilene (Imap), Haloperidol (Haldol, Serenace), Haloperidol (Haldol, Serenace), Iloperidone (Fanapt, Fanapta, Zomaril), Levomepromazine (Levinan, Levoprome, Nozinan), Loxapine (Adasuve, Loxitane), Lurasidone (Latuda), Mesoridazine (Lidanil, Serentil), Melperone (Buronil, Buronon, ...
Substances: Actinomycin-D; Alprazolam; Amitriptyline; Amobarbital; Aspirin; Atenolol; Barbital; Barbituric acid; Benperidol; Bethanidine sulfate; Bromazepam; Caffeine; Camptothecin; Captopril; Carbamazepine; Ciprofloxacin; Clindamycin; Clofibric acid; Clomipramine; Cocaine; Colchicine; Colchicoside; Diazepam; Diclofenac; Difloxacin; Dopa; Dopamine; Doxycycline; Ecgonine; Enrofloxacin; Erythromycin; Fenofibric acid; Flunitrazepam; Flurazepam; Hydrocortisone; Ibuprofen; Iohexol; Isomethadon hydrochloride; Isosorbide mononitrate; Ketoprofen, Lornoxicam; Meconic acid; Mephenesin; Methadon hydrochloride, Metharbital; Metoprolol; Naproxen; Nebivolol; Niclosamide; Nicotine, Nitrazepam; Norepinephrine; Norfloxacin; Nystatin; Opianic acid; Ormetoprim; Oxytetracycline; Papaverine; Paracetamol; Pefloxacin; Penicillin-G; Phenacetin; Phenobarbital; Prazepam; Propranolol; Pyridoxine; Sarafloxacin; Sotalol; Sulfacetamide; Sulfachloropyridazine; Sulfadiazine; Sulfadimethoxine; Sulfamerazine; Sulfamethazine; ...
Images acquired by X-rays provide doctors with anatomical information and assist in diagnoses or progression of health problems. In a similar manner, this imaging technique is used for clinical and preclinical research. When used by doctors or in clinical research the amount of X-ray (ionising radiation) dose a person receives is regulated. This is not true in preclinical research where overexposure to ionising radiation occurs since X-ray doses are unknown, unregulated and there are no guidelines. Overexposure potentially causes unnecessary suffering to animals and may impact research results, especially in longitudinal studies.. The goal of this project is to set X-ray (CT) dose guidelines in order to minimise or eliminate any animal suffering and reduce the number of animals used by refining CT imaging experimental methods. It has been known for years that ionising radiation causes cell/DNA damage. For instance, ionising radiation is used as a cancer treatment to kill cells. Worldwide Cancer ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anesthesia protocols in laboratory animals used for scientific purposes. AU - Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio. AU - Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide. AU - Cassata, Giovanni. AU - Fazzotta, Salvatore. AU - Cicero, Luca. AU - Cassata, Giovanni. AU - Cicero, Luca. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - Background: A suitable, effective and free of complications anesthetic protocol is very important in experimental studies on animal models since it could bias the outcome of a trial. To date there is no universally accepted protocol for induction, maintenance and recovery from anesthesia. The endotracheal intubation with the use of inhalation anesthesia is used very especially in the from of large size laboratory animals, because it is a secure and easy control mode. However, it is not common for small laboratory animals because of the high technical skills required. Aim: The aim of this paper is a review of the main methods of induction of anesthesia in laboratory animals. Materials and methods: We performed ...
1.1 This practice covers a short-term testing method to screen the subcutaneous tissue reaction to metallic or other implant candidate materials in small laboratory animals. The material may be dense or porous. The tissue reactions will be evaluated in comparison to those evoked by control materials that are accepted as clinical implant materials. ...
Penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) has been difficult to model in small laboratory animals, such as rats or mice. Previously, we have established a non-fatal, rat model for pTBI using a modified air-rifle that accelerates a pellet, which hits a small probe that then penetrates the experimental animals brain. Knockout and transgenic strains of mice offer attractive tools to study biological reactions induced by TBI. Hence, in the present study, we adapted and modified our model to be used with mice. The technical characterization of the impact device included depth and speed of impact, as well as dimensions of the temporary cavity formed in a brain surrogate material after impact. Biologically, we have focused on three distinct levels of severity (mild, moderate, and severe), and characterized the acute phase response to injury in terms of tissue destruction, neural degeneration, and gliosis. Functional outcome was assessed by measuring bodyweight and motor performance on rotarod. The results
DNA vaccines have progressed rapidly from the conceptual stage to the stage of clinical trials. While studies in small laboratory animals have shown great promise, initial reports from human studies were less encouraging. Progress is being made, however, documented by the papers presented here. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting devoted to the latest developments in DNA vaccines, from laboratory studies to clinical trials. The papers, written by leaders in the field, focus on the current state of DNA vaccines in humans and other large animals. The bulk of the studies involve DNA vaccines against HIV/SIV. Other promising trials make use of DNA vaccines against malaria and hepatitis B. The papers inform the reader about the immune basis of this form of vaccination and about approaches being developed to increase the efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans. These include the co-administration of cytokines, prime-boost strategies, optimising codon usage or the use of CpG motifs. An ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Soft x-ray microscopy shows enormous promise as a technique for imaging cellular structures at resolutions well beyond what can be achieved in optical microscopes, and with much simpler sample preparation than is required for electron microscopy. In addition, the lower radiation dose required (compared to electron microscopy) allows tomographic investigation of subcellular structures in three dimensions. Existing synchrotron based microscopes have shown the potential of the soft x-ray microscope as a research tool, but they have the disadvantage of being tied to a massive light source at only a few national laboratories. A suitably bright, compact, low cost light source is the enabling innovation needed to realize a commercial biological soft x-ray microscope. In a Phase I NIH SBIR program (2R44RR022488-02) Energetiq demonstrated a unique, compact light source that generates the required x-ray wavelength and intensity for imaging. In the following Phase II ...
What do these societies have in common: Gotham City before Batman, the Star Wars universe under Emperor Palpatine, the wizarding world of Harry Potter, and the United States under George W. Bush? The citizens of these societies experienced learned helplessness. Whats learned helplessness? It is the type of giving up that happens to people when they are repeatedly or chronically in an aversive situation and nothing they do can stop or help them escape from it. The original research on learned helplessness, by psychologists Bruce Overmeier and Martin Seligman, went like this: A dog was placed in a cage, and received shocks from which it could not escape. After an initial response of agitation and making noises, the dog eventually became passive in response to the shocks-as if it gave up. The dog was then put in a new cage-with two halves that had a low barrier between the halves. If the dog jumped over the barrier when shocked, it could escape the shock. But the dog never did go over the ...
What do these societies have in common: Gotham City before Batman, the Star Wars universe under Emperor Palpatine, the wizarding world of Harry Potter, and the United States under George W. Bush? The citizens of these societies experienced learned helplessness. Whats learned helplessness? It is the type of giving up that happens to people when they are repeatedly or chronically in an aversive situation and nothing they do can stop or help them escape from it. The original research on learned helplessness, by psychologists Bruce Overmeier and Martin Seligman, went like this: A dog was placed in a cage, and received shocks from which it could not escape. After an initial response of agitation and making noises, the dog eventually became passive in response to the shocks-as if it gave up. The dog was then put in a new cage-with two halves that had a low barrier between the halves. If the dog jumped over the barrier when shocked, it could escape the shock. But the dog never did go over the ...
In mid-September - it had been a moody, rain-drenched month, as I recall - I admitted a 52-year-old man to the unit. Ill call him by the first letter of his given name, M. As medical interns, we were forewarned by the senior residents not to identify too closely with patients. A weeping doctor is a useless doctor, a senior once told me. Or: You cannot do an eye exam if your own eyes are clouded. But M.s case made it particularly hard. He was a doctor and a scientist - an M.D., a Ph.D., like me. He must have been about 15 years ahead of me in his schooling; I could imagine him returning to my class in med school to teach us Patient-Doctor, in which students are taught how to deal with real-life patients. Hed trained as a medical resident and then as a fellow in cardiology at another hospital across town. He was now an assistant professor - it seemed like such a victory to have that title - and ran a small laboratory. I knew a student who once worked with him. Six degrees of separation? ...
To use a biotechnology means: used other living beings for the benefit of the human being. It has always been part of our evolution, and has many benefits. Today we will indicate one of them, the observation of animal diseases, lets you know how to cure them, research and work done by microbiologists managed to find ways to protect animals, is how small laboratories are born that apply biotechnology and develop biologics for this purpose, without having much knowledge of immunological principles.. Biotechnology, therefore, is a tool used against diseases; like vaccines improved with more knowledge, microbiological and immunological, are biologicals improved in their antigenicity and protection. Its use is one of the most cost-effective forms of prevention, control, food safety and public health. Although there are several types of vaccines, we can mention that most are composed of viruses or bacteria; these in turn are composed of live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated, with subunits, ...
