A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
An agricultural fungicide of the dithiocarbamate class. It has relatively low toxicity and there is little evidence of human injury from exposure.
A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).

Unusual antimicrotubule activity of the antifungal agent spongistatin 1. (1/123)

Spongistatin 1, a macrocyclic lactone from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta, has broad-spectrum antifungal activity. Since this compound is a potent antimicrotubule agent in mammalian cells, we examined its effects on the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans to determine if its antifungal effects are due to antimicrotubule activity. At 25 microg/ml (twice the MIC), spongistatin 1 caused a greater-than-twofold elevation of the chromosome and spindle mitotic indices. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that mitotic spindles were smaller and shorter than in control germlings. However, late-anaphase and telophase nuclei were seen occasionally, and this suggests that the spindles are capable of segregating chromosomes. Spongistatin 1 had more dramatic effects on cytoplasmic microtubules. At 30 min after initiation of treatment, 83% of germlings contained fragmented microtubules and after 2 h of treatment, microtubules had disappeared completely from 82% of germlings. In contrast, microtubules disappeared rapidly and completely from germlings treated with benomyl. We conclude that spongistatin 1 has antimicrotubule activity in A. nidulans and that its mechanism of action may involve a novel microtubule-severing activity.  (+info)

The spindle checkpoint of budding yeast depends on a tight complex between the Mad1 and Mad2 proteins. (2/123)

The spindle checkpoint arrests the cell cycle at metaphase in the presence of defects in the mitotic spindle or in the attachment of chromosomes to the spindle. When spindle assembly is disrupted, the budding yeast mad and bub mutants fail to arrest and rapidly lose viability. We have cloned the MAD2 gene, which encodes a protein of 196 amino acids that remains at a constant level during the cell cycle. Gel filtration and co-immunoprecipitation analyses reveal that Mad2p tightly associates with another spindle checkpoint component, Mad1p. This association is independent of cell cycle stage and the presence or absence of other known checkpoint proteins. In addition, Mad2p binds to all of the different phosphorylated isoforms of Mad1p that can be resolved on SDS-PAGE. Deletion and mutational analysis of both proteins indicate that association of Mad2p with Mad1p is critical for checkpoint function and for hyperphosphorylation of Mad1p.  (+info)

Rhodamine 6G efflux for the detection of CDR1-overexpressing azole-resistant Candida albicans strains. (3/123)

We investigated the drug efflux mechanism in azole-resistant strains of Candida albicans using rhodamine 6G (R6G). No significant differences in R6G uptake were observed between azole-sensitive B2630 (9.02 +/- 0.02 nmol/10(8) cells) and azole-resistant B67081 (8.86 +/- 0.03 nmol/10(8) cells) strains incubated in glucose-free phosphate buffered saline. A significantly higher R6G efflux (2.0 +/- 0.21 nmol/10(8) cells) was noted in the azole-resistant strain (B67081) when glucose was added, compared with that in the sensitive strain B2630 (0.23 < or = 0.14 nmol/10(8) cells). A fluconazole-resistant strain C40 that expressed the benomyl resistance gene (CaMDR) also showed a low R6G efflux (0.16 +/- 0.06 nmol/10(8) cells) as did the sensitive strains. Accumulation of R6G in growing C. albicans cells was inversely correlated with the level of CDR1 mRNA expression. Our data also suggest that measurement of intracellular accumulation of R6G is a useful method for identification of azole-resistant strains due to CDR1-expressed drug efflux pump.  (+info)

Translational regulation of ribonucleotide reductase by eukaryotic initiation factor 4E links protein synthesis to the control of DNA replication. (4/123)

Ribonucleotide reductase synthesizes dNDPs, a specific and limiting step in DNA synthesis, and can participate in neoplastic transformation when overexpressed. The small subunit (ribonucleotide reductase 2 (RNR2)) was cloned as a major product in a subtraction library from eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-transformed cells (Chinese hamster ovary-4E (CHO-4E)). CHO-4E cells have 20-40-fold elevated RNR2 protein, reflecting an increased distribution of RNR2 mRNA to the heavy polysomes. CHO-4E cells display an altered cell cycle with shortened S phase, similar to cells selected for RNR2 overexpression with hydroxyurea. The function of ribonucleotide reductase as a checkpoint component of S progression was studied in yeast in which elevated eIF4E rescued S-arrested rnr2-68(ts) cells, by increasing recruitment of its mRNA to polysomes. Crosses between rnr2-68(ts) and mutant eIF4E (cdc33-1(ts)) engendered conditional synthetic lethality, with extreme sensitivity to hydroxyurea and the microtubule depolymerizing agent, benomyl. The double mutant (cdc33-1 rnr2-68) also identified a unique terminal phenotype, arrested with small bud and a randomly distributed single nucleus, which is distinct from those of both parental single mutants. This phenotype defines eIF4E and RNR2 as determinants in an important cell cycle checkpoint, in early/mid-S phase. These results also provide a link between protein and DNA synthesis and provide an explanation for cell cycle alterations induced by elevated eIF4E.  (+info)

Structure-function relationships in yeast tubulins. (5/123)

A comprehensive set of clustered charged-to-alanine mutations was generated that systematically alter TUB1, the major alpha-tubulin gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A variety of phenotypes were observed, including supersensitivity and resistance to the microtubule-destabilizing drug benomyl, lethality, and cold- and temperature-sensitive lethality. Many of the most benomyl-sensitive tub1 alleles were synthetically lethal in combination with tub3Delta, supporting the idea that benomyl supersensitivity is a rough measure of microtubule instability and/or insufficiency in the amount of alpha-tubulin. The systematic tub1 mutations were placed, along with the comparable set of tub2 mutations previously described, onto a model of the yeast alpha-beta-tubulin dimer based on the three-dimensional structure of bovine tubulin. The modeling revealed a potential site for binding of benomyl in the core of beta-tubulin. Residues whose mutation causes cold sensitivity were concentrated at the lateral and longitudinal interfaces between adjacent subunits. Residues that affect binding of the microtubule-binding protein Bim1p form a large patch across the exterior-facing surface of alpha-tubulin in the model. Finally, the positions of the mutations suggest that proximity to the alpha-beta interface may account for the finding of synthetic lethality of five viable tub1 alleles with the benomyl-resistant but otherwise entirely viable tub2-201 allele.  (+info)

Hybridization and breeding of the benomyl resistant mutant, Trichoderma harziantum antagonized to phytopathogenic fungi by protoplast fusion. (6/123)

A diploid strain obtained from heterokaryons of Trichoderma harzianum by protoplast fusion grew on minimal medium containing 100ppm benomyl. This strain inhibited the growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani on paired cultures and also protected against radish yellows and a drop in germination induced by F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani.  (+info)

Effect of enzyme inhibitors on protein quaternary structure determined by on-line size exclusion chromatography-microelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (7/123)

Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a family of enzymes primarily involved in the oxidation of various aldehydes. Most ALDH enzymes derived from mammalian sources have been shown to exist as homotetramers, consisting of four identical subunits of approximately 54 kDa. The presence of the homotetramer appears to be necessary for enzyme activity. In this study, recombinant rat liver mitochondrial ALDH (rmALDH) was inhibited in vitro with four different inhibitors, namely, disulfiram (MW, 296.5), prunetin (MW, 284.3), benomyl (MW, 290.3), and N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (MW, 351.8). Subsequently, inhibited rmALDH was analyzed by a novel approach of on-line size exclusion chromatography-microelectrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SEC-muESI-MS) to examine the noncovalent quaternary structural stability of the inhibited enzyme. Analysis of native rmALDH by SEC-muESI-MS revealed predominantly the homotetramer (Mr = approximately 217,457 Da, +/- 0.01%) with some in-source, skimmer-induced dissociation to afford monomer (Mr = approximately 54,360 Da, +/- 0.01%). Both disulfiram and prunetin inhibited rmALDH by >70% and >90%, respectively, but did not disrupt the quaternary structure of rmALDH. Furthermore, there was no detectable change within experimental error (+/- 0.01%) of the disulfiram or the prunetin homotetramers (Mr = approximately 217,448 Da and Mr = approximately 217,446 Da). This may possibly indicate that inhibition occurred via formation of intramolecular disulfide bond at the enzyme active site, or weak affinity noncovalent binding. In contrast, benomyl-inhibited rmALDH homotetramer (>90% inhibition) exhibited a Mr = approximately 217,650 Da (+/- 0.01%) corresponding to two butylcarbamoyl adducts on two of the four enzyme subunits. The skimmer-induced monomer afforded a mixture of unmodified rmALDH (Mr = approximately 54,365 Da, +/- 0.01%) and butylcarbamoylated enzyme (Mr = approximately 54,459 Da, +/- 0.01%). Finally, TPCK (>90% inhibition) modified all four subunits of rmALDH to give Mr = approximately 218,646 Da (+/- 0.01%). In all four cases while significant enzyme inhibition occurred, no destabilization of the quaternary complex was detected.  (+info)

Cytoplasmic dynein is required to oppose the force that moves nuclei towards the hyphal tip in the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii. (8/123)

We have followed the migration of GFP-labelled nuclei in multinucleate hyphae of Ashbya gossypii. For the first time we could demonstrate that the mode of long range nuclear migration consists of oscillatory movements of nuclei with, on average, higher amplitudes in the direction of the growing tip. We could also show that mitotic division proceeds at a constant rate of 0. 64 microm/minute which differs from the biphasic kinetics described for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore we were able to identify the microtubule-based motor dynein as a key element in the control of long range nuclear migration. For other filamentous fungi it had already been demonstrated that inactivating mutations in dynein led to severe problems in nuclear migration, i.e. generation of long nuclei-free hyphal tips and clusters of nuclei throughout the hyphae. This phenotype supported the view that dynein is important for the movement of nuclei towards the tip. In A. gossypii the opposite seems to be the case. A complete deletion of the dynein heavy chain gene leads to nuclear clusters exclusively at the hyphal tips and to an essentially nucleus-free network of hyphal tubes and branches. Anucleate hyphae and branches in the vicinity of nuclear clusters show actin cables and polarized actin patches, as well as microtubules. The slow growth of this dynein null mutant could be completely reverted to wild-type-like growth in the presence of benomyl, which can be explained by the observed redistribution of nuclei in the hyphal network.  (+info)

