A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Nephelometry and Turbidimetry
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
List of German inventors and discoverers
Emil Adolf von Behring: physiologist. Discovered the diphtheria antitoxin. It was the world's first cure for a disease (1891). ... Emil von Behring: Discovery of diphtheria antitoxin Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen: Navigator and explorer. Discovered the ... Friedrich Loeffler: discovered the organism causing diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae) and the cause of foot-and-mouth ... disease (Aphthovirus). His description of the diphtheria bacillus, published in 1884. Johann Benedict Listing: German ...
Magic bullet (medicine)
Behring had been investigating antibacterial agents and discovered a diphtheria antitoxin. (For that discovery, Bering was the ... In the early 1890s, Paul Ehrlich started to work with Emil Behring, professor of medicine at the University of Marburg. ... Ehrlich was also nominated for that year.) From Behring's work, Ehrlich understood that antibodies produced in the blood could ...
He also worked on antitoxins for diphtheria and anthrax. Kitasato and Behring demonstrated the value of antitoxin in preventing ... Kitasato and Emil von Behring, working together in Berlin in 1890, announced the discovery of diphtheria antitoxin serum. Von ... Sri Kantha, S. A Centennial review; the 1890 Tetanus antitoxin paper of von Behring and Kitasato and the related developments. ... Kitasato's discoveries on tetanus and von Behring's work on diphtheria lead to the field of serotherapy, which has benefitted ...
Timeline of medicine and medical technology
1890 - Emil von Behring discovers antitoxins and uses them to develop tetanus and diphtheria vaccines. 1895 - Wilhelm Conrad ... First vaccine for diphtheria 1926 - First vaccine for pertussis 1927 - First vaccine for tuberculosis 1927 - First vaccine for ...
During the 1890s, von Behring developed an antitoxin to treat diphtheria, which until then was causing thousands of deaths each ... The first Physiology or Medicine Prize went to the German physiologist and microbiologist Emil von Behring. ...
List of Japanese Nobel laureates
Kitasato Shibasaburō and Emil von Behring working together in Berlin in 1890 announced the discovery of diphtheria antitoxin ... serum; Von Behring was awarded the 1901 prize because of this work, but Kitasato was not. Meanwhile, Hideyo Noguchi and ...
Ehrlich, with his colleague von Behring, went on to develop the diphtheria antitoxin, which became the first major success of ... Following the 1888 discovery of the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus, Emil von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō ... In 1890, filtrates of diphtheria, later named diphtheria toxins, were used to vaccinate animals in an attempt to demonstrate ... that immunized serum contained an antitoxin that could neutralize the activity of the toxin and could transfer immunity to non- ...
Pierre Paul Émile Roux
The development of a diphtheria anti-toxin serum was a race between researchers Emil Behring in Berlin, and Emile Roux in Paris ... The race to develop the diphtheria anti-toxin serum was considered a national rivalry, although each team of researchers ... Hess, Volker (June 2008). "The Administrative Stabilization of Vaccines: Regulating the Diphtheria Antitoxin in France and ... first Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine was given to Emil Von Behring for his work on the serum therapy for diphtheria. ...
Antitoxins to diphtheria and tetanus toxins were produced by Emil Adolf von Behring and his colleagues from 1890 onwards. The ... use of diphtheria antitoxin for the treatment of diphtheria was regarded by The Lancet as the "most important advance of the [ ... Dolman, C.E. (1973). "Landmarks and pioneers in the control of diphtheria". Can. J. Public Health. 64 (4): 317-36. PMID 4581249 ... Report) (1896). "Report of the Lancet special commission on the relative strengths of diphtheria antitoxic antiserums". Lancet ...
Died: Emil von Behring, German chemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering an antitoxin for ... diphtheria (b. 1854); James Fynn, British soldier, recipient of the Victoria Cross (killed in action during the Mesopotamian ...
... with his friend Emil von Behring, went on to develop the diphtheria antitoxin, which became the first major success of modern ... Antitoxins. Substances in the serum that can neutralize. the activity of toxins, enabling passive immunization. von Behring and ... von Behring E, Kitasato S. (1890) On the acquisition of immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in animals (German). Dtsch. Med ... Following the 1888 discovery of the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus, Emil von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō ...
1890 in Germany
... "antitoxins" against both diphtheria and tetanus in Berlin. 9 January - Kurt Tucholsky, German journalist, satirist and writer ( ... German phsycian and physiologist Emil von Behring publishes an article with Kitasato Shibasaburo reporting that they have ...
... he was among the first to use an antitoxin for diphtheria that had recently been developed by Emil von Behring (1854-1917). ...
1890 in science
Discovery by Emil von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō that an anti-toxin for immunizing people against diphtheria can be ... prepared by injecting diphtheria toxin into animals. Curt Schimmelbusch invents the Schimmelbusch mask for the safe delivery of ...
Emil von Behring's introduction of his diphtheria antitoxin in 1893 had been preceded by lengthy clinical testing, and the ...
... and following the 1890 discovery by Behring and Kitasato of antitoxin based immunity to diphtheria and tetanus, the antitoxin ... Glenny AT, Südmersen HJ (October 1921). "Notes on the Production of Immunity to Diphtheria Toxin". The Journal of Hygiene. 20 ( ... Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines ... In 1888 Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin isolated diphtheria toxin, ...
... and Emil von Behring, widely known as a "saviour of children" for his 1894 discovery of a Diphtheria antitoxin at a time when ... More than half of all German Nobel Prize winners in Physiology or Medicine, including Emil von Behring, Robert Koch and Paul ... endocrinologist Emil Adolf von Behring - physiologist (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901) Ernst Boris Chain - ... diphtheria was a major cause of child death (among many others). In the 20th century, at the end of the Second World War the ...
