The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.
Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.
Character traits that are considered to be morally praiseworthy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
A school of thought and set of moral, ethical, and political teachings usually considered to be founded by Confucius in 6th-5th century B.C. China. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)
A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.
The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The interactions between physician and patient.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.

The basis of informed consent for BMT patients. (1/198)

During recent decades the doctrine of informed consent has become a standard part of medical care as an expression of patients' rights to self-determination. In situations when only one treatment alternative exists for a potential cure, the extent of a patient's self-determination is constrained. Our hypothesis is that for patients considering a life-saving procedure such as bone marrow transplant (BMT), informed consent has little meaning as a basis for their right to self-determination. A longitudinal study of BMT patients was undertaken with four self-administered questionnaires. Questions centered around expectations, knowledge, anxiety and factors contributing to their decision to undergo treatment. Although the informed consent process made patients more knowledgeable about the treatment, their decision to consent was largely based on positive outcome expectations and on trust in the physician. Informed consent relieved their anxieties and increased their hopes for survival. Our conclusion was that the greatest value of the informed consent process lay in meeting the patients' emotional rather than cognitive needs. When their survival is at stake and BMT represents their only option, the patient's vulnerability puts a moral responsibility on the physician to respect the principle of beneficence while not sacrificing the patient's right to self-determination.  (+info)

Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation. (2/198)

The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus.  (+info)

Should doctors intentionally do less than the best? (3/198)

The papers of Burley and Harris, and Draper and Chadwick, in this issue, raise a problem: what should doctors do when patients request an option which is not the best available? This commentary argues that doctors have a duty to offer that option which will result in the individual affected by that choice enjoying the highest level of wellbeing. Doctors can deviate from this duty and submaximise--bring about an outcome that is less than the best--only if there are good reasons to do so. The desire to have a child which is genetically related provides little, if any, reason to submaximise. The implication for cloning, preimplantation diagnosis and embryo transfer is that doctors should only produce a clone or transfer embryos expected to enjoy a level of wellbeing which is less than that enjoyed by other children the couple could have, if there is a good reason to employ that technology. This paper sketches what might constitute a good reason to submaximise.  (+info)

Genetic privacy: orthodoxy or oxymoron? (4/198)

In this paper we question whether the concept of "genetic privacy" is a contradiction in terms. And, if so, whether the implications of such a conclusion, inevitably impact on how society comes to perceive privacy and responsibility generally. Current law and ethical discourse place a high value on self-determination and the rights of individuals. In the medical sphere, the recognition of patient "rights" has resulted in health professionals being given clear duties of candour and frankness. Dilemmas arise, however, when patients decline to know relevant information or, knowing it, refuse to share it with others who may also need to know. This paper considers the notions of interconnectedness and responsibility to others which are brought to the fore in the genetic sphere and which challenge the primacy afforded to personal autonomy. It also explores the extent to which an individual's perceived moral obligations can or should be enforced.  (+info)

Genetically determined obesity in Prader-Willi syndrome: the ethics and legality of treatment. (5/198)

A central characteristic of people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is an apparent insatiable appetite leading to severe overeating and the potential for marked obesity and associated serious health problems and premature death. This behaviour may be due to the effects of the genetic defect resulting from the chromosome 15 abnormalities associated with the syndrome. We examine the ethical and legal dilemmas that can arise in the care of people with PWS. A tension exists between a genetic deterministic perspective and that of individual choice. We conclude that the determination of the capacity of a person with PWS to make decisions about his/her eating behaviour and to control that behaviour is of particular importance in resolving this dilemma. If the person is found to lack capacity, the common law principles of acting in a person's "best interests" using the "least restrictive alternative" may be helpful. Allowing serious weight gain in the absence of careful consideration of these issues is an abdication of responsibility.  (+info)

Protective truthfulness: the Chinese way of safeguarding patients in informed treatment decisions. (6/198)

The first part of this paper examines the practice of informed treatment decisions in the protective medical system in China today. The second part examines how health care professionals in China perceive and carry out their responsibilities when relaying information to vulnerable patients, based on the findings of an empirical study that I had undertaken to examine the moral experience of nurses in practice situations. In the Chinese medical ethics tradition, refinement [jing] in skills and sincerity [cheng] in relating to patients are two cardinal virtues that health care professionals are required to possess. This notion of absolute sincerity carries a strong sense of parental protectiveness. The empirical findings reveal that most nurses are ambivalent about telling the truth to patients. Truth-telling would become an insincere act if a patient were to lose hope and confidence in life after learning of his or her disease. In this system of protective medical care, it is arguable as to whose interests are being protected: the patient, the family or the hospital. I would suggest that the interests of the hospital and the family members who legitimately represent the patient's interests are being honoured, but at the expense of the patient's right to know.  (+info)

Responses by four Local Research Ethics Committees to submitted proposals. (7/198)

