Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.United StatesPlay and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Schools: Educational institutions.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mice, Inbred C57BLCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Stereotypic Movement Disorder: Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immobility Response, Tonic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Housing, AnimalSocial Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.

A nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, reduces cue-induced cocaine craving in cocaine-dependent subjects. (1/1125)

We have previously shown that nicotine enhances cue-induced cocaine craving. In the present study, the effects of a nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, on cue-induced cocaine craving were investigated. Twenty-three cocaine-dependent patients, all cigarette smokers, were randomly assigned to mecamylamine (2.5 mg tablet) or placebo in a single-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study. Craving and anxiety were measured before and after cocaine cues with visual analog scales for desire to use cocaine and mood. Skin conductance, skin temperature and heart rate were recorded before and during cocaine cues. Following exposure to cocaine cues, all patients reported an increase in cocaine craving and anxiety relative to the precue measures. Cue exposure also produced an increase in skin conductance and decrease in skin temperature. The cue-induced increase in cocaine craving was reduced, while the cue-induced skin conductance and temperature responses were unaffected, by mecamylamine. These findings show that cue-induced cocaine craving is attenuated by mecamylamine. Further study on the use of mecamylamine in relapse prevention programs are suggested.  (+info)

Effects of olfactory stimuli on urge reduction in smokers. (2/1125)

This study examined the possibility that exposure to olfactory stimuli can reduce self-reported urge to smoke. After an initial assessment of self-reported urge, nicotine-deprived smokers evaluated the pleasantness of a series of 8 odors. Facial expressions during odor presentations were coded with P. Ekman and W. V. Friesen's (1978a) Facial Action Coding System. After odor administration, participants were exposed to smoking cues. Next, participants were administered their most pleasant, least pleasant, or a control odor (water) and reported their urge to smoke. Results indicated that sniffing either a pleasant or unpleasant odor reduced reported urge to smoke relative to the control odor. Reported pleasantness of the odors did not differentially affect urge reduction. Odors eliciting negative-affect-related expressions, however, were less effective than odors that did not elicit negative-affect-related expressions in reducing reported urge. Results of this preliminary investigation provide support for the consideration of odor stimuli as an approach to craving reduction.  (+info)

Comparing single and cumulative dosing procedures in human triazolam discriminators. (3/1125)

This study evaluated a cumulative dosing procedure for drug discrimination with human participants. Four participants learned to discriminate triazolam (0.35 mg/70 kg) from placebo. A crossover design was used to compare the results under a single dosing procedure with results obtained under a cumulative dosing procedure. Under the single dosing procedure, a dose of triazolam (0, 0.05, 0.15, or 0.35 mg/70 kg) or secobarbital (0, 25, 75, or 175 mg/70 kg) was administered 45 min before assessment. Determining each dose-effect curve thus required four sessions. Under the cumulative dosing procedure, four doses of triazolam (0, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.20 mg/70 kg) or secobarbital (0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/70 kg) were administered approximately 55 min apart, producing a complete dose-effect curve in one four-trial session. Regardless of procedure, triazolam and secobarbital produced discriminative stimulus and self-reported effects similar to previous single dosing studies in humans. Shifts to the right in cumulative dose-effect curves compared to single dose-effect curves occurred on several self-report measures. When qualitative stimulus functions rather than quantitative functions are of interest, application of cumulative dosing may increase efficiency in human drug discrimination.  (+info)

A three-pathway psychobiological model of craving for alcohol. (4/1125)

In this article, by reviewing the psychological, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and psychopharmacological literature on craving for alcohol, it is argued that converging evidence from several disciplines suggests a three-pathway psychobiological model of craving. Essential to this model is the appreciation of the role of individual differences in affect regulation strategies or personality styles, conditionability, sensitivity to alcohol's effects, and related dysregulations in distinct neural circuitries or neurotransmitter systems. These factors are of crucial importance to a proper understanding of the nature of craving, its underlying mechanisms and different manifestations. As a first pathway, it is suggested that reward craving or desire for the rewarding, stimulating and/or enhancing effects of alcohol might result from either dopaminergic/opioidergic dysregulation or a personality style characterized by reward seeking or a combination of both. As a second pathway, it is suggested that relief craving or desire for the reduction of tension or arousal might result from either gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic/glutamatergic dysregulation or a personality style characterized by stress reactivity or a combination of both. Obsessive craving, the result of the third pathway, can be defined as lack of control over intrusive thoughts about drinking resulting in impaired functioning. This type of craving might result either from a serotonin deficiency or a personality style characterized by low constraint or disinhibition or a combination of both. The putative implications of this three-pathway model for the assessment of alcohol craving, diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism, and future research on craving, are discussed.  (+info)

Craving for alcohol: findings from the clinic and the laboratory. (5/1125)