NYC Health + Hospitals
... established germ theory BEHRING: Emil von Behring - discovered diphtheria antitoxin - won first Nobel Prize in medicine PASTEUR ...
Emil von Behring being awarded the prize in medicine for his discovery of the first diphtheria antitoxin, Jacobus van't Hoff ...
Department of Medical Microbiology (Schering AG)
... which was claimed by Schering to be much more effective than Behring's serum. The use of diphtheria antitoxin for the treatment ... Dolman, C.E. (1973). "Landmarks and pioneers in the control of diphtheria". Can. J. Public Health. 64: 317-36. Helmut Engel, ... Vieweg & Sohn, Brunswick, 1915 Derek S. Linton, Emil von Behring: Infectious Disease, Immunology, Serum Therapy, p. 175ff, ... "Report of the Lancet special commission on the relative strengths of diphtheria antitoxic antiserums". Lancet. 148 (3803): 182- ...
... had paved the way for diphtheria antitoxin production using horses. The antitoxin could save lives when given early enough in ... "Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1901-1921: Emil von Behring". NobelPrize.org. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. ... Following the success, they soon moved to tackle the lack of access to the diphtheria antitoxin with a commitment from ... The lab soon began to produce the diphtheria antitoxin and Pasteur rabies treatment that would eventually be made available to ...
William Hallock Park
Biggs telegraphed Park with the news of the discovery of the diphtheria antitoxin by Drs. Emile Roux and Emil von Behring and ... the application of toxin-antitoxin vaccines to prevent diphtheria, the demonstration of the persistence of Corynebacterium ... On his return to the United States in 1890, Park worked on the bacteriology of diphtheria with Dr. Prudden. In 1893, Dr. ... In addition to his work on diphtheria for which he was best known, his scientific inquiries also included studies on scarlet ...
List of German inventions and discoveries
Diphtheria antitoxin by Emil von Behring 1897-1899: Aspirin by Felix Hoffmann or Arthur Eichengrün at Bayer in Elberfeld 1897: ... Discovery of the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae which causes diphtheria, by Edwin Klebs and Friedrich Löffler ...
... following the 1890 discovery of an antitoxin-based immunity to diphtheria and tetanus by Emil Adolf von Behring and Kitasato ... Shibasaburo and von Behring immunized guinea pigs with the blood products from animals that had recovered from diphtheria and ... By 1896, the introduction of diphtheria antitoxin was hailed as "the most important advance of the [19th] Century in the ... In 1888 Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin showed that the clinical effects of diphtheria were caused by diphtheria toxin and, ...
Behring had discovered the antitoxin to cure the disease of diphtheria, and then applied the same principles of blood serum ... Emil von Behring was selected to become the very first recipient of the new Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, as voted by ... Specifically, the young victims had been given shots to treat diphtheria, but the tainted serum had given them tetanus and the ... Louis, Missouri was the first of 13 from a contaminated antitoxin distributed by that city's health department, and would lead ...
Behring used this antitoxin (now known to consist of antibodies that neutralize the toxin produced by C. diphtheriae) for human ... One of the most infamous outbreaks of diphtheria was in Nome, Alaska; the "Great Race of Mercy" to deliver diphtheria antitoxin ... Louis children died from contaminated diphtheria antitoxin. The horse from which the antitoxin was derived died of tetanus. ... Von Behring won the first Nobel Prize in medicine in 1901 for his work on diphtheria. In 1895, H. K. Mulford Company of ...
Antitoxins to diphtheria and tetanus toxins were produced by Emil Adolf von Behring and his colleagues from 1890 onwards. The ... Behring developed his pioneering ideas on serum therapy and his theory of antitoxins. Early 1887, in Bonn, Behring had found ... When Paul Ehrlich demonstrated in 1891 that even vegetable poisons led to the formation of antitoxins in an organism, Behring's ... use of diphtheria antitoxin for the treatment of diphtheria was regarded by The Lancet as the "most important advance of the [ ...
Emil von Behring
... for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin. He was widely known as a "saviour of children," as diphtheria used to be a major ... Emil von Behring (Emil Adolf von Behring), born Emil Adolf Behring (15 March 1854 - 31 March 1917), was a German physiologist ... in CSL Behring, a manufacturer of plasma-derived biotherapies, in Novartis Behring and in the Emil von Behring Prize of the ... Behring won the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901 for the development of serum therapies against diphtheria. ...
History of animal testing
The success of the animal studies in producing the diphtheria antitoxin are attributed by some as a cause of the decline of the ... In the 1880s and 1890s, Emil von Behring isolated the diphtheria toxin and demonstrated its effects in guinea pigs. He went on ... Roughly 15 years later, Behring announced such a mix suitable for human immunity which largely banished diphtheria from the ... The antitoxin is famously commemorated each year in the Iditarod race, which is modeled after the Nome in the 1925 serum run to ...
... was discovered in 1888 by Émile Roux and Alexandre Yersin. In 1890, Emil Adolf von Behring developed an anti- ... Enke U (2015). "125 Jahre Diphtherieheilserum: Das Behring'sche Gold" [125 years of diphtheria healing serum: Behring's gold]. ... Diphtheria+Toxin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) How Diphtheria Toxin Works - Animation ... Diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium, the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. The toxin gene is ...
Famous people born in 1854 - List Of Famous people born in 1854 - Famousbio
Filmfare Award For Best Actor | artmindfestival
2Share • An Apocryphal Christmas Miracle - The New York Times
Shibasaburo Kitasato, developed what they would ultimately call antitoxins to diphtheria and to tetanus, another dangerous ... Behring had been an army surgeon and then gone to work as a researcher in bacteriology. The great contribution of the work he ... reacted and made the antitoxin. When those same animals were exposed to virulent diphtheria bacteria making potent active toxin ... There were severe diphtheria epidemics in the second half of the 19th century, with high mortality rates, but no one knew what ...
