Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Protocols: Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Manipulation, Chiropractic: Procedures used by chiropractors to treat neuromusculoskeletal complaints.United StatesProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.GermanyRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAdaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Treating Suicidal Behavior: An Effective, Time-Limited Approach. Treatment Manuals for Practitioners. New York: Guilford Press ... Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire[edit]. Main article: Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. The Suicide Behaviors ... Practice guidelines for the assessment and treatment of patients with suicidal behaviors (PDF). American Psychiatric ... "Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Suicidal Behaviors". American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. ...
... the dynamic positive approach of protective factors aims to create new opportunities for effective and achievable treatment ... The SAPROF aims to contribute to an increasingly accurate and well-rounded assessment of risk for future violent behavior. ... justifying stages of treatment, atoning treatment phasing and facilitating risk communication (Van den Broek & De Vries Robbé, ... Broek, E. van den (2008). The supplemental value of the SAPROF from a treatment perspective: A counterbalance to risk? Paper ...
... it is better for psychologists to use an integration of all these approaches to produce reliable and effective treatment. With ... O'Donohue, W; K.E. Ferguson (2006). "Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology and Behavior Analysis" (PDF). The Behavior Analyst ... Acupuncture has been shown to be no more effective than control treatments in the treatment of opiate dependence. Acupuncture, ... cognitive and behavioral techniques should be integrated with psychodynamic approaches to achieve effective treatment to ...
Her report of a nonrandomized, pre- and post-treatment study concluded that the method was effective. The design of that study ... This approach was praised by the Nobel prizewinner Nikolaas Tinbergen. Dr. Tinbergen described the need for additional research ... Welch subsequently renamed this technique Prolonged Parent-Child Embrace and suggested it for oppositional behavior and ... Welch first became interested in the possible treatment of autism during her fellowship. From 1975 to 1997, she operated a ...
While there are many treatment theories that address separate aspects of behavior, emotions, and thinking, this approach ... that allows the method to be consistently effective in disarming and bypassing treatment resistance. An exciting aspect of the ... Paradox psychology is an approach that aims to advance the general field of psychology and treatment. These advances include: ... approaches. Since the underlying theory and mechanism for the paradoxical approach had remained an 'unsolved mystery', there ...
A promising innovative approach to improving recovery rates for the treatment of GAD is to combine CBT with motivational ... A study on comorbidity of GAD and other depressive disorders has shown that treatment is not more or less effective when there ... Worry behavior prevention requires patients to monitor the behaviors that caused them worry and are then asked to prevent ... worry behavior modification, and problem-solving. The first step in the treatment of GAD is informing of the patient about the ...
... treatment techniques and outcomes. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2007, pp297-305. ... A computational approach. Psychological Review, Vol. 94, No. 2, pp148-175. Kosslyn, S. M., Image and brain: The resolution of ... The evidence that it is effective for non-musculoskeletal pain is encouraging but not definitive. Evidence and explanations for ... Journal of Motor Behavior, Vol. 40, No. 5, 2008, pp433-445. Olsson, C. J., and Nyberg, L., Motor imagery: If you can't do it, ...
The approach is the most reliably effective method for producing cocaine abstinence in controlled clinical trials. Medication ... Use of vouchers to reinforce abstinence and positive behaviors among clients in a drug court treatment program. J. Subst Abuse ... Overall contingency management has been found to be an effective and cost efficient addition to drug treatment. In contrast to ... The Behavior Analyst Today, 2 (2), 78 BAO Birnbrauer, J.S., Wolf, M.M., Kidder, J.D., & Tague, C.E. (1965). "Classroom behavior ...
Another possible treatment is "Reality Approach," or Reality therapy asking patient to focus behaviors away from cell phones.[ ... Cognitive behavioral therapy seems to be effective by reinforcing autonomous behavior independent from technological influences ... Observed behaviors include having one or more devices with access to internet, always carrying a charger, and experiencing ... Nomophobic behavior may reinforce social anxiety tendencies and dependency on using virtual and digital communications as a ...
... approaches have found that residential treatment is effective for individuals with a long history of addictive behavior or ... and level-focused in their treatment approach. That is, in order to manage clients' behavior, they frequently put systems of ... behavior-modification techniques can be an effective way of decreasing the maladaptive behavior of these clients. Interventions ... Residential treatment centers generally are clinically focused and primarily provide behavior management and treatment for ...
... sustainable change in child behavior". Early studies of this approach showed that the treatment was effective in the short-term ... For mildly annoying but not dangerous behavior, parents practice ignoring the behavior. Following unwanted behavior, parents ... PMT has also been studied as a treatment for disruptive behaviors in children with other conditions. Limitations of the ... That person in turn responds with a negative behavior, and the negative exchange escalates until one person's negative behavior ...
