An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocking agent in hypertension.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
A muscarinic antagonist used to study binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist effective for both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. It is used as an antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, and antiglaucoma agent.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor that has a high affinity for the drug PIRENZEPINE. It is found in the peripheral GANGLIA where it signals a variety of physiological functions such as GASTRIC ACID secretion and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. This subtype of muscarinic receptor is also found in neuronal tissues including the CEREBRAL CORTEX and HIPPOCAMPUS where it mediates the process of MEMORY and LEARNING.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. It has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms.
Atropine[change , change source]. Sometimes, antidotes are poisons themselves. For example, atropine, which is found in deadly ... "Atropine". Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Centers for Disease Control. October 16, 2007. Retrieved December ... However, because of the way it reacts with the body, atropine is used as an antidote against some insecticides and certain ... There is a product called DuoDote that combines atropine with a medicine called pralidoxime chloride (also called 2-PAM). Both ...
AtropineEdit. Atropine is a non-selective competitive antagonist with Acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. ... Drugs that act on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, such as atropine, can be poisonous in large quantities, but in smaller ...
Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ...
The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation (that is, it is a galactogogue). In some nations, including Australia, domperidone is used off-label, based on uncertain and anecdotal evidence of its usefulness, as a therapy for mothers who are having difficulty breastfeeding.[24][25] In the United States, domperidone is not approved for this or any other use.[26][27] A study called the EMPOWER trial was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of domperidone in assisting mothers of preterm babies to supply breast milk for their infants.[28] The study randomized 90 mothers of preterm babies to receive either domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 28 days (Group A) or placebo 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days followed by domperidone ...
... was originally approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on February 9, 2000,[1] after a seven-month review.[2] At the time of the initial approval U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviewers found that alosetron improved symptoms in 10% to 20% of patients.[3] Shipment to pharmacies started in March, 2000. On July 17, a health professional filed a report with the FDA on the death of a 50-year-old woman who suffered mesenteric ischemia. The report identified alosetron as the "primary suspect" in the death.[4] Alosetron was withdrawn from the market voluntarily by GlaxoWellcome on November 28, 2000 owing to the occurrence of serious life-threatening gastrointestinal adverse effects, including 5 deaths and additional bowel surgeries.[2] The FDA said it had reports of 49 cases of ischemic colitis and 21 cases of "severe constipation" and that ten of the 70 patients underwent surgeries and 34 others were examined at hospitals and released without surgery. Through ...
Activation of a wide range of serotonin receptors by serotonin itself or by certain prokinetic drugs results in enhanced gastrointestinal motility.[2] Other prokinetic drugs may increase acetylcholine concentrations by stimulating the M1 receptor which causes acetylcholine release, or by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase which metabolizes acetylcholine. Higher acetylcholine levels increase gastrointestinal peristalsis and further increase pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter, thereby stimulating gastrointestinal motility, accelerating gastric emptying, and improving gastro-duodenal coordination.[citation needed] The 5-HT4 receptor is thought to play a significant role in both the physiology and pathophysiology of GI tract motility.[3] Therefore, 5-HT4 receptors have been identified as potential therapeutic targets for diseases related to GI dysmotility such as chronic constipation. Some of these prokinetic agents, such as mosapride and cisapride, classic benzamides, have only ...
Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ...
InChI=1S/C31H38N2O/c1-22(2)26-14-15-28(34-3)27(20-26)21-32-30-25-16-18-33(19-17-25)31(30)29(23-10-6-4-7-11-23)24-12-8-5-9-13-24/h4-15,20,22,25,29-32H,16-19,21H2,1-3H3/t30-,31-/m0/ ...
Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ... Plants of the family Solanaceae contain various anticholinergic tropane alkaloids, such as scopolamine, atropine, and ... The most common plants containing anticholinergic alkaloids (including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine among others) are ... "ATROPINE- atropine sulfate solution/ drops". DailyMed. 2017-11-20. Retrieved 2020-03-28.. ...
... s can be toxic too (e.g. atropine, tubocurarine).[14] Although alkaloids act on a diversity of metabolic systems in ... Atropine group. Substitution in positions 3, 6 or 7 Ornithine or arginine → putrescine → N-methylputrescine → N-methyl-Δ1- ... The suffix "ine" is a Greek feminine patronymic suffix and means "daughter of"; hence, for example, "atropine" means "daughter ... atropine is isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna; strychnine is obtained from the seed of the Strychnine tree (Strychnos ...
The specific antidote is atropine. Atropine is also an alkaloid and inhibits acetylcholine and thus muscarine by binding to ... Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ... but can be avoided completely by prompt diagnosis and treatment with atropine.[21] ...
... obtained by treating atropine with isopropyl bromide, thus the name: isopropyl + atropine.[citation needed] ... Ipratropium is a derivative of atropine[15] but is a quaternary amine and therefore does not cross the blood-brain barrier, ... Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ... The main contraindication for inhaled ipratropium is hypersensitivity to atropine and related substances. For oral ...
The most common is called Atropine.. *Indirect-acting antagonist- drugs that inhibit the release/production of ...
Atropine can be given when children produce a vagal response, evidenced by bradycardia, in response to intubation. Some ... Pretreatment includes 100% oxygen, lidocaine, and atropine. 100% oxygen should be administered for 3 to 5 minutes. The time ...