Dr Ellen Jo Baron, Emeritus Professor of Pathology at the Stanford University Medical Center and associated with Cepheid, gave the example of Cepheids Xpert HIV1 Viral Load assay which is strictly not a point-of-care test. But it can be done in a small laboratory that has necessary resources. It is fully automated, can identify all the sub-types and gives results in 90 minutes. Dr Baron shared that Cepheid has got a grant to create a finger-stick test for viral load testing, which is battery operated, portable, rugged, relatively affordable, can be run on omni instrument at remote sites. It is hoped to give results in less than 60 minutes, with an accuracy of 500 copies/ml ...
The Hematology division of HORIBA Medical is providing a large range of hematology analyzers and automated instruments to realize blood analysis (blood cells identification and counting). These analysis will participate to the diagnosis of various blood related diseases. Our instruments are designed for all kind of laboratory, small laboratory (to 150 patients a day), to larger ones (more than 2000 patients a day). Indeed, efficient and reliable instruments, automated racks, data management and quality tools are providing the whole environment for high quality medical analysis requirements.. ...
Dr Ellen Jo Baron, Emeritus Professor of Pathology at the Stanford University Medical Center and associated with Cepheid, gave the example of Cepheids Xpert HIV1 Viral Load assay which is strictly not a point-of-care test. But it can be done in a small laboratory that has necessary resources. It is fully automated, can identify all the sub-types and gives results in 90 minutes. Dr Baron shared that Cepheid has got a grant to create a finger-stick test for viral load testing, which is battery operated, portable, rugged, relatively affordable, can be run on omni instrument at remote sites. It is hoped to give results in less than 60 minutes, with an accuracy of 500 copies/ml ...
Methods of simulating biochemical/biophysical experiments will be explored using small laboratory computers. FORTRAN 77 is used to write computer programs relevant to their individual research. These computer programs will include, but not be limited to, the application of nonlinear least-squares and maximum likelihood parameter estimation procedures for the analysis of biophysical laboratory data. BIOP 801 - (1) (S ...
Filmmaker and documentarian Werner Herzog (Aguirre the Wrath of God, Grizzly Man) continues his fascination with the current state of the planet Earth and its inhabitants with Lo and Behold, Reveries of the Connected World, which seeks to show how the internet has changed the way human beings live and perceive one another, with advancements in technology that has been of great benefit to us all, while at the same time been a source of pain and angst for many others. Directing and narrating the piece, Herzog offers these reveries, these daydreams and musings, in bite-sized vignettes, starting with the origin of the internet in a small laboratory on the UCLA campus in 1969 (the first transmission, meant to transmit the word L-O-G to another computer at Stanford University but crashed after the first two letters, forms the inspiration of the films title), all the way to the possible future in potential settlements in space beyond Earth.. Herzog globe-hops around the world to interview a wide ...
The Hematology division of HORIBA Medical is providing a large range of hematology analyzers and automated instruments to realize blood analysis (blood cells identification and counting). These analysis will participate to the diagnosis of various blood related diseases. Our instruments are designed for all kind of laboratory, small laboratory (to 150 patients a day), to larger ones (more than 2000 patients a day). Indeed, efficient and reliable instruments, automated racks, data management and quality tools are providing the whole environment for high quality medical analysis requirements.. ...
Activation of dopaminergic D2/D3 receptors modulates dorsoventral connectivity in the hippocampus and reverses the impairment of working memory following nerve ...
If the Theis graphical method is used for determining the hydraulic constants of an aquifer under water-table conditions, the observed drawdowns should be corrected for the decrease in saturated thickness. This is especially true if the drawdown is a large fraction of the original saturated thickness, for then the computed coefficient of permeability is highly inaccurate if based on observed, rather than corrected, water levels. Wenzels limiting formula, a modification of the Theis graphical method, is useful where u=r2s/4Tt is less than about 0.01. However, a shorter procedure for determination of the coefficient of transmissibility, as well as the coefficient of storage, consists of plotting the values of the corrected drawdowns against the values of the logarithm of r. Wenzel (1942) suggested that observation wells be situated on lines that extend upgradient and downgradient from the pumped well. However, a detailed analysis of aquifer-test results indicates that such a restriction...