औषधि एवं स्वास्थ्य प्रौद्योगिकी का इतिहास - विकिपीडिया
T o m i k a h o n l a p j a a v a g y a v a l d i a u t i z m u s. - G-Portál
Toxoid Antitoxin Flocculesnak, Schick Diphtheria olt anyag nak, az olt sa ut ni tuberkul zisb l val m sik gyereken hal l t. ... K t vvel k s bb Von Behring s Kitasato egy meleggel tengeri malacokat oltottak be-gyeng tett alak a m reganyag s ez felt ... Ennek a bizony t kt megnek az ellen re Diphtheria olt sai folytat dtak s j rultak hozz a Diphtheria el fordul shoz Britanni ban ... 2- Mert az antitoxin*kever k l sz rum volt, a l sszetev je volt, a sz rum hajlott arra, hogy allergi s reakci kat termeljen s t ...
18901901Cases of diphtheriaCorynebacteriumBacteriaShibasaburo KitasatoPaul Ehrlich1895AntibodiesSerum against diphtheriaAntibodyCase of diphtheriaPhysiologistToxinsVaccine1890sToxin-antitoxin mixture1913Nobel Prize inHumansChildren suffering fromImmunization against diphtheriaOutbreaks1888PertussisLethal doses of diphtheriaInfectious disease1894Cholera1854TherapeuticDiseasesVaccinesTreatment for diphtheriaBacteriumDosesWork on diphtheriaControl of diphtheriaSymptoms of diphtheriaEpidemics of diphtheriaSusceptibility to diphtheriaBacterialMortality1892DiscoveryCutaneous diphtheriaRespiratory diphtheriaImmunePassiveEhrlichNeutralizeToxoidDiphtheriaeBehring's1907SubsequentlyDiseaseGuineaBlood-serumHorses
- In 1890, with Behring, Kitasato published a paper on immunity to diphtheria and tetanus, the section on diphtheria being written by Behring and the greater part of the paper, on tetanus, by Kitasato. (encyclopedia.com)
- In 1890, filtrates of diphtheria, later named diphtheria toxins , were used to vaccinate animals in an attempt to demonstrate that immunized serum contained an antitoxin that could neutralize the activity of the toxin and could transfer immunity to non-immune animals. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1890, Shibasaburo Kitasato (1852-1931) and Emil von Behring (1854-1917) immunized guinea pigs against diphtheria with heat-treated blood products from animals that had recovered from the disease. (historyofvaccines.org)
- In 1890 Kitasato Shibasaburo, a Japanese physician and bacteriologist, and Emil von Behring, a German physiologist who would win the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1901 for his work on diphtheria, successfully immunized guinea pigs with a heat-treated diphtheria toxin. (procon.org)
- In 1890 von Behring and Kitazato discovered that laboratory animals exposed to bacteria developed substances in their sera capable of restoring the health of other infected animals. (theperthgroup.com)
- They jointly published a paper in 1890 proposing a blood serum therapy to induce immunity for tetanus and also for diphtheria. (famousscientists.org)
- In 1890, Emil von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato announced the discovery of a serum that defended mice against diphtheria. (activehistory.ca)
- In 1890 Behring presented two papers, one with Kitasato, discussing the immunity of animals to diphtheria and tetanus. (yourdictionary.com)
- During the years 1888-1890, others had shown that filtrates of diphtheria cultures which contained no bacilli , contained a substance which they called a toxin, that produced, when injected into animals , all the symptoms of diphtheria. (kagiz.org)
- In 1890, two colleagues prepared, from cultures of diphtheria bacilli, a toxic substance , which they called toxalbumin, which when injected in suitable doses into guinea-pigs, immunized these animals to diphtheria. (kagiz.org)
- In 1890 Behring and S. Kitasato published their discovery that graduated doses of sterilized broth cultures of diphtheria or of tetanus bacilli caused the animals to produce, in their blood , substances which could neutralize the toxins which these bacilli produced (antitoxins). (kagiz.org)
- Immunity against toxins also became a subject of investigation, and the result was the discovery of the antitoxic action of the serum of animals immunized against tetanus toxin by E. Behring and Kitazato (1890), and by Tizzoni and Cattani. (chestofbooks.com)
- Antitoxin was developed by Emil von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato in 1890. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
- In 1890 von Behring showed that the immunity against diphtheria and tetanus is due to antitoxins against the toxins of those bacteria. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
- In 1890, German scientist، Emil von Behring, was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering the basis for vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus. (hmaward.org.ae)
-  In 1888 Emile Roux and Alexandre Yersin isolated diphtheria toxin , and following the 1890 discovery by Behring and Kitasato of antitoxin based immunity to diphtheria and tetanus , the antitoxin became the first major success of modern therapeutic Immunology. (wikidoc.org)
- Antitoxins to diphtheria and tetanus toxins were produced by Emil Adolf von Behring and his colleagues from 1890 onwards. (wikipedia.org)
- On 4 December 1890 Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō published their first paper on blood-serum therapy. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1890, Emil von Behring and S. Kitasato first gave the mechanism of immunity. (biologydiscussion.com)
- The earliest reference to antibodies was from Emil von Behring along with Kitasato Shibasaburo in 1890 who found the presence of a neutralizing substance in the blood that could counter infections. (news-medical.net)
- He was the first to be honored by the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1901 for the successful therapy of diphtheria and tetanus, which he had developed from the bench to the bed. (asm.org)
- Treatment for diphtheria has remained the same for more than 100 years, since the late 1890s, when Dr. Emil von Behring conceived the approach of using immunized animal blood to treat the disease - work for which he won the first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1901. (foxnews.com)
- Emil Adolf von Behring (Emil Behring) was a German bacteriologist and immunologist who is considered by many historians of science to be the first expert microbiologist to have earned the coveted Nobel Prize, in 1901. (educationviews.org)
- Emil Adolf von Behring and a bacteriologist and was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1901. (famousscientists.org)
- An internet search led me to an article about Dr. Emil von Behring, first winner of the Nobel for Medicine in 1901 for his research on diphtheria. (myricopia.com)