"Principles of Effective Treatment".. *^ Schaler, Jeffrey Alfred (1997). "Addiction Beliefs of Treatment Michael Vick Providers ... Such an approach lies in stark contrast to the approaches of social cognitive theory to addiction-and indeed, to behavior in ... Relapse prevention: maintenance strategies in the treatment of addictive behaviors. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 0-89862-009- ... According to NIDA, effective treatment must address medical and mental health services as well as follow-up options, such as ...
The key to the more effective approaches is to combine multiple different treatment strategies. In addition, for those ... approaches, such as lipoprotein transport behaviors, which have been shown to produce the most success, adopting more ... though trials of current antibiotic treatments known to be usually effective in suppressing growth or killing these bacteria ... Treatment of established disease may include medications to lower cholesterol such as statins, blood pressure medication, or ...
Counseling tends to be the best replacement for drug treatments. There are two different non-medication approaches to treat ... Contingency management is a form of treatment found to be effective for younger children with SAD. Contingency management ... Although school refusal behavior is common among children with SAD, it is important to note that school refusal behavior is ... A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach to Treatment". Psychology in the Schools. 45 (4): 261-272. doi:10.1002/pits.20299. ISSN 0033- ...
It has been proven to be an effective treatment for PTSD among war veterans. Recently, online programs that pair CBT with ... CBT is a psychotherapeutic approach that aims to change the patterns of thinking or behavior that responsible for patient's ... Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is also an effective and noninvasive, drug-free treatment for PTSD, ... The treatment of veterans changed after the First World War. In the years following, discontented veterans became a source of ...
... has been found to be a cost-effective approach. The way that cost-effectiveness was measured ... Zisser, A.R. & Eyberg, S.M. (2010). Parent-child interaction therapy and the treatment of disruptive behavior disorders. In A.E ... Parents are taught to issue effective commands. Effective commands are direct, positively stated, specific, used only when ... Can a Manualized Treatment Be Functional?". The Behavior Analyst Today. 2 (2): 106-54. doi:10.1037/h0099925. Chaffin, M.; et al ...
... be more effective than placebo in decreasing the nail-biting behavior. Nail cosmetics can help to ameliorate nail biting social ... which is another possible approach to treatment. In addition to HRT, stimulus control therapy is used to both identify and then ... The most common treatment, which is cheap and widely available, is to apply a clear, bitter-tasting nail polish to the nails. ... Another treatment for chronic nail biters is the usage of a dental deterrent device that prevents the front teeth from damaging ...
To date the standard treatment approach for NSSI disorder has been hospitalization, but this treatment method is expensive and ... A review by... found that ERGT was extremely effective in reducing NSSI behavior compared to that of TAU. Of the participants ... A functional approach to NSSI indicates that the behavior is engaged and maintained by multiple reinforcement processes, such ... Each of the clinical trials showed a high rate in reductions of self-harming behavior using DBT compared to treatment-as-usual ...
Initially clients can be reinforced for behavior that approaches the target. If the target behavior is keeping attention during ... Several recent reviews of psychosocial treatment for schizophrenia explicitly mention token economy as an effective, evidence- ... There is a broad range of possible target behaviors: self-care, attending activities, academic behavior, disruptive behavior. A ... Target behaviors can vary in types of social behavior and self care, or the decreasing of inappropriate and/or disruptive ...
Romme, Marius A.J.; Escher, Sandra D. (2011). Psychosis as a personal crisis: an experience based approach. Hove, East Sussex ... The Journal of Mind and Behavior. 11 (3-4): 259-283.. *. Shapiro, Samantha M. (19 January 2017). "The Radical Movement ... Slade P, Bentall R. Psychological treatments for negative symptoms. British Journal of Psychiatry Supplement. 1989 Nov;(7):133- ... "Are hearing voices groups effective? A preliminary evaluation." Unpublished manuscript, Sussex, UK. Retrieved from: http://www. ...
... or to attachment behaviors. A range of treatment approaches are used in attachment therapy, some of which are physically and ... After ensuring that the child is in a safe and stable placement, effective attachment treatment must focus on creating positive ... treatments." Mainstream prevention programs and treatment approaches for attachment difficulties or disorders for infants and ... Mainstream treatment and prevention programs that target RAD and other problematic early attachment behaviors are based on ...
also note that, "The most effective treatments emerging for patients with BN include a specific type of psychotherapy, ... write that, "Practice guidelines for the treatment of AN recommend a multidisciplinary approach involving medical management, ... that focuses on modifying the specific behaviors and ways of thinking that maintain the binge-eating and purging behaviors." ... Additional treatment might include inpatient treatment, partial hospitalization, and drug therapy. Various types of therapy ( ...
... is an approach to mental health treatment that uses the principles of behavior modification, which emerged ... Effective covert conditioning is said to rely upon careful application of behavioral treatment principles such as a thorough ... As part of a behavior modification package, covert conditioning has been shown to be effective with sex offenders. Clinical ... "Covert response cost" attempts to reduce a behavior by associating the loss of a reinforcer with the target behavior that is to ...