This pathway will be inhibited by atropine.[2] Gastrin is transferred from a specific type of G cell in the gastric epithelium ... which is of particular importance because the administration of atropine will not block the vagal stimulation of the G cells, ...
Historical Contributions to the Human Toxicology of Atropine. Eximdyne. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-9677264-3-4.. ...
... including topical atropine to stop spasms of the ciliary muscle. Atropine may decrease tear production and interfere with ... and effective relief can often be gained with topical atropine(1%), leading to mydriasis. Dosing is generally q4h initially, ...
S01FA01 Atropine. S01FA02 Scopolamine. S01FA03 Methylscopolamine. S01FA04 Cyclopentolate. S01FA05 Homatropine. S01FA06 ...
However, the product is only one tenth the potency of atropine. The methyl 2,4,6-cycloheptatriene-1-carboxylate can be made ...
Atropine sulfate tablets are used in some circumstances to reduce salivation. The same for anticholinergic drugs which can be ...
Hence inhibition of m2 receptors (e.g. by atropine) will cause a raise in heart rate. They also moderately reduce contractile ... atropine (to dilate the pupil), scopolamine (used to prevent motion sickness), and ipratropium (used in the treatment of COPD). ... alone and in combination with atropine and gallamine". European Journal of Pharmacology. 144 (2): 117-24. doi:10.1016/0014-2999 ...
If the cornea is involved then atropine sulphate ointment should be applied. ...
The atropine may very well not present a problem, and there is the possibility of atropine content reduction of soluble tablets ... atropine (1831), scopolamine (aka hyoscine, aka laevo-duboisine) (1833?), hyoscyamine or laevo-atropine (1831), opium salts ... Unlike naloxone, atropine does indeed help morphine and other narcotics combat neuralgia. ... Some manufacturers add the narcotic antagonist naloxone or the anticholinergics atropine and homatropine (in lower than ...
In high doses, atropine is a poison. Yet atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "essential drugs list". ... As an example, atropine can be used as an antidote against certain nerve gases, like tabun or sarin, or against certain ...
The most common plants containing anticholinergic alkaloids (including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine among others) are ... Examples of common anticholinergics: Antimuscarinic agents Atropine Benztropine (Cogentin) Biperiden Chlorpheniramine (Chlor- ... Examples include Hydromet/Hycodan (hydrocodone/homatropine), Lomotil (diphenoxylate/atropine) and Tussionex (hydrocodone ... atropine, and hyoscyamine. Physostigmine is one of only a few drugs that can be used as an antidote for anticholinergic ...
"Atropine content of plants". USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online ... Mednje sodita med drugimi atropin in kokain, ki v svoji strukturi vsebujeta tropinon, katerega derivat je tudi tropan. ...
Antagonisti: 3-Hinuklidinil Benzilat • 4-DAMP • Aklidinijum bromid • Anisodamin • Anisodin • AtropinAtropin metonitrat • ...
... and atropine have been studied in small trials as a treatment for fecal incontinence; it appears to be less ... Diphenoxylate is a centrally active opioid drug of the phenylpiperidine series that is used in a combination drug with atropine ... Diphenoxylate is an opioid and acts by slowing intestinal contractions; the atropine is present to prevent drug abuse and ... In 2017 Hikma Pharmaceuticals raised the price of its liquid formulation of generic diphenoxylate-atropine in the US by 430%, ...
Atropine group. Substitution in positions 3, 6 or 7 Ornithine or arginine → putrescine → N-methylputrescine → N-methyl-Δ1- ...
Difenoxin with atropine (Motofen) has been moved to Schedule IV. Without atropine, these drugs are in Schedule II. ... Difenoxin, an antidiarrheal drug, such as when combined with atropine (Motofen) (difenoxin is 2-3 times more potent than ... Some centrally-acting antidiarrheals, such as diphenoxylate (Lomotil) when mixed with atropine (to make it unpleasant for ...
The most common atropine compound used in medicine is atropine sulfate (monohydrate) (C. 17H. 23NO. 3)2·H2SO4·H2O, the full ... In overdoses, atropine is poisonous. Atropine is sometimes added to potentially addictive drugs, particularly antidiarrhea ... Evidence that atropine is present as (+)-hyoscyamine was found, suggesting that stereoselective metabolism of atropine probably ... Geiger, Hesse (1833). "Fortgesetzte Versuche über Atropin" [Continued experiments on atropine]. Annalen der Pharmacie (in ...
atropine* is an alkaloid derived from the solanaceous plants Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade [1]), Hyoscyamus niger (black ... Trade names: Isopto Atropine, Minims Atropine Sulphate.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your ... atropine (at-rŏ-peen) n. an antimuscarinic drug extracted from belladonna. Atropine is used as a mydriatic (see cycloplegia, ... Large doses of atropine can cause hallucination.. Long-lasting pupillary dilation results if atropine drops are placed in the ...
... has part (R)-atropine (CHEBI:48882) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has part (S)-atropine (CHEBI:17486) atropine ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) atropine (CHEBI:16684) is a racemate (CHEBI:60911) ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role anti-arrhythmia drug (CHEBI:38070) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role antidote to sarin poisoning ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role mydriatic agent (CHEBI:50513) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role parasympatholytic (CHEBI:50370) ...