Thus, thermal fluctuations and random, ATP-dependent enzyme activities generate a force that stretches pericentric chromatin outwards along the spindle axis. Polymer physics provides a simple explanation for this (4, 5). As they fluctuate, the pericentric chromatin loops will tend to collide and repel each other, creating an outward-directed force that can counteract the natural tendency of chromatin-or any linear polymer-to curl up into a random coil. So thermodynamic principles tell you that pericentric chromatin is going to be under tension, Bloom says. By organizing pericentric chromatin into a bottle brush configuration, condensin and cohesin generate sufficient tension to separate sister centromeres, even without the input of spindle microtubules. We view this as a sort of primordial segregation machine that predisposes sister centromeres to sit on the surface of chromosomes opposite from one another, Bloom explains.. ...
XRN1 encodes an abundant cytoplasmic exoribonuclease, Xrn1p, responsible for mRNA turnover in yeast. A screen for bypass suppressors of the inviability of xrn1 ski2 double mutants identified dominant alleles of RAT1, encoding an exoribonuclease homologous with Xrn1p. These RAT1 alleles restored XRN1-like functions, including cytoplasmic RNA turnover, wild-type sensitivity to the microtubule-destabilizing drug benomyl, and sporulation. The mutations were localized to a region of the RAT1 gene encoding a putative bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS). Fusions to green fluorescent protein were used to demonstrate that wild-type Rat1p is localized to the nucleus and that the mutant alleles result in mislocalization of Rat1p to the cytoplasm. Conversely, targeting Xrn1p to the nucleus by the addition of the simian virus 40 large-T-antigen NLS resulted in complementation of the temperature sensitivity of a rat1-1 strain. These results indicate that Xrn1p and Rat1p are functionally ...
It seems that benomyl triggers a series of events leading to Parkinsons disease onset. It is assumed that the chemical interferes with an enzyme called ALDH (aldehyde dehydrogenase). In this way, aldehyde dehydrogenase can not prevent accumulation of DOPAL, a toxic substance that has harmful effect on neurons and which greatly increases the risk of developing Parkinsons disease. Benomyl is a substance that has been widely used in the U.S. until it was banned in 2001 because it was found to have toxic effects on health. It seems that this toxic can cause brain malformations, tumors of the liver, reproductive abnormalities, etc.. Furthermore, the destructive effect of benomyl on dopaminergic neurons has been shown in cell culture experiments. Now neuroscientists at UCLA believe that this cascade of events occurs in all patients with Parkinsons disease. If they were create a drug to protect aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme activity, they could treat or prevent Parkinsons disease. Parkinsons ...
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Three new compounds have been synthesized at different pHs under identical hydrothermal conditions, namely, (H2bimb)[Cu(bimb)3(H2O)2(H2P2W18O62)]·4H2O (1), (H2bimb)3[Cu2(bimb)5(H2O)4(HP2W18O62)2]·9H2O (2), and (H2bimb)5[Cu(bimb)2(H2O)2(P2W18O62)2]·8H2O (3) (bimb = 4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene). Their structur
1. MILYEN T PUS GY GYSZER A PROTONEXA GYOMORNEDV-ELLEN LL KEM NY KAPSZULA S MILYEN BETEGS GEK ESET N ALKALMAZHAT ?A Protonexa gyomornedv-ellen ll kem ny kap
1. Milyen t pus gy gyszer az Egiramlon s milyen betegs gek eset n alkalmazhat ?Az Egiramlon k t hat anyagot tartalmaz: a ramiprilt s az amlodipint. A ramipri
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histone H3K4 methylation regulates deactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint through direct binding of Mad2. AU - Schibler, Andria. AU - Koutelou, Evangelia. AU - Tomida, Junya. AU - Wilson-Pham, Marenda. AU - Wang, Li. AU - Lu, Yue. AU - Cabrera, Alexa Parra. AU - Chosed, Renee J.. AU - Li, Wenqian. AU - Li, Bing. AU - Shi, Xiaobing. AU - Wood, Richard D.. AU - Dent, Sharon Y R. PY - 2016/5/15. Y1 - 2016/5/15. N2 - Histone H3 methylation on Lys4 (H3K4me) is associated with active gene transcription in all eukaryotes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Set1 is the sole lysine methyltransferase required for mono-, di-, and trimethylation of this site. Although H3K4me3 is linked to gene expression, whether H3K4 methylation regulates other cellular processes, such as mitosis, is less clear. Here we show that both Set1 and H3K4 mutants display a benomyl resistance phenotype that requires components of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), including Bub3 and Mad2. These proteins ...
Words beginning with ben. This BEN words reference page contains a list of words beginning with BEN, organized by word length. The below online list of words that begin with ben might be useful for people who are taking classes in school leading to a degree, those who play word games, and visitors who enjoy education and learning or teaching about language and like to incorporate new words into their vocabulary.. 3 letter words beginning with ben:. ben 4 letter words beginning with ben:. bend beni beno bent 5 letter words beginning with ben:. bench bendy benic benis benne benny bents 6 letter words beginning with ben:. bename bendee bender benign benjes bennet bennis benumb benzol benzyl 7 letter words beginning with ben:. bencher bendays beneath benefic benefit benegro benempt bengals benison benomyl benthos bentlet benzene benzils benzine benzoic benzoin benzoyl 8 letter words beginning with ben:. bendings bendwise benedict benefact benefice benjamin bentstar bentwood benzenyl benzoate 9 ...
Get info about Itta Bena MS AP Biology test credit. Completion of an accredited healthcare program or other medical training can qualify you to start working in a hospital facility immediately.
Kem P. Krueger is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Suppression des éléments traces par Cupric nanoparticules doxyde de Uranium
Her hos meg har det vært sol og varmt i flere dager, og det ser ut til å holde seg sånn et par dager til :-) Jeg har plukket rips til vinterens ripsgrøt-desserter, og jeg har vært i skogen og plukket blåbær. Det er koselige sensommeraktiviteter. I dag har jeg vært på Ikea sammen med datteren min som skal flytte og bli student. Etter en hel dag med shopping er det godt å slenge bena oppi sofaen nå. ...
Jsem odborníkem ve smyslu §2a Zákona č. 40/1995 Sb., o regulaci reklamy, ve znění pozdějších předpisů, čili jsem osobou oprávněnou předepisovat léčivé přípravky nebo osobou vydávat léčivé přípravky.. ...
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Description Protein Recovery is a delicious tasting protein drink. The ingredients used in this scientifically formulated blend of protein and carbs promote rec
Four organophosphorus pesticides (azinphos-methyl, diazinone, dimethoate, and pirimiphos-methyl), and one carbamate (benomyl) were tested for cytotoxicity, reverse mutation and gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, with and without the S9 metabolic system. Furthermore, two mixtures of the above compounds, namely benomyl + pirimiphos-methyl (6/1 ratio) and dimethoate + diazinone + azinphos-methyl (10/4/6 ratio) were tested in the same experimental model. Azinphos-methyl, benomyl, and pirimiphos-methyl alone did not induce any genotoxic effect, whereas azinphos-methyl and diazinone were active in inducing reversion and gene conversion. The benomyl + pirimiphos-methyl mixture did not show any genotoxic activity. The dimethoate + diazinone + azimphos-methyl mixture was genotoxic, although an antagonistic effect between the components was observed. The addition of S9 post-mitochondrial liver fraction decreased the activity of both single and mixed genotoxic agents.. ...
Benzimidazole anti-microtubule drugs, such as benomyl, induce paralysis and slow the growth of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We have identified 28 mutations in C. elegans that confer resistance to benzimidazoles. All resistant mutations map to a single locus, ben-1. Virtually all these mutations are genetically dominant. Molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis established that ben-1 encodes a beta-tubulin. Some resistant mutants are completely deleted for the ben-1 gene. Since the deletion strains appear to be fully resistant to the drugs, the ben-1 product appears to be the only benzimidazole-sensitive beta-tubulin in C. elegans. Furthermore, since animals lacking ben-1 are viable and coordinated, the ben-1 beta-tubulin appears to be nonessential for growth and movement. The ben-1 function is likely to be redundant in the nematode genome. ...
