The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Sexual activities of humans.
Sexual activities of animals.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The interactions between parent and child.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Interaction between a mother and child.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
The selection of one food over another.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Female parents, human or animal.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.
A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
What a person has in mind to do or bring about.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Educational institutions.
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
The consumption of edible substances.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The act of killing oneself.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.
Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)

Effect of morphine and naloxone on priming-induced audiogenic seizures in BALB/c mice. (1/16705)

1 Morphine (1-200 mg/kg s.c.) reduced the incidence and prolonged the latency of priming-induced audiogenic siezures in a dose-dependent manner. 2 This effect was reversed by naloxone (1 and 2 mg/kg) although naloxone was itself inactive. 3 This priming-induces seizure model may be useful in the study of tolerance and physical dependence.  (+info)

A review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects of procaine in thoroughbred horses. (2/16705)

Since procaine has both local anaesthetic and central stimulant actions its presence in the blood or urine of racing horses is forbidden. After rapid intravenous injection of procaine HC1 (2.5 mg/Kg) in thoroughbred mares plasma levels of this drug fell rapidly (t 1/2 alpha = 5 min) and then more slowly (t 1/2 beta = 50.2 min). These kinetics were well fitted by a two compartment open model (Model I). This model gave an apparent Vdbeta for procaine in the horse of about 3,500 litres. Since procaine was about 45% bound to equine plasma protein this gives a true Vdbeta for procaine of about 6,500 litres. After subcutaneous injection of procaine HC1 (3.3 mg/Kg) plasma levels peaked at about 400 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 75 minutes. These data were well fitted by Model I when this was modified to include simple first order absorption (K = 0.048 min-1) from the subcutaneous injection site (Model II). After intramuscular injection of procaine penicillin (33,000 I.U./Kg) plasma levels reached a peak at about 270 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 9 hours. These data were approximately fitted by Model II assuming a first order rate constant for absorption of procaine of 0.0024 min-1. After intramuscular injection of procaine HC1 (10 mg/Kg) plasma levels of procaine peaked rapidly at about 600 ng/ml but thereafter declined slowly (+ 1/2 = 2 hours). A satisfactory pharmaco-kinetic model for this intramuscular data could not be developed. An approximation of these data was obtained by assuming the existence of two intramuscular drug compartments, one containing readily absorbable drug and the other poorly absorbable drug (Model III). After intra-articular administration of procaine (0.33 mg/Kg) plasma levels of this drug reached a peak at about 17 ng/ml and then declined with a half-life of about 2 hours. These data were not modelled.  (+info)

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (3/16705)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4. (4/16705)

It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results.  (+info)

Neural changes after operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea stagnalis. (5/16705)

In this study, we demonstrate neural changes that occurred during operant conditioning of the aerial respiratory behavior of Lymnaea stagnalis. Aerial respiration in Lymnaea occurs at the water interface and is achieved by opening and closing movements of its respiratory orifice, the pneumostome. This behavior is controlled by a central pattern generator (CPG), the neurons of which, as well as the motoneurons innervating the pneumostome, have previously been identified and their synaptic connections well characterized. The respiratory behavior was operantly conditioned by applying a mechanical stimulus to the open pneumostome whenever the animal attempted to breathe. This negative reinforcement to the open pneumostome resulted in its immediate closure and a significant reduction in the overall respiratory activity. Electrophysiological recordings from the isolated CNSs after operant conditioning showed that the spontaneous patterned respiratory activity of the CPG neurons was significantly reduced. This included reduced spontaneous activity of the CPG interneuron involved in pneumostome opening (input 3 interneuron) and a reduced frequency of spontaneous tonic activity of the CPG interneuron [right pedal dorsal 1 (RPeD1)]. The ability to trigger the patterned respiratory activity by electrical stimulation of RPeD1 was also significantly reduced after operant conditioning. This study therefore demonstrates significant changes within a CPG that are associated with changes in a rhythmic homeostatic behavior after operant conditioning.  (+info)

Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala during olfactory discrimination learning. (6/16705)

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is part of a network of structures involved in adaptive behavior and decision making. Interconnections between OFC and basolateral amygdala (ABL) may be critical for encoding the motivational significance of stimuli used to guide behavior. Indeed, much research indicates that neurons in OFC and ABL fire selectively to cues based on their associative significance. In the current study recordings were made in each region within a behavioral paradigm that allowed comparison of the development of associative encoding over the course of learning. In each recording session, rats were presented with novel odors that were informative about the outcome of making a response and had to learn to withhold a response after sampling an odor that signaled a negative outcome. In some cases, reversal training was performed in the same session as the initial learning. Ninety-six of the 328 neurons recorded in OFC and 60 of the 229 neurons recorded in ABL exhibited selective activity during evaluation of the odor cues after learning had occurred. A substantial proportion of those neurons in ABL developed selective activity very early in training, and many reversed selectivity rapidly after reversal. In contrast, those neurons in OFC rarely exhibited selective activity during odor evaluation before the rats reached the criterion for learning, and far fewer reversed selectivity after reversal. The findings support a model in which ABL encodes the motivational significance of cues and OFC uses this information in the selection and execution of an appropriate behavioral strategy.  (+info)

Complete compensation in skilled reaching success with associated impairments in limb synergies, after dorsal column lesion in the rat. (7/16705)

Each of the dorsal columns of the rat spinal cord conveys primary sensory information, by way of the medullary dorsal column nucleus, to the ventrobasal thalamus on the contralateral side; thus the dorsal columns are an important source of neural input to the sensorimotor cortex. Damage to the dorsal columns causes impairments in synergistic proximal or whole-body movements in cats and distal limb impairments in primates, particularly in multiarticulated finger movements and tactile foviation while handling objects, but the behavioral effects of afferent fiber lesions in the dorsal columns of rodents have not been described. Female Long-Evans rats were trained to reach with a forelimb for food pellets and subsequently received lesions of the dorsomedial spinal cord at the C2 level, ipsilateral to their preferred limb. Reaching success completely recovered within a few days of dorsal column lesion. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of high-speed video recordings revealed that rotatory limb movements (aiming, pronation, supination, etc.) were irreversibly impaired. Compensation was achieved with whole-body and alternate limb movements. These results indicate the following: (1) in the absence of the dorsal columns, other sensorimotor pathways support endpoint success in reaching; (2) sensory input conveyed by the dorsal columns is important for both proximal and distal limb movements used for skilled reaching; and (3) detailed behavioral analyses in addition to endpoint measures are necessary to completely describe the effects of dorsal column lesions.  (+info)

High-linoleate and high-alpha-linolenate diets affect learning ability and natural behavior in SAMR1 mice. (8/16705)

Semipurified diets incorporating either perilla oil [high in alpha-linolenate, 18:3(n-3)] or safflower oil [high in linoleate, 18:2(n-6)] were fed to senescence-resistant SAMR1 mouse dams and their pups. Male offspring at 15 mo were examined using behavioral tests. In the open field test, locomotor activity during a 5-min period was significantly higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group. Observations of the circadian rhythm (48 h) of spontaneous motor activity indicated that the safflower oil group was more active than the perilla oil group during the first and second dark periods. The total number of responses to positive and negative stimuli was higher in the safflower oil group than in the perilla oil group in the light and dark discrimination learning test, but the correct response ratio was lower in the safflower oil group. The difference in the (n-6)/(n-3) ratios of the diets reflected the proportions of (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids, rather than those of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain total fatty acids, and in the proportions of (n-6) and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the total polyunsaturated fatty acids of the brain phospholipids. These results suggest that in SAMR1 mice, the dietary alpha-linolenate/linoleate balance affects the (n-6)/(n-3) ratio of brain phospholipids, and this may modify emotional reactivity and learning ability.  (+info)