The respective advantages and disadvantages of 6-fluoro-L-DOPA (6FD0PA) and 6-fluoro-L-m-tyrosine (6FMT) labeled with 18 F to image the dopamine (DA) presynaptic system in vivo were investigated by positron emission tomography (PET) in normal monkeys and in monkeys with l-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced lesions of the DA nigrostriatal neurons. Peripheral metabolism of the radiotracers was analyzed throughout the course of the PET studies. Using a modification of the extended graphical method of analysis, three measures of central DA function were examined: the rate of uptake of the tracer, the rate of loss of striatal radioactivity, and the effective turnover of DA. 6FMT presented a simpler metabolic profile compared to 6FDOPA, having no peripheral metabolites able to cross the blood-brain barrier. The uptake rates of 6FMT and 6FDOPA (decreased in lesioned animals) were found to be equally sensitive to abnormalities in the DA system. 6FDOPA, but not 6FMT, was able to separate normals
NMR imaging techniques have been applied to investigate complex fluid dynamics in pipes and in annular flow conditions. In this application, aimed to simulate drilling and production operations, two lines have been set up to reproduce, at small laboratory scale, respectively, a pipe flow and an annular flow that are typical flow geometries in oilfield wells during drilling. NMR imaging measurements have been performed inside a horizontal-bore magnet with a fluid flow assured in a velocity range of 10-100 cm s−1. The studies were dedicated to investigate the different flow regimes associated to circulating viscous polymer solutions applied in drilling mud formulations. Early transitions from laminar to turbulent regime were observed at very low Reynolds number (in a range between 300 and 500, to be compared with the theoretical transition value greater than 2100). © 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2011 ...
Tucked inside a small laboratory at UConns Technology Incubation Program (TIP) in Farmington, Conn., Nicole Wagner is trying to cure vision impairment and blindness for more than 30 million people worldwide.. Using a protein, grown in the laboratory and implanted behind the retina, this promising new procedure offers hope for patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other retinal diseases.. These are terrible diseases that truly impact the quality of life for many people, said Wagner, the president and CEO of LambdaVision. To offer patients the possibility of restoring their vision provides them the chance to see a new grandchild, resume a golf game, drive again or read a favorite book. For many people, restored vision would allow them to return to an independent life.. LambdaVision uses a light-activated protein, bacteriorhodopsin, to stimulate the retina of patients suffering from impaired or lost vision due to retinal degenerative diseases. The protein, isolated from ...
LAMBDA MINIFOR fermentor and bioreactor can be fully controlled and operated from the front panel. All parameters can be immediately seen without scrolling and set values as well as high and low alarms of each parameter can be adjusted on the front panel.. Several MINIFOR units can be connected to one PC and the optional fermentation software SIAM or FNet, allows remote control and data processing.. For connecting multiple MINIFOR fermenter-bioreactor units to the PC, no additional software licenses needed.. ...
This Standard specifies a test method that simulates a fire that under well ventilated conditions starts in a corner of a small room with a single open doorway. The method is intended to evaluate the contribution to fire growth provided by a surface product using a specified ignition source. It is especially suitable for products that for some reason cannot be tested in a small laboratory scale, e.g. thermoplastic materials, the effect of an insulating substrate, joints, surfaces with great irregularity.. ...
CAS NO:20306-75-6; Chemical name:N-Methyl acetoacetylamide ; physical and chemical property of 20306-75-6, N-Methyl acetoacetylamide is provided by ChemNet.com
Vital Images had Q1 revenue 2007 of $20.8 million, a 32 percentincrease over $15.8 million of revenue a year ago. Net income for thefirst quarter increased to $2.4 million. This compares to net incomefor Q1 2006 of $1.4 million.
This booklet is a brand new variation of a truly renowned laboratory guide released via WHO within the Nineteen Eighties. the recent variation is important due to new tactics and applied sciences built because the past variation that experience proved worthwhile to small laboratories in constructing international locations. those new methods and applied sciences were incorporated within the proper sections of the guide, and a few out of date approaches were changed by means of extra updated techniques.. The guide presents a realistic advisor to the secure and actual functionality of easy laboratory options. meant to be used through laboratory technicians operating in peripheral-level laboratories in constructing international locations, the e-book emphasizes uncomplicated, low-budget methods which may yield actual effects the place assets, together with apparatus, are scarce and the weather is scorching and humid.. The e-book is split into 3 components. the 1st describes the setting-up of a ...