MCP#164/2) - Stu was fed by Jeremy and taken out of the stable. Stu was being held in the arms by Jeremy when the Thing crashed into the garden onto the stable. Stu was frightened and ran away. Jeremy cried, and the Thing promised him that he would find Stu. The Thing saved Stu from a truck but Stu was still frightened and ran away. Stu ran into a subway station through the crowd, who hought it was a rat. Stu ran over the tracks into dark corners of the subway system, where it ran into a group of rats. The Thing saved Stu from the rats and took him back home to Jeremy. Now Stu was back in the arms of Jeremy and seemed calm again.. Comments: Created by Mariano Nicieza and John Ross. Rabbit Stu sounds like something to eat and I think that is the future of the rabbit. Jeremy is feeding him all the time to become fat ...
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Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Sheela, G. Edwin, Manimaran, D., Joe, I. Hubert, Jothy, V. Bena Materials Today:
Fettstoffer i blodet kan bare påvises ved hjelp av blodprøver. Høye eller lave verdier gir ingen symptomer eller plager. Men høye verdier øker risikoen for hjerte- og karsykdommer som hjerteinfarkt og angina, hjerneslag og trange blodårer i bena.. Fettstoffene i blod måles i enheten millimol per liter (mmol/L). Personer som har kjent hjerte- og karsykdom, eller som har økt risiko for slik sykdom, bør ideelt ha totalkolesterol under 5 mmol/L. Det gode kolesterolet HDL bør ikke være under 1,1-1,3, og LDL-kolesterolet bør være under 2,5 mmol/L. Triglycerider bør være under 2 mmol/L. Personer som ikke har hjerte- og karsykdom eller økt risiko, kan gjerne ha høyere verdier uten at det er nødvendig med behandling. Fastlegen din kan hjelpe deg til å bedømme om dine verdier er for høye.. Alle personer med kjent hjerte- og karsykdom som følge av åreforkalkning (aterosklerose) bør tilbys behandling med kolesterolsenkende midler, såkalt statiner. Behandlingsmålet for denne gruppen ...
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Človeški encimi lahko razkrajajo polisaharide z vezmi α-1,4 in β-1,6, v človeškem prebavnem traktu pa ni encima, ki bi razgradil vez β-1,4, zato se večina zaužite celuloze izloči nespremenjena z blatom. Zato jo v prehrani štejemo med balastne snovi. V človeškem debelem črevesu se nahajajo anaerobne bakterije, ki razgradijo celulozo do kratkoverižnih maščobnih kislin, ki se lahko resorbirajo skozi steno črevesja. Po tej poti se razgradi le majhen delež z rastlinsko hrano zaužite celuloze. Prežvekovalci lahko bolje razgradijo celulozo in druge sorodne polisaharide, saj imajo v vampu mikroorganizme, ki bolj učinkovito cepijo vezi β-1,4. Podobno velja tudi za konje in vodne ptice, pri katerih poteka prebava celuloze s pomočjo mikroorganizmov v debelem črevesu. ...
Stu*pidi*ty (?), n. [L. stupiditas: cf. F. stupidite.] 1. The quality or state of being stupid; extreme dullness of perception or...
Benzimidazole fungicides are a class of fungicides including benomyl, carbendazim (MBC), thiophanate-methyl, thiabendazole and fuberidazole. They can control many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, but not oomycetes. They are applied to cereals, fruits, vegetables and vines, and are also used in postharvest handling of crops. The solubility of benzimidazole fungicides is low at physiological pH and becomes high at low pH. In plants, carbendazim, thiabendazole and fuberidazole are mobile, i.e. systemic, and benomyl and thiophanate-methyl are converted to carbendazim. This conversion also occurs in soils and animals. In soil and water, carbendazim is mainly degraded by microbes. They are metabolized through hydrolysis and photolysis in plants. These fungicides kill cells during mitosis by distorting the mitotic spindle; β-tubulin, a protein important in forming the cytoskeleton, is targeted. They mostly inhibit polymerization of β-tubulin by interacting with it directly, but other interactions also ...
The comprehensive environmental dynamics of the heterocyclic Benzimidazole fungicides, Benomyl and Thiabendazole was investigated. This included examining their fate and distribution in the terrestrial and aquatic phases of a laboratory microcosm comprised of silty clay loam soil and plants. The soil component constituted a major relocation site, with approximately 45 and 75% of initial Benomyl (recovered as MBC) and Thiabendazole concentrations being recovered from the soil component of the microcosm, respectively, while 53 and 27% translocated into corn plants. The adsorption mechanism/s of these fungicides onto soil components were investigated using silty clay loam, silty loam and sandy soils as well as Ca-bentonite. These studies indicated that both fungicides were adsorbed to the highest degree on silty clay loam, followed by silty loam and sandy soils. Their adsorption on Ca-bentonite was found to be a function of the pH of the suspension, suggesting that in the presence of increasing ll ...
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Čestitke, male oglase in osmrtnice za objave na radiu Sraka sprejema oglasna služba v Novomeškem BTC-ju. Termini osmrtnic: ob 7.30 h, ob 12.00 h in 18.15 h. Omenjena obvestila lahko oddate osebno v prodajalni vsak delovnik od 8. do 20. ure i
Precej nediplomatske besede premierja Marjana Šarca o potrebi po postavitvi drugega bloka Nuklearne elektrarne v Krškem so precej vznemirile Avstrijce. To je
Rakovina se ji brzy stane zabij kem slo jedna zem e na ni v c lid ne na infarkt a mrtvici, p edpokl d profesor Lubo Petru elka, p ednosta Onkologick kliniky 1. LF UK V eobecn fakultn nemocnice a VN v Praze.
Precej nediplomatske besede premierja Marjana Šarca o potrebi po postavitvi drugega bloka Nuklearne elektrarne v Krškem so precej vznemirile Avstrijce. To je
Mannr ttindaskrifstofa slands var stofnu Almannagj ingv llum hinn 17. j n 1994, fimmt u ra afm li slenska l veldisins. Skrifstofan er h stofnun sem vinnur a framgangi mannr ttinda me v a stu la a ranns knum og fr slu og efla umr u um mannr ttindi slandi. ...
Odborné pojednání podává důkaz, že vlivem experimentálně vyvolané poruchy steroidní homeostasy v těle vznikají nádory rozličných tkání a orgánů. Během poruchy vzniká podle autorova pozorování autonomie nádorového růstu a kancerogenese tímto způsobem vyvolaná se tedy jeví jako následek vývoje..... Full description. ...
FISIOLOGI OLAHRAGAdr.Prijo Sudibjo, MKes., Sp.S. LAB. FISIOLOGI FIK UNY PENDAHULUAN Fisiologi Olahraga mempelajari fungsi/kerja tub...
View the latest weather forecasts, maps, news and alerts on Yahoo Weather. Find local weather forecasts for Tannersville, United States throughout the world
Survey of California Asparagus for Asparagus Virus I, Asparagus Virus II, and Tobacco Streak Virus. Peter G. Falloon, L. M. FALLOON, and R. G. GROGAN. Pages: 103-105 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Populations, Pathogenicity, and Benomyl Resistance of Botrytis spp., Penicillium spp., and Mucor piriformis in Packinghouses. R. A. Spotts, L. A. Cervantes. Pages: 106-108 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Reduction of Root Rot Caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi in Grapevines by Chemical Treatments. P. G. Marais, M. J. Hattingh. Pages: 109-111 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. In Vitro Assay of Excised Cotyledons of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) to Screen for Resistance to Colletotrichum trifolii. J. D. Cucuzza, J. Kao. Pages: 111-115 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Laboratory Screening Technique for Assessing Resistance of Four Avocado Rootstocks to Phytophthora cinnamomi. T. E. Dolan, M. D. Coffey. Pages: 115-118 VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. Relationships of Virus Infections to Field Performance of Six Clover ...
Benzimidazoles are low use-rate, broad-spectrum fungicides that have been used commercially for the control of plant diseases since the late 1960s. At the time of their introduction, they represented a ground-breaking class of fungicides with unique properties including systemic and curative activity that allowed extended spray intervals. World-wide, benzimidazole fungicides are registered in many countries on more than 70 crops including cereals, grapes, fruits and vegetables. Benzimidazoles currently commercially available include the active ingredients benomyl, carbendazim (MBC), thiabendazole, thiophanate, thiophanate-methyl and fuberidazole.. ...
