Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Principle-Based Ethics: An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Virtues: Character traits that are considered to be morally praiseworthy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Confucianism: A school of thought and set of moral, ethical, and political teachings usually considered to be founded by Confucius in 6th-5th century B.C. China. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.HistoryFertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Psychology, Military: The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.Torture: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Plagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Professional Misconduct: Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.Ethics, Pharmacy: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the pharmacist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the pharmacist in health care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Duplicate Publication as Topic: Simultaneous or successive publishing of identical or near- identical material in two or more different sources without acknowledgment. It differs from reprinted publication in that a reprint cites sources. It differs from PLAGIARISM in that duplicate publication is the product of the same authorship while plagiarism publishes a work or parts of a work of another as one's own.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)New York CityUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.New YorkResearch Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Manuscripts, MedicalClinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.

The basis of informed consent for BMT patients. (1/198)

During recent decades the doctrine of informed consent has become a standard part of medical care as an expression of patients' rights to self-determination. In situations when only one treatment alternative exists for a potential cure, the extent of a patient's self-determination is constrained. Our hypothesis is that for patients considering a life-saving procedure such as bone marrow transplant (BMT), informed consent has little meaning as a basis for their right to self-determination. A longitudinal study of BMT patients was undertaken with four self-administered questionnaires. Questions centered around expectations, knowledge, anxiety and factors contributing to their decision to undergo treatment. Although the informed consent process made patients more knowledgeable about the treatment, their decision to consent was largely based on positive outcome expectations and on trust in the physician. Informed consent relieved their anxieties and increased their hopes for survival. Our conclusion was that the greatest value of the informed consent process lay in meeting the patients' emotional rather than cognitive needs. When their survival is at stake and BMT represents their only option, the patient's vulnerability puts a moral responsibility on the physician to respect the principle of beneficence while not sacrificing the patient's right to self-determination.  (+info)

Should we clone human beings? Cloning as a source of tissue for transplantation. (2/198)

The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake of providing cells, tissues or even organs for therapy, followed by abortion of the embryo or fetus.  (+info)

Should doctors intentionally do less than the best? (3/198)

The papers of Burley and Harris, and Draper and Chadwick, in this issue, raise a problem: what should doctors do when patients request an option which is not the best available? This commentary argues that doctors have a duty to offer that option which will result in the individual affected by that choice enjoying the highest level of wellbeing. Doctors can deviate from this duty and submaximise--bring about an outcome that is less than the best--only if there are good reasons to do so. The desire to have a child which is genetically related provides little, if any, reason to submaximise. The implication for cloning, preimplantation diagnosis and embryo transfer is that doctors should only produce a clone or transfer embryos expected to enjoy a level of wellbeing which is less than that enjoyed by other children the couple could have, if there is a good reason to employ that technology. This paper sketches what might constitute a good reason to submaximise.  (+info)

Genetic privacy: orthodoxy or oxymoron? (4/198)

In this paper we question whether the concept of "genetic privacy" is a contradiction in terms. And, if so, whether the implications of such a conclusion, inevitably impact on how society comes to perceive privacy and responsibility generally. Current law and ethical discourse place a high value on self-determination and the rights of individuals. In the medical sphere, the recognition of patient "rights" has resulted in health professionals being given clear duties of candour and frankness. Dilemmas arise, however, when patients decline to know relevant information or, knowing it, refuse to share it with others who may also need to know. This paper considers the notions of interconnectedness and responsibility to others which are brought to the fore in the genetic sphere and which challenge the primacy afforded to personal autonomy. It also explores the extent to which an individual's perceived moral obligations can or should be enforced.  (+info)

Genetically determined obesity in Prader-Willi syndrome: the ethics and legality of treatment. (5/198)

A central characteristic of people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is an apparent insatiable appetite leading to severe overeating and the potential for marked obesity and associated serious health problems and premature death. This behaviour may be due to the effects of the genetic defect resulting from the chromosome 15 abnormalities associated with the syndrome. We examine the ethical and legal dilemmas that can arise in the care of people with PWS. A tension exists between a genetic deterministic perspective and that of individual choice. We conclude that the determination of the capacity of a person with PWS to make decisions about his/her eating behaviour and to control that behaviour is of particular importance in resolving this dilemma. If the person is found to lack capacity, the common law principles of acting in a person's "best interests" using the "least restrictive alternative" may be helpful. Allowing serious weight gain in the absence of careful consideration of these issues is an abdication of responsibility.  (+info)

Protective truthfulness: the Chinese way of safeguarding patients in informed treatment decisions. (6/198)

The first part of this paper examines the practice of informed treatment decisions in the protective medical system in China today. The second part examines how health care professionals in China perceive and carry out their responsibilities when relaying information to vulnerable patients, based on the findings of an empirical study that I had undertaken to examine the moral experience of nurses in practice situations. In the Chinese medical ethics tradition, refinement [jing] in skills and sincerity [cheng] in relating to patients are two cardinal virtues that health care professionals are required to possess. This notion of absolute sincerity carries a strong sense of parental protectiveness. The empirical findings reveal that most nurses are ambivalent about telling the truth to patients. Truth-telling would become an insincere act if a patient were to lose hope and confidence in life after learning of his or her disease. In this system of protective medical care, it is arguable as to whose interests are being protected: the patient, the family or the hospital. I would suggest that the interests of the hospital and the family members who legitimately represent the patient's interests are being honoured, but at the expense of the patient's right to know.  (+info)

Responses by four Local Research Ethics Committees to submitted proposals. (7/198)

BACKGROUND: There is relatively little research concerning the processes whereby Local Research Ethics Committees discharge their responsibilities towards society, potential participants and investigators. OBJECTIVES: To examine the criteria used by LRECs in arriving at their decisions concerning approval of research protocols through an analysis of letters sent to investigators. DESIGN: Four LRECs each provided copies of 50 letters sent to investigators after their submitted proposals had been considered by the committees. These letters were subjected to a content analysis, in which specific comments and requests for additional information and changes in the protocols were recorded and compared. FINDINGS: Overall 24% of proposals were approved without request for changes or clarifications, but this varied by committee: one committee approved only 6% of proposals without change or clarification while the others ranged from 26% to 32%. The content analyses of responses indicated that they could be placed into four categories: (i) further information for the committee to aid in their deliberations; (ii) requests for changes to the design or justification for the design used; (iii) changes to the information sheets provided to potential participants; and (iv) changes to consent procedures. Of these, alterations to information sheets were the most common type of request. These four types of response could be seen as safeguarding the wellbeing of potential participants (the principle of non-maleficence), of promoting the scientific validity of the research (the principle of beneficence), and of enhancing the rights of potential participants (the principle of autonomy). CONCLUSIONS: The committees were consistent in the types of requests they made of investigators, which can be seen as attempts to protect participants' rights and ensure the scientific validity of studies. Without an analysis of the proposals sent to the committees, however, it is difficult to account for the variation in the requirements set by the committees before approval was given.  (+info)

Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics. (8/198)

The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs".  (+info)

In addition to having to consider unique aspects of informed consent in socially recognizable communities, many indigenous populations desire a rethinking of the concept of beneficence, that is, of doing no harm while maximizing potential benefits.8 In conventional views of research, an acceptable understanding of beneficence includes the notion that, although the research may not directly benefit study participants, it has significant potential to benefit society as a whole or to benefit some portion of the society (eg, people with a specific disease). Many indigenous populations have expressed dissatisfaction with this interpretation of beneficence and have required, instead, that research proposals contain concrete, well-defined plans for how the research findings will be used to directly benefit the community.9 In many instances, such requirements include involvement by researchers in the community even after the data-gathering phase of the research is complete. Thus, for example, a study ...
subjects issued by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects in 1978.. Beneficence: an obligation to go beyond minimizing harm so as to maximize benefits ...
Correspondence: e-mail: [email protected] Science advances in time honoured ways. First, an investigator generates a hypothesis and then proposes experiments. Concurrently, ethics of the proposed research must also be considered, based on principles of beneficence. Do benefits outweigh risks, for society as well as for individuals? Will the research be conducted under the aegis of the appropriate oversight, Institutional Review Boards in the United States? Next follows the actual study, its publication and eventual validation through replication. Ideally, scientists, individuals, and society synchronize these time-honoured sequences. However, in reproductive medicine we are often accused of deviating. Promising clinical advances are said to be incorporated into practice without prior ethical deliberation. Conversely, others in society would, strictly on ethical grounds, proscribe many advances beneficial to patients. A considerable minority still disagrees with women exercising any ...
The NHSs four hour target for being treated in accident and emergency departments has dramatically changed the way unscheduled care services are run. It aims to improve the "patient journey" by emphasising the length of time it takes for a patient to be seen, assessed, treated, and "disposed of" by the emergency department. However, the effects of this target driven system have wide reaching implications throughout the hospital. I believe that ascribing too much importance to the four hour rule may, instead of benefiting patients, as is intended, actually harm them and thus contradicts the first ethical principle of medicine.. Hippocrates described the four ethical principles of medical practice in about 400 bc, a sort of "moral compass" for doctors even today. The first and most important of these is non-maleficence: "above all else, do no harm." One would be hard pushed to find a clinician, even in 2008, who would disagree with such noble logic. Unfortunately, we are in danger of unwittingly ...
In saying that the business of medicine is not so different from many other forms of commerce where someone might offer a solution to what appears to be a problem. What we have learned from studying human interactions is that what is said, how and when it is said has a crucial impact on what the person with the problem decides to do. In medical research the hopes of improving outcomes sometimes seem to focus on labs manned by people in white coats funded by a research grant. What is often overlooked is that it may be possible to change outcomes in healthcare (for better or for worse) by working on the dialogue in the consulting room. What in previous posts I have dubbed the script in the ritual that is the consultation.. Beneficence dictates that we act to present the autonomous individual with options in a way that leads them to act in their best interests. That may include having the operation, taking the pills, accepting the referral or the test. But also steering away from those options if ...
In saying that the business of medicine is not so different from many other forms of commerce where someone might offer a solution to what appears to be a problem. What we have learned from studying human interactions is that what is said, how and when it is said has a crucial impact on what the person with the problem decides to do. In medical research the hopes of improving outcomes sometimes seem to focus on labs manned by people in white coats funded by a research grant. What is often overlooked is that it may be possible to change outcomes in healthcare (for better or for worse) by working on the dialogue in the consulting room. What in previous posts I have dubbed the script in the ritual that is the consultation.. Beneficence dictates that we act to present the autonomous individual with options in a way that leads them to act in their best interests. That may include having the operation, taking the pills, accepting the referral or the test. But also steering away from those options if ...
Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) combined with post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is associated with an increased risk for complications. Here, we analyse whether IBR combined with PMRT is ethically acceptable. We employ normative analysis following reflective equilibrium and the principles of Beauchamp and Childress: non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice. From the perspective of beneficence and non-maleficence, we can choose either IBR or PMRT according to documented risks and complications, delayed autologous breast reconstruction with corresponding benefits but less risk for complications, or even no reconstruction, which for some women, might be equally beneficial. In such a situation, given the level of severity associated with lacking a breast after mastectomy, IBR violates the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence. To deny an IBR in the context of PMRT does not violate the principle of autonomy as it is normally interpreted in the healthcare system, not even ...
Apart from the fundamental principle, there are specific precepts that articulate the meaning of respect in particular contexts. Preeminent in this regard are the precepts of beneficence and fairness. Beneficence is the demand that one render assistance to another person or persons when one can do so without serious harm to ones own well-being. Beneficence implies that subjects be protected as far as possible from untoward side-effects of research by exploring alternatives to a given procedure. The demand of beneficence has particular relevance to the IRB since its task is to determine whether proposed research sufficiently protects subjects from harm. The precept of fairness expresses the demand that the benefits and burdens of social life be equitably borne. No one should bear a disproportionate share of the burdens; no one should reap a disproportionate share of the benefits. Rather, burdens and benefits should be grounded in just procedures that recognize the rights of all. If there are ...
Central ethics-related tensions in the covert medication debate revolve around patient autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and duty to protect.25 Covertly medicating an autonomous individual is entirely unethical, since it clearly violates autonomy. Doubt arises in emergency and nonemergency settings when nonautonomous patients retain some measure of understanding and resist treatment. For those who lack capacity, the principle of autonomy is not violated, provided that the treatment is given in the patients best interests. The best interests clause is clearly intended to uphold the principle of beneficence and nonmaleficence; can moral justification be extended to include deceiving the patient? In the field of medicine, the practice of prescribing a placebo (thereby deceiving the patient) has been argued to be unethical, in that the ends (i.e., the patients sense of hope and the potential for improved outcomes) do not justify the means (i.e., deception).26 What if patients (or families) ...
Building on the best-selling tradition of previous editions, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, Seventh Edition, provides a highly original, practical, and insightful guide to morality in the health professions. Acclaimed authors Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress thoroughly develop and advocate for four principles that lie at the core of moral reasoning in health care: respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice.