- A biography of Behring and a description of his work are in Theodore L. Sourkes, Nobel Prize Winners in Medicine and Physiology, 1901-1965 (1967). (yourdictionary.com)
- Von Behring received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one awarded, for his discovery of a diphtheria antitoxin. (scihi.org)
- 1901 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering diphtheria antitoxin . (bioscience.ws)
- In 1901, von Behring was awarded with Nobel Prize in medicine. (biologydiscussion.com)
Cases of diphtheria6
- Once diphtheria antitoxin was available, the number of cases of diphtheria dropped, but it was still a massive killer. (theconversation.com)
- In the early 1970s, prior to widespread immunisation, there were around one million cases of diphtheria worldwide each year . (theconversation.com)
- These antibodies might be useful for treating even test for sensitivity to DAT should be conducted before severe cases of diphtheria. (cdc.gov)
- Since this paper was read I have used antitoxin (Behring's and Aronson's) in eighteen cases of diphtheria. (italian-tuition.co.uk)
- Welch sent a radio telegram to all the major Alaska towns - there were more than 20 confirmed cases of diphtheria in the end of January. (bigapplesecrets.com)
- administered intramuscularly or intravenously in the treatment of suspected cases of diphtheria. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Diphtheria is a paradigm of an infectious disease caused by the toxigenic bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans . (springer.com)
- One week later, Behring published a single-author paper on immunization of guinea pigs with inactivated Corynebacterium diphtheriae and diphtheria toxin and on protective activity of serum from immune animals ( 2 ). (asm.org)
- Diphtheria is caused by toxin-producing strains of the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheria and Corynebacterium ulcerans , which mostly affects the throat and airway. (theconversation.com)
- Diphtheria is a serious toxin-mediated infectious disease that is caused by the Gram-positive bacterial species named Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (educationviews.org)
- Plasma from vaccinated persons is used to produce horse (challenged with sublethal dose of Corynebacterium Anthrasil (Cangene Corporation, Winnipeg, Manitoba, diphtheriae ) to develop equine diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), Canada), a fully human polyclonal antianthrax intrave- which seemed to confer passive immunity to patients with nous immunoglobulin (IVIG) licensed in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Diphtheria, according to the CDC, is "a infection caused by Corynebacterium dipheriae" that "causes a thick covering in the back of the throat. (procon.org)
- In 1883, Swiss-German pathologist, Edwin Klebs, identified the bacterium that causes diphtheria and in 1884, Friedrich Loeffler, first cultivated the bacterium, which resulted in its first name of Klebs-Loeffler bacterium (it is now called Corynebacterium diphtheria). (procon.org)
- Diphtheria is a nasopharyngeal and skin infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (mhmedical.com)
- Diphtheria , acute infectious disease caused by the bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae and characterized by a primary lesion, usually in the upper respiratory tract, and more generalized symptoms resulting from the spread of the bacterial toxin throughout the body. (britannica.com)
- Corynebacterium diphtheria , the bacteria which causes diphtheria, is easily the nastiest microbe we researched for From DNA to Beer . (nih.gov)
- Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. (unionpedia.org)
- Following the 1888 discovery of the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus , Emil von Behring and Kitasato Shibasaburō showed that disease need not be caused by microorganisms themselves. (wikipedia.org)
- The disease was incurable until Emil von Behring showed that giving patients serum from animals previously infected with diphtheria, known as antitoxin (antibodies to the toxin produced by the bacteria), could save their lives. (theconversation.com)
- The preparations contained antibodies to the diphtheria toxin that protected the guinea pigs if they were exposed soon thereafter to lethal doses of diphtheria bacteria and its toxin. (historyofvaccines.org)
- To make the equine antitoxin, horses are repeatedly injected with diphtheria toxins, their immune systems develop antibodies against the bacteria, and the antibodies are extracted from their blood. (foxnews.com)
- They also showed that other guinea pigs injected with the serum from immunized guinea pigs and then infected with diphtheria bacteria did not become ill. (famousscientists.org)
- Aided by the discovery by Theobald Smith and Daniel Salmon that even bacteria killed by heat could impart protective immunity and that, contrary to longstanding belief, no interaction between the body and living microorganisms was required for protection, scientists in short order developed vaccinations and antitoxins against cholera, anthrax, rabies, diphtheria, and tetanus. (nih.gov)
- What bacteria did Emil von Behring develop antibody therapy for? (aedes-nacional.com)
- In 1897 Rudolf Kraus mixed the serum containing antitoxin with bacteria obtained from culture and saw the formation of a cloudy precipitate. (yourarticlelibrary.com)
- The propagation of the diphtheria bacilli leads to the formation of a thick, leathery, grayish membrane that is composed of bacteria, dead cells from the mucous membranes, and fibrin (the fibrous protein associated with blood clotting). (britannica.com)
- Antitoxins are produced by certain animals , plants , and bacteria . (wikipedia.org)
- The active state of immune serum could neutralize the toxin of bacteria, hence it was also named as antitoxin. (biologydiscussion.com)
- In the early 1890s, Paul Ehrlich started to work with Emil Behring , professor of medicine at the University of Marburg . (wikipedia.org)
- In 1897 Paul Ehrlich, a German scientist, developed a method to measure the potency of diphtheria antitoxin. (procon.org)
- In 1897 physiologist Paul Ehrlich realized that the potency of antitoxin (antibodies) reached a maximum strength, not initially, but after a certain amount of time. (famousscientists.org)
- By 1882 Behring and Paul Ehrlich had developed a serum that provided effective immunity against diphtheria. (cornell.edu)
- When Paul Ehrlich demonstrated in 1891 that even vegetable poisons led to the formation of antitoxins in the organism, Behring's theory was confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