Foliage of petunia plants exposed to a mixture of ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a controlled environment developed a symptom that fits the description of classic peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN) injury. The undersurface of newly matured leaves became glazed, especially at the apex of the youngest susceptible leaf, at the middle of the intermediate-aged leaf and at the base of the oldest susceptible leaf. As with PAN, injury was more severe on a white-flowered cultivar than on a red-flowered one. In contrast to the result reported for PAN-fumigated plants, prior treatment with benomyl afforded some protection against injury from the mixture of O3 and SO2 in controlled fumigations. In a field study conducted in New Jersey in the summer of 1975, white petunia cultivars responded to ambient air pollution in a manner identical to that observed in controlled fumigations with the mixture of O3 and SO2. We question the generally accepted notion that petunia damage in the northeastern USA is a ...
GIM is required to provide, and Equistar is required to take and pay for, 100 percent of Equistars steam requirements, the complaint states. In the event that GIM fails to provide steam to Equistar in the quantities set forth in the Steam Supply Agreement, Equistar is entitled to contractually specified damages from GIM for the disruption and loss of production ...
Some Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis are becoming resistant to the azole antifungal agent fluconazole after prolonged treatment with this compound. Most of the C. albicans isolates resistant to fluconazole fail to accumulate this antifungal agent, and this has been considered a cause of resistance. This phenomenon was shown to be linked to an increase in the amounts of mRNA of a C. albicans ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter gene called CDR1 and of a gene conferring benomyl resistance (BENr), the product of which belongs to the class of major facilitator multidrug efflux transporters (D. Sanglard, K. Kuchler, F. Ischer, J. L. Pagani, M. Monod, and J. Bille, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2378-2386, 1995). To analyze the roles of these multidrug transporters in the efflux of azole antifungal agents, we constructed C. albicans mutants with single and double deletion mutations of the corresponding genes. The mutants were tested for their ...
Penz.) Penz. & Sacc., one of the most devastating and economically significant pathogen that affects papaya fruit causing postharvest losses of about 40-100% in developing countries (Ademe et al., 2013; Machado et al., 2014; Madani et al., 2014). Papaya anthracnose initiates in the field when the developing fruit is infected, but the symptoms generally appear until the fruit ripens. Anthracnose in papaya is characterized by sunken areas and water soaked spots, which rapidly expand and the infected tissue becomes soft and then necrotic (Ajay Kumar, 2014).. Several chemical fungicides such as prochloraz, propiconazole, benomyl, and thiabendazole are commonly used to control anthracnose disease (Ali et al., 2015; Li et al., 2013; Perumal et al., 2016). However, the long-term use of fungicides has resulted in pathogen resistance to these chemicals (Ali et al., 2015). Moreover, epidemiological studies have shown that many of these pesticides are toxic to human beings. Over the past several decades, ...
A conditional-lethal mutant of bacillus subtilis 168 with a thermosensitive glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, an enzyme specific for the synthesis of t
Get the facts about Itta Bena, MS environmental policy options. Check with each technical school below for assistance with environmental engineering certificate program requirements, degree prerequisites, and class registration. Engineering job offers command competitive salaries due to accelerating technical innovation in manufacturing and heavy industry.
pa perasaan kitak urg nagga gamba diatas,terasa sik ngan dirik ko! yaaahh. bukan apa, aku tok nang saknya ati ngan benda nak camtok, mun dah kitak tek nak keluar makan sama2, hanging out sama2, kakya mun dah kau tek mala ngindin tepon, apalah ko ngajak aku tok keluar! bena aku geram aih. tok pun berlaku ngan dirik ku mpun, among my own circle of friends kat btu tok, sori oo mun kitak urg terasa. bena aih, kadang2 sidak tok tang benar jak ngajak keluar, makan kah, nangga wayang kah, lepak di rumah kah. kakya dah sama dudok d kedey makan, semua nya tek ngindin tepon, kakya aku tek tekakok2 sorang. boleh sik! sak ati ku. aku notice benda tok lately lah oo, dgn adanya fb, instagram, bbm n segalanya ya lahhh.. seriously Im annoyed, ada juak berbunyi, tp kadang2 malas juak lah, I end up eating alone, kakya sidak gago berbbm, kakya sampe brg makan, ambik gamba lok kakya masok instragram??! ok fine lah mun sekali sekala, tp mun dah nak alah2, setakat kuey tiaw kerang, perlukah?? mun ko tek makan dak ...
pa perasaan kitak urg nagga gamba diatas,terasa sik ngan dirik ko! yaaahh. bukan apa, aku tok nang saknya ati ngan benda nak camtok, mun dah kitak tek nak keluar makan sama2, hanging out sama2, kakya mun dah kau tek mala ngindin tepon, apalah ko ngajak aku tok keluar! bena aku geram aih. tok pun berlaku ngan dirik ku mpun, among my own circle of friends kat btu tok, sori oo mun kitak urg terasa. bena aih, kadang2 sidak tok tang benar jak ngajak keluar, makan kah, nangga wayang kah, lepak di rumah kah. kakya dah sama dudok d kedey makan, semua nya tek ngindin tepon, kakya aku tek tekakok2 sorang. boleh sik! sak ati ku. aku notice benda tok lately lah oo, dgn adanya fb, instagram, bbm n segalanya ya lahhh.. seriously Im annoyed, ada juak berbunyi, tp kadang2 malas juak lah, I end up eating alone, kakya sidak gago berbbm, kakya sampe brg makan, ambik gamba lok kakya masok instragram??! ok fine lah mun sekali sekala, tp mun dah nak alah2, setakat kuey tiaw kerang, perlukah?? mun ko tek makan dak ...
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We enlisted the help of Bimb0_Slice, aka Meleth Gonzales, to interview fighters at the Strikeforce Heavyweight Grand Prix finals. Were pretty amazed she agreed to do it since Meleth flew in from Turkey that same day and was basically running on fumes and media room coffee. Esther was busy being crazy as the Strikeforce photographer […]. 2012/05/20 , 1 Comment ». ...
I foten samarbeider bena, senene og leddbåndene som finnes ved grunnleddet til stortåen, og som kalles det mediale første metatarsale falangealledd, o...
|p|S ultra měkkým zobáčkem je přechod od kojení nebo láhve k pití z hrnečku velmi snadný.|/p| |ul| |li||strong|Nevytékající|/strong| - ideální pro trénování
The herbicides benomyl and fuberidazole are made in this manner. Thiophanate-methyl is another herbicide produced from o- ...
... most agriculturalists utilize the fungicide benomyl . Benomyl is applied directly to the seed, as a pretreatment, before ... For instance, benomyl works best if you dry the onions in a 30 °C environment after harvest. Lower drying temperatures, such as ...
"Molecular cloning and characterization of the human budding uninhibited by benomyl (BUB3) promoter". Gene. 295 (1): 117-23. doi ...
Red Thread can be treated using a fungicide that contains benomyl or carbendazim. The infection will rarely kill the grass, ...
... is a widely used, systemic, broad-spectrum benzimidazole fungicide and a metabolite of benomyl. It is also employed ...
This will help reduce the rate at which pathogens may develop resistance to Benomyl products. Prior to shuck split, the ... Growers may also consider making an after harvest fungicide application using a combination of Benomyl (50% WP) and Captan (50 ...
... with benomyl" (PDF). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 85: 132-135. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2004.01.005. Haelewaters, Danny; ...
This mildew can be treated with sulfur or fungicides; however resistance to several chemical classes such as Benomyl, the DMIs ...
The most effective fungicides are "50% copper formulations, captafol, chlorothalonil, benomyl, thiophanate-methyl, ...
In plants, carbendazim, thiabendazole and fuberidazole are mobile, i.e. systemic, and benomyl and thiophanate-methyl are ... Benzimidazole fungicides are a class of fungicides including benomyl, carbendazim (MBC), thiophanate-methyl, thiabendazole and ...
For example, L. fungicola has become resistant to benomyl, a common fungicide that is toxic to microorganisms. Third, the use ...
It is used in the synthesis of fengabine, the fungicide benomyl, and butamoxane, and the antidiabetic tolbutamide. The LD50 to ...
Benomyl. Преузето из „https://sr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Benomil&oldid=8835329" ...
Studies have shown milk's effectiveness as comparable to some conventional fungicides, and better than benomyl and fenarimol at ...