A number of psychotherapy approaches have been designed with the treatment of trauma in mind-EMDR, progressive counting (PC), ... Institute of Medicine guidelines identify cognitive behavioral therapies as the most effective treatments for PTSD. Two of ... Recent studies show that a combination of treatments involving dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), often used for borderline ... In children it is manifested as disorganized or agitative behaviors. Trauma can be caused by a wide variety of events, but ...
... "develop effective approaches to diabetes care, provide diabetes education, and translate and develop new approaches to diabetes ... and dialysis treatments and kidney transplants remain the most effective methods of treatment Another significant concern in ... Also, certain behaviors that take place commonly in the Native American culture can increase risk of disease. When the period ... However, due to the nature of alcoholism and the behaviors involved, the disease model is not always applicable. It is clearly ...
The average treatment effect (ATE) is a measure used to compare treatments (or interventions) in randomized experiments, evaluation of policy interventions, and medical trials. The ATE measures the difference in mean (average) outcomes between units assigned to the treatment and units assigned to the control. In a randomized trial (i.e., an experimental study), the average treatment effect can be estimated from a sample using a comparison in mean outcomes for treated and untreated units. However, the ATE is generally understood as a causal parameter (i.e., an estimate or property of a population) that a researcher desires to know, defined without reference to the study design or estimation procedure. Both observational studies and experimental study designs with random assignment may enable one to estimate an ATE in a variety of ways. Originating from early statistical analysis in the fields of agriculture and medicine, the term ...
... of most arrhythmias has a high success rate. Success rates for WPW syndrome have been as high as 95% [1] For SVT, single procedure success is 91% to 96% (95% CI) and multiple procedure success is 92% to 97% (95% CI).[2] For atrial flutter, single procedure success is 88% to 95% (95% CI) and multiple procedure success is 95% to 99% (95% CI).[2] For automatic atrial tachycardias, the success rates are 70-90%.[citation needed] The potential complications include bleeding, blood clots, pericardial tamponade, and heart block, but these risks are very low, ranging from 2.6-3.2%. For atrial fibrillation, several experienced teams of electrophysiologists in US heart centers claim they can achieve up to a 75% success rate. However one recent study claims that the success rates are in fact much lower - at 28% for single procedures. Often, several procedures are needed to raise the success rate to the 70-80% range.[3] One reason for this may be that once the heart has undergone atrial ...
A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations. In modern oncology, many regimens combine several chemotherapy drugs in combination chemotherapy. The majority of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy are cytostatic, many via cytotoxicity. A fundamental philosophy of medical oncology, including combination chemotherapy, is that different drugs work through different mechanisms, and that the results of using multiple drugs will be synergistic to some extent. Because they have different dose-limiting adverse effects, they can be given together at full doses in chemotherapy regimens.[1]. The first successful combination chemotherapy was MOPP, introduced in 1963 for lymphomas. The term "induction regimen" refers to a chemotherapy regimen used for the initial treatment of a disease. A "maintenance regimen" refers to the ongoing use of chemotherapy to reduce the ...
Surgical Outcomes Analysis & Research, SOAR, is a research laboratory of the Department of Surgery at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center with expertise in outcomes research. SOAR investigates surgical diseases and perioperative outcomes. The group focuses on pancreatic cancer, other gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary malignancies, vascular disease, and transplant surgery. SOAR's goal is to examine quality, delivery, and financing of care in order to have an immediate impact on patient care and system improvements. The group members utilize national health services and administrative databases, as well as institutional databases, to investigate and to address factors contributing to disease outcomes and healthcare disparities. The work in SOAR incorporates advanced statistical techniques, including logistic regression, prediction score, and decision analysis modeling. Outcomes Research evaluates the impact of health care on the health outcomes of patients and populations (see AHRQ for ...
30% today in Japan) with curative therapy options. The main problem of ultrasound screening is that, in order to be cost-effective, it should be applied to the general population and not in tertiary hospitals. This raises the importance of the operator and equipment dependent part of the ultrasound examination. The efficiency of such a program is linked to the functional liver parenchyma of the cirrhotic patient. Therefore, some authors argue that screening should be excluded in patients with etiologies that prevent curative treatment or in patients with advanced liver disease (Child-Pugh class C). After curative therapies (surgical resection, local ablative therapies) continuing ultrasound screening is recommended first at 1 month then at 3 months intervals after the therapy to assess the effectiveness of therapy and to detect other nodules. Ultrasound exploration can be an effective ...
... (GAS) is a therapeutic method that refers to the development of a written follow-up guide between the client and the counselor used for monitoring client progress. GAS was first developed by Thomas Kiresuk and Robert Sherman in response to the wide variety of evaluation models regarding mental illness and treatment. With the advent of GAS, Kiresuk and Sherman sought to create an evaluation program that could measure effectiveness across several different modalities and justify economic and labor resources based on effectiveness. Evaluation practices are important for justification and support for services, especially in mental health. The existing evaluation procedures had problems in definition and measurement, and each mental health center used its own definitions and measurements to evaluate. This created unspecified and informal evaluations. The variety of evaluation methods also made comparisons impossible. Thus, ...