Comparative Animal Behavior meets the need for a student friendly and comprehensive text in the rapidly expanding field of animal behavior. It achieves a good balance between recent, hot research and classic studies of animal behavior, in an organized and engaging manner. Comparative Animal Behavior surpasses other texts in its coverage of the rapidly developing area of evolutionary psychology and differs from standard texts in its organizational approach which is designed to draw students into the material in a way that no other animal behavior textbook does. Brief, rather than extensive, discussions of history are presented throughout the text to hold students interest. The amount of material integrating psychological and biological approaches surpasses the competition. Comparative Animal Behavior also responds to recent shifts in research and theoretical interests by providing current information in the areas of animal learning and cognition, parasitism, and mutualism. Maier describes his book as a
Burnett, Stephanie, Sebastian, Catherine, Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin and Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne (2011) The social brain in adolescence: Evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioural studies ...
Abnormal versus Normal Behavior,what are the criteria for abnormal behavior.A classification scheme of normal behavior must be developed, and normative data
Year 2005 the Swedish Armed Forces Dog Instruction Centre, SAFDIC, started a breeding program of German Shepherds in Sollefte . Every year the SAFDIC is expected to deliver at least 50 dogs with the right temperament either to be trained to become a military dog or a breeding dog and there is a need for about 70 police dogs. The dogs that are bred at the kennel of the SAFDIC are raised by volunteers (also called puppy raisers) from the age of eight weeks until they do a standardised behaviour test the behavioural test, at an age of 15 to 18 month. During the time of the stay at the puppy raisers there are three available meetings for the puppy raisers with consultants (which are working for the SAFDIC) to get information from the SAFDIC. If a dog passes the behavioural test they will either be trained by the Swedish Armed Forces for 8-10 months or become a part of the breeding program. The behavioural tests are conducted at five different places; spread across Sweden, with the same test leader ...
Animal Behavior Assignment Help Online, Animal Behavior Project and homework Help Get the Scoop on Animal Behavior Before Youre Too Late Virtually all kinds of behavior performed by means of an animal might be the topic of study. Freque
Innate Behavior: Reflexes, Kineses and Taxes - Video & Lesson … Innate behaviors (article) , Animal behavior , Khan Academy Some organisms perform innate kinesis, undirected change in movement, and taxis, directed change in movement, behaviors in response to stimuli. Fixed action patterns consist of a series of actions triggered by a key stimulus. Innate … ...
This book contains a wide range of information of huge complexity on rat behavior. The book has three objectives. The first objective is to present an introduction of rat behavior. In choosing the rat as the subject species, the book has made the assumption that this species will remain, as it has in the past, the primary subject used the laboratory investigations of behavior. The second objective is to describe the organization and complexity of rat behavior. The major theme emerging from many lines of research on rat behavior is that understanding the rules of behavioral organization will be central in understanding the structural basis of behavior. The third objective is to update, as much as is possible, previous compendiums of rat behavior. Behavioral neuroscience continues to be a diverse field of research in which there remain many competing experimental methods and hypotheses. The behavioral descriptions in this book are closely tied to the laboratory methods from which they were derived, thus
This book contains a wide range of information of huge complexity on rat behavior. The book has three objectives. The first objective is to present an introduction of rat behavior. In choosing the rat as the subject species, the book has made the assumption that this species will remain, as it has in the past, the primary subject used the laboratory investigations of behavior. The second objective is to describe the organization and complexity of rat behavior. The major theme emerging from many lines of research on rat behavior is that understanding the rules of behavioral organization will be central in understanding the structural basis of behavior. The third objective is to update, as much as is possible, previous compendiums of rat behavior. Behavioral neuroscience continues to be a diverse field of research in which there remain many competing experimental methods and hypotheses. The behavioral descriptions in this book are closely tied to the laboratory methods from which they were derived, thus
animal behavior - What Is Behavior? - Simply defined, animal behavior is anything an animal does-its feeding habits, its reproductive actions, the way it rears its young, and a host of other activities. Behavior is always an organized action. It is the whole animals adjustment to changes inside its body or in its surroundings.The group activities of animals are an important aspect of animal behavior. Bees, for example, communicate with each other about food, and birds may flock during migratory flights.…
This course represents a capstone requirement and experiential learning opportunity; it teaches students the ways and means of exploring animal behaviour and understanding the intricacies of animal interactions with and within their natural environment. Conducted initially in a wildlife sanctuary in Sabah, Malaysia, and currently at two field sites in South Africa, this course exposes students to research-in-making with hands-on participation in field studies of animal behaviour and behavioural ecology. It teaches students how to build a conceptual framework for investigating animal behaviour and how to put this framework into a practice of collecting, processing, and analysing data. ...
There is a growing amount of research demonstrating that adequate quality and quantity of sleep is closely related to improved health and behavioral outcomes in children. Getting enough sleep makes children healthier and parents happier. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends behavioral treatment for insomnia in children. Behavioral methods are quite effective. According to a recent review of behavioral methods to treat insomnia (SLEEP, Vol. 29, No. 10, 2006), more than 80 percent of children … Read More. ...
The Small Animal Behavior Core (SABC) at Augusta University is a state-of-the art facility designed to serve as a time-efficient and cost-effective service for researchers in need of behavioral analyses in small animals (specifically, mice and rats). The Core provides expertise in all aspects related to the design and implementation of behavioral experiments as well as data analysis and interpretation. The core is fully equipped to accommodate a full battery of behavioral tests relevant to learning and memory, sensory gating, place/fear conditioning, motor function, nociception, and anxiety-related behaviors, etc. We ask that whenever possible, all clients acknowledge the Small Animal Behavior Core in published manuscripts ...
The Animal Behavior Center is pleased to present the 4th annual Animal Training, Behavior and Health Seminar. The October event features hands-on workshops and lectures from industry leaders on the science of Applied Behavior Analysis, training, nutrition, health and enrichment. Additionally, we will be offering tours of the facility. Zoo professionals, veterinarians and companion animal lovers alike will find benefit from this educational event. When we know better, we do better! The seminar features industry professionals and the presentation of live education animals inside the centers unique facility-a 10,000 sq. ft. former greenhouse, converted into a free-flight animal enrichment and educational center. Attendees will learn about some of the animal behavior, training and health issues that can present during the life of the animal through hands-on workshops, lectures from industry leaders and tours of the facility. Speaker bios can be found here: ...
Help a local zoo design better enrichment programs for the animals that live there. Learn how great apes think by talking to one with a 3,000-word English vocabulary. Publish research on how birds learn and perceive their environment. Conduct primate conservation research with your seminar class in Uganda. These are just a few of the experiences you can have as part of the Comparative Animal Behavior concentration at Drake University.. You will study the science behind animal behavior, looking not just at how animals behave but why they behave as they do. Topics of study include evolution, neuroscience, psychology, and much more.. Youll be able to engage in significant experiential learning with multiple species. Some of these experiences and internships are made possible through local resources including Drakes existing laboratories; the range of animal species at Des Moines Blank Park Zoo; Iowas naturally diverse farm animal and wildlife populations; and the Ape Cognition & Conservation ...