Obstetric ultrasound was first introduced in the late 1950s. Obstetric ultrasound widely usedmonitoring and diagnosis tool. More about Obstetric ultrasound.
I want to get a cat, because I like cats. I go to the pound, and find lots of cats. Which cat should I adopt? Im particularly attracted to an adorable little orange cat, but there is another cat that is rather unremarkable too. If I adopt the orange cat, it is likely that the unremarkable cat will not be adopted and euthanized. If I adopt the unremarkable cat, it is likely that the orange cat will be adopted out to someone else, since its really cute. Now either way, Im walking out of the pound with a cat, like Cathy will walk out of the IVF clinic with an embryo (in Cathys case the other embryos will be euthanized Im imagining). So which cat should I pick? I would be happy with EITHER cat, just as Cathy would be happy with ANY embryo. PB says that its better for the best child to come into existence, since it benefits most THAT child. Its a utilitarian calculation. Why NOT benefit that child? In my cat scenario, it seems like the best outcome comes from adopting the unremarkable cat. If Id ...
In terms of medical ethics, "autonomy" relates to self governance or personal control. One of the main aims of implementing these surveillance monitoring devices is the promotion of increased independence. Most carers, whether relatives or paid staff, want the best for the person they support. Alongside doctors duties of beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, respect for patient autonomy is invoked as a cardinal principle. The legal courts in various jurisdictions have confirmed the principle of respect for patient autonomy in the language of rights of self-determination. This is not merely viewed as a a rejection of a paternalistic tradition of doctor knows best, but includes differing philosophical positions including those of Kant.. There are a number of possible reasons why a person with dementia might wander, and this is related to which parts of the mind or brain are affected at any particular time. Here is yet another example where it is unhelpful to think of dementia as one big ...
Principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, as well as ethics of care, should guide trauma-informed approaches to responding to trafficking victims and survivors. AMA Journal of Ethics is a monthly bioethics journal published by the American Medical Association.
Society: There is little doubt that society as a whole benefits from trainee care. By allowing physicians in training to provide direct patient care society is guaranteeing that everyone will have access to experienced, well educated physicians. Unless we all conspire to kill and maim the people under our care, there is little risk of trainees violating the values of Beneficence and Non-Maleficence, as pertains to society itself. And short of continuing training despite societys demanding that we stop, it would be hard to see how medical training would violate societys right to Self-Determination. However, Distributive Justice is a little trickier. The benefits and harms of trainee care should be distributed equally across the entire country and through all strata of society and yet data suggest that people who receive care at training institutions are more likely to have Medicaid (public insurance intended for those who cannot otherwise afford medical care) and be non-white. Also, the EPs ...
Society: There is little doubt that society as a whole benefits from trainee care. By allowing physicians in training to provide direct patient care society is guaranteeing that everyone will have access to experienced, well educated physicians. Unless we all conspire to kill and maim the people under our care, there is little risk of trainees violating the values of Beneficence and Non-Maleficence, as pertains to society itself. And short of continuing training despite societys demanding that we stop, it would be hard to see how medical training would violate societys right to Self-Determination. However, Distributive Justice is a little trickier. The benefits and harms of trainee care should be distributed equally across the entire country and through all strata of society and yet data suggest that people who receive care at training institutions are more likely to have Medicaid (public insurance intended for those who cannot otherwise afford medical care) and be non-white. Also, the EPs ...
J Immunol 167:4534-4542 Resende DM, Caetano BC, Dutra MS, Penido ML, Abrantes CF, Verly RM, Resende JM, Pil?- Veloso D, Rezende SA, Bruna-Romero O et al (2008) Epitope mapping and safeguarding protection elicited by way of adenovirus expressing the Leishmania amastigote identified with A2 antigen: correlation with IFN-gamma and cytolytic activity beside CD8+ T cellsThis team of bear witness suggests that P-gp and other MDR-like proteins may also be involved in biological processes linked to survival-death mechanismsBalanced when rTMS parameters are adjusted to reliably stimulate sermon seize, online rTMS shows a comparatively in queer street prognostic value as a service to postoperative idiolect deficits (Epstein et alEthics includes the vital principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, law, veracity, and fidelity buy 100mg sildigra amex. The precise number, first of all the minimum seven, and discovery of these nurses wishes depend on geography, inhabitants and the configuration of ...
The major ethical principles that must be considered when formulating policies for HIV counseling and testing include respect for autonomy, confidentiality, justice, protection of vulnerable individuals, and beneficence to both the woman tested and, if she is pregnant, to her newborn as well. Individuals offering testing need to be mindful not only of the benefits of testing but also its potential risks because, if a womans test result is positive, she faces the possibility of being ostracized by her family, friends, and community or being subjected to intimate partner violence. In addition, although the overt stigma of HIV infection has been reduced over the past 20 years, the potential for job discrimination, loss of health insurance, and loss of housing still exists. Over time, three potential strategies for HIV testing have been considered by public health and public policy officials: 1) universal testing with patient notification and right of refusal, also called "opt-out" testing; 2) ...
OBJECTIVE: The study examined the outcome of psychiatric inpatient care in terms of patients reports of ethical benefits, which were defined as fulfillment of the ethical principles of beneficence and autonomy, and ...
D. According to beneficence, the nurse has an obligation to implement actions that will benefit clients.. 8. Essence of Care benchmarking is a process of ---?. A. Comparing, sharing anddeveloping practice in order to achieve and sustain best practice.. B. Assess clinical area against best practice. C. Review achievement towards best practice. D. Consultation and patient involvement. 9. An adult is offered the opportunity to participate in research on a new therapy. The researcher asks the nurse to obtain the patients consent. What is most appropriate for the nurse to take ...
D. According to beneficence, the nurse has an obligation to implement actions that will benefit clients.. 8. Essence of Care benchmarking is a process of ---?. A. Comparing, sharing anddeveloping practice in order to achieve and sustain best practice.. B. Assess clinical area against best practice. C. Review achievement towards best practice. D. Consultation and patient involvement. 9. An adult is offered the opportunity to participate in research on a new therapy. The researcher asks the nurse to obtain the patients consent. What is most appropriate for the nurse to take ...
Whole-genome analysis of pre-implantation embryos provides information about not only the disorder tested for, but the whole genomic make-up of the embryo. This not only allows for improved selection, but also provides information on genetic variants that are associated with several non-health-related traits. These prospects raise difficult ethical questions. Some people may see this as the slippery slope towards the designer child (REF. 136), whereas a different perspective is that it enables prospective parents and professionals to take into account the welfare of the future child. Following the principle of procreative beneficence, it is common practice to rank embryos and select the embryo with the highest chance of resulting in a healthy individual137. This raises questions as to whether prospective parents have the right to select for the best embryo and how to define best, especially in the context of genome-wide analysis ...