Treatment decisions often follow formal or informal algorithmic guidelines. Treatment options can often be ranked or prioritized into lines of therapy: first-line therapy, second-line therapy, third-line therapy, and so on. First-line therapy (sometimes called induction therapy, primary therapy, or front-line therapy)[2] is the first therapy that will be tried. Its priority over other options is usually either: (1) formally recommended on the basis of clinical trial evidence for its best-available combination of efficacy, safety, and tolerability or (2) chosen based on the clinical experience of the physician. If a first-line therapy either fails to resolve the issue or produces intolerable side effects, additional (second-line) therapies may be substituted or added to the treatment regimen, followed by third-line therapies, and so on. An example of a context in which the formalization of treatment algorithms and the ranking of lines of ...
Treatment decisions often follow formal or informal algorithmic guidelines. Treatment options can often be ranked or prioritized into lines of therapy: first-line therapy, second-line therapy, third-line therapy, and so on. First-line therapy (sometimes called induction therapy, primary therapy, or front-line therapy)[2] is the first therapy that will be tried. Its priority over other options is usually either: (1) formally recommended on the basis of clinical trial evidence for its best-available combination of efficacy, safety, and tolerability or (2) chosen based on the clinical experience of the physician. If a first-line therapy either fails to resolve the issue or produces intolerable side effects, additional (second-line) therapies may be substituted or added to the treatment regimen, followed by third-line therapies, and so on. An example of a context in which the formalization of treatment algorithms and the ranking of lines of ...
Treatment for kidney cancer depends on the type and stage of the disease. Surgery is the most common treatment as kidney cancer does not often respond to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgical complexity can be estimated by the RENAL Nephrometry Scoring System. If the cancer has not spread it will usually be removed by surgery. In some cases this involves removing the whole kidney however most tumors are amenable to partial removal to eradicate the tumor and preserve the remaining normal portion of the kidney. Surgery is not always possible - for example the patient may have other medical conditions that prevent it, or the cancer may have spread around the body and doctors may not be able to remove it.[18] There is currently no evidence that body-wide medical therapy after surgery where there is no known residual disease, that is, adjuvant therapy, helps to improve survival in kidney cancer. If the cancer cannot be treated with surgery other techniques such as freezing the ...
... (PEWS) are clinical manifestations that indicate rapid deterioration in pediatric patients, infancy to adolescence. PEWS Score or PEWS System are objective assessment tools that incorporate the clinical manifestations that have the greatest impact on patient outcome. Pediatric intensive care is a subspecialty designed for the unique parameters of pediatric patients that need critical care. The first PICU was opened in Europe by Goran Haglund. Over the past few decades, research has proven that adult care and pediatric care vary in parameters, approach, technique, etc. PEWS is used to help determine if a child that is in the Emergency Department should be admitted to the PICU or if a child admitted to the floor should be transferred to the PICU. It was developed based on the success of MEWS in adult patients to fit the vital parameters and manifestations seen in children. The goal of PEWS is to provide an assessment tool that can be used by multiple specialties and ...
As is the case for all current methods of reviewing epilepsy surgery outcomes, the Engel classification system has subjective components.[6] A "disabling seizure" is subjective and can vary in definition from person to person. While one epileptic experiencing a seizure when driving a car may find the seizure "disabling," the same magnitude of seizure may be interpreted as mild, and thus "nondisabling," by an epileptic resting in bed. Every class other than class I is also subjective because there is no quantitative definition of what determines a rare occurrence or method to measure worthwhileness. One doctor and patient may consider 2 seizures in a year as a rare occurrence while another doctor may consider 10 in a year as rarely occurring. The worthwhileness of the operation is ambiguous because worth can be interpreted differently by various patients and healthcare professionals.[7] Keeping those caveats in mind, most neurologists and neurosurgeons who specialize in epilepsy would most likely ...
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy. The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic (i.e. literally brought forth by the physician).. Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily.. Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age, health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily. Complications affect adversely the prognosis of a ...
암펠로데스모스(ampelodesmos, 학명: Ampelodesmos mauritanicus 암펠로데스모스 마우리타니쿠스[*])는 포아풀아과의 단형 족인 암펠로데스모스족(ampelodesmos族, 학명: Ampelodesmeae 암펠로데스메아이[*])의 단형 속인 암펠로데스모스속(ampelodesmos屬, 학명: Ampelodesmos 암펠로데스모스[*])에 속하는 유일한 종이다.[1][2][3][4][5][6] 고대에 나래새족과 산기장족 선조들 사이의 잡종의 일종으로 종분화를 통해 분화한 것으로 추정하고 있다.[6] 암펠로데스모스는 넓게 군락을 지어 자라는 다년생 다발풀의 일종으로 지중해 지역에서 자생한다. 자생지 분포 지역 외부로 도입되어 관상용으로 자배된다. 원추 꽃차례가 고개를 숙이며 키가 60cm에 달한다. 자생지에서 돗자리와 비, 바느질 실 등의 재료로 사용되었다. 지중해 분지 바깥의 비자생 생태계에서는 외래 침입종이 될 수 있다.[7][8][9] ...