Atropine is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic (or sometimes called an anticholinergic). It works by relaxing the ... Atropine tablets. Atropine is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic (or sometimes called an anticholinergic). It works by ... By preventing this, atropine helps the muscle in the gut to relax. This reduces involuntary contractions and spasms of the ... Atropine tablets should be swallowed whole with a glass of water. They can be taken either with or without food. ...
Atropine is the third album released by the black metal band Velvet Cacoon. It features a completely dark ambient sound. CD ...
Atropine, a major alkaloid in deadly nightshade, is also found in Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium ). Source for information on ... SCOPOLAMINE AND ATROPINE Scopolamine (d -hyoscine) and attopine (dl -hyosycamine) is a tropane alkaloid found in the leaves and ... Scopolamine and Atropine: Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior dictionary. ... Scopolamine and Atropine. Updated About encyclopedia.com content Print Article Share Article ...
Atropine Ophthalmic: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before using atropine eye drops or eye ointment,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to atropine, belladonna ... Atropine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *eye irritation and ... Atropine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eyes and an eye ointment to apply to the eyes. The drops are usually ...
... contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic. It is also ... Atropine eye drops. Atropine eye drops contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an ... Atropine eye drops contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic. It is also ... Atropine eye Drops contain atropine sulfate which belongs to groups of medicines called mydriatics (medicines that widen the ...
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A list of US medications equivalent to Atropine Methonitrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Atropine Methonitrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Butropina (Atropine Methonitrate and Secbutabarbital). Vincenti, Venezuela. *Virulex Forte (Atropine Methonitrate and ...
... atropine sulfate, scopolamine sulfate and phenobarbital (Donnatal, Donnatal Extentabs) are a combination of drugs used in the ... What are the uses for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?. *What are the side effects of hyoscyamine, atropine, ... What are the uses for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?. *What are the side effects of hyoscyamine, atropine, ... Which drugs or supplements interact with hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?. *Is hyoscyamine, atropine, ...
ATROPINE AND OPEN ETHER ADMINISTRATION. Br Med J 1912; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2672.645-c (Published 16 March 1912 ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca. Atropine. Atropine sulfate monohydrate (a derivative of Atropine) is ... Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca. Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca may be available in the countries listed below. ...
Monotrimethylsilyl derivative of Atropine; Atropine, o-trimethylsilyl-; Atropine, trimethylsilyl ether; 8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[ ...
Consumer information about the drug atropine ophthalmic used to treat inflammatory conditions of the eye, and is used prior to ... Is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic available as a generic drug?. *Do I need a prescription for atropine sulfate ointment- ... Is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic available as a generic drug?. *Do I need a prescription for atropine sulfate ointment- ... Ophthalmic atropine is used during eye examinations to dilate the pupil. Atropine is also used to weaken the contraction of the ...
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Dioptics Atropine Solution; Isopto Atropine. ¿Para qué se usa este medicamento?. *Este medicamento se utiliza para dilatar la ...
Diphenoxylate and atropine (Lomotil®) is a medication (made up of two drugs) used to treat diarrhea (loose stool). It is often ... About: Diphenoxylate and atropine (Lomotil®). Diphenoxylate and atropine is a medication (made up of two drugs) used to treat ... How to take Diphenoxylate and Atropine The dose and how often you take diphenoxylate and atropine depends on your treatment and ... Diphenoxylate and atropine comes in tablet form and as a liquid solution to be taken orally (by mouth). ...
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  • What are the side effects of atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (medicinenet.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of atropine and pralidoxime? (rexhealth.com)
  • Some of the side effects of atropine and pralidoxime may be similar to the symptoms of poisoning. (rexhealth.com)
  • The effects of atropine can last up to two weeks. (bionity.com)
  • Read the side effects of Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic as described in the medical literature. (medindia.net)
  • Most of the side effects of atropine are directly related to its antimuscarinic action. (rxlist.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of atropine and diphenoxylate (Lomocot, Lomotil, Vi-Atro)? (rxlist.com)
  • To conduct a meta-analysis on the effects of atropine in slowing myopia progression and to compare Asian and white children and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. (nih.gov)
  • Overdose may occur if you receive atropine and pralidoxime but you have not actually been exposed to the specific poisons this medication is designed to treat. (rexhealth.com)
  • Per this randomized, double-masked trial extended from the original Low-concentration Atropine for Myopia Progression (LAMP) study, researchers evaluated 383 children ages 4 to 12 years with myopia of at least -1.0 diopter to receive atropine concentrations of 0.05%, 0.025%, 0.01% or placebo daily over a 2-year period. (aoa.org)
  • People having an asthma attack or being treated for a cardiac arrest may also receive atropine. (livestrong.com)
  • When people receive atropine, they experience a temporary elevation in heart rate. (livestrong.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare heart rate in infants who receive atropine as a part of their medication before intubation to those who do not. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Atropine is a tropane alkaloid and anticholinergic medication used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate , and to decrease saliva production during surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belladonna/phenobarbital is an oral medication which combines naturally occurring belladonna alkaloids ( atropine , scopolamine [ Transderm-Scop ], and hyoscyamine ) with phenobarbital. (medicinenet.com)