Pulsus Group is an internationally renowned medical peer-review publisher and conferences organizer established in the year 1984 publishes and hosts the work of researchers in a manner that exemplifies the highest standards in research integrity.With a legacy of 30 years of excellence in Medical Publishing we are endorsed by various societies like International Academy of Cardiovascular Sciences, International Society of Addiction Medicine, European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association, World Federation of Pediatrics Intensive and Critical Care Societies, World Association of Medical Sciences, International Society for Ceramics in Medicine, Thalassaemia International Federation and World Association of Integrated Medicine to nurture the research and development for the beneficence of society ...
... - Exploitadulterate me will lesbian jailbait my potential beneficence into. That it has one Library.
Ethical principles are broad-spectrum statements that summarize and reflect the values of the parent organization or governing body.
The nurse must take on the simple fact that whatever an individual thinks is correct, is suitable. Every one of these key essentials of respect, autonomy, and nonmaleficence ought to be carefully evaluated when ethical conflicts arise to make sure that decisions do not jeopardize any one of cheapest essay writing service these principles. The person is the principal focus but how each theorist defines the nursing metaparadigm gives an exceptional take specific to a certain theory.. Weidenbach emphasized that Help is an essential part of nursing. Nursing theory development a part of that distinctive body of knowledge. It is not that old.. Select Orens theory and talk about the manner that it influenced the development of nursing research. While classroom management theory is perpetually evolving, there are 3 essential theorists who stand out when it has to do with modern education. https://www.government.nl/ministries/ministry-of-education-culture-and-science The categories consist of several ...
2009 (English)In: Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, ISSN 1386-2820, E-ISSN 1572-8447, 247-256 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
GPs, who have a statutory obligation to allow extractions but also a prior obligation as data controllers to inform their patients." No, actually we have a prior obligation not to allow such extraction, which is a completely different thing. ...
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The commission found many efforts to shape policy, governance, and regulation related to synthetic biology, but few examples of a broad-based ethical framework upon which to base such proposals. We identified five ethical principles relevant to the social implications of synthetic biology and other emerging technologies and used these to guide our evaluation of the current state of synthetic biology and its potential risks and benefits, as well as our policy recommendations.. The guiding principles are: (1) public beneficence, (2) responsible stewardship, (3) intellectual freedom and responsibility, (4) democratic deliberation, and (5) justice and fairness. These principles are intended to serve as provisional guideposts subject to refinement, revision, and comment.. Public beneficence. The ideal of public beneficence is to act to maximize public benefits and minimize public harm. This principle encompasses the duty of a society and its government to promote individual activities and ...
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Ethical considerations. Ethical permission was obtained from the universitys research ethical committee and the manager of the primary healthcare clinic. In this study, the three main ethical guidelines of the Belmont Report of 1979, as cited in Polit and Beck (2012:252) namely, beneficence, respect for human dignity and justice were used. This included the principle of respect for persons or autonomy, whereby participants are treated as autonomous and capable of making deliberate decisions about whether to participate in research (Lobiondo-Wood 2010:252; Polit & Beck 2012:152-154). Assent and consent were obtained and no participants were coerced to take part. Participation was voluntary and no names of participants were revealed; only numbers were assigned to each interview recorded and the transcripts so as to ensure that no data will be linked to a participant when reported. This was done to ensure beneficence, respect and confidentiality. A clinic social worker and psychologist located in ...
Contemporary clinical ethics was founded on principlism, and the four principles: respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice, remain dominant in medical ethics discourse and practice. These principles are held to be expansive enough to provide the basis for the ethical practice of medicine across cultures. Although principlism remains subject to critique and revision, the four-principle model continues to be taught and applied across the world. As the practice of medicine globalizes, it remains critical to examine the extent to which both the four-principle framework, and individual principles among the four, suffice patients and practitioners in different social and cultural contexts. Using the four-principle model we analyze two accounts of surrogate decision making - one from the developed and one from the developing world - in which the clinician undertakes medical decision-making with apparently little input from the patient and/or family. The purpose of this analysis is ...
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The application for this program must be downloaded, filled out, and brought to your medical provider. Click here for the Merck Helps application. (It is also available in Spanish.). Individuals who dont meet the insurance criteria may still qualify for the Merck Patient Assistance Program if they attest that they have special circumstances of financial and medical hardship, and their income meets the program criteria. A single application may provide for up to 1 year of medicine free of charge to eligible individuals and an individual may reapply as many times as needed.. If you have any questions about the Merck Patient Assistance Program including the status of an application, please call 1-800-727-5400, 8 AM to 8 PM EST, Monday through Friday.. There is also the ACT Program. The ACT Program provides free reimbursement support services to help answer questions related to insurance coverage and reimbursement. If you do not meet the prescription drug coverage criteria, your income meets the ...
The application for this program must be downloaded, filled out, and brought to your medical provider. Click here for the Merck Helps application. (It is also available in Spanish.). Individuals who dont meet the insurance criteria may still qualify for the Merck Patient Assistance Program if they attest that they have special circumstances of financial and medical hardship, and their income meets the program criteria. A single application may provide for up to 1 year of medicine free of charge to eligible individuals and an individual may reapply as many times as needed.. If you have any questions about the Merck Patient Assistance Program including the status of an application, please call 1-800-727-5400, 8 AM to 8 PM EST, Monday through Friday.. There is also the ACT Program. The ACT Program provides free reimbursement support services to help answer questions related to insurance coverage and reimbursement. If you do not meet the prescription drug coverage criteria, your income meets the ...
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There is a long-running and vigorous debate over ethical concerns regarding circumcision, particularly neonatal circumcision for reasons other than intended direct medical benefit. There are three parties involved in the decision to circumcise a minor: the minor as the patient, the parents (or other guardians) and the physician. The physician is bound under the ethical principles of beneficence (promoting well-being) and non-maleficence ("first, do no harm"), and so is charged with the responsibility to promote the best interests of the patient while minimizing unnecessary harms. Those involved must weigh the factors of what is in the best interest of the minor against the potential harms of the procedure.[9]. With a newborn involved, the decision is made more complex due to the principles of respect for autonomy and consent, as a newborn cannot understand or engage in a logical discussion of his own values and best interests.[8][9] A mentally more mature child can understand the issues involved ...
