Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.United StatesPlay and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Schools: Educational institutions.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mice, Inbred C57BLCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Stereotypic Movement Disorder: Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immobility Response, Tonic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Housing, AnimalSocial Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
Behaviors of networks[edit]. Biological neurons are connected to each other in a complex, recurrent fashion. These connections ...
Behavior[edit]. African pygmy squirrels live in trees, they are diurnal squirrels that spend time searching for food, due to ...
Mate searching behavior and male-male conflict[edit]. A female attracts males by perching atop the host plant feeding area and ... The term "armyworm" can refer to several species, often describing the large-scale invasive behavior of the species' larval ... and differences in reproductive behavior. The reproductive differences can be divided into two causes: difference in the timing ...
Such behavior can also suggest deep learning algorithms, in particular when mapping of such swarms to neural circuits is ... Czirók, A.; Vicsek, T. (2006). "Collective behavior of interacting self-propelled particles". Physica A. 281: 17-29. arXiv:cond ... Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial. The concept ... As with most artificial life simulations, Boids is an example of emergent behavior; that is, the complexity of Boids arises ...
Behavior[edit]. Capable of climbing reeds and stalks, this species is often found basking on top of flowers and terminal leaves ...
Behavior and ecology[edit]. This nocturnal and terrestrial snake has an inoffensive disposition. When disturbed, it coils ...
Behavior[edit]. Male excavating a nest hole. These birds mainly eat insects, especially carpenter ants and wood-boring beetle ...
Risky behavior[edit]. Alcohol myopia has been shown to increase the likelihood that a person will engage in risky behavior. The ... "Addictive Behaviors. 39 (1): 365-368. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.025. PMC 3858531. PMID 24199932.. ... Kolb, Bryan; Whishaw, Ian Q. (2014). An Introduction to Brain and Behavior (4th ed.). New York, NY: Worth Publishers. p. 183. ... Linda Brannon and Jess Feist, Health Psychology, An Introduction to Behavior and Health, Sixth Edition, Thomson Wadsworth (2007 ...
"California Condor Behavior". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge. Archived from the ... Researchers and breeders take advantage of this behavior to double the reproductive rate by taking the first egg away for ... competitive play behavior, and a variety of hisses and grunts. This social hierarchy is displayed especially when the birds ...
Behavior and ecology[edit]. Closeup of the head showing forcipules. Scutigera coleoptrata resting on a wall. The antennae are ...
Social behavior[edit]. Adults typically do not survive cold northern winters, but larvae overwinter and moths begin to appear ... The adults will feed on different flowers depending on its behavior and on whether they are diurnal or nocturnal. It the adults ...
Behavior[edit]. Social behavior[edit]. Risso's dolphins do not require cutting teeth to process their cephalopod prey, which ... "Behavior patterns of pilot whales and Risso's dolphins off Santa Catalina Island, California" (PDF). Aquatic Mammals. 21.3: pg ...
... and in turn naturally embrace patterns of prosocial behavior.[20] These monkeys engage in such behavior by acting ... This suppresses sexual behavior and delays puberty.[22][23] Unrelated males that join the group can release the females from ... Estrada, A. (2006). New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates: Distribution, Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation. ... Functionally, this behavior may inform other tamarins of the actions the caller will take in a feeding context and whether a ...
Behavior[edit]. The titan triggerfish can move relatively large rocks when feeding and is often followed by smaller fish, in ... This behavior of female triggerfish is called 'tending,' and males rarely perform this behavior. A male triggerfish stays ... Male and female triggerfish perform certain pre-spawning behaviors: blowing and touching.[8] A male and female blow water on ... Kawase, H. (2003). "Spawning behavior and biparental egg care of the crosshatch triggerfish, Xanthichthys mento (Balistidae)". ...
