A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.
Unusual antimicrotubule activity of the antifungal agent spongistatin 1. (1/123)Spongistatin 1, a macrocyclic lactone from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta, has broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Since this compound is a potent antimicrotubule agent in mammalian cells, we examined its effects on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans to determine if its antifungal effects are due to antimicrotubule activity. At 25 microg/ml (twice the MIC), spongistatin 1 caused a greater-than-twofold elevation of the chromosome and spindle mitotic indices. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that mitotic spindles were smaller and shorter than in control germlings. However, late-anaphase and telophase nuclei were seen occasionally, and this suggests that the spindles are capable of segregating chromosomes. Spongistatin 1 had more dramatic effects on cytoplasmic microtubules. At 30 min after initiation of treatment, 83% of germlings contained fragmented microtubules and after 2 h of treatment, microtubules had disappeared completely from 82% of germlings. In contrast, microtubules disappeared rapidly and completely from germlings treated with benomyl. We conclude that spongistatin 1 has antimicrotubule activity in A. nidulans and that its mechanism of action may involve a novel microtubule-severing activity. (+info)
The spindle checkpoint of budding yeast depends on a tight complex between the Mad1 and Mad2 proteins. (2/123)The spindle checkpoint arrests the cell cycle at metaphase in the presence of defects in the mitotic spindle or in the attachment of chromosomes to the spindle. When spindle assembly is disrupted, the budding yeast mad and bub mutants fail to arrest and rapidly lose viability. We have cloned the MAD2 gene, which encodes a protein of 196 amino acids that remains at a constant level during the cell cycle. Gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation analyses reveal that Mad2p tightly associates with another spindle checkpoint component, Mad1p. This association is independent of cell cycle stage and the presence or absence of other known checkpoint proteins. In addition, Mad2p binds to all of the different phosphorylated isoforms of Mad1p that can be resolved on SDS-PAGE. Deletion and mutational analysis of both proteins indicate that association of Mad2p with Mad1p is critical for checkpoint function and for hyperphosphorylation of Mad1p. (+info)
Rhodamine 6G efflux for the detection of CDR1-overexpressing azole-resistant Candida albicans strains. (3/123)We investigated the drug efflux mechanism in azole-resistant strains of Candida albicans using rhodamine 6G (R6G). No significant differences in R6G uptake were observed between azole-sensitive B2630 (9.02 +/- 0.02 nmol/10(8) cells) and azole-resistant B67081 (8.86 +/- 0.03 nmol/10(8) cells) strains incubated in glucose-free phosphate buffered saline. A significantly higher R6G efflux (2.0 +/- 0.21 nmol/10(8) cells) was noted in the azole-resistant strain (B67081) when glucose was added, compared with that in the sensitive strain B2630 (0.23 < or = 0.14 nmol/10(8) cells). A fluconazole-resistant strain C40 that expressed the benomyl resistance gene (CaMDR) also showed a low R6G efflux (0.16 +/- 0.06 nmol/10(8) cells) as did the sensitive strains. Accumulation of R6G in growing C. albicans cells was inversely correlated with the level of CDR1 mRNA expression. Our data also suggest that measurement of intracellular accumulation of R6G is a useful method for identification of azole-resistant strains due to CDR1-expressed drug efflux pump. (+info)
Translational regulation of ribonucleotide reductase by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E links protein synthesis to the control of DNA replication. (4/123)Ribonucleotide reductase synthesizes dNDPs, a specific and limiting step in DNA synthesis, and can participate in neoplastic transformation when overexpressed. The small subunit (ribonucleotide reductase 2 (RNR2)) was cloned as a major product in a subtraction library from eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-transformed cells (Chinese hamster ovary-4E (CHO-4E)). CHO-4E cells have 20-40-fold elevated RNR2 protein, reflecting an increased distribution of RNR2 mRNA to the heavy polysomes. CHO-4E cells display an altered cell cycle with shortened S phase, similar to cells selected for RNR2 overexpression with hydroxyurea. The function of ribonucleotide reductase as a checkpoint component of S progression was studied in yeast in which elevated eIF4E rescued S-arrested rnr2-68(ts) cells, by increasing recruitment of its mRNA to polysomes. Crosses between rnr2-68(ts) and mutant eIF4E (cdc33-1(ts)) engendered conditional synthetic lethality, with extreme sensitivity to hydroxyurea and the microtubule depolymerizing agent, benomyl. The double mutant (cdc33-1 rnr2-68) also identified a unique terminal phenotype, arrested with small bud and a randomly distributed single nucleus, which is distinct from those of both parental single mutants. This phenotype defines eIF4E and RNR2 as determinants in an important cell cycle checkpoint, in early/mid-S phase. These results also provide a link between protein and DNA synthesis and provide an explanation for cell cycle alterations induced by elevated eIF4E. (+info)
Structure-function relationships in yeast tubulins. (5/123)A comprehensive set of clustered charged-to-alanine mutations was generated that systematically alter TUB1, the major alpha-tubulin gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A variety of phenotypes were observed, including supersensitivity and resistance to the microtubule-destabilizing drug benomyl, lethality, and cold- and temperature-sensitive lethality. Many of the most benomyl-sensitive tub1 alleles were synthetically lethal in combination with tub3Delta, supporting the idea that benomyl supersensitivity is a rough measure of microtubule instability and/or insufficiency in the amount of alpha-tubulin. The systematic tub1 mutations were placed, along with the comparable set of tub2 mutations previously described, onto a model of the yeast alpha-beta-tubulin dimer based on the three-dimensional structure of bovine tubulin. The modeling revealed a potential site for binding of benomyl in the core of beta-tubulin. Residues whose mutation causes cold sensitivity were concentrated at the lateral and longitudinal interfaces between adjacent subunits. Residues that affect binding of the microtubule-binding protein Bim1p form a large patch across the exterior-facing surface of alpha-tubulin in the model. Finally, the positions of the mutations suggest that proximity to the alpha-beta interface may account for the finding of synthetic lethality of five viable tub1 alleles with the benomyl-resistant but otherwise entirely viable tub2-201 allele. (+info)