This course, which is prescribed for level 1 students and optional for level 2 students, is studied entirely online and covers topics relating to careers and employability, equality and diversity and health, safety and wellbeing. During the course you will learn about the Aberdeen Graduate Attributes, how they are relevant to you and the opportunities available to develop your skills and attributes alongside your University studies. You will also gain an understanding of equality and diversity and health, safety and wellbeing issues. Successful completion of this course will be recorded on your Enhanced Transcript as Achieved (non-completion will be recorded as Not Achieved). The course takes approximately 3 hours to complete and can be taken in one sitting, or spread across a number of weeks and it will be available to you throughout the academic year.This course, which is prescribed for level 1 students and optional for level 2 students and above, is studied entirely online and covers ...
There might be a role of the motivation in what obtain individuals attention, importance, confidence or satisfaction in an individual situation. Also, it is possible that there is a role of the motivation in what heightens Individual Behavior will, the nature of his goals, eagerness for success or fail, furthermore what is considered suitable identification for gaining achievement. As this kind of motivation is not static, it might change as some other motivation adapt to the Individual circumstance.. Many studies have been conducted on Individual behavior to learn during the past decades. There is also a growing body of experimental proposals on Individual behaviors into the UAE society. However, none of these studies specifically addressed any culturally different variables that might affect such individuals motivation or its change as an Individual becomes familiarized to the social environment. Further, most previous studies on local individual behaviors were conducted in Western higher ...
Starring Jim Wiliams and Mike Finland, Animal Behavior is the story of Tugger and Ripper. Two seemingly normal house cats. But Tugger has a plan. Hes in love with his owners girlfriend. And to get her love he can only find one solutions. World domination. And it starts at home. He ropes his kitten brother Ripper into doing away with their owner Jon by hatching traps, and pranks that may cause his demise. Once Jons gone they can live with his girlfriend and then take over the world from there. But nothing goes as planned and the world just isnt ready for two cats to run it! If youre a fan of Looney Tunes and The Muppets then Elmwood Productions Animal Behavior is right up your alley! ...
Buy, download and read Animal Behavior Desk Reference ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Edward M. Barrows. ISBN: 9781420039474. Publisher: CRC Press. Revised and updated, containing over 5,000 entries, with over 1,100 more entries than in the previous edition, Animal Behavior Desk Reference, Second Edition: A Dictionary of Behavior, Ecology, and Ev
Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Animal Behaviour and Welfare from The University of Edinburgh. Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Animal Behaviour and Welfare and wanted to share their experience. This course was very informative and interesting! I enjoyed the lectures as well as the instructors ...
Build your Life Science Libraries with books about animals behavior. Titles in the Animal Behavior Collection:* Title Author Almost Gone Steve Jenkins Amazing Dolphins Sarah Thomson Animal Dads Steve Jenkins Animals in Flight Steve Jenkins Animals on the Go Jessica Brett Big Tracks, Little Tracks Millicent E. Selsam
In June of 2017 we launched the Low Stress Handling® University as the new home of the Low Stress Handling Certification program and all of the other courses that CattleDog Publishing currently offers. Since then we have been on the constant look-out for new ways that we can make these courses available to you, our customers. Since the beginning of the Silver Certification program in 2014, we have offered 4 levels of group discounts based on the size of a given group. With the launch of the University, we are now offering individual and group discounts that are designated specifically for current college and university students and faculty. While individual current students and faculty can take part in this discount, the discount percentage increases as the size of a given group increases:In June of 2017 we launched the Low Stress Handling® University as the new home of the Low Stress Handling® Certification program and all of the other courses that CattleDog Publishing currently offers. ...
Animal Behavior Desk Reference: A Dictionary of Animal Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution. By Edward M. Burrows and published by Taylor & Francis in 2011, this is the Third Edition. This volume is located in the Cary Veterinary Medical Library under call number QL 750.3 .B37 2011.. ...
The GABAA receptor mediates fast, inhibitory signaling, and cortical expression of the α1 subunit increases during postnatal development. Certain pathological stimuli such as stressors or prenatal cocaine exposure can interfere with this process, but causal relationships between GABAA α1 deficiency and complex behavioral outcomes remain unconfirmed. We chronically reduced GABAA α1 expression selectively in the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic subregion) of mice using viral-mediated gene silencing of Gabra1. Adolescent-onset Gabra1 knockdown delayed the acquisition of a cocaine-reinforced instrumental response but spared cocaine seeking in extinction and in a cue-induced reinstatement procedure. To determine whether response acquisition deficits could be associated with impairments in action-outcome associative learning and memory, we next assessed behavioral sensitivity to instrumental contingency degradation. In this case, the predictive relationship between familiar actions and their ...
The GABAA receptor mediates fast, inhibitory signaling, and cortical expression of the α1 subunit increases during postnatal development. Certain pathological stimuli such as stressors or prenatal cocaine exposure can interfere with this process, but causal relationships between GABAA α1 deficiency and complex behavioral outcomes remain unconfirmed. We chronically reduced GABAA α1 expression selectively in the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic subregion) of mice using viral-mediated gene silencing of Gabra1. Adolescent-onset Gabra1 knockdown delayed the acquisition of a cocaine-reinforced instrumental response but spared cocaine seeking in extinction and in a cue-induced reinstatement procedure. To determine whether response acquisition deficits could be associated with impairments in action-outcome associative learning and memory, we next assessed behavioral sensitivity to instrumental contingency degradation. In this case, the predictive relationship between familiar actions and their ...
The process of diagnosing mental illness is generally finding the way in which the sufferer has deviated from what is considered to be normal behaviour. The cure is then manipulating the sufferers symptoms in such a way that they return to compliance of, perceived, normal behaviour, or at least appear to. Normal behaviour is, in…
Using detailed individual-based tracking of free-swimming stickleback shoals, we found that groups changed their behaviour considerably depending on the environment. In an open context without food or cover, groups tended to move at a moderate speed, had high alignment and were relatively cohesive. The addition of food led groups to move more slowly while becoming less cohesive and less aligned. Finally, an environment with both food and plant cover resulted in often only subsets of fish to emerge that were generally more cohesive and well aligned. However, adapting the statistical framework used in the animal personality literature [37,38] to investigate consistent behavioural differences at the level of the group, we demonstrate that groups had consistent behavioural differences that persisted not only within but also across different contexts: some groups were consistently faster, more cohesive, more aligned and/or exhibited clearer leadership structure than other groups. These differences ...
Morphological screening of mouse brains with known behavioural deficits can give great insight into the relationship between brain regions and their behaviour. Oxytocin- and CD38-deficient mice have previously been shown to have behavioural phenotypes, such as restrictions in social memory, social interactions, and maternal behaviour. CD38 is reported as an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) candidate gene and these behavioural phenotypes may be linked to ASD. To address whether these behavioural phenotypes relate to brain pathology and neuronal morphology, here we investigate the morphological changes in the CD38-deficient mice brains, with focus on the pathology and neuronal morphology of the cortex and hippocampus, using Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, and Golgi staining ...
