Benactyzine: A centrally acting muscarinic antagonist. Benactyzine has been used in the treatment of depression and is used in research to investigate the role of cholinergic systems on behavior.ChlorobenzenesMuscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Benzyl Alcohols: Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Glycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.QuinuclidinesAdrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Medical Secretaries: Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.Heptachlor Epoxide: An oxidation product of HEPTACHLOR formed by many plants and animals, including humans, after exposure to HEPTACHLOR. It has been shown to remain in soil treated with HEPTACHLOR for over fifteen years and is toxic to animals and humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.United States Office of National Drug Control Policy: A component of the Executive Office of the President established by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988. The Office establishes policies, priorities, and objectives for national DRUG AND NARCOTIC CONTROL. The goals of the program are to reduce illicit drug use, manufacturing, and trafficking, drug-related crime and violence, and drug-related health consequences.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.National Institute on Drug Abuse (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.Galactogogues: Substances that induce LACTATION.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Chelidonium: A plant genus in the family PAPAVERACEAE, order Papaverales, subclass Magnoliidae.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Pyrones: Keto-pyrans.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Cysteine Loop Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Receptors: A subfamily of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that share a characteristic loop which is formed by a disulfide bond between two CYSTEINE residues. These receptors typically contain five subunits with the cysteine-loop occurring near an N-terminal extracellular domain.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels: A subclass of ion channels that open or close in response to the binding of specific LIGANDS.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3: A subclass of serotonin receptors that form cation channels and mediate signal transduction by depolarizing the cell membrane. The cation channels are formed from 5 receptor subunits. When stimulated the receptors allow the selective passage of SODIUM; POTASSIUM; and CALCIUM.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.OklahomaExplosionsTerrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.OhioPolandHospitals, Federal: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.

Drug-induced changes in brain acetylcholine. (1/4)

In rats, drug-induced depression of the central nervous system has been shown generally to be associated with an elevation in level of total acetylcholine in the brain. This generalization held true for a wide variety of depressant drugs with one notable exception: the subacute administration of reserpine, with which there was an increase in cerebral acetylcholine after the first dose, but a return to normal levels after subsequent doses, despite continued depression of the animals. Reduction in the level of total acetylcholine in the brain followed the administration of certain convulsants (pentylenetetrazole and 3,5-dimethylbutylethylbarbiturate); but no change was seen after the administration of several mildly exciting agents. The notable exceptions to this generalization were atropine and scopolamine, which significantly lowered brain acetylcholine in doses producing mild excitation in only some of the animals and no gross manifestations in the rest.  (+info)

Effect of chlorpromazine, reserpine, benactyzine and phenobarbitone on the release of corticotrophin in the rat. (2/4)

A single injection into the rat of chlorpromazine, reserpine, benactyzine or phenobarbitone stimulates the release of corticotrophin. This effect is not seen after the drugs have been injected daily for 5 days, nor when the rats are hypophysectomized or pretreated with hydrocortisone. The stimulant effect of ether on corticotrophin release is not modified by pretreatment with a single injection, nor to any great extent after 5 daily injections of these drugs.  (+info)

SOME ACTIONS OF CENTRALLY ACTIVE AND OTHER DRUGS ON THE TRANSMISSION OF SINGLE NERVE IMPULSES THROUGH THE ISOLATED SUPERIOR CERVICAL GANGLION PREPARATION OF THE RABBIT. (3/4)