Hybridization and breeding of the benomyl resistant mutant, Trichoderma harziantum antagonized to phytopathogenic fungi by protoplast fusion. (6/123)A diploid strain obtained from heterokaryons of Trichoderma harzianum by protoplast fusion grew on minimal medium containing 100ppm benomyl. This strain inhibited the growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani on paired cultures and also protected against radish yellows and a drop in germination induced by F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani. (+info)
Effect of enzyme inhibitors on protein quaternary structure determined by on-line size exclusion chromatography-microelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (7/123)Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a family of enzymes primarily involved in the oxidation of various aldehydes. Most ALDH enzymes derived from mammalian sources have been shown to exist as homotetramers, consisting of four identical subunits of approximately 54 kDa. The presence of the homotetramer appears to be necessary for enzyme activity. In this study, recombinant rat liver mitochondrial ALDH (rmALDH) was inhibited in vitro with four different inhibitors, namely, disulfiram (MW, 296.5), prunetin (MW, 284.3), benomyl (MW, 290.3), and N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (MW, 351.8). Subsequently, inhibited rmALDH was analyzed by a novel approach of on-line size exclusion chromatography-microelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SEC-muESI-MS) to examine the noncovalent quaternary structural stability of the inhibited enzyme. Analysis of native rmALDH by SEC-muESI-MS revealed predominantly the homotetramer (Mr = approximately 217,457 Da, +/- 0.01%) with some in-source, skimmer-induced dissociation to afford monomer (Mr = approximately 54,360 Da, +/- 0.01%). Both disulfiram and prunetin inhibited rmALDH by >70% and >90%, respectively, but did not disrupt the quaternary structure of rmALDH. Furthermore, there was no detectable change within experimental error (+/- 0.01%) of the disulfiram or the prunetin homotetramers (Mr = approximately 217,448 Da and Mr = approximately 217,446 Da). This may possibly indicate that inhibition occurred via formation of intramolecular disulfide bond at the enzyme active site, or weak affinity noncovalent binding. In contrast, benomyl-inhibited rmALDH homotetramer (>90% inhibition) exhibited a Mr = approximately 217,650 Da (+/- 0.01%) corresponding to two butylcarbamoyl adducts on two of the four enzyme subunits. The skimmer-induced monomer afforded a mixture of unmodified rmALDH (Mr = approximately 54,365 Da, +/- 0.01%) and butylcarbamoylated enzyme (Mr = approximately 54,459 Da, +/- 0.01%). Finally, TPCK (>90% inhibition) modified all four subunits of rmALDH to give Mr = approximately 218,646 Da (+/- 0.01%). In all four cases while significant enzyme inhibition occurred, no destabilization of the quaternary complex was detected. (+info)
Cytoplasmic dynein is required to oppose the force that moves nuclei towards the hyphal tip in the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii. (8/123)We have followed the migration of GFP-labelled nuclei in multinucleate hyphae of Ashbya gossypii. For the first time we could demonstrate that the mode of long range nuclear migration consists of oscillatory movements of nuclei with, on average, higher amplitudes in the direction of the growing tip. We could also show that mitotic division proceeds at a constant rate of 0. 64 microm/minute which differs from the biphasic kinetics described for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore we were able to identify the microtubule-based motor dynein as a key element in the control of long range nuclear migration. For other filamentous fungi it had already been demonstrated that inactivating mutations in dynein led to severe problems in nuclear migration, i.e. generation of long nuclei-free hyphal tips and clusters of nuclei throughout the hyphae. This phenotype supported the view that dynein is important for the movement of nuclei towards the tip. In A. gossypii the opposite seems to be the case. A complete deletion of the dynein heavy chain gene leads to nuclear clusters exclusively at the hyphal tips and to an essentially nucleus-free network of hyphal tubes and branches. Anucleate hyphae and branches in the vicinity of nuclear clusters show actin cables and polarized actin patches, as well as microtubules. The slow growth of this dynein null mutant could be completely reverted to wild-type-like growth in the presence of benomyl, which can be explained by the observed redistribution of nuclei in the hyphal network. (+info)
The tension mounts at centromeric loops | Journal of Cell Biology | Rockefeller University Press
Thus, thermal fluctuations and random, ATP-dependent enzyme activities generate a force that stretches pericentric chromatin outwards along the spindle axis. Polymer physics provides a simple explanation for this (4, 5). As they fluctuate, the pericentric chromatin loops will tend to collide and repel each other, creating an outward-directed force that can counteract the natural tendency of chromatin-or any linear polymer-to curl up into a random coil. So thermodynamic principles tell you that pericentric chromatin is going to be under tension, Bloom says. By organizing pericentric chromatin into a bottle brush configuration, condensin and cohesin generate sufficient tension to separate sister centromeres, even without the input of spindle microtubules. We view this as a sort of primordial segregation machine that predisposes sister centromeres to sit on the surface of chromosomes opposite from one another, Bloom explains.. ...
Rat1p and Xrn1p are functionally interchangeable exoribonucleases that are restricted to and required in the nucleus and...