The core validates all assays; allows for testing of pharmacological or other manipulations to study disease models; incorporates necropsy endpoints to behavioral assays as needed; and provides guidance on interpretation and analysis of data. Investigators can use the facility to look at a variety of sensory, motor, and cognitive indicators, which can signal differences in the underlying physiology of the animal model. The facility also has the ability to execute behavioral studies requested via a fee-for-service or via collaborative efforts, provide behavioral training and advise in behavioral experimental design and questions. In addition to providing behavioral assays, the core helps train graduate students and postdoctoral researchers on the implementation of sound experimental design for behavioral studies and to use specific equipment ...
The present work defends the idea that grammatical categories are not intrinsic to mergeable items, taking as a departure point Lennebergs (1967, 1975) claim that syntactic objects are definable only contextually. It is argued that there are four different strands of inquiry that are of interest when one seeks to build an evolutionarily plausible theory of labels and operation Label: (i) linguistic constraints on adjacent elements of the same type such as Repetition/Identity Avoidance ([*XX]), (ii) data that flout these constraints ([XX]), (iii) disorders that raise questions as to whether the locus of impairment is a categorial feature per se, and (iv) operation Label as a candidate for human uniqueness. After discussing categorial identity through these perspectives, this work first traces the origins and manifestations of Identity Avoidance in language and other domains of human cognition, with emphasis on attention orienting. Second, it proposes a new processing principle, the Novel ...
The American Humane Association has created a new Animal Training and Behavior Committee, enlisting the help of representatives of major national organizations and key opinion leaders in the field of animal behavior and training. The committee hopes to gather a consensus among animal trainers and behavior specialists about the most effective reward-based training methods.. In this era of TV dog training, science and common sense often go out the window, says committee member Marjie Alonso, president of the International Association of Animal Behavior Consultants. Everything we say will be provable. We can say, here are the studies to back it up.. Recent scientific research has dispelled many conventional ideas about animal behavior, and the committee hopes to spread this knowledge to the general public through projects like expanding the American Humane Animal Behavior Resources Institute Online, a valuable resource for animal professionals and pet owners.. Dogs and humans equally benefit ...
SS information coding and behavioral activity. (A) Schematic illustrations of good (upper left panel) and poor (upper right panel) SS information coding associa
This module takes an evolutionary approach to the study of animal behaviour, with the aim of stimulating a questioning approach to the observation of the natural world. We will observe spectacular, subtle or sometimes surprising behaviours to investigate how animals across a range of taxa increase their chances of survival and reproduction. We will also consider the role of the environment and genes in shaping behaviour, and investigate how social interactions affect individual behavioural decisions. Using practical studies on shore crabs and guppies, we will conduct our own research on animal behaviour, and this will be underpinned by theory which will be introduced in lectures. The module aims to enable students to learn key concepts in behavioural research, and to provide a foundation for developing their own specialist interest in the third year module Advances in Animal Behaviour (BNS-3004). By the end of the module, we would expect students to be able to:- o Explain how evolutionary ...
This module takes an evolutionary approach to the study of animal behaviour, with the aim of stimulating a questioning approach to the observation of the natural world. We will observe spectacular, subtle or sometimes surprising behaviours to investigate how animals across a range of taxa increase their chances of survival and reproduction. We will also consider the role of the environment and genes in shaping behaviour, and investigate how social interactions affect individual behavioural decisions. Using practical studies on shore crabs and guppies, we will conduct our own research on animal behaviour, and this will be underpinned by theory which will be introduced in lectures. The module aims to enable students to learn key concepts in behavioural research, and to provide a foundation for developing their own specialist interest in the third year module Advances in Animal Behaviour (BNS-3004). By the end of the module, we would expect students to be able to:- o Explain how evolutionary ...
Abstract Understanding collective action in biological processes is a central challenge, essential for achieving progress in a variety of fields ranging from the organization and evolution of neural decision-making circuits, to the coordinated communication among cells, or animals, to the dynamics of information exchange among sophisticated organisms, and the emergence of complex societies. Consequently the study of collective behavior naturally spans scales, from how neural circuits control individual behavior, to the analogous issue of determining the structure and function of the communication network among organisms that gives rise to emergent group, and population-level, behavior. Insights and paradigms from the study of collective behavior help reveal unifying principles, as well as important differences, across scales of biological organization.. We seek PhD candidates for both experimental and theoretical projects investigating collective behavior in invertebrates (e.g. ants, locusts) or ...
Given the choice, no animal would choose to live an unnatural life of captivity, regardless of the kindness of the treatment and no animal would choose a life that allows none of their natural behaviour. Certainly animals would not choose to be taken from their families to be obliged to amuse us. Circus animals spend months travelling in small, bare cages. The stress of continued confinement as well as the transportation result in long term suffering and a lack of appropriate social interaction, reduction in time spent foraging and the restricted freedom to perform natural behaviours represent stressors for captive animals. A natural environments cannot be recreated in a circuses due to the traveling, with inadequate acommodation and exercise areas and forced movement, handling by humans,, noise along with the confinement results in both short-term as well as long-term behavioural and psychological effects. ...
A new cell culture platform allows researchers to observe never-before-seen behaviors of live cancer cells under the microscope, leading to explanations of long-known cancer characteristics.
b. Behavioral Phenotyping Core - Co-Directors: Laura Ranum and Mark Thomas Overview and Significance: Necessity of Core: Over the past few years, the need for a...
TY - GEN. T1 - Probabilistic Analysis of Abnormal Behaviour Detection in Activities of Daily Living. AU - Garcia-Constantino, Matias. AU - Konios, Alexandros. AU - Ekerete, Idongesit. AU - Christopoulos, Stavros. AU - Shewell, Colin. AU - Nugent, CD. AU - Morrison, Gareth. PY - 2019/3/1. Y1 - 2019/3/1. N2 - This paper presents a probabilistic approach for the identification of abnormal behaviour in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) from sensor data collected from 30 participants. The ADLs considered are: (i) preparing and drinking tea, and (ii) preparing and drinking coffee. Abnormal behaviour identified in the context of these activities can be an indicator of a progressive health problem or the occurrence of a hazardous incident. The approach presented considers the temporal aspect of the sequences of actions that are part of each ADL and that vary between participants. The average and standard deviation for the durations of each action were calculated to define an average time and a range in ...
A review of ethical concepts related to our use of animals and their welfare. Discussion of problems in the definition of welfare and the design of welfare assessment schemes. Evaluation of the relative roles of behavioural and physiological measurements in the assessment of welfare, including the links between behavioural and physiological measures used in the assessment of stress and pain. Human-animal interactions and their effects on animal performance. Learning theory and its applications in the training of animals and the correction of behavioural problems. Preference tests and their design and interpretation. `Natural behaviour?, changes in behavior during domestication and their relationship to trainability and welfare. Temperament tests and their applications. Genetic selection for behavioural traits. Abnormal behaviours and their treatment. ...