This paper presents a review of the current status of empirical research in the area of alcohol craving. After an introduction on the origins of the construct of craving, we first present clinical studies that have examined craving as a hallmark symptom of alcohol dependence and demonstrated its sensitivity as an outcome measure in assessing change in pharmacotherapy trials of alcohol dependence. There is also discussion regarding new multifactorial self-report instruments of alcohol craving with good reliability and predictive validity, that may be sensitive to detecting alcohol craving and assessing change in craving as it relates to relapse during treatment. Next, we examine the experimental paradigms that have been used to induce alcohol craving in the laboratory. Further, the methodological issues affecting laboratory-based paradigms are presented, while also elucidating the potential use of effective laboratory-based craving induction paradigms, both in clinical studies as well as in laboratory studies that examine the brain mechanisms associated with the concept of craving. Finally, directions for future research on craving in the laboratory and the clinic are presented in the context of developing more effective treatments for different phases of recovery from alcohol dependence.  (+info)

Long-term alcohol self-administration with repeated alcohol deprivation phases: an animal model of alcoholism? (6/1125)

In order to study the neurobiological and molecular mechanisms of alcohol dependence and addiction, appropriate animal models are warranted. Although animal models cannot incorporate all aspects and criteria of an addictive behaviour to alcohol seen in human alcoholics, they can at least reflect some of the criteria given in the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Association (1994). Novel aspects of addictive behaviour to alcohol, craving and relapse might be uncovered by animal models of long-term, free-choice, alcohol self-administration followed by alcohol deprivation phases. After several months of voluntary alcohol consumption, the drug-taking behaviour following a deprivation (withdrawal) phase is characterized by increased alcohol intake and preference (alcohol deprivation effect) and changes in alcohol intake patterns where animals consume large amounts of highly concentrated alcohol solutions even at inappropriate times (e.g. during the inactive light phase when drinking activity is minimal). Altogether, alcohol drinking following alcohol deprivation seems to become uncontrolled and inelastic, reflecting an incentive demand for the drug in such a model. Furthermore, the alcohol deprivation effect outlasts very long abstinence phases, which indicates the persistence of a drug memory for alcohol.  (+info)

The role of serotonin in craving: from basic research to human studies. (7/1125)

Increasing evidence suggests that craving may play a central role in the mechanisms of addiction. The experience of craving is largely characterized by obsessional thoughts about drugs, triggering compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviour. In the present article the possible involvement of brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the mechanisms of craving and relapse is discussed by integrating the results of basic research with those obtained in human studies. Based on studies suggesting that the brain serotonergic system plays a central role in the regulation of impulse-control mechanisms, it is proposed that 5-HT deficiency may contribute to the loss of control over drug-taking, which is a crucial factor for the maintenance of addictive behaviour.  (+info)

Craving and relapse measurement in alcoholism. (8/1125)

This paper attempts to summarize the measurement of craving with four different craving instruments and to relate this to definitions and measurement of relapse. The definitions of relapse may vary between studies and researchers, but are usually well defined. Five commonly used methods to measure relapse are: (1) quantity/frequency of drinking; (2) cumulative duration of abstinence (CDA); (3) post-withdrawal abstinent period; (4) stable recovery period; (5) the time line follow-back method. The definition of craving is much less clear and is mostly described as an emotional-motivational state or as obsessive-compulsive behaviour. Four self-rating instruments are briefly discussed and compared: the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale, OCDS, the Lubeck Craving Scale, LCRR, the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire, ACQ-Now-SF-R, and ordinal scales (e.g. visual analogue, Likert, or verbal descriptive scales). These instruments measure different aspects or dimensions of craving over different periods. The different dimensions measured suggest that there is still a need to conceptualize a standard interpretation of the word craving. There is a need also to measure an emotional-motivational dimension, a cognitive-behavioural dimension, expectancies, and effects on positive and negative reinforcement with different instruments or with one multidimensional instrument. It is suggested that different patients are expected to have different craving profiles.  (+info)