The effect of some centrally-active and other drugs on the transmission of single nerve impulses through the isolated superior cervical ganglion preparation of the rabbit has been studied by recording both preganglionic and postganglionic action potentials. Block of conduction in the axon could be distinguished from block of the synaptic mechanism. The drugs did not appear to exert any one characteristic form of blocking action. A continuous spectrum of drug action linked an agent such as meprobamate which acted predominantly on the synapse to benactyzine which acted mainly by blocking axonal conduction. The drugs have been divided into three groups. Group I: hexamethonium, meprobamate, paraldehyde, amylobarbitone, methylpentynol and azacyclonal; these acted relatively selectively at the ganglion. Group II: N714C (the cis-isomer of chlorprothixene), prochlorperazine, methylpentynol carbamate, pipradrol, promethazine, perphenazine and procaine; the action of these drugs on the ganglion could be accounted for entirely in terms of their axonal depressant action. Group III: chlorprothixene, promazine, N720 (dihydrochlorprothixene), chlorpromazine, hydroxyzine and benactyzine; these drugs also blocked axonal conduction but in addition they appeared to exert a "facilitating" action at the ganglionic synapse. The actions of adrenaline, adrenochrome, iproniazid, ergotoxine, mescaline and lysergic acid diethylamide on transmission were also studied. The implications of the modifications of ganglionic transmission produced by these drugs is discussed.  (+info)

THE SELECTIVITY OF DRUGS BLOCKING GANGLIONIC TRANSMISSION IN THE RAT. (4/4)

By comparing the effects on ganglionic transmission and on the pre- and post-ganglionic nerves in the isolated superior cervical ganglion preparation of the rat, the selectivity of several drugs was assessed quantitatively. Hexamethonium, tetraethylammonium, nicotine and tubocurarine blocked transmission in concentrations which did not affect nervous conduction and were considered to be highly selective in action. Atropine, amylobarbitone and paraldehyde depressed nervous conduction appreciably in ganglion-blocking doses, but not enough to account wholly for the block in transmission and they were therefore considered as being moderately selective. The ganglion blocking actions of mephenesin, procaine, methylpentynol, methylpentynol carbamate and benactyzine were nonspecific, showing general depression of neuronal activity. Ganglion block with bretylium was nonselective in its site of depression of the postganglionic neurone in concentrations which only partly depressed the preganglionic nerve.  (+info)

Benactyzine: A centrally acting muscarinic antagonist. Benactyzine has been used in the treatment of depression and is used in research to investigate the role of cholinergic systems on behavior.
Gery, I and Eidinger, D, "Selective and opposing effects of cytochalasin b and other drugs on lymphocyte responses to different doses of mitogens." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 3098 ...
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Subjects. These experiments were done on ∼200 wild-type Aplysia californica, weighing 250-350 gm (Marinus, Long Beach, CA). The animals were maintained at 14-16°C in holding tanks containing aerated, filtered artificial seawater (ASW) for 3-6 d before being used for experiments.. Preparations. Three types of preparations were used: an isolated ganglia preparation, a semi-intact (isolated head) preparation, and a reduced preparation. Before dissection, the animal was immobilized by an injection of an isotonic magnesium chloride solution of ∼25% of body volume.. The isolated ganglia preparation included all the head ganglia (buccal, cerebral, pedal, and pleural). In some experiments, as specified, we also included the abdominal ganglion or pedal arteries. All ganglia, except the buccal, were pinned dorsal side up to a clear Sylgard silicone elastomer floor of a recording chamber containing fresh ASW. The buccal ganglion was pinned rostral surface up. For the preparations of head ganglia with ...
Physicists have worked out how to measure the magnetic fields generated by single nerves from outside the body and at room temperature.
FARGO, N.D. (AP) - Federal authorities unsealed indictments Monday against 22 people charged with conspiracy to sell heroin and other drugs on an Indian re
Britains top share index touched a session high as chancellor Philip Hammond delivered his budget statement on Wednesday, boosted by a dip in sterling as Brexit-bound Britain slashed economic growth forecasts. Housebuilding stocks swung sharply, losing ground after Hammond announced a review of
Methamphetamines are in a class of drugs which are termed "central nervous system stimulants". This places them in the same class as cocaine, PCP, ecstasy and the newest scourge on the markets, "Bath Salts". This classification of drugs causes people to feel more awake and stimulated. The difference is that Meth is like these other drugs on steroids! Methamphetamines cause the following effects on the human body:. Destructive lifestyle. Methamphetamine, popularly shortened to meth and also nicknamed "ice" or "Speed", is addictive. In other words it produces an initial pleasurable effect, followed by a rebound unpleasant effect. It starts with an "up" and is followed by an unpleasant "down" which can be avoided by taking more of the drug. The longer the "up" is maintained, the worse the "down" feels, and the harder the addict will seek the drug to maintain the high. The harder the addict seeks the drug, the less attention he/she pays to his/her other bodily needs. Addicts stop caring for ...