- Here, between 1889 and 1895, Behring developed his pioneering ideas on serum therapy and his theory of antitoxins. (encyclopedia.com)
- The antibody-containing blood-derived substance was called diphtheria antitoxin, and public boards of health and commercial enterprises began producing and distributing it from 1895 onward. (historyofvaccines.org)
- In 1895 the Mulford Company of Philadelphia (later Merck) and the New York City Health Department started producing and testing diphtheria antitoxin using guinea pigs and horses. (procon.org)
- Injecting Diphtheria Antitoxin," illustration from a Parke Davis publication, 1895. (nih.gov)
- A vintage 1895 vial of diphtheria antitoxin. (wikipedia.org)
- But even more important and most original are Ehrlich's views on the origin of antitoxins (antibodies), his determination of the strength of the serum against diphtheria in 1897 which he expanded to tetanus. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Their prophylactic and therapeutic protection ability was first discovered in the late nineteenth century by the passive transmission of antibodies from a diseased animal that provided immunity against diphtheria. (frontiersin.org)
- They showed that antitoxins (antibodies) produced by one animal could be removed and used to immunize other animals. (famousscientists.org)
- Emil von Behring suggested in the early 1890s that immunity stemmed from protective substances in blood serum (the clear liquid portion of the blood that separates out upon clotting), which he called antibodies. (nih.gov)
Serum against diphtheria2
- Antibody levels to tetanus, diphtheria, measles and varicella in patients with primary immunodeficiency undergoing intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: a prospective study. (cdc.gov)
- Kitasato, von Behring, and other scientists then devoted their attention to treatment of tetanus, smallpox, and bubonic plague with antibody-containing blood products. (historyofvaccines.org)
- Dr. Behring is further credited with being an early pioneer in the historic breakthrough of the blood serum component called the antibody, an element he had denoted as the antitoxin. (educationviews.org)
- An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin . (wikipedia.org)
- The disease can be treated with an antitoxin (serum containing antibody to neutralize the toxin) or prevented by vaccines. (bigapplesecrets.com)
- Immunology An antibody-rich serum from an animal stimulated with specific antigens or bacterial toxins-eg, botulinus, tetanus or diphtheria, which is used to provide passive immunity. (thefreedictionary.com)
Case of diphtheria4
- Harriette Arnow describes a case of diphtheria in her novel The Dollmaker . (cfp.ca)
- A new field of inquiry was, however, opened up when, by filtration a bacterium-free toxic fluid was obtained which produced the important symptoms of the disease - in the case of diphtheria by P. P. E. Roux and A. Yersin (1888), and in the case of tetanus a little later by various observers. (chestofbooks.com)
- A similar result was also obtained in the case of diphtheria. (chestofbooks.com)
- He had noticed the first case of diphtheria in December. (bigapplesecrets.com)
- it renders harmless (neutralizes) only that toxin under the influence of which it was formed (for example, only the toxin secreted by the causative agent of diphtheria is neutralized by diphtheria antitoxin), and it has no neutralizing effect on other toxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Antitoxins are gamma globulins that are capable of interacting specifically with toxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- No protection was conferred on mice by antitoxins to botulinum toxins A, B, or E. (thefreedictionary.com)
- von Behring and Kitzato s interpretation of the existence of Antik rper directed against bacterial toxins was contingent upon their prior knowledge that certain laboratory animals had been exposed to bacterial antigens. (theperthgroup.com)
- It is used in medicine to prevent or treat diseases caused by the action of biological toxins, such as tetanus, botulism, and diphtheria. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Nevertheless, immunization using a highly effective toxoid vaccine is the mean of choice for diphtheria control. (springer.com)
- The diphtheria vaccine is safe and effective. (theconversation.com)
- Diphtheria vaccine (in combination with tetanus and pertussis - also known as whooping cough) is offered free to all children at two, four and six months of age. (theconversation.com)
- The discovery of a vaccine against diphtheria in 1923 , and the development of the combination vaccine for diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) in 1948 is one of the greatest public health stories of all times. (theconversation.com)
- Low immunisation coverage for three doses of diphtheria vaccine of 63% in Haiti, 59% in Venezuela, 60% in Yemen and 62% in Myanmar, was a common factor. (theconversation.com)
- The outbreak of diphtheria in Indonesia tells us that low and incomplete immunisation, along with several other factors , also contribute, including increasing antibiotic resistance, vaccine distribution issues and population mobility, as well as people's perception of vaccines. (theconversation.com)
- Uncontrolled but large stud- young volunteers who received a booster dose of the teta- ies of mortality rates from that time suggested effectiveness nus-diphtheria vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- Danish contributions to the evaluation of serum therapy for diphtheria in the 1890s. (jameslindlibrary.org)
- In the early 1890s, in Berlin, Emil von Behring and Shibasabura Kitasato developed a serum from a hyper-immune horse, which seemed to confer passive immunity on patients with diphtheria. (jameslindlibrary.org)
- It should come as no surprise then, when Emil von Behring developed diphtheria antitoxin serum as a cure in the 1890s it was hailed as nothing short of a miracle. (nih.gov)
- In 1913 Behring devised a new toxin-antitoxin preparation that gave increased immunity to diphtheria. (famousscientists.org)
- It was Behring , however, who announced, in 1913, his production of a mixture of this kind, and subsequent work which modified and refined the mixture originally produced by Behring resulted in the modern methods of immunization which have largely banished diphtheria from the scourges of mankind. (kagiz.org)
Nobel Prize in1
- Behring was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work. (kenyon.edu)
- They soon moved to testing the approach on humans and were able to show that blood products from immunized animals could treat diphtheria in humans. (historyofvaccines.org)