Keyword(s): academics, ACS, autonomy, beneficence, billing fraud, clinical trial, dignity, efficiency, EHR, ethics, ethics committee, fellow, grant funding, health resources, healthcare, Hippocratic oath, honesty, industry, informed consent, innovation, justice, leadership, non-maleficence, PA, plagerism, policy, professional conduct, professionalism, promotion, quality, research, respect, RVU, safety, SCORE curriculum, truthfulness ...
The appeal to autonomy supports allowing epileptic patients to do as they see fit. The appeal to consequences suggests uncontrolled epileptics should not drive. The appeal to the special obligations of beneficence and nonmaleficence is ambiguous. The ethical conflict remains and the law provides no consensus, even if there is some protection for physician reporters in most states. So, how should the cases above be resolved? To determine the most ethically justified courses of action, it may be necessary to look outside the doctor-patient relationship and consider those other people who share the roadways.. The American Medical Association established in the Declaration of Professional Responsibilities that first and foremost physicians must "respect human life and the dignity of every individual." The declaration adds that we are to "protect the privacy and confidentiality of those for whom we care and breach that confidence only when keeping it would seriously threaten their health and safety ...
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An interactive patient assistance device houses both preselected doses of medication and a physical testing device. Both medication and the testing device are normally retained within separate compartments within the device away from access by the patient. The device keeps track of medication and diagnostic testing schedules. The device is also capable of receiving and interpreting verbal commands of the patient. The device makes a preselected dose of medication available to the patient in response to either the medication schedule or the receipt of a verbal command by the patient. Likewise, the testing device is made available to the patient in response either to the testing schedule or the receipt of a verbal command from the patient.
The information provided on this page was provided by the Johnson & Johnson Patient Assistance Foundation, Inc. For information about specific prescription drugs, including the FDA-approved prescribing information, please visit Janssen Biotech, Inc. at http://www.janssen.com/us/our-products, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at http://www.janssenpharmaceuticalsinc.com/our-products/product-list, Janssen Therapeutics, Division of Janssen Products, LP at http://www.janssentherapeutics.com/our-products, and DePuy Synthes Mitek Sports Medicine, a division of DePuy Orthopaedics, Inc. at https://www.depuysynthes.com/hcp/mitek-sports-medicine/products.. ...
Autonomy vs. Beneficence." University of California San Francisco. Retrieved 18 Feb 2014 from http://missinglink.ucsf.edu/lm/ethics/content%20pages/fast_fact_auton_bene.htm. Bort, Julie. "The history of the tablet". Business Insider (2 Jun 2013) Retrieved 11 March 2014 from http://www.businessinsider.com/history-of-the-tablet-2013-5?op=1. Bereznak, S., Ayres, K., Mechling, L., & Alexander, J. (2012). Video Self-Prompting and Mobile Technology to Increase Daily Living and Vocational Independence for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal Of Developmental & Physical Disabilities, 24(3), 269-285. doi:10.1007/s10882-012-9270-8. Brooks, Brian S. et al. Telling the Story: The Convergence of Print, Broadcast and Online Media, Second Edition. Boston: Bedfor/St. Martins, 2004. Cheslock, M.A., Barton-Hulsey, A., Romski, M., & Sevcik, R.A. (2008). Using a speech-generating device to enhance communicative abilities for an adult with moderate intellectual disability. Intellectual Developmental ...
Blessed be Allah, the Best of Creators" [23:15]. In the early 20th century, researchers began to unravel the great potential of microorganisms to improve the health of humans with the discovery of drugs such as Penicillin. These compounds known as antibiotics are produced by bacteria and fungi to fight off other organisms. It was these revolutionary compounds that transformed modern health care and were key in reducing the burden of infectious diseases, saving millions of lives.. Allah says in the Holy Quran,. "And He has subjected to you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth: all this is from Him. In that surely are Signs for a people who reflect." [45:14]. From cattle to E.coli, it is the great beneficence of Allah that He has gifted humans with the capability to harness the power of nature and His creation. However, when this early work into microorganisms was being undertaken, no one could have predicted the great potential they could have for humans. While it is ...
Astellas has made the patient assistance program application and verification process easily accessible for patients who have lost their jobs or insurance coverage as a result of COVID-19, and has increased customer service capacity in light of the influx of patients requiring assistance. Important resources regarding patient healthcare coverage and financial assistance options are also available. We recognize the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic is having on patients and healthcare systems and want to ensure we do all we can to meet patient needs, said Percival Barretto-Ko, president of Astellas U.S. During these challenging times, many people are experiencing financial stresses and are worried about how to pay their bills. They should not have to worry about how to get their prescription medications. We will continue to do all that we can to help ensure that patients have access to - and can afford - their critical Astellas medicines.. Some of the products patients can access support for ...
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On many mornings , Gerald Lambdin can be found greeting visitors to his backyard. An avid bird watcher, Gerald keeps a close eye on the trees surrounding his home to see who shows up. "About fifteen years ago I saw a bird Id never seen before, and that caught my attention," he explains. "I star… ...
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Periodization is a viable concept that certainly will help improve our sport development system, but we also need trained coaches to plan and then implement the plan. A productive sport development system is coach driven and athlete centered. The solution lies in educating our coaches in the principles of planning in order to optimize resources and time. To achieve athletic success in a systematic manner, certain principles must be observed. The principles are the same regardless of the sport. The plan is the means to execute the principles.. The principles are:. Principle of Progression - This is the most often violated principle. Progression in its simplest form moves from simple to complex, easy to hard and general work to specific work. These simple steps give way to complex interactions. All training variables do not progress at the same rate nor do all individuals progress at the same rate.. To insure proper progression we must clearly define each step. Begin by articulating specific goals ...
This approach led to documenting our ethical principles which we never compromise on while sustaining our stakeholders trust and respect in tomorrows. The Ethical Principles of Abdi İbrahim represents our commitment and loyalty to essential work principles and business ethics as a part of our corporate responsibility towards all our stakeholders. The Ethical Principles of Abdi İbrahim, which are the basis of values and principles that define us, function as a guideline for all of us. We would like to highlight that complying with these principles on all business processes is one of our foremost responsibilities. The Ethical Committee of our company shall support all our stakeholders about any content input ...