Treating Suicidal Behavior: An Effective, Time-Limited Approach. Treatment Manuals for Practitioners. New York: Guilford Press ... Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire[edit]. Main article: Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. The Suicide Behaviors ... Practice guidelines for the assessment and treatment of patients with suicidal behaviors (PDF). American Psychiatric ... "Assessment and Treatment of Patients With Suicidal Behaviors". American Psychiatric Association Practice Guidelines. ...
May 8 /- At a time when we could all use... ...,Focused,Health,Solutions,Unveils,New,Logo,Symbolizing,Integrated,Approach,to, ... Dedicated to lasting behavior change reflects organizations long-te... ...DEERFIELD Ill. ... making cancer treatment more precise and effective. ... ... model that encourages participation and rewards behavior change ... Dedicated to lasting behavior change reflects organizations long-term, active approach to achieving organizational and ...
discussed psychiatric treatment and pharmacotherapy.. The nursing literature focuses on effective approaches. According to ... The development of a written treatment plan that clearly delineates the goals of care and expected behavior for clinicians and ... She frequently refused medications and treatments. When approached by the hospice provider in her room for assessment or ... She refused any treatment. More recently, she had complaints of headache, left-sided weakness, and recurrent falls. She then ...
Substance Abuse and the Elderly). by The Journal of Rehabilitation; Health, general Aged Care and treatment Health aspects ... Psychological aspects Behavior problems Diagnosis Management Evaluation Substance abuse treatment ... Hester, R.K., and Miller W. R. (1995). Handbook of alcoholism treatment approaches: Effective alternatives (2nd ed.). Boston: ... When making treatment referrals several pitfalls can occur including: (a) lack of individualized treatment approaches; (b) lack ...
CBT is the most widely used treatment for eating disorders and can be applied effectively in treating Binge Eating Disorder. ... Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Binge Eating Disorder. This entry was posted in Binge Eating Disorder, Treatment on February 27 ... So began one of the most widely used and effective treatments for mental illness. Over 1,000 studies have been performed ... 1] Unknown (2019). History of cognitive behavior therapy. Beck Institute for Cognitive Behavior Therapy, retrieved from https ...
Lewis, T. J., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective behavior support: A systems approach to proactive schoolwide management. Focus on ... Education & Treatment of Children, 26(4), 345-361. Crone, D. A., & Homer, R. H. (2003). Building positive behavior support ... Sustaining effective behavior support systems in an elementary school. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 251-253. ... classroom behavior in 39 states, and schoolwide behavior in 2 states. Special educators had social behavior requirements at the ...
Disruptive behavior disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, put children at risk for long-term ... More studies are needed to determine whether these approaches are effective for treating childrens disruptive behavior ... Parent behavior therapy has the strongest evidence as an effective treatment for disruptive behavior problems in children. ... Just as for disruptive behavior, in general, behavior therapy is an effective treatment for ADHD. ...
Brain anatomy and brain-behavior relationships. *Functional impact of brain injury. *Effective treatment approaches ... Stem Cell Treatments Rehabilitation/Treatment Alyssas Story Brain Injury Treatment Brain Injury Treatment Acute Treatment for ... Sub-Acute Treatment When to Seek Medical Advice Recommendations Brain Specialists Treatment Options Brain Injury Treatment TBI ... Tardive Dyskinesia Treatment Video Library Videos Fundraisers Limits Top 3 Things SCI Survivors SNT 3 Things You Must Do ...
Treatment of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependencies. Typical 28-Day Inpatient Treatment ... It can also be used in graduate-levelcourses in Drugs and Behavior and Addiction courses taught in health science, social work ... This text is appropriate for upper-level undergraduate courses in Drugs and Behavior, Psychology of Addiction, and Drug Abuse ...
... a combination of the two approaches is employed (215). For example, cognitive and behavioral therapies are effective treatments ... Temporal trends in HIV risk behaviors among out-of-treatment women crack users: the need for drug treatment. Drugs Soc 1998;13: ... Treatment of infectious diseases and treatment of substance use and mental disorders contribute to prevention of transmission ... Substance abuse treatment can reduce such risk behaviors as needle-sharing and exchange of sex for money or for illicit drugs ( ...
11/01/2018 Mental Health and Behavior Group therapy most effective treatment for anxiety in young people ... Popular drug combination for treatment resistant depression is not more effective than a single antidepressant in primary care ... In comparison, the treatment-as-usual group experienced alcohol problems on 3.4 out of 30 days at the start of the study start ... However, treatment-as-usual participants increased spending from $70 to $114. The severity of substance use fell by 28 per cent ...