Pull some of the wires out of the cord and separate them so the child can see that its not just one single wire inside the cord. Explain that is similar to the nerves in our body. And just like the cord needs every single wire to operate properly, our bodies need every single nerve to fully function. Any nerve that is damaged will create some kind and level of difficulty for our body. ...
FISH is a taxonomic staining method in which fluorescent DNA probes hybridise to ribosomal RNA in whole cells. FISH is culture independent and the test can be completed within 24 hours. T(D)GGE is a gel-electrophoretic separation procedure for double stranded deoxyribonucleic acids (dsDNA) produced by primer directed DNA amplification. T(D)GGE is a very useful method in order to monitor the effect of probiotics and antibiotics as well as other drugs on the intestinal microflora of human and animals. Also real time PCR can be used to monitor and quantify the presence of specific bacteria or even genes in the gut flora ...
Treatment for poisoning with GV involves drugs such as atropine, benactyzine, obidoxime, and HI-6. VG (nerve agent) Fusek J, ...
... closely related to benactyzine (an anticholinergic). Further, the structure is similar to methadone and related compounds like ...
... benactyzine Tricycle: amitriptyline, melitracen, cyclobenzaprine, tianeptine, amineptine, clopenthixol chlorprothixene ...
... benactyzine MeSH D02.241.223.601.238.306.740 --- quinuclidinyl benzilate MeSH D02.241.223.601.329 --- guanfacine MeSH D02.241. ... benactyzine MeSH D02.241.511.085.740 --- quinuclidinyl benzilate MeSH D02.241.511.316 --- glycolates MeSH D02.241.511.316.300 ...
Ben-Allergin-50 Injection Ben-Aqua Bena-D benactyzine (INN) Benadryl (Johnson & Johnson) benafentrine (INN) benaprizine (INN) ...
... was brought to market in the US in 1957 by Merck under the tradename, Suavitil. Shorter, E., Looking backwards: a ... Benactyzine is an anticholinergic drug that was used as an antidepressant in the treatment of depression and associated anxiety ... ISBN 978-1-317-94071-5 Media related to Benactyzine at Wikimedia Commons. ...
InChI=1S/C26H37NO3/c1-18(2)26(29)30-25-13-12-21(17-28)16-24(25)23(22-10-8-7-9-11-22)14-15-27(19(3)4)20(5)6/h7-13,16,18-20,23,28H,14-15,17H2,1-6H3/t23-/m1/s1 ...
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... (INN), also known as captodiamine, is an antihistamine sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. The structure is related to diphenhydramine.[1] A 2004 study suggested captodiame may be helpful in preventing benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in people discontinuing benzodiazepine treatment.[1] In addition to its actions as an antihistamine, captodiamine has been found to act as a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and σ1 receptor and D3 receptor agonist.[2] It produces antidepressant-like effects in rats.[2] However, captodiamine is unique among antidepressant-like drugs in that it increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hypothalamus but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus.[2] This unique action may be related to its ability to attenuate stress-induced anhedonia and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the hypothalamus.[2] ...
Used in fixed combination with chlordiazepoxide as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease; however, no conclusive data that antimuscarinics aid in the healing, decrease the rate of recurrence, or prevent complications of peptic ulcers.[2] With the advent of more effective therapies for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease, antimuscarinics have only limited usefulness in this condition. ...
... poisoning is characterized by miosis, blurred vision, increased salivation, excessive sweating, lacrimation, bronchial secretions, bronchoconstriction, bradycardia, abdominal cramping, increased gastric acid secretion, diarrhea and polyuria. If muscarine reaches the brain it can cause tremor, convulsions and hypothermia. Cardiac ventricles contain muscarinic receptors that mediate a decrease in the force of contractions leading to a lower blood pressure. If muscarine is administered intravenously, muscarine can trigger acute circulatory failure with cardiac arrest.[1] The symptoms of intoxication with mushrooms rich in muscarine, especially Inocybe, are very typical: The symptoms start early, after one-quarter to two hours, with headache, nausea, vomiting, and constriction of the pharynx. Then salivation, lacrimation, and diffuse perspiration set in, combined with miosis, disturbed accommodation, and reduced vision. Gastric and small bowel colic leads to diarrhea, and there is a ...