  • Diphenoxylate and atropine is a medication (made up of two drugs) used to treat diarrhea (loose stool). (oncolink.org)
  • Atropine and pralidoxime may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (rexhealth.com)
  • Atropine can decrease sweating and you may be more prone to heat stroke for a short time after receiving this medication. (rexhealth.com)
  • Our Atropine Sulfate Injection Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
  • Atropine is an anticholinergic medication that may be administered in a variety of medical situations. (livestrong.com)
  • Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222 if you have used too much atropine ophthalmic, or if anyone has accidentally swallowed the medication. (wellspan.org)
  • The prescription medication atropine is available as several different brand names. (sharecare.com)
  • Atropine is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic (or sometimes called an anticholinergic). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Atropine sulfate an anticholinergic, is endo-(±)- a ( hydroxymethyl) benzeneacetic acid 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1] oct-3-yl ester sulfate (2:1) (salt) monohydrate. (egeneralmedical.com)
  • It can produce a psychotic condition named atropine psychosis characterized by dry mouth, blurred vision, forgetfulness, and difficulty with urination triggered by atropine and the anticholinergic effects of other drugs, particularly anti-psychotic medications. (medical-library.net)
  • Atropine, an anticholinergic agent, acts as an antagonist on the muscarinic receptors of the sweat glands and inhibits their secretion in a dose-dependent way. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Atropine is a potent parasympatholytic anticholinergic. (ocfl.net)
  • Troops who are likely to be attacked with chemical weapons often carry autoinjectors with atropine and an oxime, for rapid injection into the muscles of the thigh. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP is a sterile, isotonic solution of Atropine Sulfate in Water for Injection q.s. (nih.gov)
  • Atropine Sulfate Injection is an antimuscarinic agent used to treat bradycardia (low heart rate), reduce salivation and bronchial secretions before surgery, as an antidote for overdose of cholinergic drugs or mushroom poisoning. (rxlist.com)
  • Atropine is a drug obtained from belladonna that is administered via injection, eye drops, or in oral form to relax muscles by inhibiting nerve responses. (medical-library.net)
  • Hospira's Atropine Sulfate Injection is available in three different configurations, including Abboject ™ glass syringes or Ansyr™ plastic syringes. (buyemp.com)
  • ATROPINE (A troe peen) can help treat many conditions. (cvs.com)
  • Sustained release tablets: 48.6 mg phenobarbital, 0.311 mg hyoscyamine sulfate, 0.0582 mg atropine sulfate, and 0.0195 mg scopolamine hydrobromide. (medicinenet.com)
  • [13] All doses of atropine appear similarly effective, while higher doses have greater side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large doses of atropine can cause hallucination. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In poisoning by the organic phosphate cholinesterase inhibitors found in certain insecticides and by chemical warfare "nerve gases", large doses of atropine relieve the muscarine-like symptoms and some of the central-nervous-system manifestations. (nih.gov)
  • Doses of 0.5 to 1 mg of atropine are mildly stimulating to the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
  • Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies have been performed in mice in doses of 50 mg/kg of body weight and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Atropine Sulfate. (nih.gov)
  • Initial single doses of Atropine Sulfate in adults vary from 0.5 mg to 1 mg (5 - 10 mL of the 0.1 mg/mL solution) for antisialagogue and other antivagal effects, to 2 to 3 mg (20 - 30 mL of the 0.1 mg/mL solution) as an antidote for organophosporous or muscarinic mushroom poisoning. (rxlist.com)
  • So Tan and a group of collaborators started testing out different doses of atropine on a group of 400 nearsighted children in Singapore. (cpr.org)
  • Type of cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity that may require extremely high doses of atropine. (cdc.gov)
  • 2002) Thus, even when given sufficient doses of atropine, patients may need artificial ventilation, sometimes for weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • Some cases of mild to moderate poisonings may improve with these doses of atropine. (cdc.gov)
  • Victims of organophosphate poisoning can tolerate large doses (1000 mg) of atropine. (ocfl.net)
  • This effect of atropine on heart rate remains an area of active research. (livestrong.com)
  • We conducted a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of augmenting the effect of atropine by changing the lens over the fellow eye to plano in children with residual amblyopia. (nih.gov)
  • Small amounts of atropine were detected in human milk following administration of injectable atropine. (medicinenet.com)
  • The investigation revealed that the medical team hadn't properly diagnosed her case, and thought that she needed to receive large amounts of atropine. (ynetnews.com)
  • For instance, addicts who abuse smaller amounts of atropine will suffer symptoms such as thirst, dilated pupils, increased heart rate, blurred vision and dry skin. (wedorecover.com)
  • you should know that your vision may be blurred during your treatment with atropine ophthalmic ointment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After treatment with atropine and pralidoxime, you may be watched for up to 72 hours to make sure the medicine has been effective and you no longer have any effects of the poison. (cigna.com)
  • Some children have residual amblyopia after treatment with atropine eyedrops for amblyopia due to strabismus and/or anisometropia. (nih.gov)
  • If your cancer treatment is causing diarrhea, your provider may prescribe diphenoxylate and atropine to help manage it. (oncolink.org)
  • Diphenoxylate and atropine comes in tablet form and as a liquid solution to be taken orally (by mouth). (oncolink.org)
  • The dose and how often you take diphenoxylate and atropine depends on your treatment and how severe your diarrhea is. (oncolink.org)