Explain the behaviour and properties of fluids (static and dynamic). - Solve problems involving Newtonian incompressible fluids using 1-D mass, momentum and energy balances. - Apply these basic principles in flow measurements. - Solve pipeline problems. - Solve simple 1-D problems in compressible flow. This is a first course in transport phenomena, and introduces both heat and mass transport. The emphasis of the course is a first principles approach to understanding transport phenomena. A number of applications, both traditional and contemporary, are presented throughout the course.. Heat and Mass Transport is given equal importance and parallels and contrast between the two are discussed at every stage. The focus of this course will be on conduction, diffusion and convective heat and mass transport.. ...
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The legal system and field of psychology share many of the same ethical principles and guidelines. That being said, psychological ethics can sometimes be foreign or even misconstrued with ethical principles used by professionals.
Complete documentation/survey means a series of several images throughout the entire organ in two planes. For example, from one side of the organ to the other in the longitudinal plane and from superior to inferior in the transverse plane. ...
This introductory chapter summarizes the themes of the book. It explains the general idea of self-constitution: that we constitute our agency by choosing our actions in accordance with the principles of practical reason. It sketches the main types of principles of practical reason, and raises some problems about the concept of rational prudence. It advances a theory of the normativity of rational principles based on the idea that they are constitutive standards of action. It discusses the role of the idea of virtue within ethical theory, and the possibility of conjoining an Aristotelian theory of virtue with Kants ethics. It raises issues about the connection between individual agency and the agency of the state, explains the connection between Humes conception of agency and Kant and Aristotles, and discusses the methodological idea of constructivism.
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CRN and its members share a commitment to improving public health through nutrition, including the appropriate use of dietary supplements and functional food1.In pursuit of this goal, CRNs members pledge to observe and uphold the highest ethical principles in their dealings with their customers, suppliers, competitors, regulators and consumers in order to foster confidence in our products. In particular, CRN and its members commit themselves to the following ethical principles ...
important to note the managerial success of Nehemiah. Due to the godly principles he uses, Jerusalem is rebuilt. These godly principles are reiterated
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The burdens of life with treatment may outweigh the benefits. Under which set of circumstances and to what extent a neonate should receive medical intervention is a difficult ethical issue involving principles and cultural ...
All things come alike to all: there is one event to the righteous, and to the wicked; to the good and to the clean, and to the unclean; to him that sacrificeth, and to him that sacrificeth not: as is the good, so is the sinner; and he that sweareth, as he that feareth an oath ...
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Basel, September 22, 2017 - Novartis announced a new collaboration with The Max Foundation to support continued access to treatment at no cost for nearly 34,000 current patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), gastrointestinal tumors (GIST) and other rare cancers. The two organizations have been long-time collaborators in providing access to care for patients in lower-income countries through the Glivec International Patient Assistance Program (GIPAP), one of the most innovative patient assistance programs ever implemented on a global scale. The new collaboration, called CMLPath to Care(TM), is an evolution from GIPAP, a partnership that provided Glivec (imatinib)* at no cost to diagnosed patients in lower-income countries where there may not be access to reimbursement or funding mechanisms, and to those unable to pay for the medication. Under the new initiative, The Max Foundation, a global, patient-focused, non-governmental organization (NGO), will assume from Novartis the responsibility ...
Basel, September 22, 2017 - Novartis announced a new collaboration with The Max Foundation to support continued access to treatment at no cost for nearly 34,000 current patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), gastrointestinal tumors (GIST) and other rare cancers. The two organizations have been long-time collaborators in providing access to care for patients in lower-income countries through the Glivec International Patient Assistance Program (GIPAP), one of the most innovative patient assistance programs ever implemented on a global scale. The new collaboration, called CMLPath to Care(TM), is an evolution from GIPAP, a partnership that provided Glivec (imatinib)* at no cost to diagnosed patients in lower-income countries where there may not be access to reimbursement or funding mechanisms, and to those unable to pay for the medication. Under the new initiative, The Max Foundation, a global, patient-focused, non-governmental organization (NGO), will assume from Novartis the responsibility ...
Some independent PAPs have recently been put under the spotlight because they are heavily funded by the pharmaceutical industry. (See the December 18, 2013, New York Times article, "Drug Makers Donations to Co-Pay Charity Face Scrutiny," which reported that the Chronic Disease Fund [CDF] has come under fire for showing improper favoritism toward one of its funders, Questcor Pharmaceuticals, maker of a costly drug for immune diseases.). By contributing to an independent PAP, pharma not only receives a sizable tax deduction, but also ensures patients who could not otherwise afford the co-pay to have access to the companys expensive drugs for which the patients insurance pays the bulk of the price.. Nonetheless, PAPs can have an important role in helping fund chronic care. As long as a pharmaceutical company does not stipulate that its donations be used only to pay for its own drugs, its contributions to a PAP are legal. PAPs also should not steer patients to a specific drug ...
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Principle A: Beneficence and nonmaleficence[edit]. The beneficence and non maleficence principle of the APA general principles ... Beneficence and nonmaleficence (or "do no harm").[18] ... 1.2.1 Principle A: Beneficence and nonmaleficence. *1.2.2 ...
... beneficence; and self-improvement. In any given situation, any number of these prima facie duties may apply. In the case of ...
Beneficence. Do not harm; Maximize probable benefits and minimize probable harms; Systematically assess both risk of harm and ... 2. Beneficence Assessing potential research harm involves considering risks related to information and information systems as a ... The Menlo Report adapted the original Belmont Report principles (Respect for Persons, Beneficence, and Justice) to the context ... 1. Respect for Persons Appropriate application of the principles of Respect for Persons, Beneficence, Justice, and Respect for ...
Save Outdoor Sculpture (1993). "Beneficence, (sculpture)". SOS. Smithsonian. Retrieved 26 November 2010. Save Outdoor Sculpture ...
"The fallacy of the Principle of Procreative Beneficence". Bioethics. 23 (5): 265-73. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2008.00655.x ...
"Beneficence - Basement Chemistry". Discogs. Retrieved 2017-05-16. Malik Turner on Sound Cloud Malik Turner on Discogs. ... Adam Blackstone and "Get Your Mind Right". Malik has also done production on Ill Adrenaline artist's, Beneficence's 2016 album ... Malik's work includes recordings and collaborations with artists and producers such as Beneficence, Jasiri X, Dominique Larue, ...
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BENEFICENCE a. SPECIFYING BENEFICENCE: i. What are the benefits of the various options for the subject and/or relevant parties ... Likewise, nonmaleficence is maximized, by maximizing autonomy, beneficence, and justice and beneficence is maximized, by ... Principlism is a system of ethics based on the four moral principles of: 1. Autonomy-free-will or agency, 2. Beneficence-do ... These principles are: 1. Respect for persons-Autonomy, 2. Beneficence-do good, and 3. Justice-specifically distributive justice ...
... beneficence, unstinting generosity, optimism; his confidence in the affection of his friends, his frankness with those who met ...
The guidelines were based on beneficence and non-maleficence, but also stressed legal doctrine of informed consent. The ... and beneficence towards experiment participants. It is thought to have been mainly based on the Hippocratic Oath, which was ...