... from a systematic review and meta-analysis study noted that exercise referral schemes have not been proven as an effective ... Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors during adolescence: associations with 10-year changes in body mass index. J ... Are exercise referral schemes an effective approach to the treatment of childhood obesity?. Updated: Feb 20, 2019 ... encoded search term (Are exercise referral schemes an effective approach to the treatment of childhood obesity?) and Are ...
Prognosis is excellent in children and adolescents who receive timely treatment for the disorder. However, in the absence of ... With early and appropriate treatment, selective mutism can be successfully treated. ... Successful Approaches to Treatment. Behavior therapy is found to be very effective in treating selective mutism. In this ... Some studies even suggest that cognitive behavior therapy is effective in treating older children suffering from the condition. ...
An effective treatment of personality disorders should include: solid theoretical background; multidimensional planning; ... individualized needs assessment; precise approach to problem behavior; the use of active and structured behavioral and active ... The results have shown that cognitive-behavioral treatments are effective in personality disorders. Through the psycho- ... A Comparative Approach of Cultural Intelligence Profile of Management and Non-Management Romanian Students. ...
Abstract: Rate of skill development is a hallmark concern for effective autism treatment approaches. Data were collected from ... that combining drug and behavioral treatments were more effective than drug treatment alone for reducing challenging behaviors. ... These results support further evaluation of CLM as an effective approach to autism treatment. ... There are lots of supposedly effective treatments out there for autistic children but have no medical research to back them up ...
Treatment depends on the etiology. Estrogen is effective for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with genitourinary ... The problem is often multifactorial, necessitating a multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment approach that addresses ... Group cognitive behavior therapy may be effective for low sexual desire.8 Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to ... Treatment depends on the etiology. Estrogen is effective for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with genitourinary ...
What type of treatment approach do you feel is most effective?. I believe a behavioral approach works best. Using an ... is an empirically-supported treatment for compulsive behaviors, and can support treatment for hoarding. Using ACT helps the ... However, this approach often yields challenges in the long-term effectiveness of treatment and raises several treatment non- ... Results from studies suggest that hoarding behavior is a common behavior with elderly people with dementia although it is not ...
"Such a treatment approach will fundamentally improve our understanding of autism and its treatment." The findings are ... It also appears to support other, non-maternal social behaviors, like feeling more open and trusting towards other people. ... More Tantalizing Clues Oxytocin May Be an Effective Autism Treatment. Alice G. Walton. June 15, 2012 ... "Our findings provide the first, critical steps toward devising more effective treatments for the core social deficits in autism ...
Youll also learn some tips for navigating the world of alternative autism treatments safely. ... Autism treatment often involves a combination of different therapies. For some, medication may also play a role. Well go over ... Applied behavior analysis. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is one of the most widely used autism treatments for both adults and ... suggests that treatment is most effective when started before age 3. Still, many of the treatments designed for children can ...
... is a condition in which a persons sexual arousal and gratification depend on fantasizing about and engaging in sexual behavior ... Treatment. Treatment approaches for paraphilias have included traditional psychoanalysis, hypnosis, and behavior therapy ... Increasingly, the evidence suggests that combining drug therapy with cognitive behavior therapy can be effective. ... Some of the behaviors associated with paraphilias are illegal; individuals under treatment for paraphilic disorders often ...
Treatment can often include a combination of approaches.. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is a ... Group meetings-Meeting in a group with other survivors of trauma can be an effective form of therapy for people with PTSD. ... Treatment will also focus on any other conditions you may have, such as depression or substance abuse. The length of treatment ... Treatment. There are many treatments available to help manage PTSD. General goals include learning how to cope with symptoms, ...
Both are effective, but tx guided by EEG connectivity. 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0. Sens/Cogn Health/Behavior Total. 3 2.5 2 ... Compared findings from Jarusiewicz (2002) to Coben & Padolskys (2007) approach • Matched subjects for severity of symptoms and ... Treatment Effect; P = .0004 • Parent Ratings:. • Effectiveness of Intervention; P = .0002. EEGBF Ritalin. • Treatment Effect; P ... behavior. Spectrum Disorder: A Controlled Study of EEG Coherence Training focused on Social Skill Robert Coben, PhD Deficits. ...
... multifactorial treatment combining lifestyle modification and pharmacological therapy for modifiable risk factors, there is no ... significant increase in medical costs, compared to patients who receive conventional, multifactorial treatment, according to ... Treatment focused on polypharmacological approaches to cardiovascular issues, as well as improved health behaviors via ... Intense Multifactorial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Shown to be Cost Effective Contact. Michelle Kirkwood [email protected] ...
Chronic pain management with TCAs is effective in managing noncardiac chest pain that is resistant to other therapies. ... Some studies report positive results from behavior modification programs and biofeedback.. ... Treatment Approach Considerations. Gastroenterology consultation should be obtained for any patient with a suspected esophageal ... the primary goal of treatment is symptomatic relief. [12] As the myenteric nerves do not regenerate, treatment goals are ...