XRN1 encodes an abundant cytoplasmic exoribonuclease, Xrn1p, responsible for mRNA turnover in yeast. A screen for bypass suppressors of the inviability of xrn1 ski2 double mutants identified dominant alleles of RAT1, encoding an exoribonuclease homologous with Xrn1p. These RAT1 alleles restored XRN1-like functions, including cytoplasmic RNA turnover, wild-type sensitivity to the microtubule-destabilizing drug benomyl, and sporulation. The mutations were localized to a region of the RAT1 gene encoding a putative bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Fusions to green fluorescent protein were used to demonstrate that wild-type Rat1p is localized to the nucleus and that the mutant alleles result in mislocalization of Rat1p to the cytoplasm. Conversely, targeting Xrn1p to the nucleus by the addition of the simian virus 40 large-T-antigen NLS resulted in complementation of the temperature sensitivity of a rat1-1 strain. These results indicate that Xrn1p and Rat1p are functionally ...
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It seems that benomyl triggers a series of events leading to Parkinsons disease onset. It is assumed that the chemical interferes with an enzyme called ALDH (aldehyde dehydrogenase). In this way, aldehyde dehydrogenase can not prevent accumulation of DOPAL, a toxic substance that has harmful effect on neurons and which greatly increases the risk of developing Parkinsons disease. Benomyl is a substance that has been widely used in the U.S. until it was banned in 2001 because it was found to have toxic effects on health. It seems that this toxic can cause brain malformations, tumors of the liver, reproductive abnormalities, etc.. Furthermore, the destructive effect of benomyl on dopaminergic neurons has been shown in cell culture experiments. Now neuroscientists at UCLA believe that this cascade of events occurs in all patients with Parkinsons disease. If they were create a drug to protect aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme activity, they could treat or prevent Parkinsons disease. Parkinsons ...
Analysis of a Candida albicans gene that encodes a novel mechanism for resistance to benomyl and methotrexate. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Self-assembly of polyoxometalate-based hybrid aggregates: from a monomer to dimers by changing the pH value of reaction systems...
Three new compounds have been synthesized at different pHs under identical hydrothermal conditions, namely, (H2bimb)[Cu(bimb)3(H2O)2(H2P2W18O62)]·4H2O (1), (H2bimb)3[Cu2(bimb)5(H2O)4(HP2W18O62)2]·9H2O (2), and (H2bimb)5[Cu(bimb)2(H2O)2(P2W18O62)2]·8H2O (3) (bimb = 4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene). Their structur
Kem Kem Vertebrae ID Thread - Fossil ID - The Fossil Forum
So, lets figure out vertebrae from the Kem Kem beds. As many of you know the Kem Kem beds has a pretty enigmatic palaeo fauna. There is some literature about it, but not a whole lot. Some of it is behind a paywall and much information is pretty scattered. So I got this idea that maybe we could co...
PROTONEXA 15 mg gyomornedv-ellen ll kem ny kapszula
1. MILYEN T PUS GY GYSZER A PROTONEXA GYOMORNEDV-ELLEN LL KEM NY KAPSZULA S MILYEN BETEGS GEK ESET N ALKALMAZHAT ?A Protonexa gyomornedv-ellen ll kem ny kap
EGIRAMLON 10 mg/5 mg kem ny kapszula
1. Milyen t pus gy gyszer az Egiramlon s milyen betegs gek eset n alkalmazhat ?Az Egiramlon k t hat anyagot tartalmaz: a ramiprilt s az amlodipint. A ramipri
Histone H3K4 methylation regulates deactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through direct binding of Mad2<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histone H3K4 methylation regulates deactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through direct binding of Mad2. AU - Schibler, Andria. AU - Koutelou, Evangelia. AU - Tomida, Junya. AU - Wilson-Pham, Marenda. AU - Wang, Li. AU - Lu, Yue. AU - Cabrera, Alexa Parra. AU - Chosed, Renee J.. AU - Li, Wenqian. AU - Li, Bing. AU - Shi, Xiaobing. AU - Wood, Richard D.. AU - Dent, Sharon Y R. PY - 2016/5/15. Y1 - 2016/5/15. N2 - Histone H3 methylation on Lys4 (H3K4me) is associated with active gene transcription in all eukaryotes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Set1 is the sole lysine methyltransferase required for mono-, di-, and trimethylation of this site. Although H3K4me3 is linked to gene expression, whether H3K4 methylation regulates other cellular processes, such as mitosis, is less clear. Here we show that both Set1 and H3K4 mutants display a benomyl resistance phenotype that requires components of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), including Bub3 and Mad2. These proteins ...
Words beginning with ben | WordsBeginning.com
Words beginning with ben. This BEN words reference page contains a list of words beginning with BEN, organized by word length. The below online list of words that begin with ben might be useful for people who are taking classes in school leading to a degree, those who play word games, and visitors who enjoy education and learning or teaching about language and like to incorporate new words into their vocabulary.. 3 letter words beginning with ben:. ben 4 letter words beginning with ben:. bend beni beno bent 5 letter words beginning with ben:. bench bendy benic benis benne benny bents 6 letter words beginning with ben:. bename bendee bender benign benjes bennet bennis benumb benzol benzyl 7 letter words beginning with ben:. bencher bendays beneath benefic benefit benegro benempt bengals benison benomyl benthos bentlet benzene benzils benzine benzoic benzoin benzoyl 8 letter words beginning with ben:. bendings bendwise benedict benefact benefice benjamin bentstar bentwood benzenyl benzoate 9 ...
Itta Bena Mississippi AP Biology test credit
Get info about Itta Bena MS AP Biology test credit. Completion of an accredited healthcare program or other medical training can qualify you to start working in a hospital facility immediately.