A review of ethical concepts related to our use of animals and their welfare. Discussion of problems in the definition of welfare and the design of welfare assessment schemes. Evaluation of the relative roles of behavioural and physiological measurements in the assessment of welfare, including the links between behavioural and physiological measures used in the assessment of stress and pain. Human-animal interactions and their effects on animal performance. Learning theory and its applications in the training of animals and the correction of behavioural problems. Preference tests and their design and interpretation. `Natural behaviour?, changes in behavior during domestication and their relationship to trainability and welfare. Temperament tests and their applications. Genetic selection for behavioural traits. Abnormal behaviours and their treatment. ...
Women live longer than men almost anywhere in the world. The question is whether this is due primarily to behavioural differences and social factors, or whether biological factors also play a role. To better understand the female survival advantage, Zarulli et al. (2018) investigated the survival of men and women in seven populations under extreme conditions due to famines, epidemics and slavery. They found that even when mortality was very high, women lived longer on average than men. Most of the female advantage was due to differences among infants with baby girls being able to survive harsh conditions better than baby boys. Behavioural differences are unlikely to play a crucial role at this age and social factors may be neutral or favour male survival. Thus, the results of the biodemographic research of Zarulli et al. add another piece to the puzzle of gender differences in survival by suggesting that although the female survival advantage is influenced by socially and environmentally ...
Reviews the book, Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach (4th ed.) by John Alcock (1989). Alcock has restructured the arrangement of chapters (e.g., chapters on categories of behavior and on evolutionary history appear in different positions than previously). There are now separate chapters on parental care, sexual selection and mating behavior, and mating systems. Sets of discussion questions have been added at the end of each chapter. Throughout the book Alcock has made a more sustained effort to distinguish between proximate and ultimate questions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved) ...
Hypertension is one of the most common diagnoses in the adult population in the United States. Hypertension also has various sequelae that are preventable with adequate treatment, including medication and lifestyle modification.
TIGEMs Behavioral Core has three principal objectives. It aims to identify abnormal behaviors in animal models that may be associated with gene deletions or mutations pertaining to our human genetic diseases of interest. Upon finding such information, the Core tests whether and to which extent novel pharmacological or gene therapy techniques can be used to rescue these behavioral alterations. Last but not least, the Core organizes novel behavioural tasks and procedures to study rodent behavior in mice, rats, hamsters.. The Core combines basic knowledge of the biological processes underlying animal behavior with systematic use of the whole battery of behavioral tests available for rodents to date.. In support of its research, the Behavioral Core is equipped with more than 30 different behavioral task tools (i.e. activity cage, elevated plus-maze, hot-plate, water maze, cross-maze, grip-strength meter, passive and active avoidance apparatus) for mice, rats and hamsters, which allow it to test ...
A behavioral psychologist interested in animal behavior noticed that dogs who are never physically disciplined (e.g., with a blow from a rolled-up newspaper) never bark ...
A system and method used to assess animal behavior includes a module having sensors that collects a variety of physical and biological data from a test subject. Interpretation of the data is provided to assess the test subjects behavior, neurology, biochemistry and physiology. The module is useful in observing the effects of a drug on the test animal and providing information on the drugs signature. Another advantage is the modules portability that allows it to be used in standard laboratory cages. This portability allows the animal to be tested in its own habitat, that can reduce any erroneous data due to stressing the animal when removed to a test cage. Additionally, the modules design allows for parallel data collection and interpretation from several laboratory animals undergoing different experiments. Multi-dimensional modeling of the test subject based the systems interpretation of the data allows pattern recognition of the drug signature,
The 2018 IAABC Animal Behavior Conference on April 20, 21 and 22, 2018 in Boston, MA features eminent speakers on dog, cat, parrot and horse behavior.
Animal behavior: who will croak next?: A recent study with the predatory bat Trachops cirrhosus has shown the importance for this species of social learning abo
If you are wondering what to expect with a newborn - you arent alone. Here are twelve normal newborn behaviors that will surprise you.
Dog Training Tip of the Month from Animal Behavior College comments, Description: Weekly tips about dog training., ID: 877655, By: Feedage Forager
Animal Behavior (Monographs in Behavior and Ecology). Vol. 5:197-283. Mann, D. A.; Lobel, P. S. 1998. "Acoustic behavior of the ... "Sound production by males of a coral reef fish (Pomacentrus paritus): its significance to females." Animal Behavior. Vol. 34: ... This behavior is most common with damselfishes that produce a wide variety of sounds, a behavior shared with at least 10 ... Acoustic behavior of the clownfishes (Amphiprion spp.) Bulletin of the Faculty of Fishes Nagasaki University. Vol. 54:21-27. ...
One of the main purposes of females vocalizing is the induction of mate guarding behavior in males. Conversely, calls may also ... Rodríguez-Gironés, M. A.; Enquist, M. (2001). "The evolution of female sexuality". Animal Behaviour. 61 (4): 695-704. doi: ... The vocalizations of female elephants are also used in order to incite mate guarding behavior in the male, which manifests ... Pomerantz, S. M.; Nunez, A. A.; Bean, N. J. (1983). "Female behavior is affected by male ultrasonic vocalizations in house mice ...
Animal Behavior. 29:1146-1165; 1981. Pellis, S. M. A description of social play by the Australian magpie gymnorhina tibicen ... Notated record of studies in animal behavior carried out by Dr. Ilan Golani at the Zoology Department, Tel Aviv University. ... The system is used in many fields, including dance, physical therapy, animal behavior and early diagnosis of autism. The ... Paper submitted to the Conference on Simulation of Animal Behavior, Brighton, England, August 8-12. 1994. Teitelbaum, P.; ...
Animals have shown adaptive metacognitive behavior even with the absence of concrete reward. Metacognitive-like processes are ... Attitude importance is the strongest predictor of behavior and can predict information seeking behaviors in individuals. ... Animal Behavior and Cognition. 6 (4): 223-229. doi:10.26451/abc.06.04.01.2019. ISSN 2372-5052. Smith, J. David; Zakrzewski, ... Animal Behavior and Cognition. 6 (4): 247-253. doi:10.26451/abc.06.04.04.2019. ISSN 2372-5052. Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward ...
Animal Behaviour. 74 (2): 337-341. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.09.017. Olsson, Mats; Healey, Mo; Astheimer, Lee (August 2007). " ... "Afternoon T: Testosterone level is higher in red than yellow male polychromatic lizards". Physiology & Behavior. 91 (5): 531- ... Animal Behaviour. 77 (2): 419-424. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.10.017. OLSSON, MATS; HEALEY, MO; WAPSTRA, ERIK; SCHWARTZ, TONIA ...
An anti-ambush behavior; animals living in tall grass may leap into the air to detect potential predators. An alarm signal to ... Alcock, J. (2009). Animal Behavior. (Ninth ed.). Massachusetts: Sinauer[pages needed] Caro, T. M. (1986). "The functions of ... Since it is dangerous, the continued performance of stotting by prey animals must bring some benefit to the animal (or its ... Stankowich, Theodore; Coss, Richard (2007). "Effects of Risk Assessment, Predator Behavior, and Habitat on Escape Behavior in ...
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by activity during the night and sleeping during the day. This is a behavioral ... Barrows, Edward M. (2001). Animal behavior (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-8493-2005-7. Ruxton, Sherratt & Speed 2004 ... Cott, Hugh (1940). Adaptive Coloration in Animals. Oxford University Press. Edmunds, Malcolm (1974). Defence in Animals. ... cryptic behavior, or changeable skin patterns and colour. Animals such as the flat-tail horned lizard of North America have ...