- A consortium of animal-welfare groups has funded research to develop a product it says could lead to more effective treatment of infectious diphtheria in humans while sparing thousands of horses now being bled to produce antitoxins. (foxnews.com)
- Antitoxins made from horses aren't the best for humans,' Brown said. (foxnews.com)
- The antitoxin work was later demonstrated to be an excellent example of passive immunization when it had been applied as a treatment in humans. (educationviews.org)
- In 1907 Emil von Behring demonstrated that mixing the diphtheria antitoxin and toxin provided a safe immunity to diphtheria in humans. (procon.org)
- Behring and Wernicke wanted to produce a diphtheria serum that would work on humans, but this would cost money to produce. (famousscientists.org)
- Humans are uniquely susceptible to diphtheria, thanks to having tonsils. (myricopia.com)
- They demonstrated that certain substances (antitoxins) in the blood serum of both humans and animals who had recovered from the disease, either spontaneously or by treatment, showed preventive and curative properties. (yourdictionary.com)
- Antitoxins are made within organisms, but can be injected into other organisms, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
- To prevent serum sickness , it is often best to use antitoxin generated from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to treat humans). (wikipedia.org)
Children suffering from1
- In a 1894 report, the experimental results for 220 children suffering from diphtheria revealed an overall 77% cure, depending on the treatment initiation time ( 3 ). (asm.org)
Immunization against diphtheria2
- Despite the advances made in diphtheria therapy and control, outbreaks reaching even epidemic proportions have been observed during the last decades. (springer.com)
- Large-scale outbreaks of diphtheria have been reported in Haiti in 2014, Venezuela in 2016 , Yemen in 2017 , Indonesia in 2017 and among the displaced Rohingya population in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh in 2017. (theconversation.com)
- Since then, mass vaccination has largely eradicated diphtheria, though outbreaks persist, including a recent one in Venezuela. (foxnews.com)
- While in many regions diphtheria has been controlled in recent years with effective vaccination, there have been sporadic outbreaks in the United States and Europe. (mhmedical.com)
- So now doctors were faced with a conundrum: how to balance the risks of serum sickness with the benefits of controlling diphtheria outbreaks through preventative antitoxin injections? (nih.gov)
- In 1888 Behring was sent to Berlin, and after a brief service at the Academy for Military Medicine, in 1889 he joined the Institute for Hygiene of the University of Berlin, then presided over by Robert Koch . (encyclopedia.com)
- Émile Roux (1853 to 1933)-who together with Alexandre Yersin (1863 to 1943) had characterized diphtheria toxin in 1888-was the first to use horses for immunization and reported a reduction from 50.7% fatal outcome of diphtheria without treatment to 24.5% with horse serum therapy. (asm.org)
- In 1888 Behring returned to Berlin where he worked under Robert Koch at the Institute of Hygiene at the University of Berlin. (famousscientists.org)
- In 1888 Behring was sent to Berlin for a brief service at the Academy for Military Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
- CDC published a comprehensive summary of previously published ACIP recommendations for prevention of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in the U.S. (immunize.org)
- According to the WHO, in 2013 about 84% of the world's population received immunizations against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, amounting to about 112 million infants. (activehistory.ca)
Lethal doses of diphtheria1
- Thus, 1 AU of diphtheria antitoxic serum is considered to be that quantity of the serum which neutralizes 100 minimum lethal doses of diphtheria toxin when injected into a guinea pig weighing 200-250 g. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Seurat's early demise and the 1990s reemergence in Russia and neighboring countries of diphtheria, the infectious disease that probably killed him, invite closer examination of the circumstances that surround his death. (cdc.gov)
- Diphtheria is an ancient, highly infectious disease that was accurately described by Aretaeus 2000 years ago. (cfp.ca)
- An adult from the north coast of New South Wales is the latest Australian to be diagnosed with the deadly infectious disease, diphtheria. (theconversation.com)
- On Oct. 16, 1894 two Cincinnati physicians successfully treated a two-year-old girl with a diphtheria antitoxin. (procon.org)
- On Dec. 4, 1894 the New York City Board of Health regulated the purity and potency of diphtheria antitoxin. (procon.org)
- From 1894, Farbwerke Hoechst began supplying phials of diphtheria serum. (famousscientists.org)
- Their research, which also built on the work of Emile Roux and others at the Pasteur Institute, led to an antitoxin that was suitable for human use, and it was introduced into North America in 1894. (activehistory.ca)
- ANCHOR Serums were produced, based on Robert Koch's work with tuberculin (1892), and Ehrlich's studies on diphtheria (1894). (animalresearch.info)
- The facts with regard to passive immunity were thus established and were put to practical application by the introduction of diphtheria antitoxin as a therapeutic agent in 1894. (chestofbooks.com)
- Our ancestors suffered from diseases such as scarlatina, cholera, diphtheria, poliomyelitis, consumption and small pox now almost unknown. (outofmytreegenealogy.com)
- He worked closely with Behring, Koch, and Ehrlich and provided much of the background research on diphtheria, cholera, and syphilis. (cornell.edu)
- Emil Adolf Behring was born on 15 March 1854 in Hansdorf, Germany. (famousscientists.org)
- The German hygienist and physician Emil Adolph von Behring (1854-1917) is famous for his discovery of antitoxins and his pioneering work in the treatment of diphtheria and certain other diseases. (yourdictionary.com)
- Emil Adolph von Behring was born on March 15, 1854, at Forsthausen, West Prussia. (yourdictionary.com)
- mil Adolf Behring was born on March 15, 1854, the eldest son of 13 children. (kagiz.org)
- A review of the international issues surrounding the availability and demand for diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use. (thefreedictionary.com)
- He also demonstrated that serum containing antitoxin taken from immune animals could neutralize (inactivate) the toxin, and that injection of such serum in nonimmune animals had a prophylactic and therapeutic effect against tetanus infection. (encyclopedia.com)