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Kem P. Krueger (Translated to French)
Kem P. Krueger is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Suppression des éléments traces par Cupric nanoparticules doxyde de Uranium
enda en scrappedame: august 2012
Her hos meg har det vært sol og varmt i flere dager, og det ser ut til å holde seg sånn et par dager til :-) Jeg har plukket rips til vinterens ripsgrøt-desserter, og jeg har vært i skogen og plukket blåbær. Det er koselige sensommeraktiviteter. I dag har jeg vært på Ikea sammen med datteren min som skal flytte og bli student. Etter en hel dag med shopping er det godt å slenge bena oppi sofaen nå. ...
Lokaverkefni: Inn og út aðaldyramegin : framhaldsskóli fyrir alla, stuðningsþjónusta fyrir nemendur á bóknámsbrautum sem eiga...
Inn og út aðaldyramegin : framhaldsskóli fyrir alla, stuðningsþjónusta fyrir nemendur á bóknámsbrautum sem eiga við hindranir að stríða í námi ...
Jsem odborníkem ve smyslu §2a Zákona č. 40/1995 Sb., o regulaci reklamy, ve znění pozdějších předpisů, čili jsem osobou oprávněnou předepisovat léčivé přípravky nebo osobou vydávat léčivé přípravky.. ...
ADD -my journey | Dr. Stu Rosan and Adult ADD
January 2007 I feel that I have been pretty dedicated for 25 years in doing quality care for my patients.Thats a given.I also believe That NO ONE is built perfectly mentally, and that we all have certain functions--Dysfunctions . And, that we all pay the price both mentally and physically . Can I prove it?…
Remodeled End Unit. Spa Tub. Near Slopes. F... - VRBO
Remodeled End Unit. Spa Tub. Near Slopes. Family Friendly. 25% off last min.. Heres everything you could want in a condo. Our condo is located in Incline ...
High 5 Protein recovery tubs 1.6kg - MyTrainingDay
Description Protein Recovery is a delicious tasting protein drink. The ingredients used in this scientifically formulated blend of protein and carbs promote rec
Nancy McCann Vericker and her son, JP, are co-authors of their award- winning book, Unchained: Our Familys Addiction Mess Is Our Message, the true story of his descent into opioid and alcohol addiction, homelessness and hopelessness to now long-term recovery as co-founder of Northeast Addictions Treatment Center.. Unchained recountshow through faith, tough love, and 12-Step program, the Vericker family helped JP, now in recovery for more than nine years, return home to a renewed life. Their book provides hope for families grappling with addiction.. Nancy and her son have shared their familys story on the TODAY Show and ConversationswithCardinal Dolan, as well as conferences, radio programs, and newspaper and magazine articles. Unchained won a 2019 award from the Catholic Press Association in the Healing Book Category. Nancy, who has been in recovery for more than 29 years, has been honored as a Person Who Made A Difference by the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence/Westchester. ...
Genotoxicity assay of five pesticides and their mixtures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 | IRIS UNIPV
Four organophosphorus pesticides (azinphos-methyl, diazinone, dimethoate, and pirimiphos-methyl), and one carbamate (benomyl) were tested for cytotoxicity, reverse mutation and gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, with and without the S9 metabolic system. Furthermore, two mixtures of the above compounds, namely benomyl + pirimiphos-methyl (6/1 ratio) and dimethoate + diazinone + azinphos-methyl (10/4/6 ratio) were tested in the same experimental model. Azinphos-methyl, benomyl, and pirimiphos-methyl alone did not induce any genotoxic effect, whereas azinphos-methyl and diazinone were active in inducing reversion and gene conversion. The benomyl + pirimiphos-methyl mixture did not show any genotoxic activity. The dimethoate + diazinone + azimphos-methyl mixture was genotoxic, although an antagonistic effect between the components was observed. The addition of S9 post-mitochondrial liver fraction decreased the activity of both single and mixed genotoxic agents.. ...
Genetic and molecular analysis of a Caenorhabditis elegans beta-tubulin that conveys benzimidazole sensitivity. | JCB
Benzimidazole anti-microtubule drugs, such as benomyl, induce paralysis and slow the growth of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We have identified 28 mutations in C. elegans that confer resistance to benzimidazoles. All resistant mutations map to a single locus, ben-1. Virtually all these mutations are genetically dominant. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis established that ben-1 encodes a beta-tubulin. Some resistant mutants are completely deleted for the ben-1 gene. Since the deletion strains appear to be fully resistant to the drugs, the ben-1 product appears to be the only benzimidazole-sensitive beta-tubulin in C. elegans. Furthermore, since animals lacking ben-1 are viable and coordinated, the ben-1 beta-tubulin appears to be nonessential for growth and movement. The ben-1 function is likely to be redundant in the nematode genome. ...
Synthesis and Spectrum of Biological Activities of Novel N-arylcinnamamides | Masarykova univerzita
A series of sixteen ring-substituted N-arylcinnamamides was prepared and characterized. Primary in vitro screening of all the synthesized compounds was performed against Staphylococcus aureus, three methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra, Fusarium avenaceum, and Bipolaris sorokiniana. Several of the tested compounds showed antistaphylococcal, antitubercular, and antifungal activities comparable with or higher than those of ampicillin, isoniazid, and benomyl. (2E)-N-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-phenylprop-2-enamide and (2E)-3-phenyl-N-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]prop-2-enamide showed the highest activities (MICs = 22.27 and 27.47 mu M, respectively) against all four staphylococcal strains and against M. tuberculosis. These compounds showed an activity against biofilm formation of S. aureus ATCC 29213 in concentrations close to MICs and an ability to increase the activity of clinically used antibiotics with different mechanisms of action (vancomycin, ...