... acts as a potent agonist for the 5HT2A receptor,[1][2] with a Ki of 0.061 nM at the human 5HT2A receptor, similar to the better-known compound 25I-NBOMe, making it some twelve times the potency of 2C-I itself. Although in vitro tests show this compound acts as an agonist, animal studies to confirm these findings have not been reported. While the N-benzyl derivatives of 2C-I had significantly increased binding to 5HT2A receptor fragments, compared to 2C-I, the N-benzyl derivatives of DOI were less active compared to DOI.[3] 25I-NBOH is notable as one of the most selective agonist ligands for the 5-HT2A receptor with an EC50 value of 0.074 nM with more than 400 times selectivity over the 5-HT2C receptor.[4] ...
... (DOPR) is a psychedelic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, and was described in his book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines i Have Known And Loved). Shulgin described DOPR is a "heavy duty psychedelic", complete with alterations of the thought process and visual distortion.[1] Very little data exists about the pharmacological properties, metabolism, and toxicity of DOPR. The alternative structural isomer DOIP, with a 4-isopropyl substitution, is also known but is around ten times weaker than DOPR, with an active dose of some 20-30 mg (as compared to 2-5 mg for DOPR).[1] ...
... (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.[1] Its main function is to deliver the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production. Coenzyme A (CoASH or CoA) consists of a β-mercaptoethylamine group linked to the vitamin pantothenic acid through an amide linkage [2] and 3'-phosphorylated ADP. The acetyl group (indicated in blue in the structural diagram on the right) of acetyl-CoA is linked to the sulfhydryl substituent of the β-mercaptoethylamine group. This thioester linkage is a "high energy" bond, which is particularly reactive. Hydrolysis of the thioester bond is exergonic (−31.5 kJ/mol). CoA is acetylated to acetyl-CoA by the breakdown of carbohydrates through glycolysis and by the breakdown of fatty acids through β-oxidation. Acetyl-CoA then enters the citric acid cycle, where the acetyl group is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, and the energy ...
... is a potent and long lasting anticholinergic deliriant drug, related to the chemical warfare agent 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB). It was developed under contract to Edgewood Arsenal during the 1960s as part of the US military chemical weapons program, during research to improve upon the properties of earlier agents such as QNB. The main advantages of EA-3443 were not only increased potency over QNB, but also a significantly improved central to peripheral effects ratio. Anticholinergic drugs produce both incapacitating deliriant effects through action in the brain, and a variety of distinctive physical symptoms such as dry mouth, dilated pupils, blurred vision and hot flushed skin, all of which together comprise the "anticholinergic syndrome" which is generally easy for doctors to diagnose. EA-3443 however is mainly selective for the brain, and when administered in a narrow dose range of around 0.3mg can produce the central effects of confusion, hallucinations and amnesia, but without ...
Schedule I in Sweden. 2C-T-2 was first classified as "health hazard" under the act Lagen om förbud mot vissa hälsofarliga varor (translated Act on the Prohibition of Certain Goods Dangerous to Health) as of April 1, 1999, under SFS 1999:58[6] that made it illegal to sell or possess. The Riksdag added 2C-T-2 to Narcotic Drugs Punishments Act under Swedish schedule I ("substances, plant materials and fungi which normally do not have medical use") as of March 16, 2004, published by Medical Products Agency (MPA) in regulation LVFS 2004:3 listed as 2C-T-2, 2,5-dimetoxi-4-etyltiofenetylamin.[7] ...
In the United Kingdom, 2C-E is a Class A controlled substance. The UK has the strictest laws in the EU on designer drugs. The Misuse Of Drugs Act was amended in 2002 to include a "catch most" clause outlawing every drug, and possible future drug, from the LSD (ergoline) and MDMA (phenethylamine) chemical families (including 2C-E). The amendment is a near verbatim quote from the books of the American biochemist Alexander Shulgin, who obtained a PhD from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Shulgin, a former research chemist at the Dow Chemical Company, re-discovered the synthesis for MDMA in 1976 and published the syntheses for more than 200 phenethylamine compounds of his own invention, and 55 tryptamine compounds many of which were also his own invention. The Shulgins were motivated to release the synthesis information as a way to protect the public's access to information about psychedelic compounds, a goal Alexander Shulgin has noted many times. ...