BACKGROUND: There is relatively little research concerning the processes whereby Local Research Ethics Committees discharge their responsibilities towards society, potential participants and investigators. OBJECTIVES: To examine the criteria used by LRECs in arriving at their decisions concerning approval of research protocols through an analysis of letters sent to investigators. DESIGN: Four LRECs each provided copies of 50 letters sent to investigators after their submitted proposals had been considered by the committees. These letters were subjected to a content analysis, in which specific comments and requests for additional information and changes in the protocols were recorded and compared. FINDINGS: Overall 24% of proposals were approved without request for changes or clarifications, but this varied by committee: one committee approved only 6% of proposals without change or clarification while the others ranged from 26% to 32%. The content analyses of responses indicated that they could be placed into four categories: (i) further information for the committee to aid in their deliberations; (ii) requests for changes to the design or justification for the design used; (iii) changes to the information sheets provided to potential participants; and (iv) changes to consent procedures. Of these, alterations to information sheets were the most common type of request. These four types of response could be seen as safeguarding the wellbeing of potential participants (the principle of non-maleficence), of promoting the scientific validity of the research (the principle of beneficence), and of enhancing the rights of potential participants (the principle of autonomy). CONCLUSIONS: The committees were consistent in the types of requests they made of investigators, which can be seen as attempts to protect participants' rights and ensure the scientific validity of studies. Without an analysis of the proposals sent to the committees, however, it is difficult to account for the variation in the requirements set by the committees before approval was given.  (+info)

Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics. (8/198)

The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs".  (+info)

Beneficence is a principle in medical ethics that means to act in the best interest of the patient. It involves providing benefits and balancing benefits against risks and harms. Healthcare providers are expected to promote well-being, prevent harm, and remove harmful conditions for their patients. Beneficence also includes considerations such as respecting autonomy, being honest and transparent, and ensuring fairness and justice in the provision of healthcare.

Principle-Based Ethics is a framework for moral decision-making that involves the application of several fundamental ethical principles. These principles include:

1. Respect for Autonomy: This principle recognizes and respects an individual's right to make their own decisions, as long as they do not harm others or infringe upon their rights.
2. Nonmaleficence: This principle requires that healthcare providers should not cause harm to their patients. They should avoid doing anything that could potentially harm their patients, unless the potential benefits of an action outweigh its risks.
3. Beneficence: This principle requires healthcare providers to act in the best interests of their patients and promote their well-being. Healthcare providers should take positive actions to benefit their patients and prevent harm.
4. Justice: This principle requires that healthcare resources be distributed fairly and equitably among all members of society, regardless of their social status or ability to pay.

These principles serve as a foundation for ethical decision-making in healthcare and provide guidance for making difficult moral choices. They are often used in conjunction with other ethical theories and frameworks, such as consequentialism and virtue ethics, to help healthcare providers make informed and responsible decisions that promote the well-being of their patients while also respecting their autonomy and rights.

"Personal Autonomy" is not a medical term per se, but it is often used in medical ethics and patient care. It refers to the ability of an individual to make informed decisions about their own health and healthcare, based on their own values, beliefs, and preferences, without undue influence or coercion from others. This includes the right to accept or refuse medical treatment, to maintain confidentiality, and to participate in shared decision-making with healthcare providers. Personal autonomy is recognized as a fundamental principle in medical ethics and patient rights, and is protected by laws and regulations in many countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Moral Obligations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "moral obligations" is more related to ethics and philosophy, referring to the duties or actions that are considered right or wrong based on a set of moral principles or values.

However, in a broader sense, healthcare professionals may use the term "moral obligations" to refer to their professional responsibility and commitment to providing compassionate, respectful, and high-quality care to all patients, regardless of their background, beliefs, or circumstances. This concept is closely related to medical ethics and professionalism, which provide guidelines for ethical decision-making in clinical practice.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "virtues" are typically not a term used in medical definitions. Virtues are moral qualities or traits that are considered desirable or commendable, such as honesty, compassion, courage, and loyalty. They are often associated with ethical behavior and personal character. If you have any other medical term in mind, please let me know so I can provide a definition for it.

Medical ethics is a branch of ethics that deals with moral issues in medical care, research, and practice. It provides a framework for addressing questions related to patient autonomy, informed consent, confidentiality, distributive justice, beneficentia (doing good), and non-maleficence (not doing harm). Medical ethics also involves the application of ethical principles such as respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to specific medical cases and situations. It is a crucial component of medical education and practice, helping healthcare professionals make informed decisions that promote patient well-being while respecting their rights and dignity.

Confucianism is not a medical term, but rather a philosophical and ethical system of thought that originated from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-479 BCE). It is primarily concerned with personal and social morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, and sincerity.

While Confucianism is not a medical tradition per se, its teachings have had a significant impact on Chinese medicine and culture. For example, the concept of filial piety, which emphasizes respect for one's elders and ancestors, has been an important value in traditional Chinese medicine. Additionally, the idea of balance and harmony within the body and mind, which is central to Confucian thought, has also influenced traditional Chinese medical practices such as acupuncture and herbal medicine.

Therefore, while Confucianism is not a medical term, it is relevant to understanding certain cultural and philosophical aspects of traditional Chinese medicine and healthcare practices.

An ethical theory is a structured framework of principles and concepts that helps to guide and inform moral judgments and decisions about right and wrong conduct. It provides a systematic and coherent approach to understanding, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues and dilemmas in various contexts, including healthcare.