Higgins VJ, Miao V, Hollands J (1987). "The use of benomyl and cycloheximide resistance markers in studies of race development ...
Benomyl (Benlate) and mancozeb (Dithane M-45) have shown a degree of effectiveness in controlling S. maydis in the Nigerian ...
The seeds were coated with thiram or benomyl wettable powder before being planted, resulting in very good control of the ...
The treatment of stem rot includes the use of fungicides such as Cheshunt or Benomyl, which are used prior to planting. ...
In general, sprays of triadimefon or benomyl applied at weekly intervals throughout the flowering period have controlled the ...
Lastly, some drugs, such as furazolidone, furoxone, benomyl, fumagillin, proguanil and clamoxyquine, have been shown to impede ...
... benomyl and hexaconazole. Prior to fungicidal application, prevention measures should be applied to lower the risk for fungal ...
Some fungicides including benomyl, dicopper chloride trihydroxide, copper sulfate and copper hydroxide may be used as flower ...
Benomyl, the systemic benzimidazole fungicide, has also been used as a means to control mango scab infection, but has been out ...
... and fungicides such as benomyl, carbendazim, chlordecone, methoxychlor, methylmercury, fenarimol, and TCDD. The Florida panther ...
Chemical control involves using specific pesticides such as benomyl, captafol, captan, carboxin, metalaxyl, propamocarb ...
Reports have been made concerning fungicides thiabendazole, benomyl, imazalil, sodium-o-phenylphenate as well as fungistatic ...
Other fungicides such as zineb, chlorothalonil and Captan, also treat leaf spot disease and Benomyl specifically treats ...
The molecular formula C14H18N4O3 (molar mass: 290.318 g/mol) may refer to: Benomyl Trimethoprim (TMP) This set index page lists ...
... benomyl MeSH D03.438.103.145 - bisbenzimide MeSH D03.438.103.190 - cambendazole MeSH D03.438.103.370 - domperidone MeSH D03.438 ...
Selection of Scedosporium growth can be achieved on Leonian's agar supplemented with 10 g/mL benomyl, or on media containing ...
Benomyl - Specific Medical Tests or Examinations Published in the Literature for OSHA-Regulated Substances ... Benomyl. CAS No: 17804-35-2. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references include ... Benomyl. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Methyl 1-(butylcarbamoyl)-2-benzimidazolecarbamate White crystalline solid with a faint, acrid odor. [fungicide] [Note: Decomposes without melting above 572°F.]
... comes from their mutant in which budding was uninhibited by benomyl. Benomyl acts by depolymerizing microtubules. Benomyl is ... Benomyl, Environmental Health Criteria No 148, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993. Benomyl in the Pesticide ... mushroom pickers and floriculturists have reported allergic reactions to benomyl. In a laboratory study, dogs fed benomyl in ... Benomyl is of low toxicity to mammals. It has an arbitrary LD50 of "greater than 10,000 mg/kg/day for rats". Skin irritation ...
Benomyl (HSG 81, 1993) Benomyl (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3) Benomyl (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5) Benomyl (Pesticide ... BENOMYL. ICSC. : 0382. Methyl 1-((butylamino)carbonyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate. Carbamic acid, ((1-(butylamino)carbonyl)- ... residues in food: 1983 evaluations) Benomyl (JMPR Evaluation 1995 Part II Toxicological and environmental) ...
Benomyl resistant. Locus tag. NCU04054. Gene type. protein coding. RNA name tubulin beta chain. RefSeq status. PROVISIONAL. ... Bml Benomyl resistant [ Neurospora crassa OR74A ] Gene ID: 3873840, updated on 12-Oct-2017 ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Benomyl (EHC 148, 1993) Benomyl (HSG 81, 1993) Benomyl (ICSC) Benomyl (WHO Pesticide ... BENOMYL JMPR 1975 Explanation Benomyl was considered by the Joint Meeting in 1973 (FAO/WHO, 1974), but tolerances could not be ... benomyl for 12 days and then given a single dose of 2C14 benomyl by gastric intubation. After 24 hours, 78.9% of the ... g benomyl/kg body weight. Urine and faeces were collected for 96 hours at intervals of 24 hours. The metabolism of benomyl was ...
Benomyl Pathway Map. [Compounds and Reactions] [BBD Main Menu] This pathway was completed by Lynda Ellis and Michael Turnbull, ... Benomyl Pseudomonas spp. ,. ,. , A , non-enzymatic , N-butylcarbamate v hydrolase Carbendazim + N-Butylcarbamate ----------, n- ... Several Pseudomonas species can use benomyl as the sole carbon source for growth. The initial step in the degradation of ... The following is a text-format benomyl pathway map. An organism which can initiate the pathway is given, but other organisms ...
Benomyl is a systemic benzimidazole fungicide, meaning that this substance works by interfering with cell division and hyphal ... How to avoid benomyl. As per the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), benomyl is registered for post-harvest ... Chronic exposure to benomyl has been connected to toxic effects in animal reproduction and genetic damage in humans. Benomyl, ... Body systems affected by benomyl. Depending on the route of exposure, benomyl can target the skin, eyes, and respiratory system ...
Showing metabocard for Benomyl (HMDB0031767). IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectraBiological properties ... Benomyl is an Agricultural and horticultural systemic fungicide mainly used on rice and soybea. ...
... albicans libraries and screening on benomyl or methotrexate. Restriction analysis of plasmids isolated from benomyl- and ... Analysis of a Candida albicans gene that encodes a novel mechanism for resistance to benomyl and methotrexate.. Fling ME1, Kopf ... The pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans, is insensitive to the anti-mitotic drug, benomyl, and to the dihydrofolate reductase ...
Though benomyl has been shown to cause contact dermatitis and dermal sensitization in some farm workers, the report found no ... Benomyl is toxic to earthworms in laboratory experiments at realistic exposure concentrations and as a result of recommended ... Because benomyl is rapidly converted to carbendazim in the environment and is extensively metabolized to carbendazim by ... Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by benomyl, a fungicide registered for use in 50 countries on ...
Combined application of benomyl and thiram improved control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soil. The effect of the combined ... Fungicidal Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Soil with a Combination of Benomyl and Thiram. O. Yarden, Department of Plant ... The low mobility of benomyl in the soil profile combined with the extended persistence of fungitoxic residues resulting from ... In previous experiments, the fungicide thiram suppressed benomyl degradation and prolonged its activity in the soil. ...
... benomyl and ketoconazole. Following dose-response screening of 25 strains, 4 were selected on the basis of resistance or s … ... Keywords: benomyl; individual drug response; ketoconazole; next-generation sequencing bulk segregant analysis; quantitative ... UWOPS87-2421 and L-1374 were respectively resistant and sensitive to benomyl; DBVPG6044 and Y12 were respectively resistant and ... The Genetic Architecture in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae That Contributes to Variation in Drug Response to the Antifungals Benomyl ...
Recombinant Protein and Benomyl/methotrexate resistance protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein ... Benomyl/methotrexate resistance protein. Benomyl/methotrexate resistance protein ELISA Kit. Benomyl/methotrexate resistance ... Confers resistance to benomyl and methotrexate.. Below are the list of possible Benomyl/methotrexate resistance protein ... Benomyl/methotrexate resistance protein Antibody. Probable transporter. Confers resistance to benomyl and methotrexate.. ...
Benomyl inhibits hyphal phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phospatases in a cucumber - Glomus caledonium symbiosis. ... Benomyl inhibits hyphal phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phospatases in a cucumber - Glomus caledonium symbiosis. ... title = "Benomyl inhibits hyphal phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phospatases in a cucumber - Glomus caledonium ... T1 - Benomyl inhibits hyphal phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phospatases in a cucumber - Glomus caledonium ...
Baseline Sensitivity and Monitoring for the Resistance to Benomyl of Fusarium Species Causing Bakanae Disease in Korea - ... value of isolates to benomyl increased from in 2006~2007 to in 2013~2014. Based on MIC and values of isolates, the moderate ... Ogawa K, Takeda S. Population of benomyl-resistant rice bakanae fungus in paddy fields. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 1990;56:247-9. ... value, and resistant isolates to benomyl were determined as more than of value. Compared with the ratio of resistant isolates ...