Rabbit Stu (Thing character)
MCP#164/2) - Stu was fed by Jeremy and taken out of the stable. Stu was being held in the arms by Jeremy when the Thing crashed into the garden onto the stable. Stu was frightened and ran away. Jeremy cried, and the Thing promised him that he would find Stu. The Thing saved Stu from a truck but Stu was still frightened and ran away. Stu ran into a subway station through the crowd, who hought it was a rat. Stu ran over the tracks into dark corners of the subway system, where it ran into a group of rats. The Thing saved Stu from the rats and took him back home to Jeremy. Now Stu was back in the arms of Jeremy and seemed calm again.. Comments: Created by Mariano Nicieza and John Ross. Rabbit Stu sounds like something to eat and I think that is the future of the rabbit. Jeremy is feeding him all the time to become fat ...
Bộ 2 tuýp kem bôi nở ngực upsize chính hãng Nga
Giá bán lẻ 1 tuýp kem bôi nở ngực: 790.000 vnđ, hiện tại bạn mua 2 tuýp kem bôi nở ngực upsize chỉ 1 triệu đồng việt nam, Tiết kiệm lên đến 580.000 vnđ, đặt ngay: 0868900269
Bộ 2 tuýp kem bôi nở ngực upsize chính hãng Nga
Giá bán lẻ 1 tuýp kem bôi nở ngực: 790.000 vnđ, hiện tại bạn mua 2 tuýp kem bôi nở ngực upsize chỉ 1 triệu đồng việt nam, Tiết kiệm lên đến 580.000 vnđ, đặt ngay: 0868900269
D Mani maran - Design, Synthesis and Vibrationa... | ACS Network
Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Sheela, G. Edwin, Manimaran, D., Joe, I. Hubert, Jothy, V. Bena Materials Today:
Høyt kolesterol (hyperlipidemi) - NHI.no
Fettstoffer i blodet kan bare påvises ved hjelp av blodprøver. Høye eller lave verdier gir ingen symptomer eller plager. Men høye verdier øker risikoen for hjerte- og karsykdommer som hjerteinfarkt og angina, hjerneslag og trange blodårer i bena.. Fettstoffene i blod måles i enheten millimol per liter (mmol/L). Personer som har kjent hjerte- og karsykdom, eller som har økt risiko for slik sykdom, bør ideelt ha totalkolesterol under 5 mmol/L. Det gode kolesterolet HDL bør ikke være under 1,1-1,3, og LDL-kolesterolet bør være under 2,5 mmol/L. Triglycerider bør være under 2 mmol/L. Personer som ikke har hjerte- og karsykdom eller økt risiko, kan gjerne ha høyere verdier uten at det er nødvendig med behandling. Fastlegen din kan hjelpe deg til å bedømme om dine verdier er for høye.. Alle personer med kjent hjerte- og karsykdom som følge av åreforkalkning (aterosklerose) bør tilbys behandling med kolesterolsenkende midler, såkalt statiner. Behandlingsmålet for denne gruppen ...
Kem - Akua Intaglio 237 ml
Vi bruker informasjonskapsler (cookies) slik at vi kan yte deg bedre service. Informasjonskapslene blir hovedsakelig benyttet for trafikkmåling og optimalisering av tjenesten. Du kan også lese mer om vår bruk av informasjonskapsler her.. ...
Celuloza - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
Človeški encimi lahko razkrajajo polisaharide z vezmi α-1,4 in β-1,6, v človeškem prebavnem traktu pa ni encima, ki bi razgradil vez β-1,4, zato se večina zaužite celuloze izloči nespremenjena z blatom. Zato jo v prehrani štejemo med balastne snovi. V človeškem debelem črevesu se nahajajo anaerobne bakterije, ki razgradijo celulozo do kratkoverižnih maščobnih kislin, ki se lahko resorbirajo skozi steno črevesja. Po tej poti se razgradi le majhen delež z rastlinsko hrano zaužite celuloze. Prežvekovalci lahko bolje razgradijo celulozo in druge sorodne polisaharide, saj imajo v vampu mikroorganizme, ki bolj učinkovito cepijo vezi β-1,4. Podobno velja tudi za konje in vodne ptice, pri katerih poteka prebava celuloze s pomočjo mikroorganizmov v debelem črevesu. ...
Stupidity - Everything2.com
Stu*pidi*ty (?), n. [L. stupiditas: cf. F. stupidite.] 1. The quality or state of being stupid; extreme dullness of perception or...
Benzimidazole fungicide - Wikipedia
Benzimidazole fungicides are a class of fungicides including benomyl, carbendazim (MBC), thiophanate-methyl, thiabendazole and fuberidazole. They can control many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, but not oomycetes. They are applied to cereals, fruits, vegetables and vines, and are also used in postharvest handling of crops. The solubility of benzimidazole fungicides is low at physiological pH and becomes high at low pH. In plants, carbendazim, thiabendazole and fuberidazole are mobile, i.e. systemic, and benomyl and thiophanate-methyl are converted to carbendazim. This conversion also occurs in soils and animals. In soil and water, carbendazim is mainly degraded by microbes. They are metabolized through hydrolysis and photolysis in plants. These fungicides kill cells during mitosis by distorting the mitotic spindle; β-tubulin, a protein important in forming the cytoskeleton, is targeted. They mostly inhibit polymerization of β-tubulin by interacting with it directly, but other interactions also ...
subject:(LD5655 V855 1986 F574) - OATD
The comprehensive environmental dynamics of the heterocyclic Benzimidazole fungicides, Benomyl and Thiabendazole was investigated. This included examining their fate and distribution in the terrestrial and aquatic phases of a laboratory microcosm comprised of silty clay loam soil and plants. The soil component constituted a major relocation site, with approximately 45 and 75% of initial Benomyl (recovered as MBC) and Thiabendazole concentrations being recovered from the soil component of the microcosm, respectively, while 53 and 27% translocated into corn plants. The adsorption mechanism/s of these fungicides onto soil components were investigated using silty clay loam, silty loam and sandy soils as well as Ca-bentonite. These studies indicated that both fungicides were adsorbed to the highest degree on silty clay loam, followed by silty loam and sandy soils. Their adsorption on Ca-bentonite was found to be a function of the pH of the suspension, suggesting that in the presence of increasing ll ...