There are several types of ethical theories, but some of the most prominent ones include:

1. Deontological theory: This theory emphasizes the inherent rightness or wrongness of actions based on whether they conform to moral rules or duties, regardless of their consequences. It is often associated with the work of Immanuel Kant.
2. Utilitarianism: This theory holds that the morality of an action is determined by its overall usefulness or benefit to society as a whole, measured in terms of the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
3. Virtue ethics: This theory focuses on the character and virtues of the moral agent, rather than on specific rules or consequences. It emphasizes the importance of cultivating good habits, traits, and dispositions that contribute to a flourishing and fulfilling life.
4. Social contract theory: This theory posits that moral norms and rules emerge from mutual agreements or understandings among individuals in society, based on their shared interests and values.
5. Feminist ethics: This theory challenges traditional ethical theories by emphasizing the importance of context, relationships, and power dynamics in moral decision-making, with a focus on promoting justice and equality for marginalized groups.

In healthcare, ethical theories can help guide clinical practice, research, policy, and education, by providing a framework for addressing complex ethical issues such as informed consent, patient autonomy, confidentiality, resource allocation, and end-of-life care.

I'm happy to help! However, it's important to note that while "social justice" is a term used in many fields, including public health and medicine, it does not have a single, universally accepted medical definition. Instead, the concept of social justice in healthcare is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in the distribution of healthcare resources, opportunities, and outcomes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines social justice as "the fair and equitable distribution of social determinants of health, which are conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, including the health system." According to this definition, social justice in healthcare requires addressing the root causes of health disparities, such as poverty, discrimination, and lack of access to education and employment opportunities.

The American Public Health Association (APHA) defines social justice as "the distribution of resources, benefits, and burdens of society to all individuals and groups. When principles of social justice are applied, the resulting distribution is equitable and all members of society have a fair opportunity to benefit from the resources, benefits, and burdens."

In summary, while there may not be a single medical definition of social justice, it is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in healthcare and health outcomes. This involves addressing the root causes of health disparities and ensuring that all individuals have access to the resources and opportunities they need to achieve optimal health.

Bioethical issues refer to the ethical dilemmas and challenges that arise in biological research, healthcare, and medical technology. These issues often involve conflicts between scientific or medical advancements and moral, social, legal, and cultural values. Examples of bioethical issues include:

1. End-of-life care: Decisions about life-sustaining treatments, such as artificial nutrition and hydration, mechanical ventilation, and do-not-resuscitate orders, can raise ethical questions about the quality of life, patient autonomy, and the role of healthcare providers.
2. Genetic testing and screening: The use of genetic information for medical decision-making, predictive testing, and reproductive choices can have significant implications for individuals, families, and society, raising concerns about privacy, discrimination, and informed consent.
3. Organ transplantation: Issues surrounding organ donation and allocation, such as fairness, scarcity, and the definition of death, can create ethical dilemmas that require careful consideration of medical, legal, and moral principles.
4. Stem cell research: The use of embryonic stem cells for research and therapy raises questions about the moral status of embryos, potential therapeutic benefits, and the role of government in regulating scientific research.
5. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): Techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, and gamete donation can challenge traditional notions of family, parenthood, and reproduction, leading to debates about the rights and interests of children, parents, and society.
6. Mental health treatment: The use of psychotropic medications, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and other interventions for mental illness can raise concerns about patient autonomy, informed consent, and the balance between therapeutic benefits and potential risks.
7. Public health emergencies: Responses to infectious disease outbreaks, bioterrorism, and other public health crises can involve difficult decisions about resource allocation, individual rights, and the role of government in protecting population health.
8. Research involving human subjects: The ethical conduct of clinical trials, observational studies, and other research that involves human participants requires careful consideration of issues such as informed consent, risk-benefit analysis, and respect for participant autonomy and privacy.
9. Health care access and financing: Debates about health care reform, insurance coverage, and affordability can raise questions about the role of government in ensuring access to essential medical services, the balance between individual rights and social responsibility, and the ethical implications of rationing limited resources.
10. Global health ethics: Issues such as international cooperation, resource distribution, and cultural sensitivity can challenge traditional notions of global justice, human rights, and the responsibilities of wealthy nations to address health disparities in low- and middle-income countries.

Paternalism, in the context of medical ethics, refers to the practice of healthcare providers making decisions for their patients without obtaining their consent, due to the belief that they know what is best for the patient. This approach can be seen as patronizing and disempowering, as it does not take into account the autonomy and preferences of the patient.

Paternalism can manifest in various forms, such as withholding information from patients, making treatment decisions without consulting them, or coercing patients to follow a particular course of action. While paternalistic attitudes may stem from a desire to protect patients, they can also undermine trust and lead to poorer health outcomes.

Modern medical ethics emphasizes the importance of informed consent, shared decision-making, and respect for patient autonomy, all of which are seen as essential components of ethical healthcare practice.

Informed consent is a process in medical care where patients are provided with all relevant information about their health status, proposed treatments, potential risks and benefits, and alternative options. This allows patients to make informed decisions regarding their healthcare and understand the consequences of their choices. The process includes ensuring that the patient has adequate mental capacity to make such decisions, is fully aware of the implications, and gives their voluntary agreement for the proposed treatment or procedure. It's a fundamental principle in medical ethics and is required by law in many jurisdictions to protect patients' rights.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "freedom" is a philosophical or abstract concept and not a medical term. It refers to the power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants without hindrance or restraint. It does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you.