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TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 1 Y2R Y2R Y1R Y4R Y5R EC50 EC50 EC50 EC50 EC50 (nM) (nM) (nM) (nM) (nM) Exaple Sequence FLIRR cAMP FLIPR FLIPR FLIPR 1 Fmoc-linker-BHA-Resin 2 ABI-protocol 3 IKPEAPGEDASPEELNRYYASLRHY 0.013 0.038 356 1187 121 LNLVTRQRY (PYY 3-36) 4 Ac-IK-Pqa-RHYLNWVTRQ(N- 0.21 0.34 ,5000 ,5000 ,5000 methyl)RY 5 Ac-IK(Butyryl)-Pqa- 0.18 0.39 ,5000 31633 24896 RHYLNWVTRQ(N-methyl)RY 6 Ac-IK(Capryloyl)-Pqa- 1.45 1.7 5200 2467 99894 RHYLNWVTRQ(N-methyl)RY 7 Ac-IK(Lauroyl)-Pqa- 4.7 5.4 6433 14467 12845 RHYLNWVTRQ(N-methyl)RY 8 Protected Peptide Resin 9 IK(Lauroyl-6Ahx)-Pqa- 0.031 3.5 ,5000 2449 3793 RHYLNWVTRQ(N-methyl)RY 10 IK(Lauroyl-heta-Ala)-Pqa- 0.016 5.2 ,5000 3507 4743 RHYLNWVTRQ(N-methyl)RY 11 IK(Lauroyl-Glu)-Pqa- 0.026 3.6 ,5000 2427 3554 RHYLNWVTRQ(N-methyl)RY 12 IK(Myrisoyl-6Ahx)-Pqa- 0.14 0.16 ,5000 ,5000 1422 RHYLNWVTRQ(N-methyl)RY 13 Ac-IK(Palmitoyl)-Pqa- 1.31 1.2 29233 32167 9379 RHYLNWVTRQ(N-methyl)RY 14 IK(Palmitoyl)-Pqa- 0.73 1 ,5000 ,5000 12666 RHYLNWVTRQ(N-methyl)RY 15 ...
Is 5-hydroxytryptophan safe? This part of the eMedTV library takes an in-depth look at this question and highlights some important warnings and precautions with 5-hydroxytryptophan. This page also explains why many doctors do not recommend the product.
Harmon, L.J., Losos, J.B., Davies, T.J., Gillespie, R.G., Gittleman, J.L., Jennings, W.B. et al. (2010) Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data. Evolution, 64, 2385-2396 ...
Benperidol • Bromperidol • Clopenthixol • Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene • Droperidol • Flupentixol • Fluphenazine • ...
Benperidol binds D2 and some serotonin receptors. It is absorbed very easily and has a high first pass effect. Chlorpromazine ... Leucht S, Hartung B (April 2005). "Benperidol for schizophrenia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD003083. ...
Benperidol Trifluperidol Leysen, JE; Janssen, PM; Gommeren, W; Wynants, J; Pauwels, PJ; Janssen, PA (1992). "In vitro and in ...
... benperidol, etc.) Metoclopramide Tetrabenazine 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a drug known for causing ...
Benperidol or butyrophenone and the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate also used. Kennedy, BJ (April 1967). "Effect of massive ...
Benperidol or butyrophenone and the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate also used. "[email protected]: FDA Approved Drug Products". United ...
Benperidol - an antipsychotic primarily used to control antisocial hypersexual behaviour. Buspar (buspirone) - an anxiolytic ...
N05AD07 Benperidol. N05AD08 Droperidol. N05AD09 Fluanisone. QN05AD90 Azaperone. N05AE 인돌 계열[편집]. N05AE01 Oxypertine. N05AE02 ...
But benperidol does not affect testosterone and is therefore not a castration agent. Chemical castration was often seen as an ... The antipsychotic agent benperidol was sometimes used to diminish sexual urges in people who displayed as then thought ...
Although not a butyrophenone, it was developed with the structures of benperidol and ketanserin as a basis. It has actions at ...
It is similar in chemical structure to benperidol but has a thiourea group instead of a urea group. Index Nominum 2000: ...
Benperidol Brorphine J-113,397 Meijer DK, Hovinga G, Versluis A, Bröring J, van Aken K, Moolenaar F, Wesseling H (1984). " ...
The molecular formula C22H24FN3O2 (molar mass: 381.45 g/mol, exact mass: 381.1853 u) may refer to: ADB-FUBICA Benperidol This ...
... the most widely used classical antipsychotic drug in this class Benperidol, the most potent commonly used antipsychotic (200 ...
Atomoxetine Benperidol, Bromazepam, Bupropion, Buspirone Calcium carbimide, Carbamazepine, Chlordiazepoxide, Chlorpromazine, ...
Benperidol (INN) Benproperine (INN) Benralizumab (INN) Benrixate (INN) Bensalan (INN) Benserazide (INN) Bensuldazic acid (INN) ...
Haloperidol N05AD02 Trifluperidol N05AD03 Melperone N05AD04 Moperone N05AD05 Pipamperone N05AD06 Bromperidol N05AD07 Benperidol ...
... , sold under the trade name Anquil among others, is a drug which is a highly potent butyrophenone derivative. It is ... Benperidol was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1961. Timiperone has the same structure but thiourea instead of normal ... ISBN 3-8047-1773-X. Bobon J, Collard J, Lecoq R (October 1963). "[Benperidol and promazine: a "double blind" comparative study ... Council A, Kuenssberg V (1974-02-01). "Benperidol - a drug for sexual offenders?". Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin. BMJ ...