Many users report degradation of alpha-GPC when stored openly or for long periods of time. Alpha-GPC is hygroscopic and will pull moisture in from the surrounding air. This will cause the powder to turn into what appears to be a gel. Alpha-GPC with ,99% purity will undergo this process at a visible rate (seconds to minutes) and thus requires minimized exposure to the air. This hygroscopic quality can cause gel capsules not fully packed with alpha-GPC to dissolve. Proper storage methods need to be used with alpha-GPC and include removing all air from the container, double bagging with plastic bags rated for chemicals (less likely to leak air), and storing bulk/excess inside the freezer. Vacuum sealed bags are highly recommended. For people accessing alpha-GPC daily it is advisable to separate a month's supply from excess and storing the excess as best as possible. Vacuum sealing a large supply into many 1 month dividends is a method positively reported by many users. It is important to note that ...
... (INN) (brand names Lethidrone, Nalline), also known as N-allylnormorphine, is a mixed opioid agonist-antagonist with opioid antagonist and analgesic properties.[1] It was introduced in 1954[2] and was used as an antidote to reverse opioid overdose and in a challenge test to determine opioid dependence.[3] It acts at two opioid receptors - the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) where it has antagonistic effects, and at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR) (Ki = 1.6 nM; EC50 = 483 nM; Emax = 95%) where it exerts high-efficacy partial agonist/near-full agonist characteristics.[4] Nalorphine was the second opioid antagonist to be introduced, preceded by nalodeine (N-allylnorcodeine) in 1915 and followed by naloxone in 1960 and naltrexone in 1963.[2] Due to potent activation of the KOR, nalorphine produces side effects such as dysphoria, anxiety, confusion, and hallucinations, and for this reason, is no longer used medically.[1][2][5] Nalorphine has a number of analogues including niconalorphine (the ...
... (JB-318) is an anticholinergic drug related to the chemical warfare agent 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate.. N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate is less potent and shorter acting than 3-quinuclidyl benzilate, but like 3-QNB its effects on the central nervous system predominate over peripheral effects. It produces deliriant and hallucinogenic effects similar to those of plants such as datura and may be used recreationally at low doses; however, unpleasant side effects such as dysphoria, nausea and vomiting, dizziness and extreme dry mouth tend to make abuse of drugs of this kind uncommon. Both the N-methyl and N-ethyl analogues of 3-piperidyl benzilate are, however, Schedule I controlled drugs.. Radiolabelled versions of this drug have been used in scientific research to map the distribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, however this drug has slightly lower binding affinity than the N-methyl analogue and so is less potent and not so widely used for this ...
... (Serentil) is a piperidine neuroleptic drug belonging to the class of drugs called phenothiazines, used in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is a metabolite of thioridazine. The drug's name is derived from the methylsulfoxy and piperidine functional groups in its chemical structure. It has central antiadrenergic, antidopaminergic, antiserotonergic and weak muscarinic anticholinergic effects. Serious side effects include akathisia, tardive dyskinesia and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Mesoridazine was withdrawn from the United States market in 2004 due to dangerous side effects, namely irregular heart beat and QT-prolongation of the electrocardiogram.[1] It currently appears to be unavailable worldwide. ...
N,N-Dimethyllysergamide or N,N-dimethyl-D-lysergamide (DAM-57) is a derivative of ergine. There has been a single report of observing N,N-dimethyl-D-lysergamide in the illicit drug market.[1] This compound did induce autonomic disturbances at oral levels of some ten times the dosage required for LSD, presumably in the high hundreds of micrograms. There is some disagreement as to whether there were psychic changes observed.[2] ...