Ethical analysis is a process of evaluating and assessing the moral implications and principles surrounding a particular medical situation, treatment, or research. It involves critical thinking and consideration of various ethical theories, principles, and guidelines to determine the right course of action. The steps in an ethical analysis typically include:

1. Identifying the ethical issue: This involves recognizing and defining the problem or dilemma that requires ethical consideration.
2. Gathering relevant information: This includes gathering all necessary medical and contextual information related to the situation, including the patient's values, preferences, and cultural background.
3. Identifying stakeholders: This involves identifying all those who are affected by or have a vested interest in the ethical issue.
4. Applying ethical principles: This involves applying ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to the situation to determine the right course of action.
5. Considering alternative courses of action: This involves exploring different options and their potential consequences for all stakeholders.
6. Making a decision: This involves weighing the various factors and coming to a conclusion about what is the right thing to do.
7. Reflecting on the decision: This involves reflecting on the decision-making process and considering whether the decision was fair, just, and respectful of all parties involved.

Ethical analysis is an essential tool for healthcare professionals, researchers, and policymakers to ensure that their actions are guided by moral principles and values.

Altruism is a term used in the medical and psychological fields to describe selfless behavior that is done with the intention of benefiting another person, often at the expense or risk of the person performing the act. Altruistic behaviors can include a wide range of actions, from small acts of kindness to more significant sacrifices, such as donating an organ to save the life of someone else.

Altruism is often motivated by feelings of empathy and compassion for others, and it can have positive effects on both the giver and the recipient. Research has shown that engaging in altruistic behaviors can improve mental health and well-being, reduce stress, and even increase lifespan.

While altruism is often viewed as a positive trait, there is some debate among psychologists and philosophers about whether true altruism exists, or if all acts of kindness are ultimately motivated by self-interest. Nonetheless, the concept of altruism remains an important one in medicine and psychology, as it helps to explain why people sometimes act in ways that put others' needs before their own.

Clinical ethics refers to the branch of applied ethics that deals with ethical issues in clinical settings, such as hospitals and other healthcare facilities. It involves the application of moral principles and values to decision-making in clinical practice, with the aim of promoting patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

Clinical ethics often involves addressing complex ethical dilemmas that arise in the context of patient care, such as end-of-life decisions, informed consent, confidentiality, resource allocation, and research involving human subjects. Clinical ethicists may work as part of an institutional ethics committee or provide consultation services to healthcare providers, patients, and families facing ethical challenges.

The principles of clinical ethics are grounded in respect for patient autonomy, which includes the right to make informed decisions about their own care. Beneficence refers to the obligation to act in the best interests of the patient, while non-maleficence involves avoiding harm to the patient. Justice requires fair and equitable distribution of healthcare resources and respect for the rights and dignity of all patients.

Effective clinical ethics decision-making also involves careful consideration of contextual factors, such as cultural differences, religious beliefs, and social values, that may influence ethical judgments in particular cases. Clinical ethicists use a variety of methods to analyze ethical issues, including case consultation, ethical analysis frameworks, and moral deliberation processes that involve all stakeholders in the decision-making process.

Bioethics is a branch of ethics that deals with the ethical issues and dilemmas arising from biological and medical research and practices. It involves the study of moral principles, values, and conduct in relation to medicine, healthcare, biotechnology, and life sciences. The field of bioethics addresses questions and concerns related to topics such as end-of-life care, genetic engineering, cloning, stem cell research, organ donation, patient autonomy, informed consent, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. Bioethicists aim to provide guidance and recommendations for addressing these complex issues in a way that respects individual rights, promotes social justice, and upholds ethical integrity.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "morals" is not a term that has a medical definition. Morals refer to personal or societal beliefs about right and wrong behavior. It is a concept that falls under the realm of ethics, philosophy, and sociology rather than medicine. If you have any questions related to medical terminologies or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

In medical terms, disclosure generally refers to the act of revealing or sharing confidential or sensitive information with another person or entity. This can include disclosing a patient's medical history, diagnosis, treatment plan, or other personal health information to the patient themselves, their family members, or other healthcare providers involved in their care.

Disclosure is an important aspect of informed consent, as patients have the right to know their medical condition and the risks and benefits of various treatment options. Healthcare providers are required to disclose relevant information to their patients in a clear and understandable manner, so that they can make informed decisions about their healthcare.

In some cases, disclosure may also be required by law or professional ethical standards, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of injuries or illnesses, or when there is a concern for patient safety. It is important for healthcare providers to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of disclosure in each individual case, and to ensure that they are acting in the best interests of their patients while also protecting their privacy and confidentiality.

Human experimentation is a branch of medical research that involves conducting experiments on human subjects. According to the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki, which sets ethical standards for medical research involving human subjects, human experimentation is defined as "systematic study designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge."

Human experimentation can take many forms, including clinical trials of new drugs or medical devices, observational studies, and interventional studies. In all cases, the principles of informed consent, risk minimization, and respect for the autonomy and dignity of the research subjects must be strictly adhered to.

Human experimentation has a controversial history, with many instances of unethical practices and abuse, such as the notorious Tuskegee syphilis study in which African American men were deliberately left untreated for syphilis without their informed consent. As a result, there are strict regulations and guidelines governing human experimentation to ensure that it is conducted ethically and with the utmost respect for the rights and welfare of research subjects.