Males are more likely to engage in agonistic behaviors,[29] such as slowly circling each other, chasing, or actual fighting.[14 ... M.; Miranda Mourão, G. de; Camilo-Alves, C. de S. e; Mourão, G (2008). "Anteater behavior and ecology". In Vizcaíno, S. F; ... Shaw, J. H.; Machado-Neto, J.; Carter, T. J. (1987). "Behavior of Free-Living Giant Anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)". ... the hunters were agitating and wounding cornered animals and the attacks appeared to be defensive behaviors.[38] In April 2007 ...
... and rocking behavior.[58] A calorie restriction regimen may also lead to increased aggressive behavior in animals.[57] ... Behavior[edit]. Observations in some accounts of animals undergoing calorie restriction have noted an increase in stereotyped ... behaviors.[57] For example, monkeys on calorie restriction have demonstrated an increase in licking, sucking, ...
Behavior[edit]. General overview[edit]. Though this varies in intensity from species to species, foxes operate within a ... True foxes exhibit hoarding behavior or caching where they store away food for another day out of sight from other animals.[23] ... a b c Harris, Steven (2010). "Understand fox behavior". https://www.discoverwildlife.com/animal-facts/mammals/understand-fox- ...
Ecology and behavior[edit]. Diet[edit]. Prairie dogs are chiefly herbivorous, though they eat some insects. They feed primarily ... Behaviors that signal that a female is in estrus include underground consorting, self-licking of genitals, dust-bathing, and ... Alarm response behavior varies according to the type of predator announced. If the alarm indicates a hawk diving toward the ... Tynes, Valarie V. (7 September 2010). Behavior of Exotic Pets. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780813800783. .. ...
Protective coloration and behavior[edit]. Cryptic and mimicking color and behavior[edit]. ... Male-male behaviors[edit]. Lekking[edit]. Male butterflies exhibit behaviors for defending territories. Females choose males ... 7 Protective coloration and behavior *7.1 Cryptic and mimicking color and behavior ... Mate searching behavior[edit]. When it comes time to mate, male and female H. semele meet above a solitary tree in a wide and ...
Symbolic behavior is, perhaps, one of the most difficult aspects of modern human behavior to distinguish archaeologically. When ... and symbolic behavior.[1] Many of these aspects of modern human behavior can be broken down into more specific categories, ... Evidence for modern human behavior[edit]. See also: Behavioral modernity. There have been a number of theories proposed ... Characteristically modern human behaviors, such as the making of shell beads, bone tools and arrows, and the use of ochre ...
Ecology and behavior[edit]. As sun bears occur in tropical regions with year-round available foods, they do not hibernate. ... In captivity, they exhibit social behavior, and sleep mostly during the day.[14] ...
Social behavior[edit]. Spicebush swallowtails often engage in puddling, a type of behavior which occurs while adults are flying ... Feeding behavior[edit]. Spicebush swallowtails (along with P. palamedes) are able to thermoregulate their thoraxes better than ... Mating behavior[edit]. In general, both sexes will copulate with several mates during mating season. However, each time a ... Puddling reflects the fact that while engaging in either feeding or mating behavior, i.e. when they are away from home, ...
Evidence based on the fossil record, serology, karyology, behavior, anatomy, and reproduction reflect closer affinities with ...
Behavior and ecology[edit]. Feeding and diet[edit]. Ratite chicks tend to be more omnivorous or insectivorous; similarities in ...
Hunting behavior[edit]. This is a typical harrier, which hunts on long wings held in a shallow V in its low flight during which ...
... is a form of social behavior involving the coordinated behavior of large groups of similar animals as well as emergent properties of these groups. This can include the costs and benefits of group membership, the transfer of information across the group, the group decision-making process, and group locomotion and synchronization. Studying the principles of collective animal behavior has relevance to human engineering problems through the philosophy of biomimetics. For instance, determining the rules by which an individual animal navigates relative to its neighbors in a group can lead to advances in the deployment and control of groups of swimming or flying micro-robots such as UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). Examples of collective animal behavior include: Flocking birds Herding ungulates Shoaling and schooling fish Swarming Antarctic krill Pods of dolphins Marching ...