... causes arterial/arteriolar vasodilation leading to a decrease in blood pressure by activating peripheral D1 receptors.[5] It decreases afterload and also promotes sodium excretion via specific dopamine receptors along the nephron. The renal effect of fenoldopam and dopamine may involve physiological antagonism of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney.[6] In contrast to dopamine, fenoldopam is a selective D1 receptor agonist with no effect on beta adrenoceptors, although there is evidence that it may have some alpha-1 [7] and alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.[5] D1 receptor stimulation activates adenylyl cyclase and raises intracellular cyclic AMP, resulting in vasodilation of most arterial beds, including renal, mesenteric, and coronary arteries.[8] to cause a reduction in systemic vascular resistance. Fenoldopam has a rapid onset of action (4 minutes) and short duration of action (, 10 minutes) and a linear dose-response relationship at usual clinical doses.[9] ...
... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine.[1] A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment.[1] In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist.[2] It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats.[2] However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus.[2] This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus.[2] ...
The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation (that is, it is a galactogogue). In some nations, including Australia, domperidone is used off-label, based on uncertain and anecdotal evidence of its usefulness, as a therapy for mothers who are having difficulty breastfeeding.[24][25] In the United States, domperidone is not approved for this or any other use.[26][27] A study called the EMPOWER trial was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of domperidone in assisting mothers of preterm babies to supply breast milk for their infants.[28] The study randomized 90 mothers of preterm babies to receive either domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 28 days (Group A) or placebo 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days followed by domperidone ...
InChI=1S/C18H22F2N4O/c19-15-5-3-14(4-6-15)17(25)2-1-7-23-8-10-24(11-9-23)18-21-12-16(20)13-22-18/h3-6,12-13,17,25H,1-2,7-11H2 ...
Djaldetti Ruth; Giladi Nir; Hassin-Baer Sharon; Shabtai Hertzel; Melamed Eldad (November-December 2003). "Pharmacokinetics of Etilevodopa Compared to Levodopa in Patient's With Parkinson's Disease: An Open-label, Randomized, Crossover Study". Clinical Neuropharmacology. 26 (6): 322-326. doi:10.1097/00002826-200311000-00012. PMID 14646613 ...
... has also been found to increase the analgesic effects of opioid drugs in a dose-dependent manner, in contrast to 5-HT1A agonists such as 8-OH-DPAT which were found to reduce opioid analgesia.[22][23] However, since 5-HT1A agonists were also found to reduce opioid-induced respiratory depression and WAY-100635 was found to block this effect,[24] it is likely that 5-HT1A antagonists might worsen this side effect of opioids. Paradoxically, chronic administration of the very high efficacy 5-HT1A agonist befiradol results in potent analgesia following an initial period of hyperalgesia, an effect most likely linked to desensitisation and/or downregulation of 5-HT1A receptors (i.e. analogous to a 5-HT1A antagonist-like effect).[25][26][27] As with other 5-HT1A silent antagonists such as UH-301 and robalzotan, WAY 100635 can also induce a head-twitch response in rodents.[28] ...
Qar J, Galizzi JP, Fosset M, Lazdunski M (September 1987). "Receptors for diphenylbutylpiperidine neuroleptics in brain, cardiac, and smooth muscle membranes. Relationship with receptors for 1,4-dihydropyridines and phenylalkylamines and with Ca2+ channel blockade". European Journal of Pharmacology. 141 (2): 261-8. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(87)90271-8. PMID 2445589 ...
Melis MR, Succu S, Sanna F, Melis T, Mascia MS, Enguehard-Gueiffier C, Hubner H, Gmeiner P, Gueiffier A, Argiolas A (October 2006). "PIP3EA and PD-168077, two selective dopamine D4 receptor agonists, induce penile erection in male rats: site and mechanism of action in the brain". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 24 (7): 2021-30. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2006.05043.x. PMID 17067298 ...
The present meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of the effects of methylphenidate and amphetamine on cognitive functions central to academic and occupational functioning, including inhibitory control, working memory, short-term episodic memory, and delayed episodic memory. In addition, we examined the evidence for publication bias. Forty-eight studies (total of 1,409 participants) were included in the analyses. We found evidence for small but significant stimulant enhancement effects on inhibitory control and short-term episodic memory. Small effects on working memory reached significance, based on one of our two analytical approaches. Effects on delayed episodic memory were medium in size. However, because the effects on long-term and working memory were qualified by evidence for publication bias, we conclude that the effect of amphetamine and methylphenidate on the examined facets of healthy cognition is probably modest overall. In some situations, a small advantage may be ...