Research ethics refers to the principles and guidelines that govern the conduct of research involving human participants or animals. The overarching goal of research ethics is to ensure that research is conducted in a way that respects the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of all those involved. Research ethics are designed to prevent harm, promote fairness, and maintain trust between researchers and study participants.

Some key principles of research ethics include:

1. Respect for Persons: This means treating all individuals with respect and dignity, and recognizing their autonomy and right to make informed decisions about participating in research.
2. Beneficence: Researchers have a duty to maximize the benefits of research while minimizing potential harms.
3. Justice: Research should be conducted fairly, without discrimination or bias, and should benefit all those who are affected by it.
4. Confidentiality: Researchers must protect the privacy and confidentiality of study participants, including their personal information and data.
5. Informed Consent: Participants must give their voluntary and informed consent to participate in research, after being fully informed about the nature of the study, its risks and benefits, and their rights as a participant.

Research ethics are typically overseen by institutional review boards (IRBs) or research ethics committees (RECs), which review research proposals and monitor ongoing studies to ensure that they comply with ethical guidelines. Researchers who violate these guidelines may face sanctions, including loss of funding, suspension or revocation of their research privileges, or legal action.

A research subject, also commonly referred to as a "human subject" or "participant," is an individual who takes part in a research study or clinical trial. Research subjects are essential for the advancement of medical and scientific knowledge, as they provide data that can help researchers understand various phenomena, develop new treatments, and improve existing ones.

The term "research subject" emphasizes the ethical considerations involved in conducting research with human participants. It highlights the importance of protecting their rights, dignity, and well-being throughout the study. Researchers must obtain informed consent from subjects before enrolling them in a study, ensuring that they understand the purpose, procedures, potential risks, and benefits associated with the research.

Additionally, researchers are required to follow strict guidelines and regulations to minimize any harm or discomfort to the research subjects during the study. These guidelines may include requirements for data confidentiality, privacy protection, and monitoring of adverse events. Overall, treating research subjects with respect and care is crucial in maintaining the integrity of medical research and ensuring its societal benefits.

Confidentiality is a legal and ethical principle in medicine that refers to the obligation of healthcare professionals to protect the personal and sensitive information of their patients. This information, which can include medical history, diagnosis, treatment plans, and other private details, is shared between the patient and the healthcare provider with the expectation that it will be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties without the patient's consent.

Confidentiality is a fundamental component of the trust relationship between patients and healthcare providers, as it helps to ensure that patients feel safe and comfortable sharing sensitive information with their doctors, nurses, and other members of their healthcare team. It also helps to protect patients' privacy rights and uphold their autonomy in making informed decisions about their healthcare.

There are some limited circumstances in which confidentiality may be breached, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of information (e.g., suspected child abuse or neglect), or when the disclosure is necessary to protect the health and safety of the patient or others. However, these exceptions are typically narrowly defined and subject to strict guidelines and safeguards to ensure that confidentiality is protected as much as possible.

Physician-patient relations, also known as doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interaction and communication between healthcare professionals and their patients. This relationship is founded on trust, respect, and understanding, with the physician providing medical care and treatment based on the patient's needs and best interests. Effective physician-patient relations involve clear communication, informed consent, shared decision-making, and confidentiality. A positive and collaborative relationship can lead to better health outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and increased adherence to treatment plans.