Internet addiction disorder, more commonly called problematic Internet use (PIU), refers to excessive Internet use that interferes with daily life. Addiction is defined by Webster Dictionary as a "compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance characterized by tolerance and by well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal; broadly: persistent compulsive use of a substance known by the user to be harmful". Problematic Internet use is also called compulsive Internet use (CIU), Internet overuse, problematic computer use, or pathological computer use (PCU), problematic Internet use (PIU), or Internet addiction disorder (IAD)). Another commonly associated pathology is video game addiction, or Internet gaming disorder (IGD). IAD was originally proposed as a disorder in a satirical hoax by Ivan Goldberg, M.D., in 1995, although some later researchers have taken his essay seriously. He used this term because it was a suitable fit to his parody. This idea he conjured was to demonstrate ...
Paralleling the rapid growth in internet access is a rise in internet addiction, especially among adolescents, gaining increased attention from the popular media, government authorities, and researchers [1]. Internet addiction is characterized by a maladaptive pattern of internet use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress [2].. Internet addiction may interfere with peoples daily lives, and had short and long-term effects on their social, psychological and physical well-being. According to previous studies, internet addiction was associated with obsessive-compulsive and depressive disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, hostility/ aggressive behaviors, impaired executive control ability, and multiple structural changes in the brain [3-6].. However, there is currently no standardized definition or diagnosis criteria for internet addiction. Based on empirical diagnostic interviews and epidemiological studies, Young and Ko et al. [2, 4, 6] proposed their diagnostic ...
Internet addiction represents an emerging global health issue. Increasing efforts have been made to characterize risk factors for the development of Internet addiction and consequences of excessive Internet use. During the last years, classic research approaches from psychology considering personality variables as vulnerability factor, especially in conjunction with neuroscience approaches such as brain imaging, have led to coherent theoretical conceptualizations of Internet addiction. Although such conceptualizations can be valuable aid, the research field is currently lacking a comprehensive framework for determining brain-based and neurochemical markers of Internet addiction. The present work aims at providing a framework on the molecular level as a basis for future research on the neural and behavioral level, in order to facilitate a comprehensive neurobiological model of Internet addiction and its clinical symptomatology. To help establish such a molecular framework for the study of Internet
Internet addiction has various symptoms including obsessing on the internet, social isolation, online gambling problems, compulsive shopping addictions and more.
Internet sex addiction, also known as cybersex addiction, has been proposed as a sexual addiction characterized by virtual Internet sexual activity that causes serious negative consequences to ones physical, mental, social, and/or financial well-being. It may also be considered a subset of the theorized Internet addiction disorder. Internet sex addiction manifests various behaviours: reading erotic stories; viewing, downloading or trading online pornography; online activity in adult fantasy chat rooms; cybersex relationships; masturbation while engaged in online activity that contributes to ones sexual arousal; the search for offline sexual partners and information about sexual activity. Cybersex addiction is a form of sexual addiction and Internet addiction disorder. As a form of a compulsive behavior, it can be identified by three criteria: the failure of making a decision about engagement in the behavior, obsession with the behavior, and the inability to stop the behavior despite negative ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of relationship with parents, emotion regulation, and callous-unemotional traits with Internet addiction in a community sample of adolescents. Self-report measures of relationship with parents (both mothers and fathers), emotion regulation (in its two dimensions: cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), callous- unemotional traits (in its three dimensions: callousness, uncaring, and unemotional), and Internet addiction were completed by 743 adolescents aged 10 to 21 years. Results showed that a low perceived maternal availability, high cognitive reappraisal, and high callousness appeared to be predictors of Internet addiction. The implications of these findings are then discussed.
The Internet offers a vast array of resources for fun, education, and business and acts as a new way to form lasting social connections. Combined with...
Researchers in Canada are saying that internet addiction may be a red flag or other mental health disorders such as anxiety, stress, depression and others. Patrick Jones (@Patrick_E_Jones) explains.
Researchers in Canada are saying that internet addiction may be a red flag or other mental health disorders such as anxiety, stress, depression and others. Patrick Jones (@Patrick_E_Jones) explains.
What is Food Addiction?. Food addiction is, quite simply, being addicted to junk food in the same way as drug addicts are addicted to drugs.. It involves the same areas in the brain, the same neurotransmitters and many of the symptoms are identical (2).. Food addiction is a relatively new (and controversial) term and there are no good statistics available on how common it is.. This is very similar to several other eating disorders, including binge eating disorder, compulsive overeating and having an "unhealthy" relationship with food.. How This Works. Processed junk foods have a powerful effect on the "reward" centers in the brain, involving brain neurotransmitters like dopamine (3).. The foods that seem to be the most problematic include typical "junk foods," as well as foods that contain either sugar or wheat, or both.. Food addiction is not about a lack of willpower or anything like that, it is caused by the intense dopamine signal "hijacking" the biochemistry of the brain (4).. There are ...