Ultimately, it is behavior that determines survival. Timberlake & Lucas 1989 Conservation behavior is the interdisciplinary field about how animal behavior can assist in the conservation of biodiversity. It encompasses proximate and ultimate causes of behavior and incorporates disciplines including genetics, physiology, behavioral ecology, and evolution. Conservation behavior is aimed at applying an understanding of animal behavior to solve problems in the field of conservation biology. These are problems that may arise during conservation efforts such as captive breeding, species reintroduction, reserve connectivity, and wildlife management. By using patterns in animal behavior, biologists can be successful in these conservation efforts. ...
For these birds, there is documented evidence of homosexual or transgender behavior of one or more of the following kinds: sex, courtship, affection, pair bonding, or parenting, as noted in researcher and author Bruce Bagemihl's 1999 book Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. According to Bagemihl, Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species and the motivations for and implications of their behaviors have yet to be fully understood. Bagemihl's research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sex, has been documented in about 500 species as of 1999, ranging from primates to gut worms. Homosexuality in animals is seen as controversial by social conservatives because it asserts the naturalness of homosexuality in humans, while others counter that it has no implications and is nonsensical to equate animal ...
The second edition of the DSM, DSM-II, could not be effectively applied because of its vague descriptive nature. Psychodynamic etiology was a strong theme in classifying mental illnesses. The applied definitions became idiosyncratic, stressing individual unconscious roots. This made applying the DSM unreliable across psychiatrists.[24] No distinction between abnormal to normal was established. Evidence of the classification ambiguity were punctated by the Rosenhan experiment of 1972. This experiment demonstrated that the methodology of psychiatric diagnosis could not effectively distinguish normal from disordered mentalities. DSM-II labelled 'excessive' behavioral and emotional response as an index of abnormal mental wellness to diagnose some particular disorders.[25] 'Excessiveness' of a reaction implied alternative normal behaviour which would have to include a situational factor in evaluation. As an example; a year of intense grief from the death of a spouse may be a ...
The name army ant (or legionary ant or marabunta) is applied to over 200 ant species, in different lineages, due to their aggressive predatory foraging groups, known as "raids", in which huge numbers of ants forage simultaneously over a certain area. Another shared feature is that, unlike most ant species, army ants do not construct permanent nests: an army ant colony moves almost incessantly over the time it exists. All species are members of the true ant family, Formicidae, but several groups have independently evolved the same basic behavioral and ecological syndrome. This syndrome is often referred to as "legionary behavior", and may be an example of convergent evolution. Most New World army ants belong to the subfamily Ecitoninae, which contains two tribes: Cheliomyrmecini and Ecitonini. The former contains only the genus Cheliomyrmex, whereas the latter contains four genera: Neivamyrmex, Nomamyrmex, Labidus, and Eciton. The largest ...
... (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. Taking a behavior informatics perspective, a behavior consists of behavior actor, operation, interactions, and their properties. A behavior can be represented as a behavior vector. Although there is some disagreement as to how to precisely define behavior in a biological context, one common interpretation based on a ...
... is seen to be the evolutionary step that led to internal fertilization, in response to selective pressures at work to inspire this adaptation. This has been most attributed to the independence of animals from liquid water as a means of fertilization among terrestrial species, however other differentiations at the microscale could have also contributed to the change between oogamy and internal fertilization. One explanation has been the cytoplasmic differences between two gametes, however Randerson & Hurst debunked this theory as unsupported (2001). Most alternative explanations that followed focused on selection based off size, behavioral interactions between gamete cells, and the allocation of resources ecologically. For the selection of gamete size necessary to catalyze the transition from isogamy to oogamy, the fitness of an organism would have to increase as egg size increases, and increase as sperm size decreases. The number of gametes within the organism alone ...