  • However, if overdosage happens or if diphenoxylate and atropine is misused, the effects could be similar to an overdose of a narcotic/opioid. (oncolink.org)
  • Symptoms of an overdose of diphenoxylate and atropine include difficult or shallow breathing, coma, and lethargy. (oncolink.org)
  • You should not drink alcohol while taking diphenoxylate and atropine. (oncolink.org)
  • Diphenoxylate and atropine may be covered under your prescription drug plan. (oncolink.org)
  • Atropine eye drops are used to dilate the pupil and relax the lens so that eye examinations can be carried out thoroughly. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Ophthalmic atropine is used during eye examinations to dilate the pupil. (medicinenet.com)
  • Atropine induces mydriasis by blocking contraction of the circular pupillary sphincter muscle, which is normally stimulated by acetylcholine release, thereby allowing the radial pupillary dilator muscle to contract and dilate the pupil. (bionity.com)
  • [14] The lower dose of 0.01% is thus generally recommended due to less side effects and potential less rebound worsening when the atropine is stopped. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it comes to effectively slowing myopia progression with low-dose atropine, a tried-and-true 0.01% concentration might not be as effective as 0.05%, researchers say. (aoa.org)
  • Published in the journal Ophthalmology , the study crowned 0.05% atropine the optimal concentration for longer-term myopia control over 0.01% atropine after observing greater efficacy without any apparent adverse effects on quality of life (QOL). (aoa.org)
  • Although 0.01% atropine was mildly more effective in year 2 as opposed to year 1, neither 0.05% nor 0.025% atropine were more effective in year 2. (aoa.org)
  • The children getting the lowest dose, eyedrops that were just 0.01 percent atropine, had the least worsening of nearsightedness compared to any other group after a five-year period. (cpr.org)
  • And the children on 0.01 percent atropine had almost no uncomfortable side effects from the eyedrops, the researchers reported Monday at the American Academy of Ophthalmology annual meeting in Las Vegas. (cpr.org)
  • Right now, only eyedrops with 1 percent atropine are commercially available in the United States, though 0.01 percent is available in places like Hong Kong, where myopia is especially common. (cpr.org)
  • They were randomised to either 0.01mg/Kg atropine or placebo. (bestbets.org)
  • Thus atropine causes a rise in heart rate and inhibits secretions (for example of saliva, causing a dry mouth, and of the digestive enzymes). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Atropine also stimulates the heart and reduces the secretions of the nose, mouth, and lungs to improve breathing. (rexhealth.com)
  • Anaesthesia: Atropine is indicated as an antisialogogue in anaesthetic premedication to reduce or prevent secretions in the respiratory tract. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Atropine is often used in conjunction with the oxime pralidoxime chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is the most important information I should know about atropine and pralidoxime? (rexhealth.com)
  • Atropine and pralidoxime is a combination medicine used as an antidote to treat poisoning by a pesticide (insect spray) or a chemical that interferes with the central nervous system, such as nerve gas. (rexhealth.com)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before receiving atropine and pralidoxime? (rexhealth.com)
  • How is atropine and pralidoxime given? (rexhealth.com)
  • Atropine and pralidoxime is injected into a muscle in your upper thigh. (rexhealth.com)
  • Atropine and pralidoxime is usually given as soon as possible after the onset of poisoning symptoms. (rexhealth.com)
  • Since atropine and pralidoxime is used when needed, it does not have a daily dosing schedule. (rexhealth.com)
  • What should I avoid after receiving atropine and pralidoxime? (rexhealth.com)
  • What other drugs will affect atropine and pralidoxime? (rexhealth.com)
  • Other drugs may affect atropine and pralidoxime, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. (rexhealth.com)
  • Atropine and pralidoxime can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. (cigna.com)
  • In an emergency situation, it may not be possible before you are treated with atropine and pralidoxime to tell your caregivers if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. (cigna.com)
  • Since atropine and pralidoxime is given by a healthcare professional in an emergency setting, you are not likely to miss a dose. (cigna.com)
  • atropine ăt´rəpēn, -pĭn [ key ] , alkaloid drug derived from belladonna and other plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshade family). (infoplease.com)
  • atropine is an alkaloid derived from the solanaceous plants Atropa belladonna ( deadly nightshade ), Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane), and Datura stramonium (thornapple). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Atropine is a white crystalline alkaloid which may be extracted from belladonna root and hyoscyamine or may be produced synthetically. (nih.gov)
  • Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade ( Atropa belladonna ) and other plants of the family Solanaceae . (bionity.com)
  • Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic is a tropane alkaloid, prescribed for dilatation of pupil. (medindia.net)
  • Atropine is a tropane alkaloid , that can be extracted from the deadly nightshade ( Atropa belladonna ), mandrake ( Mandragora officinarum ) and certain other plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine is a poisonous alkaloid that occurs naturally in belladonna and several other plants of the nightshade family, Solanaceae . (fsu.edu)
  • In refractive and accommodative amblyopia , when occlusion is not appropriate sometimes atropine is given to induce blur in the good eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • A randomized trial of adding a plano lens to atropine for amblyopia. (nih.gov)
  • 8 years of age (mean, 5.8 years) with stable residual amblyopia (range, 20/32 to 20/160, mean 20/63(+1)) were enrolled after at least 12 weeks of atropine treatment of the fellow eye. (nih.gov)
  • A few decades later, people started using atropine to treat amblyopia , or lazy eye, since it blurs the stronger eye's vision and forces the weaker eye to work harder. (cpr.org)
  • To compare daily atropine to weekend atropine as prescribed treatments for moderate amblyopia in children younger than 7 years. (nih.gov)