Most frequent side effects are nausea, orthostatic hypotension, headaches, and vomiting through stimulation of the brainstem vomiting centre.[9] Vasospasms with serious consequences such as myocardial infarction and stroke that have been reported in connection with the puerperium, appear to be extremely rare events.[10] Peripheral vasospasm (of the fingers or toes) can cause Raynaud's Phenomenon. Bromocriptine use has been anecdotally associated with causing or worsening psychotic symptoms (its mechanism is in opposition of most antipsychotics, whose mechanisms generally block dopamine).[11] Pulmonary fibrosis has been reported when bromocriptine was used in high doses for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[12] Use to suppress milk production after childbirth was reviewed in 2014 and it was concluded that in this context a causal association with serious cardiovascular, neurological or psychiatric events could not be excluded with an overall incidence rate estimated to range between 0.005% ...
... (Serentil) is a piperidine neuroleptic drug belonging to the class of drugs called phenothiazines, used in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is a metabolite of thioridazine. The drug's name is derived from the methylsulfoxy and piperidine functional groups in its chemical structure. It has central antiadrenergic, antidopaminergic, antiserotonergic and weak muscarinic anticholinergic effects. Serious side effects include akathisia, tardive dyskinesia and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Mesoridazine was withdrawn from the United States market in 2004 due to dangerous side effects, namely irregular heart beat and QT-prolongation of the electrocardiogram.[1] It currently appears to be unavailable worldwide. ...
Benperidol, sold under the trade name Anquil among others, is a drug which is a highly potent butyrophenone derivative. It is ... Benperidol was discovered at Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1961. Timiperone has the same structure but thiourea instead of normal ... ISBN 3-8047-1773-X. Bobon J, Collard J, Lecoq R (October 1963). "[Benperidol and promazine: a "double blind" comparative study ... Council A, Kuenssberg V (1974-02-01). "Benperidol - a drug for sexual offenders?". Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin. BMJ ...
Benperidol for schizophrenia. Benperidol is a relatively old drug that is used for the treatment of schizophrenia in several ... Benperidol is a relatively old antipsychotic drug that has been marketed since 1966. It has been used in Germany for 30 years ... Although benperidol was first marketed in 1966, more trials on this drug are justified as with the advent of new compounds ... Benperidol is a butyrophenone antipsychotic, with the highest neuroleptic potency in terms of D2 receptor blockade. Those ...
Benperidol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dementia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and ... Benperidol. Accession Number. DB12867. Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Approved, Investigational. Description. Benperidol has ... The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benperidol is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. ... The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine is combined with Benperidol. ...
... ,1-[1-[4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-4-oxobutyl]-4-piperidinyl]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one,1-[1-[3-(p-fluorobenzoyl) ...
benperidol ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ...
Benperidol for schizophrenia Edited (no change to conclusions) answers are found in the Cochrane Abstracts powered by Unbound ... Benperidol for schizophrenia Edited (no change to conclusions) is a topic covered in the Cochrane Abstracts. To view the entire ... "Benperidol for Schizophrenia Edited (no Change to Conclusions)." Cochrane Abstracts, Evidence Central, evidence.unboundmedicine ... Benperidol for Schizophrenia Edited (no Change to Conclusions) [Internet]. In: Cochrane Abstracts. [cited 2021 June 14]. ...
Benperidol (1). Bicycle (1). Bicycling (1). Billy Club (1). Blackmail (1). Blind Man (1). ...
Benperidol. 10 mg. LGCFOR0113.00. In den Warenkorb Benserazide Hydrochloride. 10 mg. LGCFOR1282.00. In den Warenkorb ...
Benperidol. 10 mg. LGCFOR0113.00. Add to basket Benserazide Hydrochloride. 10 mg. LGCFOR1282.00. Add to basket ...
De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie Creative Commons Naamsvermelding-Gelijk delen. Er kunnen aanvullende voorwaarden van toepassing zijn. Zie de Gebruiksvoorwaarden voor meer informatie ...
Detailed drug Information for meperidine Injection. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.. ...
Detailed drug Information for chlorpheniramine and codeine polistirex. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Another group of typical antipsychotic drugs are butyrophenones (e.g., benperidol, droperidol, and haloperidol) whose ...
Complete Dopamine D2 Receptor Occupancy Without Extrapyramidal Side Effects Under Benperidol. Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; ...
Drug: Benperidol. Drug: Sertindole. Drug: Ziprasidone. Drug: Flupentixol. Drug: Chlorprothixene. Drug: Zuclopenthixol. Drug: ... Benperidol Drug: Sertindole Drug: Ziprasidone Drug: Flupentixol Drug: Chlorprothixene Drug: Zuclopenthixol Drug: Fluspirilene ...
Benperidol + +. +/-. +++. +. +. +++. Chlorpromazine +++. ++. ++. ++. ++ +++ +++. Clozapine +++. +++ +++. -. +++ +++. -. ...