... is a choline carbamate and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound.[2] It is not well absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It is usually administered topical ocular or through intraocular injection.[2] Carbachol is not easily metabolized by cholinesterase, it has a 2 to 5 minute onset of action and its duration of action is 4 to 8 hours with topical administration and 24 hours for intraocular administration. Since carbachol is poorly absorbed through topical administration, benzalkonium chloride is mixed in to promote absorption.[2]. Carbachol is a parasympathomimetic that stimulates both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.[2] In topical ocular and intraocular administration its principal effects are miosis and increased aqueous humour outflow.[2]. In the cat and rat, carbachol is well known for its ability to induce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when microinjected into the pontine reticular formation. Carbachol elicits this REM ...
... is widely used in preparations as an enhancing agent for some analgesics and antitussives (acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, codeine, hydrocodone). It is widely used in certain parts of the world as cough suppressant usually with codeine, and sometimes by itself or in addition to dextromethorphan as it, like diphenhydramine, possesses antitussive action of its own and is particularly useful in semi-productive coughs because of its moderate drying action. Phenyltoloxamine has analgesic and anti-spasmodic properties of its own[citation needed] and is used in combination with paracetamol, aspirin and other salicylates and other drugs in proprietary preparations available over the counter for backache, muscle strains and similar conditions. In this respect, it is similar to a closely related antihistamine, orphenadrine, and both drugs are very closely related to diphenhydramine and to doxylamine, the latter of which is the active ingredient in NyQuil and many other cough ...
The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.[5][6][7] The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia.[5] According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment."[8] Bonta (2004) described dissociative anaesthesia as "... a peculiar anaesthetic state in which marked sensory loss and analgesia as well as amnesia is not accompanied by actual loss of consciousness."[9] Both Pender (1970) and Johnstone et al. (1959) reported that patients under anaesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and had hallucinations (or "dreams"[10]) during and after anaesthesia. Some patients found the hallucinations euphoric while others found them disturbing. At sub-anesthetic doses, dissociatives alter many of the same cognitive and perceptual ...
Reports of recreational use of glaucine have recently been published, and effects include dissociative-type symptoms; feeling detached and 'in another world', as well as nausea, vomiting and dilated pupils. These reports mirror those about the effects of clinical use, which state dissociative-type symptoms as well as lethargy, fatigue, hallucinations.[8][9] Investigation of side effects in a clinical setting also reports that the hallucinatory effects manifest as bright and colorful visualizations. They also report that patients perceive their environments clearly yet feel detached from it; "the patient sees and understands everything and is oriented well enough, but cannot take a clear and adequate action".[8]. One particular report of recreational use gone awry described the form of distribution as tablets being marketed as a 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP)-free "herbal high" which the patient referred to as "head candy".[9]. ...
Benactyzine has been used in the treatment of depression and is used in research to investigate the role of cholinergic systems ... Benactyzine. Subscribe to New Research on Benactyzine A centrally acting muscarinic antagonist. Benactyzine has been used in ... 02/01/1965 - "[BENACTYZINE POISONING IN A 3-YEAR-OLD BOY].". 02/01/2001 - "Benactyzine is used to treat organophosphate ... In contrast, benactyzine and trihexyphenidyl showed a third profile of activity: There was a smaller increase in drug dosage ...
Benactyzine was brought to market in the US in 1957 by Merck under the tradename, Suavitil. Shorter, E., Looking backwards: a ... Benactyzine is an anticholinergic drug that was used as an antidepressant in the treatment of depression and associated anxiety ... ISBN 978-1-317-94071-5 Media related to Benactyzine at Wikimedia Commons. ...
Benactyzine; Linear Formula: C20H25NO3 · HCl; find Sigma-Aldrich-SML2209 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical ... Benactyzine hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC); CAS Number: 57-37-4; EC Number: 200-324-4; Synonym: α-Hydroxy-α-phenyl-benzeneacetic ... Benactyzine is an anticholinergic and antimuscarinic drug that was used as antidepressant. Benactyzine was discontinued in US ... Benactyzine hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) Synonym: α-Hydroxy-α-phenyl-benzeneacetic acid 2-. (diethylamino). ethyl ester, α-Hydroxy ...