Assessments and Traditional and Alternative Treatments, an Online Continuing Education Course offered by Zur Institute. ... Recent effective psychotherapies and treatments. *Interpersonal Psychotherapy. *Process-experiential therapy. *Behavior ... Seo, M., Kang, H. S., Lee, Y. J., & Chae, S. M. (2015). Narrative therapy with an emotional approach for people with depression ... Review effective treatments, including some alternative medical treatments.. *Assemble self-help resources for depressed ...
  • The research studies used approaches that involved therapists who were trained in specific behavior therapy programs, and that used a training manual and specific steps to work with parents on skills to help them manage their child's behavior. (cdc.gov)
  • Primary care physicians have the opportunity, especially within the context of the medical home, to be the first point of contact when parents have concerns about their child's development or behavior. (aappublications.org)
  • This may be due to powerful genetic factors or to parental modeling of both eating and exercise behaviors, indirectly affecting the child's energy balance. (ericdigests.org)
  • The program is founded on the principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and additional evidence-based approaches. (wisc.edu)
  • For example, this year's edition includes a new chapter on cardiac arrest, new data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, additional information in many chapters on the global CVD and stroke burden, and further new focus on evidence-based approaches to changing behaviors, implementation strategies, and implications of the AHA's 2020 Impact Goals. (ahajournals.org)
  • Treatment focused on polypharmacological approaches to cardiovascular issues, as well as improved health behaviors via nutrition, exercise and smoking cessation. (diabetes.org)
  • The prioritization of both health behaviors (healthy diet pattern, appropriate energy intake, physical activity [PA], and nonsmoking) and health factors (optimal blood lipids, blood pressure, glucose levels) throughout the lifespan as primary goals unto themselves. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, with regard to health behaviors, children and young adults were similar to (PA) or worse than (diet) middle-aged and older adults. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chronic pain management with TCAs is effective in managing noncardiac chest pain that is resistant to other therapies. (medscape.com)
  • VA activities following the summit included a systematic review on the effects of CIH on pain and opioid use, an expert planning meeting to frame a larger discussion about approaches to chronic pain, and a State-Of-The-Art Conference on the broader topic of non-opioid therapies in November 2016. (springer.com)
  • Unfortunately, recommended evidence-based therapies are often set aside in favor of riskier and less proven approaches. (springer.com)
  • Given the number of existing therapies with established evidence, we should not use the opioid crisis as an excuse to bypass scientific standards of what treatments to adopt widely in VA. (springer.com)
  • Nutritional approaches and other natural therapies may make drug treatments more manageable or even unnecessary. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • There is now, however, considerable promise for identifying effective therapies for metastatic PPGLs based on advances in mapping the signaling pathways responsible for the tumors. (cnio.es)
  • Brain metastasis is an unmet need in high demand of novel and effective therapies. (cnio.es)
  • The latter is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition characterized by motor and vocal tics for which very few safe and effective therapies exist. (benzinga.com)
  • In contrast, currently approved therapies for the treatment of TS act at D 2 dopamine receptors. (benzinga.com)
  • The objective is to provide a graphic model of addiction that integrates new neurobiological findings in brain research, an alternative learning model of addiction (Lewis, 2015), and subsequent clinical approaches that address embodied trauma therapies. (usabp.org)
  • When we can objectively determine onset, severity, longevity, etc., in an animal, we can then do mechanistic studies, record brain activity to measure effectiveness of potential therapies and use that information to develop effective therapeutic treatments, including pharmacological agents and medical device approaches," Zhang explained. (prweb.com)
  • It will include the use of idea-generating techniques like SCAMPER, brain storming and mind mapping and examine how change and risk-taking behavior can influence innovative thinking. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • This finding indicates that FMRP plays an important functional role in regulating activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the brain and suggests new therapeutic approaches for fragile X syndrome. (pnas.org)
  • For treatment options in adult populations, see ASHA's Practice Portal pages on Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults , Aphasia , and Dementia . (asha.org)
  • He is the author of Power Parenting for Children with ADD/ADHD: A Practical Parent's Guide for Managing Difficult Behaviors (The Center for Applied Research in Education, 1996), ADD/ADHD Behavior--Change Resource Kit (The Center for Applied Research in Education, 1997), and Managing Difficult Behavior in the Classroom: A Pocket Guide for Teachers (Seacoast Publications, 1999). (fishpond.co.nz)
  • At WholeHealthMD, we suggest both alternative and conventional approaches that can help you to cope with ADHD. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • ADHD Treatment: What Are the Options? (healthline.com)
  • The severity of substance use fell by 28 per cent after 12 months for Housing First compared to treatment-as-usual participants, but wasn't statistically significant at 24 months. (healthcanal.com)
  • Particularly for tinnitus, finding an effective and objective way to test humans is essential in order to truly assess onset, severity, and other factors. (prweb.com)
  • A paraphilia is a condition in which a person's sexual arousal and gratification depend on fantasizing about and engaging in sexual behavior that is atypical and extreme. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Atypical anorexia nervosa - exhibits characteristics of anorexic behaviors like restricting, but may not meet the weight or other criteria for an anorexia diagnosis. (recoveryranch.com)