Animal Welfare. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. 4: 307-328. Harlow, H.F. (1962). "Development of affection in ... Harlow, H.F. (1964). "Early social deprivation and later behavior in the monkey". In A.Abrams; H.H. Gurner; J.E.P. Tomal (eds ... Some researchers cite the experiments as a factor in the rise of the animal liberation movement in the United States. A Review ... Some of Harlow's final experiments explored social deprivation in the quest to create an animal model for the study of ...
Animal Behavior. Sixth Edition. 429-519 http://faculty.vassar.edu/suter/1websites/bejohns/mateselection/files/polygyny.htm, ... Breaking into the nests a highly unusual behavior, as rarely does an ambush predator actively seek its prey. In studies ... investigating the eating behaviors of this species, no difference was found in the amount of prey consumed between male and ...
... may sometimes be confused with collective animal behavior. Collective animal behavior is the study of how the ... Collective animal behavior. Princeton University Press. Krause, J. and Ruxton, G.D., 2002. Living in groups. Oxford University ... Solitary life in animals is considered to be the ancestral state of living; and group living has thus evolved independently in ... Applied animal behaviour science, 112(1-2), pp.81-93. Beekman, M. and Ratnieks, F.L.W., 2000. Long‐range foraging by the honey‐ ...
"Fellows of the ABS". Animal Behavior Society. Retrieved February 1, 2018. "Katherine Ralls CV" (PDF). Harvard-Smithsonian ... Animal Behavior Society, 1992 Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1989 "National Zoo News". 2017-09-14 ... Some of her research is on the genetic management of wild and captive animal populations. She obtained a BA in Biology from ... "Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations." In addition to her Smithsonian appointment, Ralls is a Research ...
He retired in 1994, but took over the management of the local Center for Animal Behavior from 1996 to 2000. He died on July 5, ... in 1969 became director of the Institute for Research in Animal Behavior, a collaboration between the New York Zoological ... Animal Umwelten in a Changing world: Zoosemiotic Perspectives (Tartu Semiotics Library 19). Tartu: University of Tartu Press, p ... Marler, P. (2000). "Origins of music and speech: insights from animals". In: The Origins of Music, N. Wallin, B. Merker, and S ...
Hormones and Behavior. 38 (4): 222-233. doi:10.1006/hbeh.2000.1622. PMID 11104640. S2CID 5759575. Barnard, C.J.; Sibly, R.M. ( ... 1981). "Producers and scroungers: A general model and its application to captive flocks of house sparrows". Animal Behaviour. ... Natural and Sexual Selection on the Physiological Bases of Alternative Male Behaviors in Side-Blotched Lizards". ...
... the same treatment lead to more dishonest behavior. It has been suggested that "good behavior" toward smaller clients often ... These animals have five distinct calls that they can "decide" to produce upon finding food. Whether they call or not is related ... effectively controlling the cheating behavior. Studies on cleaning mutualisms generally suggest that cheating behavior is often ... Cheating behavior in D. discoideum is well established, and many studies have attempted to elucidate the evolutionary and ...
2009). "Probing Compulsive and Impulsive Behaviors, from Animal Models to Endophenotypes: A Narrative Review". ... UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P) is a revised version of the UPPS, including 59 items. It assesses an additional ... Animal studies suggest that individuals with higher levels of impulsivity may be more prone to the escalation stage of ... The UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale is a 45-item self-report questionnaire that was designed to measure impulsivity across ...
She taught animal communication research methods in animal behavior to graduate students during her time at Cornell University ... This textbook is highly regarded in the scientific community and is revered as the standard reference of the animal behavior ... Vehrencamp and her husband co-received the Exemplar Award from the Animal Behavior Society, recognizing a "major long-term ... and her Ph.D in Animal Behavior from Cornell University in 1976. After her extensive education, she started her career in ...
Fellow of the Animal Behavior Society. Animal Behavior Society. 2013 James B. Duke Professor of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke ... Pusey's research interests lie mostly in the social structure and social evolution of the more social animal species. She ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Animal Behavior Society Officers". Animal Behavior Society. 2012. Archived from the ... Fellow, Animal Behavior Society, 2002 Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2004 Fellow, American ... and served as president of the Animal Behavior Society (2012). Dr. Strassman has a blog where she shares her beliefs on ... was elected a Fellow of the Animal Behavior Society (2002), the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2004), and ...
Animal Behavior Center: Cat Behavior: Play aggression, ASPCA, archived from the original (- Scholar search) on 2007-12-13, ... Animal Behavior Center. "Play aggression". Roger Tabor (30 April 2003). Understanding Cat Behavior. David & Charles. p. 75. ... Animal Behavior Center: Cat Behavior: Cat's play, ASPCA, archived from the original (- Scholar search) on 2007-12-29, retrieved ... Cat play behavior can be either solitary (with toys or other objects) or social (with animals and people). They can play with a ...
Nesting behavior is also present in many invertebrates. The best known example of nesting behavior in insects is that of the ... It is found in a variety of animals such as birds, fish, squirrels, mice and pigs as well as humans. Nesting behaviour is seen ... Silver, Rae (1978). "The Parental Behavior of Ring Doves: The intricately coordinated behavior of the male and female is based ... Six to eight days pre-partum, high levels of estradiol and progesterone lead to a peak in digging behavior. Both estradiol and ...
Wagner, A. R. (2014). SOP: A model of automatic memory processing in animal behavior. In Information processing in animals (pp ... allowing animals to adjust their innate behaviors to changes in their natural world. A natural animal instinct, for example, is ... Behavior. 177: 13-19. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.04.006. PMID 28408237. Breed, M.D. "Habituation". Animal Behavior Online. ... Their efforts to habituate the chimpanzees before the field researchers studied the animal's behavior was necessary in order ...
While the behavior of real animals inevitably departs from that of the optimal forager, optimal foraging theory has proved very ... Since an animal's environment is constantly changing, the ability to adjust foraging behavior is essential for maximization of ... Foraging theory is a branch of behavioral ecology that studies the foraging behavior of animals in response to the environment ... In other words, we know from optimal foraging theory that animals are not foraging randomly even if their behavior doesn't ...
Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior . London: Elsevier, 2010. Print. "eye, human." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica ... In humans, rods outnumber cones by approximately 20:1, while in nocturnal animals, such as the tawny owl, the ratio is closer ... The concentrations and ratio of rods to cones is strongly correlated with whether an animal is diurnal or nocturnal. ... Hydrodynamic reception is a form of mechanoreception used in a range of animal species. Illustration of Tactile Receptors in ...
Animal Learning and Behavior. 30 (3): 275-281. doi:10.3758/bf03192836. PMID 12391793. Dinstein I, Thomas C, Behrmann M, Heeger ... A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by ... Due to this, the observer will produce the action explicitly (in his/her behavior) with agility and finesse. This happens due ... This suggests that other areas, along with the mirror system are crucial to imitation behaviors. It has also been proposed that ...
... or tricyclic anti-depressants are used to treat anxious and depressive behavior in animals. One study tracked the effectiveness ... or tricyclic anti-depressants are used to treat anxious and depressive behavior in animals. One study tracked the effectiveness ... emphasizing that pharmacological therapy not only can positively affect behavior, but also an animal's psychological state. The ... these compulsive behaviors decreased or disappeared in 16 out of 24 dogs. Slight to moderate behavior mitigation was shown in 5 ...
Small Animal Practice. 40 (5): 983-1009. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2010.05.006. PMID 20732601. 06-093c. at Merck Manual of Diagnosis ... Journal of Veterinary Behavior. 33: 7-15. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2019.05.004. ISSN 1558-7878. Meij BP, Bergknut N (September 2010 ...
Boake, C.R.B.; Konigsberg, L (1998). "Inheritance of Male Courtship Behavior, Aggressive Success, and Body Size in Drosophila ... Schwartz, James M. (1991-12-01). "Effect of sexual experience on male mating success in Drosophila silvestris". Animal ... Boake, C.R.B. (May 2005). "Sexual Selection and Speciation in Hawaiian Drosophila". Behavior Genetics. 35 (3): 297-303. doi: ... Spieth, HT (1974). "Courtship Behavior in Drosophila". Annual Review of Entomology. 19 (1): 385-405. doi:10.1146/annurev.en. ...