Benactyzine as an Aid in Treatment of Anxiety States Br Med J 1957; 1 :306 ... Benactyzine as an Aid in Treatment of Anxiety States. Br Med J 1957; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5014.306 (Published ...
The effect of the central cholinolytic benactyzine and the cholinomimetic arecoline on the uptake of45Ca by rat brain ... Semenov, E.V. Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the45Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings. Bull Exp Biol Med 86, 1168-1170 ... Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the45Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings. *E. V. Semenov ... Benactyzine was shown to depress the effect of arecoline and depolarization on uptake of the isotope. It is concluded that the ...
Benactyzine Hydrochloride. 10 mg. LGCFOR1826.00. In den Warenkorb Benaprizine Hydrochloride. 5 mg. LGCFOR1827.00. In den ...
Benactyzine Hydrochloride. 10 mg. LGCFOR1826.00. Add to basket Benaprizine Hydrochloride. 5 mg. LGCFOR1827.00. Add to basket ...
Antagonists: 3-Quinuclidinyl Benzilate • 4-DAMP • Atropine • Atropine Methonitrate • Benactyzine • Benzatropine (Benztropine ...
Benactyzine. Dibromotyrosine. Multivitamins Sirenitas - Neoterapici Benvegna Methimazole. Dibromotyrosine Bromazolo - Baldacci ...
Benactyzine. Umeclidinium may increase the anticholinergic activities of Benactyzine.. Withdrawn. Benzatropine. Umeclidinium ...
Benactyzine. The therapeutic efficacy of Mineral oil can be decreased when used in combination with Benactyzine.. Withdrawn. ...
Benactyzine. Dicycloverine. N-Ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate. N-Methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate. 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate. Ditran. ...
Benactyzine (C20H25NO3). *Halazepam (C17H12ClF3N2O) ...
Benactyzine (C20H25NO3). *Chlorcyclizine (C18H21ClN2) ...
GC Application #16012: Common Drug Screen on ZB-50. Column used: Zebron™ ZB-50, GC Cap. Column 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 µm, Ea Part#: 7HG-G004-11
Treatment for poisoning with GV involves drugs such as atropine, benactyzine, obidoxime, and HI-6. VG (nerve agent) Fusek J, ...
Next Document: Efficacy of antidotal treatment against sarin poisoning: the superiority of benactyzine and caramiph.... ...
Benactyzine or its saltsPDL. I. DEC / 13. Benazepril or its salts or derivativesPDL. including but not limited to benazepril ...
An exploratory study of the behavioral effects of Suavitil (benactyzine hydrochloride). Univ. Mich. Med. Bull., 1958, 24, 402- ...
Benactyzine hydrochloride Inhibitor 98.74% Benactyzine hydrochloride is a butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitor with a Ki of ...
... benactyzine-HCl. A dose-response relationship for vocalizations during the 30-sec trials was established, with 1 mg/kg being ...
... muscarinic antagonists including benactyzine and dibenzepin; azaspirones including buspirone, gepirone, ipsapirone, ... tandospirone and tiaspirone; and other antidepressants including amesergide, amineptine, benactyzine, bupropion, carbamazepine ...
... and Benactyzine being two examples. It is also used to determine zirconium and to get benzophenone. ...
3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate, WIN-2299, Salvinorin A, Mepyramine, Benactyzine Collection: Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia ...
BENACTYZINE 50500 BENDROFLUMETHIAZIDE 50502 BENOXAPROFEN 50505 BENOXINATE 50507 BENTIROMIDE 50508 BENTONITE 50511 BENZALDEHYDE ...
  • Benzilic acid is used in organic synthesis, as a base point for preparation of glycollate pharmaceuticals and some hallucinogenic (deliriant) drugs - BZ, and Benactyzine being two examples. (alfa.com)
  • In contrast, benactyzine and trihexyphenidyl showed a third profile of activity: There was a smaller increase in drug dosage required for anticonvulsant activity as seizure duration increased, and both drugs could terminate seizures that had progressed for 40 min. (curehunter.com)
  • Benactyzine has been used in the treatment of depression and is used in research to investigate the role of cholinergic systems on behavior. (curehunter.com)