Tag: benomyl. Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self- ... benomyl, bentazon, benthic, bioassay, biodiversity, biological effects, bivalves, blooms, Ceriodaphnia dubia, chemical ... benomyl, bentazon, cyfluthrin, dimethoat, lindan, maneb, zineb, and ziram. In case of several pesticides, it was directly shown ... benomyl, bentazon, cyfluthrin, dimethoat, lindan, maneb, zineb, ziram, pesticides, inhibitory effects on feeding, mortality, ...
noun ● A fungicide that binds to microtubules, interfering with cell functions such as meiosis and intracellular transportation.
Benomyl 50%Wp FOB Price: US $ 1 / kg. Min. Order: 1 kg ... Benomyl 95%Tech FOB Price: US $ 1 / kg. Min. Order: 1 kg ...
We specialize in research and development of pesticide technical and formulations, provide kinds of pesticide formulations such as WP, WDG, SC, EC, SL, SP, WS, EW, SG, CS, FS, UVL and DF.
Benomyl 50%WP Molecular formula: C14H18N4O3 CAS No. 17804-35-2 EINECS No. 241-775-7 Classification: Fungicide Specification: 50 ...
High Quality Agrochemicals Benomyl Benlate Fungicide Min. Order: 100 Liter *Appearance: Powder ...
Effect of benomyl on lignin degradation by some fungi Abdel Rahman Tahany M. A.; Egypt. J. Physiol. Sci. 1990; 14 (2-Jan): 139- ... Addition of benomyl at low concentrations increased the solubilization of vanillic acid and significantly decreased that of p- ... The mycelial growth ceased at 1000, 800 and 200 ppm benomyl in A. fumigatus, F. O. f. sp. Vasinfectum and F. O. f. sp. ... Citation: Tahany M. A. Abdel Rahman , Effect of benomyl on lignin degradation by some fungi, Egypt. J. Physiol. Sci. 1990; 14 ( ...
Benomyl. 250 mg. DRE-C10490000. Add to basket Benoxacor. 250 mg. DRE-C10491000. Add to basket ...
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a. Remove the following substances in their entirety: Aluminum (as Al) metal; barium sulfate; benomyl; bismuth telluride, ...
Benomyl Benomyl causes contact dermatitis and dermal sensitisation in humans. No other effects have been reported. It is ... Given the similar toxicities of benomyl and carbendazim (methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate, the main metabolite of benomyl in ... Both substances represent a very low risk for acute poisoning in humans; benomyl causes dermal sensitization. Animal data and ... unlikely that benomyl, or its decomposition product carbendazim, would cause systemic toxicity effects in occupationally ...
Assay of Benomyl Sensitivity and Assay of the SAC in Response to Benomyl.. We examined the ability of WT, tel1, mec1, and tel1 ... In the absence of benomyl, about 80% of the WT and mad2 cells budded more than once. In the presence of benomyl, 97% of the WT ... We then removed α-factor and plated the cells on rich solid growth medium (YPD) containing benomyl or lacking benomyl. We ... 4A, the tel1 mec1 strain grew poorly on all plates, including the plate lacking benomyl. The same strain with the pVL1107-URA3 ...
  • Benomyl, methyl N-[1-(butylcarbamoyl)benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate, and its conversion product, carbendazim, methyl benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate, are systemic fungicides. (ethz.ch)
  • One of the most widely used members of the benzimidazole family of fungicides, benomyl is effective, at low usage rates, against more than 190 different fungal diseases. (who.int)
  • Benomyl and thiophanatemethyl are systemic fungicides. (gardenguides.com)
  • The original strain and one derived variant were tested for sensitivity to the fungicides benomyl and captan. (scielo.br)
  • Antifungal activity of Juniperus oils was weak when compared with commercial fungicides such as benomyl and captan. (usda.gov)
  • The initial step in the degradation of benomyl is hydrolysis of the butylcarbamoyl side chain to form carbendazim (MBC). (ethz.ch)
  • Because benomyl is rapidly converted to carbendazim in the environment and is extensively metabolized to carbendazim by experimental animals, data from studies of carbendazim, which is a fungicide in its own right, are also considered when evaluating the hazards of benomyl. (who.int)
  • For the general population, the main source of potential exposure is noted to be through the ingestion of food crops containing residues of benomyl and carbendazim. (who.int)
  • Treatment with acetonitrile at 60 degrees C caused the degradation of benomyl to carbendazim that was then derivatized. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1983, an ADI of 0-0.01 mg/kg bw was established on the basis of a review of data on the toxicity of carbendazim and benomyl and incorporating a higher-than-normal safety factor in view of the paucity of data on individual animals in many studies, This ADI was confirmed in 1985, when additional data were reviewed, but concern remained due to the absence of individual data. (inchem.org)
  • Benomyl (also marketed as Benlate) is a fungicide introduced in 1968 by DuPont. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benomyl, then being marketed under the brand name of Benlate, was named as the cause for numerous children in the United Kingdom being born without eyes. (naturalpedia.com)
  • In addition to Benlate, benomyl is marketed under many other commercial names. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Glove permeation and determination of Benomyl in Benlate 50% WP pesticide formulation by GC-MS and GC-EC. (cdc.gov)
  • Benomyl is the active ingredient of the pesticide, Benlate 50% WP. (cdc.gov)
  • Since the early 1970s, P. expansum has been controlled through postharvest applications of thiabendazole (TBZ), benomyl, or thiophanate-methyl (2,7,22). (plantmanagementnetwork.org)
  • Due to the prevalence of resistance of parasitic fungi to benomyl, it and similar pesticides are of diminished effectiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of a Candida albicans gene that encodes a novel mechanism for resistance to benomyl and methotrexate. (nih.gov)
  • Genes responsible for the intrinsic drug resistance were sought by transforming Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast sensitive to both drugs, with genomic C. albicans libraries and screening on benomyl or methotrexate. (nih.gov)
  • Confers resistance to benomyl and methotrexate. (mybiosource.com)
  • Below are the list of possible Benomyl/methotrexate resistance protein products. (mybiosource.com)
  • To examine the changes in resistance to benomyl of Fusarium species causing bakanae disease, Fusarium isolates were collected in Korea, and pathogenicity tests were performed using rice seeds in vitro. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • 4 displayed resistance against the antifungals benomyl and fluconazole. (mdpi.com)
  • Benomyl is a systemic benzimidazole fungicide , meaning that this substance works by interfering with cell division and hyphal growth of affected fungi. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Concerning hazards to environmental organisms, the report cites data from laboratory and field studies indicating that benomyl, applied at recommended rates, has little effect on soil microbial activity, but some adverse effects on groups of fungi. (who.int)
  • Tahany M. A. Abdel Rahman , Effect of benomyl on lignin degradation by some fungi, Egypt. (who.int)
  • In the agriculture industry, Benomyl killed nearly all of the fungi on crops such as strawberries and wheat, but the few surviving fungi happened to be highly toxic molds - which are now flourishing in our environment. (mercola.com)
  • Though benomyl has been shown to cause contact dermatitis and dermal sensitization in some farm workers, the report found no evidence that either of these compounds can cause systemic toxic effects in occupationally exposed subjects or the general population. (who.int)
  • No residues of benomyl and/or MBC were found in milk, urine or faeces. (inchem.org)
  • No residues in milk (less than 0.01 ppm) were detected 48 hours after benomyl was removed from the diet. (inchem.org)
  • No residues of benomyl or its degradation products were detected in the tissue samples. (inchem.org)
  • The low mobility of benomyl in the soil profile combined with the extended persistence of fungitoxic residues resulting from the thiram amendment contribute to the improved control of the pathogen by benomyl in soil while providing an option for benomyl dosage reduction. (apsnet.org)