Animal Behavior, 60, pp.559-567. doi: 10.1006/anbe.2000.1507. Zeh, D.W. & Smith, R.L. (1985) Paternal investment by terrestrial ... Animal Behavior, 74, pp.577-588. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.12.013. Szentirmai, I., Komdeur, J. & Székely, T. (2005). What ... Animal Behavior, 55, pp.439-449. doi: 10.1006/anbe.1997.0619. Crump, Martha L (1996). "Parental care among the Amphibia". ... Bednekoff, P. A. (2010). "Life Histories and Predation Risk". Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. Academic Press. pp. 285-286. ...
Animal behavior online: Deceit. ... When animals choose mates, traits such as signalling are ... Given that animals cannot synthesize carotenoids de novo, these must be obtained from food. The hypothesis states that animals ... They applied a "selfish gene" view of evolution to animals' threat displays to see if it would be in their genes' interests to ... In these northern Kalahari groups, the killing of a large animal indicates a man who has mastered the art of hunting and can ...
Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. pp. 446-452. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-045337-8.00030-9. ISBN 9780080453378. "Insect pests of ... A storage pest is an insect or other animal that damages or destroys stored food or other stored valuable organic matter. ...
Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive - carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores ... McKenna, R. J. (1972). "Some Effects of Anxiety Level and Food Cues on the Eating Behavior of Obese and Normal Subjects: A ... Physiologically, animals must be able to obtain both energy and nutrients from plant and animal materials to be considered ... Other animals[edit]. Mammals[edit]. This section is transcluded from Mammal#Feeding. (edit , history) ...
Elton CS (1927) Animal Ecology. Republished 2001. University of Chicago Press. *^ Allee, W. C. (1932). Animal life and social ... Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 253-269. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01460.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-16.. ... One of the earliest descriptions of a food chain was described by a medieval Afro-Arab scholar named Al-Jahiz: "All animals, in ... In a detrital web, plant and animal matter is broken down by decomposers, e.g., bacteria and fungi, and moves to detritivores ...
Explaining reciprocal altruism in animal communities[edit]. Studies in the prosocial behaviour of animals have led many ... This behavior allows searching for more cooperating peers and gives a second chance to previously non-cooperating peers. The ... Their application of game theory to the evolution of animal strategies launched an entirely new way of analysing animal ... This result may give insight into how groups of animals (and particularly human societies) have come to live in largely (or ...
... s are a family of proteins found in complexes with cadherin cell adhesion molecules of animal cells. The first two ... also make it susceptible to alterations that can lead to abnormal cell behavior and growth. Any changes in cytoskeletal ...
"Immature siblings and mother-infant relationships among free-ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago". Animal Behaviour. 44: ... Southwick, C., Beg, M., and R. Siddiqi (1965) "Rhesus Monkeys in North India." Primate Behavior: Field Studies of monkeys and ...
"Animal Cognition. 18 (1): 393-397. doi:10.1007/s10071-014-0794-4. PMID 25123853. Retrieved 5 December 2017.. ... 2012). "Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies: Importance of habitat preference and breeding behavior on genetic ... Bekoff, M. (2009). "Animal emotions, wild justice and why they matter: Grieving magpies, a pissy baboon, and empathic elephants ... and it is believed to be one of the most intelligent of all non-human animals.[2] The expansion of its nidopallium is ...
Barrows, Edward M. (2001). Animal behavior desk reference: a dictionary of animal behavior, ecology, and evolution (2 izd.). ...
"Cold Storage Behavior of Avocados". California Avocado Association Annual Report (San Diego, CA: California Avocado ... "Avocado". ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center. *↑ "AvoDerm Natural Premium Dog Food". பார்த்த நாள் 2009-01-13. ...
However, different behavior is observed in other d-block groups, especially in group 4, in which zirconium, hafnium and ... The element is known to damage cell membranes of water animals, causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the ... Actinium, which occurs only in trace amounts, continues the trend in chemical behavior for metals that form tripositive ions ... Lanthanum continues the trend started by two lighter members in general chemical behavior, while lutetium behaves more ...
Small animal imagingEdit. PET technology for small animal imaging: A miniature PE tomograph has been constructed that is small ... Carlson, Neil (January 22, 2012). Physiology of Behavior. Methods and Strategies of Research. 11th edition. Pearson. p. 151. ... animal diagnosis. Because of cost as well as the marginal utility of detecting cancer metastases in companion animals (the ... Pharmacokinetics: In pre-clinical trials, it is possible to radiolabel a new drug and inject it into animals. Such scans are ...
addictive behavior - a behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing. *addictive drug - a drug that is both rewarding and ... Research from animals has consistently shown that when a trial is repeatedly exposed to a painful stimulus, the animal's pain ... In animals, cross-sensitization has been established between the consumption of many different types of drugs of abuse - in ... Researchers believe that there are parallels that can be drawn between these animal trials and persistent pain in people. For ...
... animal behavior and other factors may trigger outbreaks among animal populations.[82] ... Other animals. Wild animals. Ebola has a high mortality rate among primates.[241] Frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted ... Blood samples were taken from 178 animal handlers during the incident.[249] Of those, six animal handlers eventually ... In Africa, wild animals including fruit bats are hunted for food and are referred to as bushmeat.[78][79] In equatorial Africa ...
Their actions are diverse and dependent upon the activity level and species of the animal. Serotonin plays a critical role in ... Plasticity of the mechanisms involved in respiratory behavior is modulated in part by the pre-Bötzinger complex. Disruption ... The pre-BötC complex operates in animals as part of a larger network that receives critical information and signaling inputs ... and ion currents that are controlled by changes in the behavior or environment of the organism. Under low levels of oxygen, the ...
Amphibians are predatory animals. They mostly eat live invertebrates and animals that do not move too quickly. These include ... The ecology & behavior of amphibians. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226893340 *↑ "American Bullfrog". Shastaherps.org. ... Fish and other animals eat most of their eggs. Male midwife toads carry their eggs on their backs. When they are ready to hatch ... Wells, Kentwood (2007), The ecology and behavior of amphibians, Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-226-89334-1. CS1 maint: ref= ...
"Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 105 (1): 98-121. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.05.002. PMC 2702783 . PMID ... Journal of Nonverbal Behavior. 28 (3): 187-209. doi:10.1023/b:jonb.0000039649.20015.0e. ISSN 0191-5886.. ... that used these approaches seem to have mistaken and interpreted mathematical artifacts as the products of human behavior. The ...
... animal matter and 62.4% plant matter, most notably the grass Echinochloa crus-galli, and nonlaying females ate 37.0% animal ... The predation-avoidance behavior of sleeping with one eye open, allowing one brain hemisphere to remain aware while the other ... eat water plants and small animals, and are social animals preferring to congregate in groups or flocks of varying sizes. This ... "Animal Diversity Web. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2017.. ...
The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... "The Predatory Behavior and Ecology of Wild Chimpanzees".. *^ Milton, Katharine (1999). "A hypothesis to explain the role of ... and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals (such as ... may have had their origins in these hypothetical Middle Paleolithic animal cults.[90] Animal worship during the Upper ...
"Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2013-08-21.. *^ a b c d e f g h Estes, R. D. (2004). The Behavior Guide ... The animal is placed in the genus Connochaetes and family Bovida] and was first described by the German zoologist Eberhard ... In some animals, the auditory bullae are highly deformed, and in others, the radius and ulna are fused.[13] ... Stewart, D. (2004). The Zebra's Stripes and Other African Animal Tales. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. p. 37. ISBN 186-8729-516 ...