Internet addiction, just like other addictions, doesnt have a clear cause. But several factors can play a role. Well go over everything you need to know about this relatively new behavioral addiction.
The aim of the section is to offer a strong international and well-recognized venue for scientific and clinical publications in the field of addictive disorders in order to meet the needs and opportunities of the 21st century.. Coverage broadly includes basic science (e.g. genetic, kinetic, neurobiological research), clinical research (e.g. pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, other neurobiological treatments, assessment, diagnostic issues), epidemiology, prevention-related topics, transnational studies, and social, law, policy, and health systems related to addictive disorders. Papers on substance use (alcohol, nicotine, opiate, cocaine, amphetamine, benzodiazepines, etc.) related addictions are welcome. The section furthermore encourages submission of papers related to challenges such as behavioral addictions (e.g. disorders related to compulsive use of the Internet, Internet gaming disorders, gambling, cybersex, "food addiction"), dual diagnosis, and treatment delivered through Internet- and ...
Addictive Behaviors in Women 5 Addictive Behaviors in Women, Drug Abuse Treatment, Alcohol Abuse Treatment, Liver Pathology and Alcohol, Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention, 1990
Internet addiction is not a figment of the imagination, according to a study published in the Journal of Addiction Medicine. Interestingly, the study also found that the link occurs more frequently in women.
Given that addictive behaviors may develop at a young age, treatment is recommended at an equally young age. Learn more about addictive behaviors.
It is almost impossible for todays teens to do anything without depending on the Internet. However, as a parent, you should limit your childs usage so that he doesnt get addicted to it.
Sixteen year old Deng Senshan was tragically beaten to death by three of his instructors in an internet addiction camp in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. Reportedly it was for not being able to run fast enough. An article in the Wall Street Journal also says that, Chinas netizens ...
European Addiction Research is a unique international scientific journal for the rapid publication of innovative research covering all aspects of addiction and related disorders. Representing an inter
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A Curriculum provided by SuperHealth SuperHealth is a highly specialized technology that helps people move from recovery to self-discovery. You can learn more about SuperHealth and find more tools and information about Breaking Addictive Behaviors on their website. 1) Welcome. Explain title of class. Tune In - Ong Namo Guru Dev Namo 2) Do Warm-Ups
Basic Information On Treatment For Drug Addiction. With the fact that Drug Addiction is catching up fast and is as deadly as the Human Immuno Virus spread Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), it is extremely important that we look at ways of tr… With the fact that Drug Addiction is catching up fast and is as deadly as the Human Immuno Virus spread Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), it is extremely important that we look at ways of treating drug addiction. We all know it is a major issue with a cross section of people affected by drug addiction. Treatment of drug addiction is a combination of traditional, spiritual and the medical way which allows the patient to combat drug addiction. Treatments for drug addictions are always administered in facilities like clinics, hospitals, drug rehab centers etc. in the presence of trained physicians in administering addiction medicine and doctors who are specialized in treating addiction related cases. It may seem that treatment of drugs is ...
Basic Information On Treatment For Drug Addiction. With the fact that Drug Addiction is catching up fast and is as deadly as the Human Immuno Virus spread Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), it is extremely important that we look at ways of tr… With the fact that Drug Addiction is catching up fast and is as deadly as the Human Immuno Virus spread Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), it is extremely important that we look at ways of treating drug addiction. We all know it is a major issue with a cross section of people affected by drug addiction. Treatment of drug addiction is a combination of traditional, spiritual and the medical way which allows the patient to combat drug addiction. Treatments for drug addictions are always administered in facilities like clinics, hospitals, drug rehab centers etc. in the presence of trained physicians in administering addiction medicine and doctors who are specialized in treating addiction related cases. It may seem that treatment of drugs is ...
Addiction Therapy Conference Market Report will help you in knowing about the scope and market approach of the various strategies involved in the addiction treatment. It involves the distribution of the addicts as well as the latest strategic treatment therapies applied all over the world.
Addiction to the internet has taken alarming proportions. While internet addiction is not recognised as a separate disorder by the American Psychiatric Association, countries like China, South Korea and Taiwan have taken the matter seriously. It cannot be disregarded that technology has made the world intolerant with students glued to mobile phones and addiction to dangerous online games spiralling. Depression, anxiety and mental trauma have increased severely.. BEs Ayantika Halder spoke to Dr. Arghya Pal,Consultant Psychiatrist, IQ City Medical College & Narayana Multispeciality Hospital, Durgapur about internet addiction and preventive therapies.. Q. How can a person comprehend that he is threatened by online addiction?. A. According to psychiatric diagnosis, online addiction is an ill form entity. Till now, there has been no implementation of guidelines in regard to online addiction. Yet, the core reason that deciphers the disorder is excessive craving for online activity. When the person ...