- There he helped Emil von Behring develop effective therapeutic serums, especially the new diphtheria antitoxin.9 Serums, or antitoxins, were prepared by extracting the liquid part of the blood, or serum, from animals inoculated with a specific bacterium. (flandershealth.us)
- Blood serum containing antitoxin is widely used in prophylaxis and treatment of diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and other diseases, and it is also used for treatment of persons bitten by poisonous snakes. (thefreedictionary.com)
- During our long-term studies about diphtheria (Behring) and tetanus (Kitasato), we also approached the questions of therapy and immunization, and for both infectious diseases we were able to cure infected animals as well as pretreat healthy ones so that they did not fall ill of diphtheria or tetanus. (asm.org)
- Since then, the management of infectious diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, pneumococcal pneumonia, meningococcal meningitis, and toxin-mediated diseases has considerably improved patient survival ( Casadevall, 1999 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Behring worked with Koch for several years at the institute developing his theory of antitoxins could help fight these diseases. (famousscientists.org)
- Behring moved to follow Koch when the latter transferred to the Institute for Infectious Diseases in 1891. (famousscientists.org)
- In the late nineteenth century, "diphtheria emerged as the most prevalent of the infectious diseases in the province of Quebec. (activehistory.ca)
- If the mother is immune to such diseases as diphtheria, rubella or polio, the newly borne infant will be immune to these disease. (biologydiscussion.com)
- BARDA is seeking additional proposals for vaccines, antitoxins , and therapeutics that potentially protect against anthrax infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Have you had your diphtheria vaccines? (theconversation.com)
- He was a brilliant man best known for his discovery of diphtheria and tetanus vaccines. (famousscientists.org)
- Because historically it has been a very deadly disease, especially for children where mortality rates before vaccines and antitoxin amounted to nearly 80%, it has been heavily studied. (kenyon.edu)
Treatment for diphtheria2
- The worldwide consortium of PETA groups awarded 134,000 euros (about $142,000) to Technical University Braunschweig in Germany to pioneer a new treatment for diphtheria, a bacterial infection. (foxnews.com)
- His work was key to the advancement of a medical treatment for diphtheria. (educationviews.org)
- Diphtheria is caused by bacterium that thrives in poor sanitary conditions. (famousscientists.org)
- In the Schick test, susceptibility to diphtheria is tested by intradermal injection of minute doses of? (aedes-nacional.com)
Work on diphtheria1
- but he is, himself, chiefly remembered for his work on diphtheria and on tuberculosis. (kagiz.org)
Control of diphtheria1
- Begg N (1994) Manual of the management and control of diphtheria in the European region. (springer.com)
Symptoms of diphtheria2
Epidemics of diphtheria2
Susceptibility to diphtheria1
- Schick tests on large groups of people provided data indicating that the time of greatest susceptibility to diphtheria was between the ages of one and four. (nih.gov)
- Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that can be transmitted from one person to another through respiratory droplets. (activehistory.ca)
- Diphtheria is a highly contagious and potentially life-threatening bacterial disease. (bigapplesecrets.com)
- equine antitoxin an antitoxin derived from the blood of healthy horses immunized against a specific bacterial toxin. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A cure for diphtheria, known at the time as the "strangling angel" of children, raised much higher attention as one of the most threatening killers, causing 1% of all deaths of children under the age of five years and with an overall childhood mortality of nearly 5% in Europe and the United States. (asm.org)
- Further refinement of the production and standardization of diphtheria antiserum resulted in a reduction of diphtheria mortality to 1 to 5% when given promptly after diagnosis. (asm.org)
- Clinical trials on sick children in Berlin hospitals were carried out and mortality rates of diphtheria were halved. (famousscientists.org)
- In 1892, Behring received funding from Farbwerke Hoechst which in turn would obtain the rights to produce and distribute the serum. (famousscientists.org)
- Emil von Behring: Discovery of diphtheria antitoxin Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen: Navigator and explorer. (wikipedia.org)
- Among his many scientific discoveries, he is perhaps most famous for his discovery of the serum mode of therapy against the terrible disease diphtheria, and it is precisely because of this innovation for which the Nobel to Dr. Behring had been bestowed. (educationviews.org)
- For the discovery of antitoxins and the development of vaccinations, Behring was honored with the epithet "Children Savior. (yourdictionary.com)
- The signs and symptoms of the cutaneous diphtheria include the following type of patient presentation. (educationviews.org)
- A similar type of pseudomembrane such as that seen in the respiratory diphtheria, often appearing grayish in color, may cover this chronic ulcer lesion in the cutaneous diphtheria. (educationviews.org)
- Complications of the cutaneous diphtheria can also occur. (educationviews.org)
- nated boy in Spain died of systemic diphtheria in June 2015 Unfortunately, these alternatives are not yet available and and 9 cases of cutaneous diphtheria among refugees were will need to undergo thorough regulatory processes be- notified by Denmark, Sweden, and Germany in 2015 ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- The signs and symptoms of the respiratory diphtheria include the following in their clinical presentation. (educationviews.org)
- If complications do occur, however, such as seen in patients with severe respiratory diphtheria, the patient may then suffer systemic heart and nerve dysfunctions. (educationviews.org)
- The toxin is associated with the formation of pseudomembranes in the pharynx during respiratory diphtheria. (mhmedical.com)
- As early as 1887, in Bonn, Behring had ascertained that the serum of tetanus-immune white rats contained a substance that neutralized anthrax bacilli. (encyclopedia.com)