  • Weekend atropine provides an improvement in VA of a magnitude similar to that of the improvement provided by daily atropine in treating moderate amblyopia in children 3 to 7 years old. (nih.gov)
  • We now know that atropine blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at all the nerve endings where the membrane receptors are of the so-called muscarinic type. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The circular muscle is under parasympathetic control, so when the transmitter, acetylcholine, is blocked with atropine, the pupil will dilate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, by blocking the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, atropine also serves as a treatment for poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and nerve agents, such as tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), and VX. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine can be used to reduce the effect of the poisoning by blocking muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which would otherwise be overstimulated, by excessive acetylcholine accumulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine blocks the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that causes the contraction of two types of muscle, smooth and cardiac muscles. (medicinenet.com)
  • This occurs because atropine is a competitive antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors . (bionity.com)
  • By blocking the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, atropine also serves as an antidote for poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and nerve gases . (bionity.com)
  • Atropine blocks the action of chemical called acetylcholine (ah see til KO leen), which may exist in high levels in the body after a poisoning. (cigna.com)
  • Atropine inhibits the activity of acetylcholine. (livestrong.com)
  • When atropine is introduced to heart cells, it blocks them from being activated by acetylcholine released from the vagus nerve. (livestrong.com)
  • The authors speculate that this effect occurs because atropine may transiently increase the amount of acetylcholine available for use by the heart nerves, leading to temporary slowing of the heart rate. (livestrong.com)
  • Chemically similar in some regards to acetylcholine, within the body, atropine interferes with the nerve impulses normally conveyed by the neurotransmitter. (fsu.edu)
  • Atropine works by competitively occupying muscarinic receptor sites, thus reducing the effects of excessive acetylcholine on these sites brought about by cholinesterase inhibition. (cdc.gov)
  • Atropine, derived from Atropa belladonna, blocks the effects of acetylcholine in effector organs supplied by postganglionic cholinergic nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Available either as the tincture or extract of belladonna, or as the pure substance atropine sulfate, it is a depressant of the parasympathetic nervous system . (infoplease.com)
  • Generally, atropine lowers the "rest and digest" activity of all muscles and glands regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system. (bionity.com)
  • One of the main actions of the parasympathetic nervous system is to stimulate the M 2 muscarinic receptor in the heart, but atropine inhibits this action. (bionity.com)
  • At the end of an investigation into the death of Palestinian woman Jawaher Abu-Rahma over two weeks ago in Bilin, the IDF determined Wednesday that she died from an overdose of Atropine administered at the hospital. (ynetnews.com)
  • An overdose of atropine and diphenoxylate can be fatal to a child. (cigna.com)
  • An overdose of atropine and diphenoxylate can cause breathing problems and may result in death or permanent brain damage. (cigna.com)
  • If there is chronic use or an overdose of atropine, the heart may beat too fast. (livestrong.com)
  • Topical atropine is used as a cycloplegic , to temporarily paralyze the accommodation reflex , and as a mydriatic , to dilate the pupils . (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine produces rapid heart rate, dilated pupils, dry skin, and anesthetizes the nerve endings in the skin. (infoplease.com)
  • Atropine widens the pupils, and treats specific inflammatory conditions of the eye, for example, uveitis. (medicinenet.com)
  • Atropine also eases spasms in the intestines and dilates the pupils. (fsu.edu)
  • Atropine ophthalmic (for the eye) is used to dilate your pupils when you have an inflammatory condition or in postsurgery situations in which this effect may be helpful. (wellspan.org)
  • In the 19th and early 20th centuries, atropine was known as belladonna, and fancy Parisian ladies used it to dilate their pupils, since big pupils were considered alluring at the time. (cpr.org)
  • Because it dilates pupils and blurs vision, atropine becomes hard to see up close or to stand bright lights. (cpr.org)
  • What is the dosage for atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (medicinenet.com)
  • Adverse effects following single or repeated injections of atropine are most often the result of excessive dosage. (rxlist.com)
  • Clinical findings against which to titrate atropine dosage. (cdc.gov)
  • Injections of atropine are used in the treatment of symptomatic or unstable bradycardia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Injections of atropine are used in the treatment of bradycardia (an extremely low heart rate), asystole and pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in cardiac arrest . (bionity.com)
  • During anaesthesia, atropine may be used to prevent reflex bradycardia and restore cardiac rate and arterial pressure resulting from the increased vagal activity associated with laryngoscopy, tracheal intubation and intra-abdominal manipulation, and for the prevention of the oculo-cardiac reflex during ophthalmic surgery. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Ophthalmic atropine is used before eye examinations to dilate (open) the pupil, the black part of the eye through which you see. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Atropine eye Drops contain atropine sulfate which belongs to groups of medicines called mydriatics (medicines that widen the pupil) and cycloplegics (medicines used to relax the muscles which enable the eyes to focus). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • By blocking the muscarinic receptors in the eye, atropine causes the pupil to dilate. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • When you stop using atropine as part of a treatment programme it can take about a week for pupil size in the treated eye to return to normal. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • In clinical studies, use of a single topical administration of atropine 1% ophthalmic solution (eye drops) resulted in maximal mydriasis (pupil dilation or widening) in approximately 40 minutes and maximal cycloplegia in approximately 60 to 90 minutes. (medicinenet.com)