The UK Black and The Health Divide reports considered two primary mechanisms for understanding how social determinants influence health: cultural/behavioral and materialist/structuralist[17] The cultural/behavioral explanation is that individuals' behavioral choices (e.g., tobacco and alcohol use, diet, physical activity, etc.) were responsible for their development and deaths from a variety of diseases. However, both the Black and Health Divide reports found that behavioral choices are determined by one's material conditions of life, and these behavioral risk factors account for a relatively small proportion of variation in the incidence and death from various diseases. The materialist/structuralist explanation emphasizes the people's material living conditions. These conditions include availability of resources to access the amenities of ...
The correct endpoint behavior is usually to repeat dropped information, but progressively slow the repetition rate. Provided all endpoints do this, the congestion lifts and the network resumes normal behavior.[citation needed] Other strategies such as slow-start ensure that new connections don't overwhelm the router before congestion detection initiates. Common router congestion avoidance mechanisms include fair queuing and other scheduling algorithms, and random early detection (RED) where packets are randomly dropped as congestion is detected. This proactively triggers the endpoints to slow transmission before congestion collapse occurs. Fair queuing is most useful in routers at choke points with a small number of connections passing through them. Larger routers must rely on RED.[citation needed] Some end-to-end protocols are designed behave well under congested conditions; TCP is a well known example. The first TCP implementations to ...
Social norms theory states that much of people's behaviour is influenced by their perception of how other members of their social group behave. When individuals are in a state of deindividuation, they see themselves only in terms of group identity, and their behaviour is likely to be guided by group norms alone. But while group norms have a powerful effect on behaviour, they can only guide behaviour when they are activated by obvious reminders or by subtle cues. People adhere to social norms through enforcement, internalisation, the sharing of norms by other group members, and frequent activation (Smith 2007). Norms can be enforced through punishment or reward. Individuals are rewarded for living up to their roles (i.e. students getting an "A" on their exam) or punished for not completing the duties of their role (i.e. a salesman is fired for not selling enough product).. Social norm theory has been applied as an environmental approach, with an aim of influencing individuals by manipulating ...
Social norms theory states that much of people's behaviour is influenced by their perception of how other members of their social group behave. When individuals are in a state of deindividuation, they see themselves only in terms of group identity, and their behaviour is likely to be guided by group norms alone. But while group norms have a powerful effect on behaviour, they can only guide behaviour when they are activated by obvious reminders or by subtle cues. People adhere to social norms through enforcement, internalisation, the sharing of norms by other group members, and frequent activation (Smith 2007). Norms can be enforced through punishment or reward. Individuals are rewarded for living up to their roles (i.e. students getting an "A" on their exam) or punished for not completing the duties of their role (i.e. a salesman is fired for not selling enough product). Social norm theory has been applied as an environmental approach, with an aim of influencing individuals by manipulating their ...
Cuvier has been described as the first scientist to use terms "héréditaire" (hereditary) in 1807 and "heredity" in 1812 in their now biological context. He used both words in promoting the inheritance of acquired characteristics based on his studies of animal behaviour.[1] Although an advocate of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, similar to his brother he denied the transmutation of species.[2] He believed that behavioral patterns in animals change over time in relation to environmentally induced needs. Historian Robert J. Richards has written that Cuvier "did not believe that the anatomical patterns of species were modified over time (though he did admit they changed in nonessential ways through the inheritance of acquired characteristics... He was a behavioral evolutionist, if a modest one."[2] ...
A hormone (from the Greek participle "ὁρμῶ", "to arouse") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of three classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid/protein derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine signaling system. The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or intracrine signalling) or nearby cells (paracrine signalling). Hormones are used to communicate between organs and tissues for physiological regulation and behavioral activities, such as digestion, metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement, ...
These feelings, thoughts, and behaviors can include normal sexual behaviors or behaviors that are considered illegal and/or ... This type of compulsive behavior is characterized by feelings, thoughts, and behaviors about anything related to sex. These ... While not all compulsive behaviors are addictions, some such as compulsive sexual behavior (intercourse) have been identified ... Behavior, and Treatment". Helpguide.org. Retrieved 2013-11-29. "Addictive Behaviors, Compulsions and Habits". Umass.edu. ...