  • Benomyl is of low toxicity to mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhaling benomyl is notably risky because doing so can result in acute toxicity. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Rosendahl, S. / Benomyl inhibits hyphal phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phospatases in a cucumber - Glomus caledonium symbiosis . (dtu.dk)
  • Vanillic acid was recorded at higher quantities and its metabolization by the three fungal species was continued at all benomyl concentrations. (who.int)
  • Benomyl acts by depolymerizing microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules in kip2Δ cells were shorter and more sensitive to benomyl than wild-type, in contrast to the longer and benomyl-resistant microtubules found in dyn1Δ and kip3Δ cells. (rupress.org)
  • Skin irritation may occur through industrial exposure, and florists, mushroom pickers and floriculturists have reported allergic reactions to benomyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coming into direct contact with benomyl can result in skin irritation . (naturalpedia.com)
  • In addition to being a dermal irritant, benomyl is an ocular and respiratory irritant as well. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Benomyl is a dermal, respiratory, and ocular irritant that has been linked to incidences of microphthalmia and anophthalmia, both genetic defects. (naturalpedia.com)
  • We isolated budding yeast mutants sensitive to the anti-microtubule drug benomyl. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we show that under microtubule-destabilizing conditions, such as low temperature or the presence of the spindle-depolymerizing drug benomyl, meiotic budding yeast cells arrest in G 1 or G 2 , instead of metaphase. (asm.org)
  • Chronic exposure to benomyl has been connected to toxic effects in animal reproduction and genetic damage in humans. (naturalpedia.com)
  • The genetic basis of variation in drug response was investigated in individual Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that exhibited different susceptibility to two antifungal agents: benomyl and ketoconazole. (nih.gov)
  • Mitotic arrest-deficient (mad) mutants are the subclass of benomyl-sensitive mutants in which the completion of mitosis is not delayed in the presence of benomyl and that die as a consequence of their premature exit from mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • citation needed] Benomyl binds strongly to soil and does not dissolve in water to any great extent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benomyl can linger in the environment: it binds to soil, doesn't dissolve in water. (naturalpedia.com)
  • In previous experiments, the fungicide thiram suppressed benomyl degradation and prolonged its activity in the soil. (apsnet.org)
  • Combined application of benomyl and thiram improved control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soil. (apsnet.org)
  • Thiram may prove useful as an extender and fortifier of benomyl activity in soil. (apsnet.org)
  • In regards to occupational exposures to benomyl, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set a permissible exposure limit of 15 mg/m3 for total exposure over an eight-hour time-weighted average, and 5 mg/m3 for respiratory exposures. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a report by BBC from 2003 , scientists connected benomyl exposure with the disrupted formation of eyes in human fetuses, leading to several babies having microphthalmia (wherein the eyes are smaller than normal) or anophthalmia (wherein the the baby was born with the eyes absent and the eyelids sealed shut). (naturalpedia.com)
  • Depending on the route of exposure, benomyl can target the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. (naturalpedia.com)
  • As such, it's best to avoid purchasing these fruits from supermarkets, to minimize benomyl exposure. (naturalpedia.com)
  • The area where benomyl exposure occurs should have emergency showers and eyewash fountains in case direct contact happens. (naturalpedia.com)
  • The metabolism of benomyl was also studied in vitro using various tissue homogenates as well as blood and sheep rumen fluid as enzyme sources. (inchem.org)
  • Haldeman J.H., Thomas R.L., McKamy D.L., Use of benomyl and rifampicin for in vitro shoot tip culture of Camellia sinesis and C. japonica , HortScience 22 (1987) 306-307. (edpsciences.org)
  • The US Environmental Protection Agency classified benomyl as a possible carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • As per the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), benomyl is registered for post-harvest use on apricots , citrus fruits , cherries , prunes , peaches , and plums. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Furthermore, benomyl has been found to be highly toxic to fish, moderately toxic to certain species of birds (redwing blackbirds), and very lethal to earthworms. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Moreover, benomyl has been found to be toxic to birds and fish, and lethal to earthworms. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Benomyl is also useful in the laboratory because it is selectively toxic to most members of the Ascomycota, whereas members of the Basidiomycota are largely resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Restriction analysis of plasmids isolated from benomyl- and methotrexate-resistant colonies indicated that both phenotypes were encoded by the same DNA fragment. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, multiple resistant isolates to prochloraz as well as benomyl increased to 20.3% in 2013~2014. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Ogawa K, Takeda S. Population of benomyl-resistant rice bakanae fungus in paddy fields. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • In a laboratory study, dogs fed benomyl in their diets for three months developed no major toxic effects, but did show evidence of altered liver function at the highest dose (150 mg/kg). (wikipedia.org)
  • EVALUATION FOR ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE BIOCHEMICAL ASPECTS Absorption, distribution and excretion A male rat was fed a basal diet supplemented with 2500 ppm benomyl for 12 days and then given a single dose of 2C 14 benomyl by gastric intubation. (inchem.org)
  • After seven weeks he received a single dose of C 14 benomyl by gelatin capsule. (inchem.org)
  • Prevent the spread of the fungus by spraying the trees with a fruit tree fungicide containing benomyl in spring when the first buds appear. (gardenguides.com)
  • The sclerotinia may be controlled with drenches of benomyl. (oldhouseweb.com)
  • Several Pseudomonas species can use benomyl as the sole carbon source for growth. (ethz.ch)
  • Addition of low levels of benomyl accelerated both growth and Iignin degradation by the three species, while the higher levels were inhibitory to them. (who.int)
  • The mycelial growth ceased at 1000, 800 and 200 ppm benomyl in A. fumigatus, F. O. f. sp. (who.int)
  • In the 1970s, Benomyl was also added to paints to stop the growth of mold on damp walls, especially in public buildings such as offices and schools. (mercola.com)
  • in fact, the name of the protein class "Bub" (Bub1, etc.) comes from their mutant in which budding was uninhibited by benomyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by benomyl, a fungicide registered for use in 50 countries on over 70 crops, including cereals, cotton, soybeans, tobacco, mushrooms, grapes, bananas and other fruits. (who.int)
  • A sensitive analytical technique was first developed to determine benomyl. (cdc.gov)
  • Root systems of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings were dip-treated in either benomyl/clay mix (10 percent a.i. benomyl) or clay control and planted. (usda.gov)
  • No unchanged benomyl was found in either urine or faeces. (inchem.org)
  • Benomyl Application method: 1. (burrillandco.com)
  • The benomyl test as a fundamental diagnostic method for medical mycology. (asm.org)
  • The British Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food took the view this was brought about by the hepatotoxic effect of benomyl. (wikipedia.org)
  • For these purposes, benomyl can be purchased as a dry flowable powder, wettable powder, or dispersed granules. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Addition of benomyl at low concentrations increased the solubilization of vanillic acid and significantly decreased that of p-hdyroxy benzoic and syringic acids. (who.int)
  • For storage, keep benomyl in a dry, well-ventilated area without sewer access or drainage, and separated from food and feedstuffs. (naturalpedia.com)
  • Products available for use on ornamentals include benomyl, Funginex, and Karathane. (orlandosentinel.com)