  • Atropine sulfate relaxes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the eye's lens as it focuses, and another eye muscle called the sphincter, which controls the narrowing and widening of the pupil. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Long-lasting pupillary dilation results if atropine drops are placed in the eye. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Atropine eye drops contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Atropine eye drops are used to prevent painful spasms in the ciliary muscle and to prevent a complication where the iris can stick to the lens. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Atropine eye drops may also be used to treat a lazy eye in children. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Atropine eye drops are also used to relax the ciliary muscle in a condition called anterior uveitis. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Atropine eye drops are used to prevent these problems. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Bottles of atropine eye drops contain the preservative benzalkonium chloride. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Do not use atropine eye drops while wearing contact lenses. (wellspan.org)
  • The dilemma for pediatric ophthalmologists is whether to offer an off-label treatment, atropine drops, to inhibit axial lengthening when questions remain regarding the best way to use the treatment, how long to use it, whether certain populations benefit more, how to balance costs, and how best to present advice and counsel to patients. (healio.com)
  • Commonly found in the form of a white tablet, atropine can also be found as eye drops as well as an ointment. (wedorecover.com)
  • Atropine relieves these symptoms by relaxing the muscle. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Atropine is given as an antidote to SLUD GE ( Salivation , Lacrimation , Urination , Diaphoresis , Gastrointestinal motility, Emesis ) symptoms caused by organophosphate poisoning. (bionity.com)
  • Check for signs and symptoms of atropine toxicity (e.g. fever, muscle fasciculations, delirium, and mental status). (mims.com)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. (isciii.es)
  • We suggest this recommendation to be extended to patients who attend Accident and Emergency facilities and we here present a series of case vignettes in which three members of the same family manifested both somatic and psychiatric symptoms consistent with atropine intoxication after consuming an herbal infusion made with Pulmonaria Officinalis . (isciii.es)
  • The 14-year-old granddaughter began to experience atropine symptoms two hours after the first infusion of Pulmonaria Officinalis was taken for treating a common cold. (isciii.es)
  • Below you can find out more about atropine addiction, what the signs and symptoms are as well as how it can be treated. (wedorecover.com)
  • Addicts who use excessive use of atropine may experience all of the above symptoms as well as migraines, restlessness, swallowing problems, disillusionment and over-excitement. (wedorecover.com)
  • Atropine degrades slowly, typically wearing off in 2 to 3 days, so tropicamide (a shorter-acting cholinergic antagonist) or phenylephrine (an α-adrenergic agonist) are generally preferred as mydriatics. (bionity.com)
  • The usual dose of atropine is 0.5 to 1 mg every three to five minutes, up to a maximum dose of 3 mg. (bionity.com)
  • The dose of Atropine will be decided by your doctor. (mims.com)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to atropine, belladonna, or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is not known whether atropine will harm an unborn baby. (cardiosmart.org)
  • It is not known whether atropine passes into breast milk. (cardiosmart.org)
  • While visual acuity and vision-related QOL remained unaffected with 0.05% atropine (photochromatic lenses were needed for only 30% of participants and no progressive lenses were necessary), researchers estimated a 64.5% reduction of spherical equivalent progression over 2 years with 0.05% concentration. (aoa.org)
  • Owing to ethical considerations, researchers switched the LAMP study phase 1 placebo group to 0.05% atropine in phase 2 and noticed significant reduction in myopia progression: SE change of 0.18 D in year 2 vs. 0.82 D in year 1, and AL elongation of 0.15 mm in year 2 vs. 0.43 mm in year 1. (aoa.org)
  • 0.05) Heart rate was increased significantly in the atropine group (p = 0.00). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • You may not be able to take atropine, or you may require a lower dose or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Do not take atropine without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Do not take atropine without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. (cardiosmart.org)
  • How should I take atropine? (cardiosmart.org)
  • Take atropine exactly as directed by your doctor. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Can I take Atropine Sulfate Min-I-Jet (CSL) in sport? (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Take Atropine exactly as directed by your doctor or according to the instructions on the label. (mims.com)
  • Participants were randomly assigned to continuing weekend atropine alone or wearing a plano lens over the fellow eye (while continuing atropine). (nih.gov)
  • Randomization either to daily atropine or to weekend atropine for 4 months. (nih.gov)
  • Some pharmacies use injectable atropine and dilute it. (healio.com)
  • Randomized controlled trials and observational studies that assessed the effects of all concentrations of atropine in slowing myopia progression in children were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to April 2013. (nih.gov)
  • Atropine could significantly slow myopia progression in children, with greater effects in Asian than in white children. (nih.gov)
  • What is atropine and diphenoxylate (Lomocot, Lomotil, Vi-Atro)? (rxlist.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about atropine and diphenoxylate (Lomocot, Lomotil, Vi-Atro)? (rxlist.com)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking atropine and diphenoxylate (Lomocot, Lomotil, Vi-Atro)? (rxlist.com)
  • Atropine occurs naturally in a number of plants of the nightshade family , including deadly nightshade (belladonna), Jimson weed , and mandrake . (wikipedia.org)
  • The drug is atropine, one of the toxins in deadly nightshade and jimsonweed. (cpr.org)