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Like most psychiatric disorders, drug addiction is defined today solely on the basis of behavioral terms. For example, addiction can be defined as a loss of control over drug intake, or the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs despite adverse consequences. The devastating consequences of addiction are well known. Addiction is the leading cause of AIDS, lung cancer, and cirrhosis of the liver and costs society hundreds of billions of dollars due to loss of life and productivity. Unfortunately, todays treatments for addiction are inadequate for many addicts. Addiction is complex, and involves many types of social and psychological factors. However, it is, at its core, a biological process: the effect of a biological substance (drug of abuse) on a biological substrate (a vulnerable brain). Addiction is also highly heritable: about 50% of the risk for an addiction is genetic, and this holds true for many different addictions, including to heroin, cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. However, the ...
University of California Television provides informational, educational, and enrichment television programming to the public and draws upon the vast intellectual, scientific, and creative talents of the University of California.
University of California Television provides informational, educational, and enrichment television programming to the public and draws upon the vast intellectual, scientific, and creative talents of the University of California.
Based on an unprecedented study, the German government said Monday that more than half a million Germans are addicted to the Internet including a full five percent of mid-teen girls.
Considering I can get online whenever I hope I will never need more time, Id probably die if that happened. And Its my computer, why would I lie to
When asked what surprised him most about humanity, the Dali Lama answered "Man. Because he sacrifices his health in order to make money. Then he sacrifices his money to recuperate his health. And then he is so anxious about the future that he does not enjoy the present; the result being that he does not live in the present or the future; he lives as if he is never going to die, and then dies having never really lived.". "Promise Me You Will Always Remember: Youre Braver Than You Believe, And Stronger Than You Seem, And Smarter Than You Think." ~ Christopher Robin To Winnie-the-Pooh. Article of the Day: How to live a long life (article). Craig Ballantyne, CSCS, ...
Topics The Burden of Mental and Addictive Disorders The Value of Psychiatric Treatments and Services Provision Financing Psychiatric Services and Treatments Financing Psychiatric and Social Services for Special Populations Rationing Ethics and Perspectives Mental Health Policy and Economic Research
Addiction Conference is the worlds largest Addiction Disorder Conference, Addiction Therapy and Recovery Conference and Gathering for the Research Community, Join the Alcoholism Conference at Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Premier Christy Clark announces research centre and funding to fight overdose crisis during Union of B.C. Municipalities address. British Columbia will set up an addiction treatment research and training centre to combat the provinces overdose crisis, Premier Christy Clark announced.
Eating disorders, binge eating, bulimia and often obesity are addictive disorders similar to alcohol and drug abuse. Psychotherapy can help people with these disorders.
Blocking the processes that drive cancer cell growth is at the heart of many new anti-cancer therapies. Unfortunately, after initial success, cancer cell
What is LSD and what are the facts about LSD drug addiction? LSD drug addiction information and facts about drug addiction in general are addressed on the drug addiction site.
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
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Integrated treatment in comorbid schizophrenic psychosis and addiction disorders strengthens patients motivation to remain abstinent and their satisfaction with the treatment, and reduces their consumption behavior in the short term. This is the...
The central problem in the study of addiction is to explain why people repeatedly behave in ways they know are bad for them. For much of the previous century and until the present day, the majority of scientific and medical attempts to solve this problem were couched in terms of involuntary behavior; if people behave in ways they do not want, then this must be because the behavior is beyond their control and outside the realm of choice. An opposing tradition, which finds current support among scientists and scholars as well as members of the general public, is that so-called addictive behavior reflects an ordinary choice just like any other and that the concept of addiction is a myth. To these polarized views of addiction, the editors and chapter authors of this volume say
Drug addiction is a brain disease--thats the modern view and it is fully expressed in this up-to-date book. Among the many volumes on drugs written for lay readers, this one is unique in the breadth of its coverage and the depth of its science. The first part gives a clear scientific account of the nature of addiction, stressing neurobiology and addictive behavior and describing the highs that drugs can produce.
3 cr.) Theories of addiction including the behavioral/psychological, biological / physiological, social/cultural, and other models. Addictions found in youth/adults including drugs, sex, and eating. Study of the Health Belief Model for prevention programming ...
This group of disorders include substances or behaviors that activate the reward system in the brain. Individuals who have diagnoses in this section develop maladaptive behaviors and have difficulty regulating their activity in relation to these substances or rewarding behaviors. Substance (Drug) Use Disorders involve