Benperidol • Bromperidol • Clopenthixol • Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene • Droperidol • Flupentixol • Fluphenazine • ...
Moerlein, S. M., Perlmutter, J. S., & Welch, M. J. (2004). Radiosynthesis of (N-[11C]methyl)benperidol for PET investigation of ... Moerlein, Stephen M. ; Perlmutter, Joel S. ; Welch, Michael J. / Radiosynthesis of (N-[11C]methyl)benperidol for PET ... Radiosynthesis of (N-[11C]methyl)benperidol for PET investigation of D2 receptor binding. / Moerlein, Stephen M.; Perlmutter, ... A procedure for the reliable production of the novel PET D2 receptor ligand (N-[11C]methyl)benperidol ([11C]NMB) is described. ...
Benperidol (Anquil). *Chlorpromazine (Largactil). *Flupentixol (Depixol). *Fluphenazine (Modecate). *Haloperidol (Haldol). * ...
Benperidol binds D2 and some serotonin receptors. It is absorbed very easily and has a high first pass effect. Chlorpromazine ... Leucht S, Hartung B (April 2005). "Benperidol for schizophrenia". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD003083. ...
Benperidol. A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It has been used in the treatment of ...
There are currently 23 antipsychotic drugs licensed in the UK. These are listed alphabetically on this page. Some of them also come in a depot injection as well as tablets - these are listed separately below.. Some of these drugs have more than one name. You might know a drug by its generic name, or you might know it by a trade name (see our page about drug names for more information on this).. If the drug you are looking for is not listed here, it may have been discontinued or be unavailable in the UK.. ...
The Kb values were (nanomolar):spiperone, 0.8; spirilene , 2.1; benperidol , 4.4; azaperone, 16.6; and haloperidol, 96.6. The ...
N05AD07 Benperidol. N05AD08 Droperidol. N05AD09 Fluanisone. QN05AD90 Azaperone. N05AE 인돌 계열[편집]. N05AE01 Oxypertine. N05AE02 ...
Benperidol. The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Benperidol.. Approved, ...
Перелік всіх ЛІКАРСЬКИХ ЗАСОБІВ, включених до Британського національного формуляра, для яких відсутня реєстрація в Україні
Benperidol. Antalgola. Benzalkonium Saccharinate; Cineole; Menthol; Pumilio Pine Oil. Antalgola Plus. Benzalkonium Saccharinate ...
But benperidol does not affect testosterone and is therefore not a castration agent. Chemical castration is often seen as an ... The antipsychotic agent benperidol is sometimes used to diminish sexual urges in people who display inappropriate sexual ...
benperidol (Anquil ). * droperidol (Inapsine ). * fluspirilene (effective for 1 week). * haloperidol (decanoate) (Haldol , ...
  • Notably, synthesis of the -difluoroalkene analogues of azaperone, haloperidol, and benperidol was also accomplished u. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The group includes HALOPERIDOL , triperidol and benperidol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Benperidol, sold under the trade name Anquil among others, is a drug which is a highly potent butyrophenone derivative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benperidol is a relatively old antipsychotic drug that has been marketed since 1966. (cochrane.org)
  • Benperidol is a butyrophenone antipsychotic, with the highest neuroleptic potency in terms of D2 receptor blockade. (cochrane.org)
  • [11] The antipsychotic agent benperidol is sometimes used to diminish sexual urges in people who display inappropriate sexual behavior, and can likewise be given by depot injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antipsychotic agent Benperidol is also indicated for this purpose, and can also be given by depot injection as a means of increasing compliance. (comebackalive.com)
  • Benperidol is a relatively old drug that is used for the treatment of schizophrenia in several European countries. (cochrane.org)
  • To examine the clinical effects and safety of benperidol for those with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. (cochrane.org)
  • We included all randomised controlled trials that compared benperidol with other treatments for people with schizophrenia, or schizophrenia-like psychoses. (cochrane.org)
  • Schwarz C, Hartung B, Leucht S. Benperidol for schizophrenia. (cochrane.org)
  • Benperidol for schizophrenia Edited (no change to conclusions) is a topic covered in the Cochrane Abstracts . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Benperidol. (drugbank.ca)
  • Objective: To investigate the associations between manganese (Mn) exposure, D2 dopamine receptors (D2Rs), and parkinsonism using [11C](N-methyl)benperidol (NMB) PET. (cdc.gov)
  • Although benperidol was first marketed in 1966, more trials on this drug are justified as with the advent of new compounds there is a danger that inexpensive drugs such as benperidol remain under-researched and overlooked. (cochrane.org)
  • Comparison benperidol CRS. (msiw.ru)