Other animals[edit]. Acne can occur on cats,[198] dogs,[199] and horses.[200][201] ... which has been shown in animal studies, and the caution that "Unnecessary use of this drug should be avoided."[77][119] ...
Animal[edit]. A multitude of animal studies have been conducted to help understand hearing loss and fatigue. It is difficult to ... Behavior. 91 (2-3): 196-201. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.02.009. PMID 17399746.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ... Studies[clarification needed] have been done on a variety of animal species, including guinea pigs[13] and dolphins.,[14] rats, ... quantify levels of fatigue in animals as opposed to humans. In the experiment done by Ishii et al., subjects were asked to " ...
At the ponds, pickerel frogs are usually observed in large groups in the water.[8] Mating behavior is not much different from ... Arnold, K. (2000). Lithobates palustris Pickerel Frog (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed August 29, 2014. ...
Martin Walters & Jinny Johnson (2007). The World of Animals. Bath, Somerset: Parragon. ISBN 978-1-4054-9926-2. .. .mw-parser- ... Their physiology and role in the control of behavior". Progress in Neurobiology. 4: 211-239. doi:10.1016/0301-0082(75)90002-7. ... The geological history of barnacles can be traced back to animals such as Priscansermarinus from the Middle Cambrian (on the ... Inside the carapace, the animal lies on its stomach, with its limbs projecting downwards. Segmentation is usually indistinct, ...
Animalia. পর্ব:. Arthropoda. শ্রেণী:. Insecta. বর্গ:. Hemiptera. উপবর্গ:. Heteroptera. ...
Other animal species. See also: Tool use by animals, Structures built by animals, and Ecosystem engineer ... Approximately 50,000 years ago, the use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be ... The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans. These include primates such as ... Brief report:predictors of heavy internet use and associations with health promoting and health risk behaviors among Hong Kong ...
Several animals (but not all) are affected by alcohol similarly to humans and, once they consume it, will consume it again if ... Behavior. 81 (1): 51-58. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2003.12.017. PMID 15059684.. ... "The Alcoholics of the Animal World". Smithsonian.. *^ John C. Super, "Alcoholic Beverages" in Encyclopedia of Latin American ...
"Interspecific Evaluation of Octopus Escape Behavior" (PDF). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. Lawrence Erlbaum ... "What behavior can we expect of octopuses?". The Cephalopod Page.. *^ Lee, Henry (1875). "V: The octopus out of water". Aquarium ... World Animal Foundation. Retrieved 12 April 2017.. *^ Simon, Matt (16 January 2015). "Absurd Creature of the Week: The ... Captive animals have been found to be more susceptible to pathogens than wild ones.[106] A gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio ...
Hart BL (1988). "Biological basis of the behavior of sick animals". Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 12 (2): 123-37. doi:10.1016/S0149- ... February 2003). "Cytokine-induced sickness behavior". Brain Behav. 17 (Suppl 1): S112-8. doi:10.1016/S0889-1591(02)00077-6. ... Temporary increased sensitivity to pain also occurs as part of sickness behavior, the evolved response to infection.[2] ... endotoxins and other signals of infection also increases pain sensitivity as part of sickness behavior, the evolved response to ...
One definition suggests that learning is "the acquisition of novel behavior through experience". Corollary to this argument is ... Currently, relatively little research has been conducted on growing primate or other animal neuronal networks. Harvesting ... where an arbitrary signal to the network indicates that the simulated animal has run into a wall or is moving in a direction, ... fact that the cultured neurons lack a body and are thus severed from sensory input as well as the ability to express behavior ...
Animal Behavior Processes. 2: 285-302. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.2.4.285.. *^ Myles Hollander and Douglas A. Wolfe (1999). ... rank the animals by the time they take to complete the course, so give the first animal home rank 12, the second rank 11, and ... Kasuya, Eiiti (2001). "Mann-Whitney U test when variances are unequal". Animal Behaviour. 61: 1247-1249. doi:10.1006/anbe. ...
Neuroscience & Behavior. 81 Oncology. 16 Pharmacology & Toxicology. 50 Physics. 31 Plant & Animal Science. 43 ...
A modern and positive approach to treating animal behaviour problems, based on principles of kindness and fairness, and ...
Check out Zazzles Animal Behavior home and pets page. Shop for mugs, pillows, leashes, pet bowls, lunch boxes, & more. Start ...
Comparative Animal Behavior Want to talk to the animals?. Help a local zoo design better enrichment programs for the animals ... You will study the science behind animal behavior, looking not just at how animals behave but why they behave as they do. ... animal science, wildlife biology, entomology, ecology); specialize in animal behavior or psychology; and work in zoos and ... These are just a few of the experiences you can have as part of the Comparative Animal Behavior concentration at Drake ...
Animal Behavior Faculty. UC Animal Behavior in the News!. Student/Faculty Research Publications. B.S. in Animal Behavior ... Animal Behavior Program. Welcome to Animal Behavior. We are a collaboration between the Biology and Psychology Departments at ...
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9781605351957 Our cheapest price for Exploring Animal Behavior: Readings from American Scientist is $17.96. Free shipping on ... Exploring Animal Behavior: Readings from American Scientist. by Sherman, Paul W.; Alcock, John *ISBN13: 9781605351957. ... Mating behavior and hermaphroditism in coral reef fishes.. 72:128-136.. *William G. Eberhard. 1990.. Animal genitalia and ... Alcock has also written seven other books on animal behavior and natural history for general audiences. One of these--In a ...
Communication-intensive seminar integrating knowledge on animal behavior. Topics will include evolution, natural and sexual ... Communication-intensive seminar integrating knowledge on animal behavior. Topics will include evolution, natural and sexual ...
Animal Behavior Desk Reference, Second Edition: A Dictionary of Behavior, Ecology, and Ev ... download and read Animal Behavior Desk Reference ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile ... Animal Behavior Desk Reference. A Dictionary of Animal Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, Second Edition. by Edward M. Barrows ... Still the most complete work of its kind, Animal Behavior Desk Reference, Second Edition: A Dictionary of Behavior, Ecology, ...
Join us for the 4th annual Animal Behavior Workshop at Clearwater Marine Aquarium on February 2-3. Register before Dec. 15 for ... Animal Behavior Workshop 2018. 4th Annual Animal Behavior Workshop. Enroll today in our 4th annual Animal Behavior Workshop on ... Introducing the Junior Animal Behavior Workshop!. This year we are adding a new Junior Animal Behavior Workshop at Clearwater ... Activities: diet preparation, animal enrichment, classroom projects. *Observe multiple demonstrations with a variety of species ...
Our 375+ animal behavior graduates create recognition for Bucknell in the field and serve as a valuable network for careers and ... Our 375+ animal behavior graduates create recognition for Bucknell in the field and serve as a valuable network for careers and ... Animal Behavior. Faculty and StaffMajor and Minor RequirementsCourse OfferingsOpportunities for ResearchFacilities and ... From studying the habits of elephants inTanzania to tracking penguins in Antarctica, graduates of Bucknells animal behavior ...
The Birth of Animal Behavior and Training as a Science Part 1: Before Behavior Became a Science. 1 , Posted: October 31, 2012. ... The Birth of Animal Behavior and Training as a Science Part 2: Behavior in its Infancy. 0 , Posted: October 31, 2012. ... The Birth of Animal Behavior and Training as a Science Part 2: Behavior in its Infancy. 0 , Posted: October 31, 2012. ... equally cool area where the Treat&Train is being used is in animal behavior research and as a teaching tool for animal behavior ...
... : A Dictionary of Animal Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution ... Posted by Auburn Libraries , in Resources , Comments Off on Animal Behavior Desk Reference ...
Im taking an animal behavior class, for which Ive decided to keep an octopus to study. Ive let the tank cycle with liverock ... Im taking an animal behavior class, for which Ive decided to keep an octopus to study. Ive let the tank cycle with liverock ...
American Humane establishes animal training and behavior committee. June 27, 2010 by Tails Magazine in News with 0 Comments ... The committee hopes to gather a consensus among animal trainers and behavior specialists about the most effective reward-based ... Recent scientific research has dispelled many conventional ideas about animal behavior, and the committee hopes to spread this ... The American Humane Association has created a new Animal Training and Behavior Committee, enlisting the help of representatives ...