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Bekhterev, oversikt - NHI.no
2020 Norsk Helseinformatikk AS. Alle rettigheter er reservert. All informasjon på NHI.no er laget for å gi deg generell kunnskap og er ingen erstatning for innhenting av medisinsk råd eller behandling hos helsepersonell. Dersom du er syk eller trenger medisinsk hjelp av andre grunner, bør du oppsøke lege. NHI er uten ansvar for innholdet på eksterne websteder det er lenket til. Vi tillater ikke reklame for behandlere/ behandlingsmetoder i kommentarfeltene. Alle slike innlegg vil bli slettet.. ...
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Number 2, February
Survey of California Asparagus for Asparagus Virus I, Asparagus Virus II, and Tobacco Streak Virus. Peter G. Falloon, L. M. FALLOON, and R. G. GROGAN. Pages: 103-105 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Populations, Pathogenicity, and Benomyl Resistance of Botrytis spp., Penicillium spp., and Mucor piriformis in Packinghouses. R. A. Spotts, L. A. Cervantes. Pages: 106-108 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Reduction of Root Rot Caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in Grapevines by Chemical Treatments. P. G. Marais, M. J. Hattingh. Pages: 109-111 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. In Vitro Assay of Excised Cotyledons of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to Screen for Resistance to Colletotrichum trifolii. J. D. Cucuzza, J. Kao. Pages: 111-115 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Laboratory Screening Technique for Assessing Resistance of Four Avocado Rootstocks to Phytophthora cinnamomi. T. E. Dolan, M. D. Coffey. Pages: 115-118 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Relationships of Virus Infections to Field Performance of Six Clover ...
FRAC | Introduction
Benzimidazoles are low use-rate, broad-spectrum fungicides that have been used commercially for the control of plant diseases since the late 1960s. At the time of their introduction, they represented a ground-breaking class of fungicides with unique properties including systemic and curative activity that allowed extended spray intervals. World-wide, benzimidazole fungicides are registered in many countries on more than 70 crops including cereals, grapes, fruits and vegetables. Benzimidazoles currently commercially available include the active ingredients benomyl, carbendazim (MBC), thiabendazole, thiophanate, thiophanate-methyl and fuberidazole.. ...
Phytopathology 1978 | Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide Mixtures Cause a PAN-Type Injury to Petunia
Foliage of petunia plants exposed to a mixture of ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a controlled environment developed a symptom that fits the description of classic peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) injury. The undersurface of newly matured leaves became glazed, especially at the apex of the youngest susceptible leaf, at the middle of the intermediate-aged leaf and at the base of the oldest susceptible leaf. As with PAN, injury was more severe on a white-flowered cultivar than on a red-flowered one. In contrast to the result reported for PAN-fumigated plants, prior treatment with benomyl afforded some protection against injury from the mixture of O3 and SO2 in controlled fumigations. In a field study conducted in New Jersey in the summer of 1975, white petunia cultivars responded to ambient air pollution in a manner identical to that observed in controlled fumigations with the mixture of O3 and SO2. We question the generally accepted notion that petunia damage in the northeastern USA is a ...
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GIM is required to provide, and Equistar is required to take and pay for, 100 percent of Equistars steam requirements, the complaint states. In the event that GIM fails to provide steam to Equistar in the quantities set forth in the Steam Supply Agreement, Equistar is entitled to contractually specified damages from GIM for the disruption and loss of production ...