Such behavior may be an indicator of compulsive sexual behavior. ... What is Compulsive sexual behavior: Sexual expression is ... If your sexual behavior is compulsive, you may display it in a number of ways, including:. * Having multiple sexual partners or ... Sexual behavior becomes a problem and is considered an addiction when it is repeated often enough to interfere with normal ... Is my sexual behavior hurting my relationships with friends and family, affecting my ability to work, or resulting in negative ...
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is the most common REM sleep parasomnia treated at Riversides ...
The development of agonistic behavior in male golden hamsters : from behavior to brain  Taravosh-Lahn, Kereshmeh (2008-08) ... In male golden hamsters, puberty is marked by dramatic changes in agonistic behavior. Attack frequency gradually decreases as ... agonistic behavior evolves from play fighting to adult aggression. Attack types change as targets ... ... Browsing by Subject "Agonistic behavior in animals". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. ...
Extra resources for Behavior Genetics Principles: Perspectives in Development, Personality, and Psychopathology (Decade of ... Read Online or Download Behavior Genetics Principles: Perspectives in Development, Personality, and Psychopathology (Decade of ... Behavior Genetics Principles: Perspectives in Development, by Lisabeth F Dilalla PH.D.. Posted on March 24, 2017. ... Behavior Genetics Principles: Perspectives in Development, by Lisabeth F Dilalla PH.D.. ...
Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviors. Health consequences include HIV, STDs, and teen pregnancy. ... Many Young People Engage in Sexual Risk Behaviors. Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviors and experiences that can ... Sexual risk behaviors place youth at risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and unintended ... Resources and Strategies for Preventing Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth. Fact Sheets. *How CDC Prepares Healthy Youth for ...
CDC tracks progress toward these objectives using the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System and the National Health Interview ... Objective C-20: Increase the proportion of persons who participate in behaviors that reduce their exposure to harmful ...
Newly identified genomic causes of severe compulsive behavior in dogs could further understanding of human OCD ... OCD is often characterized by distressing thoughts and time-consuming, repetitive behaviors, while canine compulsions may ... professor in clinical sciences and section head and program director of animal behavior at Cummings School of Veterinary ...
The author asserts that if it is true that body chemistry plays a role in abnormal behavior, that it is largely a waste of time ... Physiology and Behavior 1997; 62(2)327-329. Stresses the importance of the study of different metal ratios and their ... Physiol Behavior 1997;49(1):327-329. Research spanning a period of 20 years has revealed abnormal trace metal concentrations in ... The group with the highest levels of lead present in blood samples was found to score the highest in Total Problem Behavior ...
... dietary behaviors, physical activity, and behaviors associated with intentional or unintentional injuries. Since 2007, the ... Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) - in collaboration ... The Massachusetts YRBS (MYRBS) focuses on the major risk behaviors that threaten the health and safety of young people. This ... Data from the MYRBS provide accurate estimates of the prevalence of risk behaviors among public high school students in the ...
Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior (EEB). The EEB Research Group strives to understand the natural world through the lens of ... Research areas offered by the EEB group are designed to understand major concepts in ecology, evolution, behavior, and ...
The purpose of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that put Alaskan youth at ... Health and Social Services , Public Health , Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS ... The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is part of an epidemiological surveillance system that was established in 1990 by the ... sexual behaviors that can result in HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancies ...
Social behavior[edit]. Main article: Social behavior. Behavior informatics[edit]. Behavior informatics[4] also called behavior ... Human behavior[edit]. Main article: Human behavior. Human behavior is believed to be influenced by the endocrine system and the ... Consumer behavior[edit]. Consumers behavior Consumer behavior refers to the processes consumers go through, and reactions they ... Positive behaviors help promote health and prevent disease, while the opposite is true for risk behaviors.[15] Health behaviors ...