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The information provided on brainphysics.com is designed to support, not replace, the relationship that exists between a patient/site visitor and his/her health professional. This information is solely for informational and educational purposes. The publication of this information does not constitute the practice of medicine, and this information does not replace the advice of your physician or other health care provider. Neither the owners or employees of brainphysics.com nor the author(s) of site content take responsibility for any possible consequences from any treatment, procedure, exercise, dietary modification, action or application of medication which results from reading this site. Always speak with your primary health care provider before engaging in any form of self treatment. Click here to read our complete Terms of Use.. ...
Obesity is more than the result of poor eating habits, it is spiritual bondage. The following teaching will encourage and empower those who are truly seeking to lose weight and be set free. He must increase, but I must decrease. John 3:30 The first twenty-one verses of the Gospel of John, chapter three record the…
Diet-to-Go takes healthy living a step further. Get everything you need to lose weight: including tips, recipes, ideas, information & much, much more.
Addictions can be dangerous, even catastrophic. Understanding the definition of addiction, how to recognize whether or not your teen is at risk and examples of the many types of addictions are all critical to proper treatment and recovery. Addiction should be taken very seriously. Survival guide included.
Addiction may seem like a new problem, especially with the increase of prescription drug abuse. In reality, substance abuse has history.
So instead of discussing the varying commonalities among drug addicts and those who maintain long term sobriety, or other irrelevant statistics, Im just going to share some experience and practical advice with you. For every one person who wants to learn how to stay sober or clean, there are equally as many answers. Drug addiction is a highly personal thing. Its something that many people share, but then again, they dont. Some addictive behaviors may be similar, but the inner workings of an addicts mind is a mystery for each and every one that exists. In order for anyone, and I mean anyone to first obtain and second maintain sobriety through whatever hard times exist, no matter what happens in life… that takes very serious dedication.. The "dedication" part of it is where so many addicts have trouble. And, conversely, this makes the argument for me that ongoing support and participation in some kind of regular meeting or group is supremely important in maintaining that dedication. ...
There are a number of signs and symptoms that are related to DXM drug addiction, symptoms are dependent on the amount of the medication that a person has taken.
There are many different types of addiction but they all have one thing in common; once you are hooked on the substance you will find it difficult, if not impossible, to give up the substance without assistance.. Stages. Being treated for any kind of addiction is something that must be done in stages. The first stage is simply admitting you have an issue. This can often seem like the most difficult part. After all, no one likes to recognize that they are fallible, but the truth is addiction can happen to almost anyone.. Once you have passed this stage you will be able to seek professional help. For most addicts this will involve a rehab clinic. This is the best place to start your treatment as they will be able to give you the necessary drugs to replace your addiction and help reduce the withdrawal symptoms.. Some clinics will offer addiction therapy whilst you are coming off the drugs, others will focus on this afterwards. It doesnt matter in which order this is done; what matters is that it ...
The disease perspective discourages many people from seeking help. Suppose you have had a "few too many," and you have done so a few too many times in recent weeks or months.. Most people, under these circumstances, will realize that a problem could be emerging. The idea that someone has to "hit bottom" before thinking about their addictive behavior is ridiculous!. 1) So you decide to cut back (why entirely give up a good thing?). But if you arent successful, you might seek outside help. Unfortunately, there is almost no help for you, unless you are willing to say you have a disease! At the early stages of addiction problems, almost everyone could honestly say they dont have a disease. If the only help available is for those with a disease most people, at early stages of problems, will pass up getting any help. Unfortunately, a percentage (some, not most) of these individuals will progress to more substantial problems. Early outside help might have prevented that progression.. 2) The disease ...
Glantz, M. D., Bharat, C., Degenhardt, L., Sampson, N. A., Scott, K. M., Lim, C. C. W., Al-Hamzawi, A., Alonso, J., Andrade, L. H., Cardoso, G., De Girolamo, G., Gureje, O., He, Y., Hinkov, H., Karam, E. G., Karam, G., Kovess-Masfety, V., Lasebikan, V., Lee, S. ... Kessler, R. C. (2020). The epidemiology of alcohol use disorders cross-nationally: Findings from the World Mental Health Surveys. Addictive Behaviors, 102, [106128]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106128 ...
Lewiss argument is actually fairly simple: The disease theory, and the science sometimes used to support it, fail to take into account the plasticity of the human brain. Of course, "the brain changes with addiction," he writes. "But the way it changes has to do with learning and development - not disease." All significant and repeated experiences change the brain; adaptability and habit are the brains secret weapons. The changes wrought by addiction are not, however, permanent, and while they are dangerous, theyre not abnormal. Through a combination of a difficult emotional history, bad luck and the ordinary operations of the brain itself, an addict is someone whose brain has been transformed, but also someone who can be pushed further along the road toward healthy development ...
Read about treatments for alcoholism, drug addictions, therapy, and medications used to control addiction. Also, get discounts on treatment medications.