FungicidesCarbendazimResistanceBenlateSensitive to benomylFungiFood and feedstuffsMethylSystemicDegradationResiduesGeneticToxicityVitroDermal sensitizationExposureMicrotubulesFungalPesticidesDoseBudding yeastMutantsBindsSpraySoilSulfurStrainsEnvironmental ProtecEarthwormsConcentrationsResistantFungusReproductiveSclerotiniaIrritationSubstanceMechanismProteinFoundGrowthCropsControlApplicationAgriculture
- Benomyl, methyl N-[1-(butylcarbamoyl)benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate, and its conversion product, carbendazim, methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate, are systemic fungicides. (ethz.ch)
- One of the most widely used members of the benzimidazole family of fungicides, benomyl is effective, at low usage rates, against more than 190 different fungal diseases. (who.int)
- Given the similar toxicities of benomyl and carbendazim (methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate, the main metabolite of benomyl in mammals), the two fungicides are evaluated together in this monograph. (ilo.org)
- Benomyl and thiophanatemethyl are systemic fungicides. (gardenguides.com)
- The original strain and one derived variant were tested for sensitivity to the fungicides benomyl and captan. (scielo.br)
- The initial step in the degradation of benomyl is hydrolysis of the butylcarbamoyl side chain to form carbendazim (MBC). (ethz.ch)
- Because benomyl is rapidly converted to carbendazim in the environment and is extensively metabolized to carbendazim by experimental animals, data from studies of carbendazim, which is a fungicide in its own right, are also considered when evaluating the hazards of benomyl. (who.int)
- For the general population, the main source of potential exposure is noted to be through the ingestion of food crops containing residues of benomyl and carbendazim. (who.int)
- In 1983, an ADI of 0-0.01 mg/kg bw was established on the basis of a review of data on the toxicity of carbendazim and benomyl and incorporating a higher-than-normal safety factor in view of the paucity of data on individual animals in many studies, This ADI was confirmed in 1985, when additional data were reviewed, but concern remained due to the absence of individual data. (inchem.org)
- Analysis of a Candida albicans gene that encodes a novel mechanism for resistance to benomyl and methotrexate. (nih.gov)
- Genes responsible for the intrinsic drug resistance were sought by transforming Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast sensitive to both drugs, with genomic C. albicans libraries and screening on benomyl or methotrexate. (nih.gov)
- Due to the prevalence of resistance of parasitic fungi to benomyl, it and similar pesticides are of diminished effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
- Confers resistance to benomyl and methotrexate. (mybiosource.com)
- Below are the list of possible Benomyl/methotrexate resistance protein products. (mybiosource.com)
- To examine the changes in resistance to benomyl of Fusarium species causing bakanae disease, Fusarium isolates were collected in Korea, and pathogenicity tests were performed using rice seeds in vitro. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Maryam Akbari Dana ,Seyed Jamal Hashemi ,Roshanak Daei Ghazvini ,Sadegh Khodavesi ,Mona Modiri ,Ladan Nazemi ,Sima Darabian ,Sasan Rezaie , Effect of benomyl and diazinon on acquired azole resistance in Aspergillus flavus and expression of mdr1 and cyp51c genes, Curr. (who.int)
- Results: The results showed that during the nine stages of the adjacency of strains with benomyl and diazinon at different concentrations, resistance to voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B in these toxins increased by 30% and 10%, respectively. (who.int)
- The entomopathogenic fungi Paecilomyces fumosoroseus and P. lilacinus have been transformed to resistance to the fungicide benomyl by a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated procedure using a mutant b- tubulin gene from Neurospora crassa carried on plasmid pBT6. (bvsalud.org)
- 4 displayed resistance against the antifungals benomyl and fluconazole. (mdpi.com)
- Benomyl, then being marketed under the brand name of Benlate, was named as the cause for numerous children in the United Kingdom being born without eyes. (naturalpedia.com)
- In addition to Benlate, benomyl is marketed under many other commercial names. (naturalpedia.com)
- Benomyl (also marketed as Benlate) is a fungicide introduced in 1968 by DuPont. (wikipedia.org)
- In response to a request from the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services and the EPA, a study was undertaken of possible health effects associated with the use of the benomyl (17804352) formulation Benlate-DF by nursery workers in the ornamental plant industry (SIC-0181) in Florida. (cdc.gov)
- Detectable concentrations of benomyl were found on 15 of 18 patches placed on the outside of the clothing of mixer applicators directly handling Benlate-DF. (cdc.gov)
Sensitive to benomyl1
- Microtubules in kip2Δ cells were shorter and more sensitive to benomyl than wild-type, in contrast to the longer and benomyl-resistant microtubules found in dyn1Δ and kip3Δ cells. (rupress.org)
- Benomyl is a systemic benzimidazole fungicide , meaning that this substance works by interfering with cell division and hyphal growth of affected fungi. (naturalpedia.com)
- Concerning hazards to environmental organisms, the report cites data from laboratory and field studies indicating that benomyl, applied at recommended rates, has little effect on soil microbial activity, but some adverse effects on groups of fungi. (who.int)
- In the agriculture industry, Benomyl killed nearly all of the fungi on crops such as strawberries and wheat, but the few surviving fungi happened to be highly toxic molds - which are now flourishing in our environment. (mercola.com)
Food and feedstuffs1
- For storage, keep benomyl in a dry, well-ventilated area without sewer access or drainage, and separated from food and feedstuffs. (naturalpedia.com)
- Very little of the parent compound or methyl 2 benzimidazolecarbamate (MBC) was present in the urine (<5%) (Gardiner et al,, 1974), A male dog was fed a diet containing 2500 ppm benomyl. (inchem.org)
- Though benomyl has been shown to cause contact dermatitis and dermal sensitization in some farm workers, the report found no evidence that either of these compounds can cause systemic toxic effects in occupationally exposed subjects or the general population. (who.int)
- No residues of benomyl and/or MBC were found in milk, urine or faeces. (inchem.org)
- No residues in milk (less than 0.01 ppm) were detected 48 hours after benomyl was removed from the diet. (inchem.org)
- The low mobility of benomyl in the soil profile combined with the extended persistence of fungitoxic residues resulting from the thiram amendment contribute to the improved control of the pathogen by benomyl in soil while providing an option for benomyl dosage reduction. (apsnet.org)
- Chronic exposure to benomyl has been connected to toxic effects in animal reproduction and genetic damage in humans. (naturalpedia.com)