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

Look up beneficence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Beneficence may refer to: Beneficence (hip-hop artist) Beneficence, a ... a concept in medical ethics Beneficence (statue), a statue at Ball State University Procreative beneficence Order of ... Beneficence (Greece) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Beneficence. If an internal link led you ...
Beneficence is a 1937 bronze statue on the campus of Ball State University, located in Muncie, Indiana. The statue, by sculptor ... Beneficence's hand stretches to welcome new students to campus. The treasure box she holds in her other arm represents the ... Beneficence resembles earlier examples of French's work such as Angel of the Waters, part of a memorial to businessman and ... "The Legacy of Beneficence". Ball State University. Archives and Special Collections. Retrieved 28 July 2011. Media related to ...
Rahim Muhammad, known by the stage name Beneficence, is an American rapper from Newark, New Jersey. Beneficence has been active ... "Beneficence". Discogs. Retrieved 8 February 2019. "Beneficence - Sucka's Brevity". Discogs. Retrieved 8 February 2019. Paine, ... In 2016, Beneficence released the album Basement Chemistry. The album received critical acclaim, including a rating of 4 out of ... In April 2021, Beneficence announced the publication of Concrete Soul: The Memoir and Making of Ill Adrenaline Records, a ...
... this may be a practice of beneficence. Values in Medical Ethics Primum non nocere "6.4.2 Beneficence". www.bitbybitbook.com. ... Beneficence is a concept in research ethics that states that researchers should have the welfare of the research participant as ... These four concepts often arise in discussions about beneficence: one should not practice evil or do harm, often stated in ... The concept that medical professionals and researchers would always practice beneficence seems natural to most patients and ...
The Decoration "For Beneficence" (Russian: Знак отличия «За благодеяние») is a decoration of Russia, established on 3 May 2012 ... The Decoration "For Beneficence" may be awarded for: Significant charity efforts to support children's homes, nursing homes, ... "Executive Order on awarding the Order of St Catherine the Great Martyr and the Decoration "For Beneficence"". eng.kremlin.ru. ... "Executive Order establishing the Order of St Catherine the Great Martyr and the Decoration "For Beneficence"". eng.kremlin.ru. ...
The Royal Order of Beneficence (Greek: Τάγμα της Ευποιΐας) is an order of knighthood of the Greek Royal Family that was ... Hellenic War Museum, Athens 1991, ISBN 960-85054-0-2. Presidency of the Hellenic Republic - Order of Beneficence (in Greek) The ... Beneficence») on a white enamel ring. The reverse side bears the emblem of the Hellenic Republic. The star of the Order is a ... Order of Beneficence (Greece), 1948 establishments in Greece, Orders of chivalry awarded to heads of state, consorts and ...
The Coat of Arms used by the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife includes the First Class Cross of the Civil Order of Beneficence ... The Cross of Epidemics was established by royal order of August 15, 1838, and the Civil Order of Beneficence was created by ... The Civil Order of Beneficence was a Spanish civil distinction whose purpose was to reward actions or services considered ... Orders, decorations, and medals of Spain Beneficence Ramírez Jiménez, David. "Orden Civil de Beneficiencia". Numismático ...
... beneficence; non-maleficence; and self-improvement. In any given situation, any number of these prima facie duties may apply. ...
respect for persons beneficence justice It has an additional principle - respect for law and public interest. The report ... Beneficence. Do not harm. Maximize probable benefits and minimize probable harms. Systematically assess both risk of harm and ... The Menlo Report adapted the original Belmont Report principles (Respect for Persons, Beneficence, and Justice) to the context ...
The statue Beneficence (aka "Benny") is a bronze statue dedicated in 1937 on Ball State's quad. The statue was sculpted by ... Beneficence was selected to recognize the generosity of the five Ball brothers, who founded the university and made many other ... The focal points of the Old Quad are Beneficence and the Fine Arts Building, home to the David Owsley Museum of Art since 1935 ... His creation, Beneficence, stands between the Administration Building and Lucina Hall where Talley Avenue ends at University ...
... beneficence; blessing; boon; favor; grace; kindness", for example, a lesser-composite Muslim masculine name like "نِعْمَةُ ٱلله ...
Save Outdoor Sculpture (1993). "Beneficence, (sculpture)". SOS. Smithsonian. Retrieved 26 November 2010. Save Outdoor Sculpture ...
He was engaged in professional sports (judo, sport swimming, rugby). Decoration "For Beneficence". Gratitude of the President ...
MORGAN'S BENEFICENCE; WHAT THE LYING-IN HOSPITAL WILL DO WITH $1,000,000. The Managers Had Planned a Fine Institution, but Had ...
"Beneficence - Basement Chemistry". Discogs. Retrieved 2017-05-16. Malik Turner on SoundCloud Malik Turner on Discogs (Articles ... Adam Blackstone and "Get Your Mind Right". Malik has also done production on Ill Adrenaline artist's, Beneficence's 2016 album ... Malik's work includes recordings and collaborations with artists and producers such as Beneficence, Jasiri X, Dominique Larue, ...
Beneficence and Charity. He appointed in 1760 a member of the Accademia di San Luca in Rome. In 1763, he was appointed sculptor ...
Murphy, Liam (March 2001). "Beneficence, Law, and Liberty". Georgetown Law Journal. 89 (3): 625, n.91. Retrieved 7 October 2019 ... distinguishing the ethic of care from beneficence. Linda C. McClain, Who's the Bigot? Learning from Conflicts over Marriage and ...
... beneficence, unstinting generosity, optimism; his confidence in the affection of his friends, his frankness with those who met ...
"Basement Chemistry by Beneficence". Apple Music. Retrieved 2016-01-15. "Islah by Kevin Gates". Apple Music. Archived from the ...
Bennett argues that while advocates of procreative beneficence could appeal to impersonal harm, which is where one should aim ... Why the Principle of Procreative Beneficence Must Work Much Harder to Justify its Eugenic Vision". Bioethics. 28 (9): 447-455. ... Savulescu coined the phrase procreative beneficence. It is the controversial putative moral obligation of parents in a position ... Savulescu J (October 2001). "Procreative beneficence: why we should select the best children". Bioethics. 15 (5-6): 413-26. doi ...