  • Belladonna is obtained from the dried leaves of Atropa belladonna, also known as deadly nightshade, or of Atropa acuminata, a source of alkaloids that are converted to atropine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In accordance with section 7.04 (c) of the 2015-2020 Rules and Procedures of the Council of Experts, this is to provide notice that the Chemical Medicines Monographs 4 Expert Committee intends to revise the Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Ointment monograph. (uspnf.com)
  • The Notice of Intent to Revise posted on August 31, 2018 incorrectly identified the monograph revision being proposed as Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Ointment. (uspnf.com)
  • Atropine is used to treat the rigidity, tremor, excessive salivation, and sweating caused by Parkinson's disease. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (medicinenet.com)
  • Does Atropine SULFATE Syringe interact with other drugs you are taking? (webmd.com)
  • Although the verdict's still out as to why myopia develops (often appearing first in school-age children), it can be slowed or controlled by various means, including orthokeratology, contact lenses , laser procedures and certain topical drugs, e.g., atropine. (aoa.org)
  • Atropine Sulfate may interact with other drugs. (rxlist.com)
  • Atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization 's " Essential Drugs List ", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the chief reasons for the decrease in the popularity of atropine for some purposes is the wide array of effects produced by the drug, the medical community increasingly coming to favor synthetic drugs that generate a similar, but narrower, range of corollaries. (fsu.edu)
  • Although it is not likely that other drugs you take orally or inject will have an effect on atropine used in the eyes, many drugs can interact with each other. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Atropine may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Long considered a viable therapy for myopia control, atropine could be a solution to growing myopia concerns worldwide yet the question of optimal concentration hinges on a tradeoff between effectiveness and unwanted side effects. (aoa.org)
  • We realized, yeah, atropine does work, but we've got to reduce the dose so we can reduce some of these side effects. (cpr.org)
  • Although the risk of serious side effects is low when atropine is used in the eyes, side effects can occur if the medicine is absorbed into your bloodstream. (everydayhealth.com)
  • It is important that the patient be adequately oxygenated and ventilated prior to using atropine, as atropine may precipitate ventricular fibrillation in a poorly oxygenated patient. (ocfl.net)
  • [11] Evidence suggests that atropine penalization is just as effective as occlusion in improving visual acuity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This list does not include all medicines that may interact with Atropine. (mims.com)
  • Atropine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eyes and an eye ointment to apply to the eyes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? (medicinenet.com)
  • What brand names are available for atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (medicinenet.com)
  • Is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic available as a generic drug? (medicinenet.com)
  • Do I need a prescription for atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (medicinenet.com)
  • Is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (medicinenet.com)
  • What else should I know about atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (medicinenet.com)
  • What preparations of atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic are available? (medicinenet.com)
  • How should I keep atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic stored? (medicinenet.com)
  • Atropine occurs naturally and is extracted from belladonna alkaloids contained in plants. (medicinenet.com)
  • It has been suggested that when these physiological changes do not occur with this dose (sometimes referred to as an atropine challenge ), this is indicative of cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Parenteral atropine is not generally recommended for those whose sole manifestation of toxicity is miosis (pupillary constriction). (cdc.gov)
  • Atropin er eit lækjemiddel som vert framstelt av belladonnaplanta (Atropa Belladonna) og er ein potensielt giftig medisinsk urt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although atropine poisoning has occasionally occurred following overdosage with suicidal intent, and after the ingestion of wild berries of Atropa belladonna , the great majority of reported cases have been therapeutic accidents, resulting from carelessness on the part of physicians, pharmacists, patients and unskilled hospital aides. (annals.org)
  • Latinsk rodov n zev Atropa je odvozen od jm na ne prosn eck bohyn osudu Atropos, kter p est h v nit ivota, latinsk druhov jm no bella-donna znamen "p vabn pan ", proto e vzne en italsk d my v ily, e zasn n pohled je zn mkou okouzluj c kr sy. (referaty-seminarky.cz)
  • 11.4% in atropine group vs. 30.8% in placebo group. (bestbets.org)
  • 22.7% in atropine group vs. 5.1% in placebo group. (bestbets.org)
  • 9.1% in atropine group vs. 25.6% in placebo group. (bestbets.org)
  • 13.6% in atropine group vs. 20.5% in placebo group. (bestbets.org)
  • Atropine is contraindicated in patients predisposed to narrow angle glaucoma . (bionity.com)
  • Atropine is not an actual antidote for organophosphate poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine also has medical purpose and is used in various eye surgeries and as well as an antidote for opium. (wedorecover.com)
  • Myopia progression is a hot topic in pediatric ophthalmology, whether the treating physician uses atropine, surgical procedures or contact lenses. (healio.com)
  • A 4 year old patient presents to the ED with a lip laceration, you decide to repair it under ketamine sedation and prepare an appropriate dose of ketamine and atropine. (bestbets.org)
  • The authors of a 2004 study published in the journal 'Continuing Education in Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain' reported that atropine may temporarily lower heart rate before an increase occurs. (livestrong.com)
  • As early as the 1990s, doctors had some evidence that atropine can slow the progression of nearsightedness. (cpr.org)
  • That opens atropine back up as a practical treatment for myopia, Epley says, "This gives us a tool to slow down that progression of myopia that we didn't have in a safe way before. (cpr.org)