Rumpf, H. J., Achab, S., Billieux, J., Bowden-Jones, H., Carragher, N., Demetrovics, Z., Higuchi, S., King, D. L., Mann, K., Potenza, M., Saunders, J. B., Abbott, M., Ambekar, A., Aricak, O. T., Assanangkornchai, S., Bahar, N., Borges, G., Brand, M., Mei-Lo Chan, E., Chung, T. & 34 others, Derevensky, J., El Kashef, A., Farrell, M., Fineberg, N., Gandin, C., Gentile, D. A., Griffiths, M. D., Goudriaan, A. E., Grall-Bronnec, M., Hao, W., Hodgins, D. C., Ip, P., Király, O., Lee, H. K., Kuss, D., Lemmens, J. S., Long, J., Lopez-Fernandez, O., Mihara, S., Petry, N. M., Pontes, H. M., Rahimi-Movaghar, A., Rehbein, F., Rehm, J., Scafato, E., Sharma, M., Spritzer, D., Stein, D. J., Tam, P., Weinstein, A., Wittchen, H. U., Wölfling, K., Zullino, D. & Poznyak, V., 1 Sep 2018, In : Journal of Behavioral Addictions. 7, 3, p. 556-561 6 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Comment/debate ...
Bart Hoebel, a Princeton professor of psychology and the Princeton Neuroscience Institute who became internationally known for his research on food addiction, died of cancer Saturday, June 11, in Princeton. He was 76.
I used mine all of the time. They were handy, entitling me to drink, smoke cigarettes, binge on food and pursue other addictive behavior.
NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - If youre someone who lies in a tanning bed too much, you may be likely to suffer from addictive behavior often seen with substance...
Addiction through the words of a childTimes RecordFor this installment in our Salvation from Addiction series, we want to share with you a letter we received from a young man who grew up with a mother who was an addict and, in turn, became an addict himself. As always, these pieces are printed …and more » To…
Although addiction is devastating to both sexes, research shows that men and women are drawn to different drugs, and the disease affects them differently.
The perfect alcohol and drug addiction recovery treatment center in Seattle, WA to help you with a successful drug rehab program.
This page describes drug addiction signs of chemical addiction. Ten ways to determine if you or your loved one may be chemically dependent.
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Drug addiction is a complex disorder that has a large spectrum of causes. Vulnerability to addiction has been shown in twin studies to have a robust genetic component. This genetic basis for addiction
For the past five years I have been battling a food addiction that I never admitted I had. Today, I finally said that words I have a food addiction to another...
... is great for controlling blood sugar, losing weight, repairing cell damage and even conquering food addictions.
God does not view addictions as diseases or genetic predisposition, which absolve the individual of responsibility. Addictions are the result of sinful choices.
Treating a Klonopin addiction revolves around detox and learning how to cope without the drug. Klonopin rehabs provide everything a user needs to resolve the underlying issues that led to their addiction. Some treatments help users get over the physical aspects of addiction, and others address the psychological ones.
Marc & friends, I finally got the time to read the post and got halfway through the comments (which are always great and as interesting as the post!) before I felt I had to add my two cents. I think the debate around "is addiction a disease or not," is a dead-ended back and forth. Maybe its neither and both and the question itself inherently leaves out other questions that are far more important. I think were at the point in addiction (has anyone defined that to everyones satisfaction yet? I think not!) research that we were years ago with cancer (not trying to add weight to addiction as disease, just using a clear and simple example). Medical science now knows that all the conditions that were once classified as cancer are anything but one single thing. The word is almost becoming obsolete in the sense that the variety of cancers is vast and the differences between them so significant that they can barely be called the same disease. Some cancers are fairly easily treated and even cured while ...
Marc & friends, I finally got the time to read the post and got halfway through the comments (which are always great and as interesting as the post!) before I felt I had to add my two cents. I think the debate around "is addiction a disease or not," is a dead-ended back and forth. Maybe its neither and both and the question itself inherently leaves out other questions that are far more important. I think were at the point in addiction (has anyone defined that to everyones satisfaction yet? I think not!) research that we were years ago with cancer (not trying to add weight to addiction as disease, just using a clear and simple example). Medical science now knows that all the conditions that were once classified as cancer are anything but one single thing. The word is almost becoming obsolete in the sense that the variety of cancers is vast and the differences between them so significant that they can barely be called the same disease. Some cancers are fairly easily treated and even cured while ...
{loadposition article-preamble} Hi Everyone, Addictions often take persistence and skill to unravel because there are usually many emotional contributors to deal with. Sometimes, however, we get a pleasant surprise and the addiction goes away cleanly...
Scientists have found that a brain protein usually associated with autism is also involved in the development of drug addiction. The researchers say that a better understanding of how the protein works could pave the way for new drug addiction treatments. Last year over 193,000 people in the UK were treated for drug addiction. Research […]. ...
Does scientific evidence support sugar addiction? If it is real, what are the implications, is it dangerous, and is it similar to drug addiction?
Addiction therapy for young adults - Talbott Recovery Campus offers young adult addiction programs to help those who need assistance at all levels of care in the crucial years of young adulthood.
Find out about addiction problems and their treatment. Search for all types of addictions and substances, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs.
I had always wondered when I was a young child how the power of addiction could ruin ones life. I have had first hand experiences now with this power we call addiction.
Theresa Albert suggests that if is walks like a sugar addiction and talks like a sugar addiction it probably is. Do you now how to kick the habit?