... and beneficence towards experiment participants. It is thought to have been mainly based on the Hippocratic Oath, which was ... The guidelines were based on beneficence and non-maleficence, but also stressed legal doctrine of informed consent. The ...
... which in turn may cause inability to perform beneficence. The principles of autonomy and beneficence/non-maleficence may also ... Beneficence - a practitioner should act in the best interest of the patient. Non-maleficence - to not be the cause of harm. ... The term beneficence refers to actions that promote the well-being of others. In the medical context, this means taking actions ... Medical ethics encompasses beneficence, autonomy, and justice as they relate to conflicts such as euthanasia, patient ...
... the beneficence of Negro slavery." And "[Upshur's] appointment was an omen of the coming drive for the annexation of Texas." ... was a believer in the new creed of the beneficence of slavery and also in the doctrine of Manifest Destiny.", Crapol, 2006, pp ...
"Procreative Beneficence and Genetic Enhancement - KRITERION". Journal of Philosophy. 32 (1): 75-92. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2. ... allows detecting personal genetic weaknesses to be addressed Genetic factors of addiction Procreative beneficence New eugenics ...
Chicago: The Athletic Institute.[page needed] Morgan, W.P. (1985). "Affective beneficence of vigorous physical activity". ...
Daws, Steven (6 October 2017). "Procreative Beneficence in the CRISPR World". Voices in Bioethics. 3. doi:10.7916/vib.v3i.6031 ... Savulescu, Julian (October 2001). "Procreative Beneficence: Why We Should Select the Best Children". Bioethics. 15 (5-6): 413- ... Veit, Walter (2018). "Procreative Beneficence and Genetic Enhancement" (PDF). KRITERION - Journal of Philosophy. 32: 75-92. doi ... Bioethicist Julian Savulescu in turn proposes the principle of procreative beneficence, according to which "couples (or single ...
On the other hand, a principle of procreative beneficence is proposed, which is a putative moral obligation of parents in a ... Savulescu J (October 2001). "Procreative beneficence: why we should select the best children". Bioethics. 15 (5-6): 413-26. doi ... Veit, Walter (2018). "Procreative Beneficence and Genetic Enhancement" (PDF). KRITERION - Journal of Philosophy. 32 (1): 75-92 ... thus making eugenics a natural consequence of accepting the principle of procreative beneficence. In 2006, three percent of PGD ...
... beneficence, improving the conditions of others; non-injury; self-improvement, stemming from the possibility of improving one's ...
Several people worked on issues of autonomy, others worked on issues of beneficence, or non-maleficence, or justice. The ... Just as the Belmont Report details the principles of beneficence, respect for persons, and justice, the APA details them ... Researchers must be truthful and conduct no deception (integrity); Beneficence: the philosophy of "Do no harm" while maximizing ... Three core principles are identified: respect for persons, Beneficence, and Justice. The three primary areas of application ...
In September 1937 a bronze sculpture named Beneficence was installed on the Ball State University campus in Muncie to honor the ... Conn, Earl L. (2003). Beneficence: Stories About the Ball Families of Muncie. Muncie, IN: Minnetrista Cultural Foundation. ISBN ...
Look up beneficence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Beneficence may refer to: Beneficence (hip-hop artist) Beneficence, a ... a concept in medical ethics Beneficence (statue), a statue at Ball State University Procreative beneficence Order of ... Beneficence (Greece) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Beneficence. If an internal link led you ...
... here well focus on beneficence, and specifically positive beneficence, which requires persons to provide benefits wherever ... The duty of beneficence might eliminate the possibility of supererogatory actions. If one only has a negative duty to refrain ... And if Jennifer Walters narrative arc plays out this way and she heeds the call of beneficence, she will be worthy of our ... But Kantianism also has a requirement of beneficence. It is one of the examples of an imperfect duty to others mentioned in the ...
Corporate Beneficence, which was once limited to the rarefied realm of funding Opera Houses and Classical Music, has lately ... Corporate Beneficence, which was once limited to the rarefied realm of funding Opera Houses and Classical Music, has lately ...
Beneficence In Nursing. Nurses make up the majority of health care staffing with over 4 million active registered nurses in the ...
After dropping subterranean classics with Sidewalk Science and Concrete Soul, Brick City veteran Beneficence is back with a new ...
Text; Format: print ; Literary form: Not fiction Language: English Publication details: Dordrecht ; Boston : D. Reidel Pub. Co. ; Norwell, MA, U.S.A. : Sold and distributed in the U.S.A. and Canada by Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1987Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ (1)Call number: W 50 87EU. ...
Ethics of AI-Based Medical Tools: In Search of Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence & Justice Read about Kings work on the ...
Non-Maleficence and Beneficence. Ethical involuntary commitment during the COVID-19 pandemic must contemplate both ... 19 While the fundamental ethics tension between patient autonomy and beneficence/nonmaleficence in justifying involuntary ... nonmaleficence when considering forcible restriction to a high-risk living environment and reduced beneficence from changes to ...
Ben-eficence September 30, 2013. Lianna Patch 0 3.17K. Gayle Benson on Sports, Health and Community Involvement Whats a ...
and works of beneficence. The Christians seem to number over 300,000. If we except an insignificant body of Jacobites and their ...
A Comparison Between Daesoon Jinrihoes "Resolution of Grievances for Mutual Beneficence" and Weixin Shengjiaos "Resolving ... A Comparison Between Daesoon Jinrihoes "Resolution of Grievances for Mutual Beneficence" and Weixin Shengjiaos "Resolving ...
Core values underlying these reasons are equality, reciprocity, trust, transparency, gratification and beneficence. Conclusions ... Scientific beneficence Is the Subject Area "Scientific beneficence" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
The principles of beneficence (doing good) and nonmaleficence (not inflicting harm) are, at times, in competition in the cases ...