  • First, drug abuse/dependence research tends to be driven by the federal agenda and the popularity of drugs at a given time, to the exclusion of other drugs and other drug related behaviors. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The authors of the study reviewed every available research report from 1998 until 2016 that looked at treatment for disruptive behavior problems in children up to age 12 years. (cdc.gov)
  • This is largely because existing research suggests that treatment is most effective when started before age 3. (healthline.com)
  • Your gift makes a difference and will go a long way to support research for a cure and better treatments as well as to raise awareness about the #EverydayReality of living with this disease. (diabetes.org)
  • Although all topography measurements are limited, at least to some degree, by the artificial act of smoking while using a device, or smoking through a mouthpiece, this small, lightweight and portable device is easy to use outside of the laboratory setting to capture more naturalistic smoking behavior and allows for less intrusion from the research team and research environment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We used the most advanced treatments, supported by the latest research. (mountsinai.org)
  • Research tells us individuals who have experienced trauma are at greater risk of being re-traumatized and, therefore, any treatment program must be "trauma informed. (devereux.org)
  • We only use therapeutic approaches with a strong research backing to provide the most effective treatments available for our clients. (drexel.edu)
  • New research from The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has identified the molecular mechanism that causes kidney cancer to resist drug treatment. (news-medical.net)
  • Using a combination of computational and experimental techniques, a research team at the University of Massachusetts Amherst led by molecular biologist Lila Gierasch has demystified the pathway of interdomain communication in a family of proteins known as Hsp70s - a top target of dozens of research laboratories trying to develop new anti-cancer drugs, antibiotics and treatments for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Dr. Zhang, who is a professor and Associate Chair for Research in the Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Communication Sciences & Disorders departments for Wayne State University, said the ultimate goal is to help the millions of people who suffer from tinnitus by creating better methods of treatment. (prweb.com)
  • This text is appropriate for upper-level undergraduate courses in Drugs and Behavior, Psychology of Addiction, and Drug Abuse Counseling. (sagepub.com)
  • It can also be used in graduate-levelcourses in Drugs and Behavior and Addiction courses taught in health science, social work, criminal justice, and nursing. (sagepub.com)
  • Drugs used in treating anxiety disorders are also used in the treatment of some cases of selective mutism. (news-medical.net)
  • More recently, a class of drugs called antiandrogens that drastically lower testosterone levels temporarily have been used in conjunction with these forms of treatment. (psychologytoday.com)
  • There are cialis precio farmacia just two particular techniques that give treatment and disease to drugs with a good email or dosage: thrive and the gel gardening for the disabled trust. (amawa.com.au)
  • The mechanism of action of the drugs effective in treating OCD (clomipramine, a non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]: citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline and paroxetine) has given rise to the hypothesis that deficient serotonin function is a key element in the pathophysiology of OCD. (stanford.edu)
  • When it comes to drugs or alcohol, people can relapse when they encounter certain places or paraphernalia they previously associated with their drug-taking behavior. (gantdaily.com)
  • Drug side effects or interactions among drugs can affect behavior. (alz.org)
  • Keith was a leader in switching the field from drugs that knocked kids out to those that enhance behavior and performance. (nytimes.com)
  • The team of researchers developed the tool that may significantly facilitate investigations of the underlying mechanisms of tinnitus, and the development of drugs and other effective treatment methods for the approximately 50 million individuals in the United States who have experienced tinnitus. (prweb.com)
  • The preliminary results of the SPRINT MIND trial, presented at AAIC 2018, provide the strongest evidence to date about reducing risk of MCI and dementia through the treatment of high blood pressure, which is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease worldwide. (alz.org)
  • This involves making environmental changes to the home or classroom in order make good behavior feel more rewarding. (healthline.com)
  • The present study examined the extent to which encouragement in recent federal legislation to enhance behavior support in schools is reflected in (a) the mission statements that state departments of education have formulated, (b) state certification programs for teachers and administrators, and (c) states' special initiatives used to enhance current educational practices. (redorbit.com)
  • By considering the parametric data from these three imaging approaches (anatomic, molecular, and physiological) we can better define specific tumor signatures. (hindawi.com)
  • Subjects will return on a second day (Day 2) for the remainder of the study procedures to assess their smoking puffing behavior and nicotine intake from usual cigarette smoking, which will occur within 1 week of the Day 1 assessments. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Half were randomized into a Housing First program with intensive case management while the other half received treatment as usual. (healthcanal.com)
  • We also work with individuals who have recently stepped down from treatment in local residential treatment programs, partial hospitalization programs (PHP) and intensive outpatient programs (IOP). (drexel.edu)
  • In SPRINT MIND, the researchers found a statistically significant 19 percent lower rate of new cases of MCI in the intensive blood pressure treatment group. (alz.org)