Determinants on Volunteering Behavior. [To the Bottom of This Page]. Abstract. Volunteering behavior was examined by conducting ... Volunteering behavior has been of considerable interest to researchers in the last 40 or 50 years. There have been numerous ... Behavior was examined based on two factors, situational and personality. The two hypotheses were that: subjects would imitate ... Other factors that have been linked to the volunteering behavior is a persons birth-order. It was shown by Schachter (1959) ...
What is Rational Behavior. A rational behavior decision-making process is based on making choices that result in the most ... Rational behavior within the economy is a portion of behavioral finance that focuses on the behavior of individuals within the ... BREAKING DOWN Rational Behavior. While it is likely more financially lucrative for an executive to stay on at a company ... Rational behavior does not necessarily require a person to attempt to get the highest return as it does allow for the ...
... Updated: April 17, 2012. Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows ... Before you can run the DS behavior subcommand, you need to connect to a specific AD Ds or AD LDS instance by using the ... connections [{allow passwd op on unsecured connection , deny passwd op on unsecured connection , list current ds-behavior}] ... Modifies AD DS or AD LDS behavior to allow password operations over an unsecured connection. ...
Cyber Behavior 2nd. International Symposium on Cyber Behavior (2nd. CB2012). (In conjunction with International Conference on ... The International Symposium on Social Network Behavior will be held on December 27-29, 2012, at the Grand Hotel, Taipei (http ... This symposium aims to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to exchange research results on cyber behavior. ...
Behavior presents experimental and theoretical contributions and critical reviews concerning fundamental processes of learning ... and behavior in nonhuman and human animals. Topics covered include sensation, ... ... Learning & Behavior publishes experimental and theoretical contributions and critical reviews concerning fundamental processes ... Get the table of contents of every new issue published in Learning & Behavior. ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
In the March 3 SN: Redefining dinosaurs, minibrain recipes, how flu spreads, lions vs. zebras, Venus prospects, a whale speaks and more. ...
Deimatic behavior is designed to intimidate predators and dissuade them from attacking. It typically involves the display of ... Deimatic behaviors occur in both aposematic and cryptic animals so that they can be either a genuine warning of unpleasantness ... Deimatic behavior is designed to intimidate predators and dissuade them from attacking. It typically involves the display of ... Edmunds M. (2004) Deimatic behavior. In: Encyclopedia of Entomology. Springer, Dordrecht. * .RIS Papers ...
... with an occasional round of reasonable behavior striking the characters. But director Jack Shea seemingly gives his cast too ... Goode Behavior (Mon. (26), 9-9:30 p.m., UPN) Filmed in Los Angeles by Seven Mile Prods. in association with UPN. Executive ... Goode Behavior. Goode Behavior (Mon. (26), 9-9:30 p.m., UPN) Filmed in Los Angeles by Seven Mile Prods. in association with UPN ... Goode Behavior (Mon. (26), 9-9:30 p.m., UPN) Filmed in Los Angeles by Seven Mile Prods. in association with UPN. Executive ...
Dopamine pathway is highly diverged in primate species that differ markedly in social behavior *From the Cover ...
Attributing all irritating behavior to hormones may be a cop-out *In a study, kids whose parents were permissive were three ... Monitor her behavior. Stay rigorous about keeping track of her whereabouts and asking questions. Tell her: "As long as you have ... "You need to say to yourself, there must be a reason for this behavior, and I need to take the time to ask," she notes. ... It also doesnt help calm a parents fears when every stat about teen behavior is scarier than the last (like the ones from the ...
Become familiar with each stage of the purchasing lifecycle in your product category with our 17-question consumer behavior ... Become familiar with each stage of the purchasing lifecycle in your product category with our 17-question consumer behavior ...
  • citation needed] Compulsive behaviors could be an attempt to make obsessions go away. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Compulsive behaviors are a need to reduce apprehension caused by internal feelings a person wants to abstain from or control. (wikipedia.org)
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