... the beneficence of Negro slavery." And "[Upshur's] appointment was an omen of the coming drive for the annexation of Texas." ... was a believer in the new creed of the beneficence of slavery and also in the doctrine of Manifest Destiny.", Crapol, 2006, pp ...
Morgan, W.P. (1985). Affective beneficence of vigorous physical activity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 17(1), 94- ...
Self-image: The Guardians' self-esteem is based on their dependability; their self-respect on their beneficence; and their self ...
... beneficence, improving the conditions of others; non-injury; self-improvement, stemming from the possibility of improving one's ...
beneficence - a practitioner should act in the best interest of the patient. (Salus aegroti suprema lex.) ... For example, some argue that the principles of autonomy and beneficence clash when patients refuse blood transfusions, ...
Bennett argues that while advocates of procreative beneficence could appeal to impersonal harm, which is where one should aim ... Julian Savulescu coined the phrase procreative beneficence. It is the controversial putative moral obligation of parents in a ... Why the Principle of Procreative Beneficence Must Work Much Harder to Justify Its Eugenic Vision", Wiley Online Library, ... Savulescu J (October 2001). "Procreative beneficence: why we should select the best children". Bioethics. 15 (5-6): 413-26. doi ...
His grandest beneficence, however, was to Baltimore; the city in which he achieved his earliest success. In April 1862, Peabody ...
Bennett, R (Jun 2009). "The fallacy of the Principle of Procreative Beneficence". Bioethics. 23 (5): 265-73. doi:10.1111/j.1467 ...
Earl Conn (2003). Beneficence: Stories about the Ball Families of Muncie. Muncie, IN: Minnetrista Cultural Foundation, Inc. p. ... Conn, Earl (2003). Beneficence: Stories about the Ball Families of Muncie. Muncie, IN: Minnetrista Cultural Foundation, Inc. ...
He earned the title of Shaikh-ul-Islam due to the unmatched religious knowledge and beneficence of the time. Countless seekers ... He even got spiritual beneficence from Bayazid Bastami. After sometime, he went back to his homeland. Hence, the people around ...
", "beneficence", and "justice". An IRB may only approve research for which the risks to subjects are balanced by potential ...
In September 1937 a bronze sculpture named Beneficence was installed on the Ball State University campus in Muncie to honor the ... Conn, Earl L. (2003). Beneficence: Stories About the Ball Families of Muncie. Muncie, IN: Minnetrista Cultural Foundation. ISBN ...
John Holmes (1873). The second great step of co-operative beneficence. Co-operative Printing Society. John Holmes (1871). Notes ...
Singer, A. (2002). Constructing Ottoman Beneficence: An Imperial Soup Kitchen in Jerusalem. Albany: State of New York Press. ...
Singer, Amy (2002). Constructing Ottoman Beneficence: An Imperial Soup Kitchen in Jerusalem. SUNY Press. ISBN 9780791453513. ...
Beneficence may refer to: Beneficence (hip-hop artist) Beneficence (ethics), a concept in medical ethics Beneficence (statue), ... a statue at Ball State University Procreative beneficence Order of Beneficence (Greece). ...
Beneficence and colonnade at night, July 2011 Close-up of Beneficence at night, July 2011 "The Ball Brothers". Ball State ... "Beneficence". Ball State University. Retrieved 28 July 2011. "Tour Stop: Beneficence". Ball State University. Archived from the ... Beneficence is a bronze statue on the campus of Ball State University, located in Muncie, Indiana. The statue is referred to as ... Beneficence s hand stretches to welcome new students to campus. The treasure box she holds in her other arm represents the ...
Beneficence is a concept in research ethics which states that researchers should have the welfare of the research participant ... These four concepts often arise in discussions about beneficence: one should not practice evil or do harm, often stated in ... The concept that medical professionals and researchers would always practice beneficence seems natural to most patients and ... Researchers should apply the concept of beneficence to individuals within the patient/physician relationship or the research- ...
Brick City veteran and Ill Adrenaline Records co-founder Beneficence unleashes his 6th solo LP Basement Chemistry. Armed with ... Brick City veteran and Ill Adrenaline Records co-founder Beneficence unleashes his 6th solo LP "Basement Chemistry". Armed with ...
The Decoration "For Beneficence" (Russian: Знак отличия «За благодеяние») is a decoration of Russia, established on 3 May 2012 ... The Decoration "For Beneficence" may be awarded for: Significant charity efforts to support childrens homes, nursing homes, ... "Executive Order on awarding the Order of St Catherine the Great Martyr and the Decoration "For Beneficence"". eng.kremlin.ru. ... "Executive Order establishing the Order of St Catherine the Great Martyr and the Decoration "For Beneficence"". eng.kremlin.ru. ...
The Order of Beneficence (Greek: Τάγμα της Ευποιΐας), is an order of Greece, that was established in 1948. It is conferred by ... in Greek) Presidency of the Hellenic Republic - Order of Beneficence The Greek Royal Orders George J. Beldecos, "Hellenic ... Beneficence») on a white enamel ring. The reverse side bears the emblem of the Hellenic Republic. The star of the Order is a ...
Beneficence is an American rapper. He is from Newark, New Jersey. Brick Citys veteran lyricist and Artifacts affiliate, he has ... Beneficences 4th full length album, Sidewalk Science, was released in 2011. It features guest appearances from Diamond D ( ... Roc Marciano Assist On Beneficences "Sidewalk Science" Album". HipHopDX. Kay, Andrew (14 April 2011). "Sidewalk Science ( ...
The Case for Beneficence. Beneficence-Based Consent and the Legal Status of Animals. In the UK, animals lack of legal status ... Beauchamp and Childress (2013:203) outline two types of beneficence.48 "Positive beneficence," also termed "obligatory ... "Utility beneficence," on the other hand, obliges agents to balance benefits and harms to produce the best results for others. ... And, although the concept of beneficence or "doing good for the patient"(Donnelly 2009:11) is central to decision-making for ...
Beneficence - (Short Stories Volume III) vom Lazlo Ferran als eBook auf ciando.com - dem führenden Portal für elektronische ... Vampire: Beneficence There was a short message on the piece of paper. Sunday at noon. It was signed in blood: Concilium Putus ...
Savulescu, "Procreative Beneficence: Why We Should Select the Best Children." Bioethics, 2001. Savulescu and Kahane, "The Moral ... Julian Savulescu defends a principle of this sort*, The Principle of Procreative Beneficence (PB):. ... under his principle of procreative beneficence). If Betty decides not to delay conception, A (with the impairment) is the only ...
Aids; Beneficence; Clinical Research; Justice; Research; Philosophical Ethics; Drugs and Drug Industry; Quality of Health Care ... HIV/AIDS Clinical Research, and the Claims of Beneficence, Justice, and Integrity. Creator. Zion, Deborah ...
Beneficence. While promoting good (beneficence in ethical terms) is often mentioned, it is rarely defined, though notable ... References to non-maleficence occur significantly more often than references to beneficence and encompass general calls for ... Because references to non-maleficence outnumber those related to beneficence, it appears that issuers of guidelines are ... proving beneficence through customer demand65 and feedback75, and developing new metrics and measurements for human well-being ...
"Procreative Beneficence" Examined. May 28, 2008. December 2, 2009. / Miriam Gordon In the spirit of raising awareness of the ... Cooper was saying that there are just no easy answers to the question of procreative beneficence, but that physicians should ... The last panel member to address the idea of procreative beneficence was Professor Udo Schuklenk, Professor of Philosophy at ... The idea of "Procreative Beneficence" was jelled into a unified concept by Professor Julian Savulescu of Oxford University ( ...
b. Beneficence. To act beneficently toward others is to behave in such a way as to "do good" on behalf of, or to benefit, ... Any attempt, on the part of the physician, to justify such deception as an act of beneficence toward the patient is doomed to ... For, it is difficult to imagine a health care professional who is committed to the principle of beneficence, on behalf of ones ... Thus, the principle of beneficence should lie at the heart of all research that is conducted with human subjects. The history ...