- The particular type of diphtheria that is acquired by an individual depends largely upon the nature of the infected site of the patient (i.e., respiration into the airway or contact with broken skin), the levels of immune defenses possessed by the individual, and the virulence strength possessed by the diphtheria-causing microbe. (educationviews.org)
- In some patients, injections of antitoxin resulted in an immune reaction characterized by fever, rash, swelling of the glands, and joint pain. (nih.gov)
- Within 24-48 hours, those patients who had never been exposed to diphtheria showed a redness at the injection site of the toxin as the body mounted an immune response to the novel substance. (nih.gov)
- Oddly enough, mice and other rodents are naturally immune to the Diphtheria toxin so it has been difficult to study Diphtheria in the lab. (kenyon.edu)
- He demonstrated that the serum (non- cellular component of coagulated blood) from animals, previously, immunized to diphtheria, transferred the immune state to un-immunized animals. (biologydiscussion.com)
- German bacteriologist, who produced an antitoxin that conferred passive immunity against tetanus. (cornell.edu)
- In Berlin Kitasato worked with Behring on tetanus and diphtheria, demonstrating the value of antitoxin in conferring passive immunity. (cornell.edu)
- When the antitoxin is obtained from the blood, it is purified and injected into a human or other animal, inducing passive immunity . (wikipedia.org)
-  Ehrlich, with his friend Emil von Behring, went on to develop the diphtheria antitoxin, which became the first major success of modern immunotherapy . (wikipedia.org)
- The first large animal harnessed for serum production by Behring and Ehrlich was a sheep provided by Robert Koch (1843 to 1910), who no longer needed the animal and wanted to save on the costs for its maintenance. (asm.org)
- Soon the antitoxin, which works to neutralize the effects of C. diphtheria 's toxin in the body, became used for more than just treating the infected. (nih.gov)
- As a control, the other arm was injected with the same amount of toxin in a salt solution, mixed with enough antitoxin to neutralize its effect. (nih.gov)
- Then, the animal's body makes the antitoxin needed to neutralize the toxin. (wikipedia.org)
- In 1923 Gaston Ramon, French veterinarian and biologist at the Pasteur Institute in France, developed diphtheria toxoid that could later be used for a toxoid vaccination at the same time as Alexander Thomas Glenny, a London physician at Wellcome Research Laboratories. (procon.org)
- in general usage, antitoxin refers to whole, or globulin fraction of, serum from people or animals (usually horses) immunized by injections of the specific toxoid. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Uchida and Pappenheimer demonstrated that corynebacteriophage beta carries the structural gene tox, which encodes diphtheria toxin, and that a family of closely related corynebacteriophages are responsible for toxigenic conversion of tox - C. diphtheriae to the tox + phenotype. (mhmedical.com)
- Growth of toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae under iron-limiting conditions leads to the optimal expression of diphtheria toxin and is believed to be a pathogenic mechanism during human infection. (mhmedical.com)
- Once they were made aware of Behring's abilities they sent Behring to Carl Binz, a pharmacologist, so he could receive more training in experimental methods using animals. (famousscientists.org)
- One of the first vials of diphtheria antitoxin, developed based on Dr. von Behring's research. (myricopia.com)
- arlier in 1898, Behring and Wernicke had found that immunity to diphtheria could be produced by the injection into animals of diphtheria toxin neutralized by diphtheria antitoxin, and in 1907 Theobald Smith had suggested that such toxin-antitoxin mixtures might be used to immunize man against this disease. (kagiz.org)
- Subsequently von Behring was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his work on serum therapy. (theperthgroup.com)
- Bonmarin I, Guiso N, Le Fleche-Mateos A, Patey O, Patrick ADG, Levy-Bruhl D (2009) Diphtheria: a zoonotic disease in France? (springer.com)
- The French physician Bretonneau gave the first modern clinical description of the disease and provided the name diphtheria in 1826. (cfp.ca)
- The first success story involved diphtheria, a dangerous disease that obstructs the throat and airway of those who contract it. (historyofvaccines.org)
- He showed that his antitoxin was directed against the dreaded diphtheria disease. (educationviews.org)
- A ease Control and Prevention encourage searching for new lthough diphtheria is an almost forgotten disease in providers of equine DAT and promote the development industrialized countries, sporadic cases still occur. (cdc.gov)
- In 1826, Pierre Bretonneau, a French physician, called the disease diphtérite and distinguished diphtheria from scarlet fever. (procon.org)
- When Behring began his experiments, the germ theory of disease was becoming well established and immunology was a rapidly developing discipline. (yourdictionary.com)
- While toxigenic strains most frequently cause pharyngeal diphtheria, nontoxigenic strains commonly cause cutaneous disease. (mhmedical.com)
- Diphtheria was a serious contagious disease throughout much of the world until the late 19th century, when its incidence in Europe and North America began to decline and was eventually reduced even further by immunization measures. (britannica.com)
- Without the antitoxin the disease would kill the area's entire population of about 10,000 people. (bigapplesecrets.com)
- The following year Behring worked with Doctor Erich Wernicke, carrying out experiments on guinea pigs. (famousscientists.org)
- They were successful in immunizing guinea pigs against diphtheria. (famousscientists.org)
- Doctors injected a very small dose of diphtheria toxin in a salt solution (1/50 of the minimal lethal dose for a guinea pig) into the arm of a patient to be tested. (nih.gov)
- he researched such possibilities for Diphtheria, eventually using the serum of Diphtheria toxin-resistant guinea pigs, and ultimately horses. (kenyon.edu)
- However, soon they accepted horses as animals of choice for generation of high-titered diphtheria serum. (asm.org)
- The PETA International Science Consortium conceived the deal, signed last week, to try to get horses out of the antitoxin business. (foxnews.com)
- The human antitoxin would be grown with human cells in a test tube, instead of being drawn from the blood of horses. (foxnews.com)
- Progress was still slow so Behring turned to using horses at a vet school to obtain larger quantities of serum. (famousscientists.org)