Beneficence - Doing What is Beneficial Giving treatment that is beneficial to the person. In this context, the prevention of TB ... The four main pillars of medical ethics include beneficence, (a medical intervention that is beneficial); non-maleficence, ( ...
Beneficence is its own compensation. Charity empties the heart of one gift that it may make room for a larger. But if any man ... It must be the aim of all power professing beneficence to take the soul to the arms of God. The soul not only belongs to God, ... There is much beneficence apart from religion. But it is the grateful heart God requires. ... what real goodness and beneficence! This must be the right doctrine, because it comes out in the right line. So then the scope ...
This beneficence is what makes business success worthwhile.. This isnt an entirely new phenomenon. Remember Andrew Carnegie, ...
Beneficence: obligation to protect persons from harm by maximizing anticipated benefits and minimizing possible risks of harm ...
The sky is blue and clear, the sun a warm beneficence. Still, the morning papers tell of the desperate plight of the Allies. ...
In regard to the principles of beneficence and justice the procedure appears equivocal.[11] To address this dilemma the " ...
Procreative beneficence and the prospective parent. P Herissone-Kelly, Journal of Medical Ethics, 2006 ...
The norm of beneficence, which directs physicians to apply their insights and techniques for patients good, has been a basic ... The principle of beneficence calls on physicians to help patients achieve those particular goals, not just any goals or any ... Physician Beneficence and Patient Autonomy. Patient autonomy, or self-determination is first a right to refuse treatment and ... Beneficence requires that doctors do only what is medically helpful. Individual autonomy cannot be so inflated in importance as ...
Beneficence: Help prevent or remove harm. Not ensuring that the patients pain and symptoms are managed are in violation of ...
At any one time aspects of various New Beneficence transapients may be present around Gamma Leporis A. The New Beneficence ... The strangeness and serenity of the Beneficence and New Beneficence have not entirely faded from the system, and form a ... Name: Shan Xing (Beneficence) Stellar Type: F7V. Mass: 1.2 sol Diameter: 1.3 sol. Luminosity: 2.6 sol (As seen from Jin Bu Hua ... New Beneficence re-colonizes vacant systems at Gamma Leporis. 2271 AT:. IPP leases space at Gamma Leporis B from the New ...
... beneficence to men; and so the Ethiopic version renders it, "proceed to bounty by your faith"; and faith does work by love and ...
The Hippocratic Oath guided most doctors to be non-maleficence and beneficence for a long time [1]. Unfortunately, these ...
Beneficence is always free, it cannot be extorted by force.. Extremism Quotes. ...
First, beneficence - AI should be developed for the common good; should empower; should be sustainable. ...
  • Ideally, for a medical practice to be considered "ethical", it must respect all four of these principles: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence. (joialife.com)
  • and (2) the balance between autonomy and beneficence. (cdc.gov)
  • Cancer is a global disease, the understanding and ethical requirements of autonomy, beneficence (non- management of which requires comparisons between malevolence) and justice (The National Commission disease patterns in different parts of the world. (who.int)
  • Beneficence may refer to: Beneficence (hip-hop artist) Beneficence, a synonym for philanthropy Beneficence (ethics), a concept in medical ethics Beneficence (statue), a statue at Ball State University Procreative beneficence Order of Beneficence (Greece) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Beneficence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical research must follow ethical and methodological rules well established by various institutions and organizations that aim to protect the participant, respecting the 3 fundamental principles of bioethics: respect for persons, beneficence and justice. (bvsalud.org)
  • The major role of IARC in ethical appraisal is thus as the final common path for assurance to the international community that whatever constitutes ethical approval, transparently demonstrates the fundamental principles of doing no harm, respect, beneficence and justice. (who.int)
  • Of the total from the literature 68,55% to violate the bioethics to the base from the beneficence and 0 % to the base from the did not maleficence. (bvsalud.org)
  • Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Taylor and Francis, https://www.rep.routledge.com/articles/thematic/help-and-beneficence/v-2. (routledge.com)
  • After dropping subterranean classics with Sidewalk Science and Concrete Soul, Brick City veteran Beneficence is back with a new album, Basement Chemistry which is set to drop on Jan. 29th via Ill Adrenaline Records . (unsunghiphop.com)
  • Beneficence, a main pillar of Ball State's values, is something that was imprinted on Dick while he was a student, and something he believes is completely unique to Ball State. (bsu.edu)
  • But Jen's third question explicitly suggests something missing in all these other versions, namely, that there is an obligation of beneficence , a duty to help those without power. (prindleinstitute.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Scientific beneficence" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • The focus is on the three core ethical principles of the Belmont Report, respect for persons, beneficence and justice. (nih.gov)
  • A further important ethical issue is that since Hippocrates physicians have been asked to obey to two principles: beneficence and non-maleficence. (bmj.com)
  • Fundamental ethical principles for research involving human participants include the concepts of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. (nih.gov)
  • Together with beneficence, the health care provider must carefully weigh the benefits of providing life-sustaining care to infants at the limits of viability while attempting to minimize harm. (medscape.com)
  • Beneficence requires that researchers shall refrain from doing harm and, wherever possible, they should promote the well-being of the research participants. (nih.gov)
  • In light of this inconsistency, there is a conflict in our intuitions about beneficence and chance. (philarchive.org)
  • Beneficence means that the physician has to take positive steps to contribute to the wellbeing of persons. (bmj.com)
  • Beneficence relates to the health care provider's responsibility to act in the patient's best interest. (medscape.com)