Less than 40 years ago, being diagnosed with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was a death sentence, as there was no treatment for the virus. Most people who lived through the HIV/AIDS epidemic of the 1980s never would have guessed. ...
43 AM Page 47 CHAPTER 3 Nonmaleficence and Beneficence Love and kindness are never wasted. They always make a difference. ... BENEFICENCE IN HEALTHCARE SETTINGS Beneficence is another principle of ethics that is expected to be a given in a healthcare ... You will learn more about beneficence in decision making in a later chapter in this text. Beneficence and Staff As an ... This obligation is called beneficence. Beneficence includes the obligation to help those in trouble, protect patients rights, ...
Principle A: Beneficence and nonmaleficence[edit]. The beneficence and non maleficence principle of the APA general principles ... Beneficence and nonmaleficence (or "do no harm").[18] ... 1.2.1 Principle A: Beneficence and nonmaleficence. *1.2.2 ...
Procreative Beneficence in the CRISPR World. Voices in Bioethics: An Online Journal ... While acting on the principle of Procreative Beneficence does not constitute child abuse per the legal ethics of intention, to ... However, these risks do not pose a philosophical objection to Procreative Beneficence as a principle, but merely advocate for ... Adopting a larger scope, some have suggested Procreative Beneficence would have a detrimental effect on society as a whole. ...
Our physician must decide whether the duty of beneficence she has to one of her patients (the wife) justifies breaching her ... BENEFICENCE AND CONFIDENTIALITY. Physicians confronted with dilemmas involving patient confidentiality frequently seek guidance ...
Beneficence and risk-to-benefit analysis. Risk assessment is based on the principle that the possible harm of the research must ... Such principles include respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. These ethical issues are addressed in great length by ...
Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Dordrecht ; Boston : D. Reidel Pub. Co. ; Norwell, MA, U.S.A. : Sold and distributed in the U.S.A. and Canada by Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1987Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: W 50 87EU] (1). ...
Balancing Beneficence and Non-Maleficence. The first important ethical question is whether DBS is beneficial and does not harm ... beneficence, justice and respect for autonomy, and the additional principles of subsidiarity and proportionality (Table 1). ...
What is the difference between beneficence and nonmaleficence?. * Q: What is the difference between values and principles?. ...
4.1.1. Beneficence. 4.1.2. Respect for individual autonomy. 4.1.3. Justice. 4.2. Genetic testing. 4.2.1. prenatal Dx for non ...
HUMAN RESEARCH ETHICS: BENEFICENCE. PART B:. A CASE STUDY: An opportunity to identify ethical issues related to beneficience.. ... Matters related to beneficence that would be likely to concern co-researchers and human research ethics committee members ... it is simply to give you the opportunity to say what you think are the ethical issues that relate to beneficence and to receive ... and needed to be satisfied that the project met the value and principle of beneficence, what would you want to know before you ...
  • The idea of "Procreative Beneficence" was jelled into a unified concept by Professor Julian Savulescu of Oxford University (Uehiro Chair in Practical Ethics, and Director of the Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics) , and basically states that having the choice to screen human fetuses for various genetic characteristics, select embryos with desirable traits and discard those with undesirable traits is a positive thing, or eugenics by choice, if you will. (parallelaphors.com)
  • The first brave panel expert to express her opinion of "procreative beneficence" was Jennifer Kimball, Executive Director of the Culture of Life Foundation , a non-profit policy organization dedicated to education regarding Christian pro-life views on bioethics. (parallelaphors.com)
  • In Kimball's opinion, procreative beneficence is a contradiction in terms, i.e. artificial reproductive technologies force a life that was not naturally conceived into being solely to satisfy the will of those who want the child. (parallelaphors.com)
  • In his influential 2001 article, "Procreative Beneficence: Why We Should Select the Best Children," Julian Savulescu defends the idea that "couples (or single reproducers) should select the child, of the possible children they could have, who is expected to have the best life, or at least as good a life as the others, based on the relevant, available information. (voicesinbioethics.net)
  • Despite the changes to the genetic selection paradigm as a result of CRISPR, passing laws to prevent the application of Procreative Beneficence would not be justified. (voicesinbioethics.net)
  • The possible permutations eventually exceed the practical constraints of time and resources, which is why the application for Procreative Beneficence discussed by Savulescu was primarily one of relative comparison - it was merely determining which of a select few embryos would likely enjoy the best life, and selecting that embryo for implantation. (voicesinbioethics.net)
  • In defense of Procreative Beneficence, Savulescu refutes three common arguments against its application. (voicesinbioethics.net)
  • Despite developments in CRISPR technology, all three common arguments against Procreative Beneficence remain invalid, though the refutations have substantively changed. (voicesinbioethics.net)
  • However, these risks do not pose a philosophical objection to Procreative Beneficence as a principle, but merely advocate for proper risk-benefit considerations - as is the case with all technological advances. (voicesinbioethics.net)
  • Julian Savulescu coined the phrase procreative beneficence. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] Robert Sparrow wrote, in the Journal of Medical Ethics, that Savulescu's justification for the principle of procreative beneficence can and should be extended further. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bennett argues that while advocates of procreative beneficence could appeal to impersonal harm, which is where one should aim to ensure the maximum possible potential quality of life and thus embryos without or with the least impairments should be selected (as the impersonal total quality of life will be improved), this argument is flawed on two counts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Designer baby Procreative beneficence Procreative liberty Repository for Germinal Choice Human germline engineering Wagner, Cynthia G. (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • such as ethical concerns about how public health interventions reflect beneficence and how they address conditions of social and environmental justice. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Our physician must decide whether the duty of beneficence she has to one of her patients (the wife) justifies breaching her duty to respect the confidentiality of this patient. (aafp.org)
  • There are many different precedents in medicine and research for conducting a cost-benefit analysis and judging whether a certain action would be a sufficient practice of beneficence, and the extent to which treatments are acceptable or unacceptable is under debate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beneficence includes the obligation to help those in trouble, protect patients rights, and provide treatment for people who need it. (docplayer.net)
  • Between 1001 and 1010 Aieshusun is mentioned in the beneficence register of the free Reichsabtei Corvey. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morais remarks, "It would be an impossibility to enumerate all the acts of munificent beneficence performed by Judah Touro. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12. O people of Shaybān, you have been victorious in the world, Because of your honor, favor and beneficence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his testament he made an endowment/beneficence to the city of Basel. (wikipedia.org)
  • and in that case, we shall repay your beneficence by our faithful guardianship of the northern gate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The obverse central disc bears a portrait of the Holy Virgin with the Divine Child in Her arms with the legend "ΕΥΠΟΙΙΑ" («Beneficence») on a white enamel ring. (wikipedia.org)