- Benomyl is a dermal, respiratory, and ocular irritant that has been linked to incidences of microphthalmia and anophthalmia, both genetic defects. (naturalpedia.com)
- The genetic basis of variation in drug response was investigated in individual Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that exhibited different susceptibility to two antifungal agents: benomyl and ketoconazole. (nih.gov)
- The metabolism of benomyl was also studied in vitro using various tissue homogenates as well as blood and sheep rumen fluid as enzyme sources. (inchem.org)
- Haldeman J.H., Thomas R.L., McKamy D.L., Use of benomyl and rifampicin for in vitro shoot tip culture of Camellia sinesis and C. japonica , HortScience 22 (1987) 306-307. (edpsciences.org)
- benomyl causes dermal sensitization. (ilo.org)
- NIOSH notes that benomyl exposure may cause adverse reproductive effects (Ex. (cdc.gov)
- The Agency concludes that these limits will protect workers from the significant risks of benomyl's effects, which include irritation and erythema, and the possibility that exposure to benomyl may cause reproductive effects. (cdc.gov)
- OSHA will also continue in the future to monitor the scientific evidence on the health effects associated with exposure to benomyl to determine whether a further reduction in the PEL is warranted. (cdc.gov)
- According to a report by BBC from 2003 , scientists connected benomyl exposure with the disrupted formation of eyes in human fetuses, leading to several babies having microphthalmia (wherein the eyes are smaller than normal) or anophthalmia (wherein the the baby was born with the eyes absent and the eyelids sealed shut). (naturalpedia.com)
- Depending on the route of exposure, benomyl can target the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. (naturalpedia.com)
- As such, it's best to avoid purchasing these fruits from supermarkets, to minimize benomyl exposure. (naturalpedia.com)
- The area where benomyl exposure occurs should have emergency showers and eyewash fountains in case direct contact happens. (naturalpedia.com)
- Skin irritation may occur through industrial exposure, and florists, mushroom pickers and floriculturists have reported allergic reactions to benomyl. (wikipedia.org)
- In regards to occupational exposures to benomyl, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit of 15 mg/m3 for total exposure over an eight-hour time-weighted average, and 5 mg/m3 for respiratory exposures. (wikipedia.org)
- Exposure at nurseries not currently using benomyl was minimal, if any. (cdc.gov)
- Benomyl acts by depolymerizing microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
- Rosendahl, S. / Benomyl inhibits hyphal phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phospatases in a cucumber - Glomus caledonium symbiosis . (dtu.dk)
- Materials and Methods: For the purpose of the study, 10 strains of A. flavus ATCC 204304 were cultured in benomyl and diazinon pesticides at the concentrations of 62.5, 125, 250.500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 2500 mg/L in nine steps. (who.int)
- Benomyl 50% Wp Cas 17804-35-2 Insecticides & Pesticides Advantage of Benomyl 1. (benadorassociates.com)
- EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS Absorption, distribution and excretion A male rat was fed a basal diet supplemented with 2500 ppm benomyl for 12 days and then given a single dose of 2C 14 benomyl by gastric intubation. (inchem.org)
- After seven weeks he received a single dose of C 14 benomyl by gelatin capsule. (inchem.org)
- In a laboratory study, dogs fed benomyl in their diets for three months developed no major toxic effects, but did show evidence of altered liver function at the highest dose (150 mg/kg). (wikipedia.org)
- We isolated budding yeast mutants sensitive to the anti-microtubule drug benomyl. (nih.gov)
- Here, we show that under microtubule-destabilizing conditions, such as low temperature or the presence of the spindle-depolymerizing drug benomyl, meiotic budding yeast cells arrest in G 1 or G 2 , instead of metaphase. (asm.org)
- Mitotic arrest-deficient (mad) mutants are the subclass of benomyl-sensitive mutants in which the completion of mitosis is not delayed in the presence of benomyl and that die as a consequence of their premature exit from mitosis. (nih.gov)
- Spray with benomyl. (oldhouseweb.com)
- Use applications of benomyl or sulfur. (oldhouseweb.com)
- Furthermore, the investigation of the expression of mdr1 and cyp51c genes in these strains showed a decrease and increase in adjacency with diazinon and benomyl, respectively. (who.int)
- Detectable benomyl concentrations were found on 15 of 16 cotton glove monitors worn by workers who were trimming plants in an outdoor woody ornamental nursery 46 hours after drench treatment. (cdc.gov)
- Restriction analysis of plasmids isolated from benomyl- and methotrexate-resistant colonies indicated that both phenotypes were encoded by the same DNA fragment. (nih.gov)
- Benomyl is also useful in the laboratory because it is selectively toxic to most members of the Ascomycota, whereas members of the Basidiomycota are largely resistant. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, multiple resistant isolates to prochloraz as well as benomyl increased to 20.3% in 2013~2014. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Ogawa K, Takeda S. Population of benomyl-resistant rice bakanae fungus in paddy fields. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Benomyl -resistant transformants of P. lilacinus were obtained that could tolerate greater than 30 µg/ml benomyl and P. fumosoroseus transformants were obtained that could tolerate 20 µg/ml benomyl . (bvsalud.org)
- Prevent the spread of the fungus by spraying the trees with a fruit tree fungicide containing benomyl in spring when the first buds appear. (gardenguides.com)
- Moreover, benomyl has been observed as causing reproductive problems, making it a potential reproductive system toxicant. (naturalpedia.com)
- The sclerotinia may be controlled with drenches of benomyl. (oldhouseweb.com)
- Coming into direct contact with benomyl can result in skin irritation . (naturalpedia.com)
- Persons involved in the handling of benomyl are advised to wear the appropriate protective clothing when in close proximity to this substance. (naturalpedia.com)
- in fact, the name of the protein class "Bub" (Bub1, etc.) comes from their mutant in which budding was uninhibited by benomyl. (wikipedia.org)
- No unchanged benomyl was found in either urine or faeces. (inchem.org)
- Following 5 serial passages of transformants on benomyl -containing media and 5 serial passages on non-selective media, 100 per cent of P. lilacinus transformants were found to be mitotically stable by a conidial germination test. (bvsalud.org)
- Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by benomyl, a fungicide registered for use in 50 countries on over 70 crops, including cereals, cotton, soybeans, tobacco, mushrooms, grapes, bananas and other fruits. (who.int)
- Benomyl Application method: 1. (burrillandco.com)
- The British Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food took the view this was brought about by the hepatotoxic effect of benomyl. (wikipedia.org)