Addiction among the wealthy occurs very often. Addiction does not discriminate; it affects people of all socioeconomic backgrounds.
Take more salt to counter balance?? ...Find answers to the question, How Do People Overcome Sugar Addiction? from people who know at Ask Experience.
When people discuss whether or not addiction is a disease, it can get controversial. Here are the scientific facts behind the disease theory.
Are you looking for help and treatment for PCP addiction? Call Rehab Recovery now on 08000 886 686 to take your first steps on the road to a happy and independent new life.
Learn about sugar addiction - how it happens, how its bound to affect you in numerous ways, and how you can curb this sickness sweeping the nation.
Learn what signs can indicate whether you need rehab, what kind of treatment options exist for Klonopin addiction, and how to pick a program.
An addiction or dependency is the state of being abnormally dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming.
Addict: Commonly used, Rarely defined [ATTACH] I was about to respond to a post about addiction when I had to stop an think what the word really means? I thought of many different...
Addiction -- born 2004-. fact lexicon with terms going straight to the point. Facts are sorted by community importance and you can build your personalized lexicon
It has been said that America is a Xanax nation, and if that is the case, then I was its number-one citizen. Here is the story of my Xanax addiction.
I am just wondering if any other Beepers struggle with Drug addiction. I have been clean now for 3 years but I still take one day at a time, Just curious.....
My real talk of the day is… Once someone has showed you who they are. Know what group to place them in.. and leave them there until otherwise proven to be removed. For example, if a person is only good for partying, but not there when real ish is occurring in your life, they should NOT be in the same group as those who are. Think about it. ...
Hey guys, First off I just want to say if this is the wrong forum, can you please move it. Secondly, I dont really post a lot here; however, I do read
Hey, everyone. I hope all is well. I quit smoking two weeks ago. It was one of a series of actions Ive recently taken to lose weight. I always thought quitting smoking would be one of the last things ...
Find Internet Addiction Treatment Centers in San Diego, San Diego County, California, get help from San Diego Internet Addiction Rehab for Internet Addiction Treatment in San Diego.
The Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) was developed for use with Canadian populations with ongoing evaluation of the psychometric properties of reliability, validity and generalizability. Embedded within the CPGI is the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) comprised of nine items that are summed to derive a single additive problem gambling score. This technique implies that a single factor or dimension underlies the items of the instrument. However, theoretical development and previous work has suggested that the construct validity of this instrument may be based on a two factor structure of problem gambling behaviors and the consequences of those behaviors. Additionally, cut-off values derived from a summation of the 9 items are used to categorize respondents into non-gambler, non-problem gambler, at-risk gambler, moderate and severe gambler categories. If two factors better fit PGSI data then the value of these cut-off points is drawn into question. The PGSI has been primarily subjected ...
Researchers are not certain what causes video game addiction; however, some experts believe that elevated dopamine levels contribute heavily to the problem. The neurotransmitter dopamine works in the brains reward center. It is released during activities most people find pleasurable, including eating and consuming certain drugs. Therapists view all addictions as functioning essentially the same way. In the case of non-substance addictions, such as those to sex, gambling and gaming, the behavior takes the place of a substance. The action of playing generates a feeling of pleasure, which ensures the addict will repeat the action as often as possible. In a report published by CBC News in April 2013, a gaming addiction expert said those with certain personality disorders or disabilities are at greater risk than others. She noted that people who suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Aspergers are particularly susceptible to gaming addiction. Those who study video game addiction ...
RGS9-2, a key signaling protein in the brain known to play a critical role in the development of addiction-related behaviors, acts as a positive modulator of oxycodone reward in both pain-free and chronic pain states, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published online January 17 in the journal Neuropsychopharmacology. The mechanisms of oxycodone action uncovered through this study will help scientists and physicians develop strategies and tools to dissociate the analgesic (pain relief) actions of opioids from the addiction-related effects. Using mouse models of acute and chronic pain, Mount Sinai researchers found that RGS9-2, the intracellular protein that controls the function of opioid receptors in the brain reward center, promotes addiction to oxycodone in pain-free, acute, and chronic pain states. Mice that lacked the gene responsible for encoding RGS9-2 (RGS9KO mice) showed less propensity to develop addiction-related behaviors. Furthermore, ...
Addictive Behaviors. 30 (5): 1019-23. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.09.003. PMID 15893098. "When a Friend or Family Member is ... A 1994 study among South London prostitutes showed links between sexual behavior, severity of dependence, and use of heroin, ... Behavioral therapies help patients change their initial attitudes and behaviors that are related to drug use. For example, ...
Addictive Behaviors. 15 (3): 247-255. doi:10.1016/0306-4603(90)90067-8. PMID 2378284.. ... Groups of popular children showed a propensity to increase risky, drug-related and delinquent behavior when this behavior was ... "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 17 (2): 213-227. doi:10.1901/jaba.1984.17-213. ISSN 0021-8855. PMC 1307935. PMID 6735953. ... more sexual behavior, and externalizing behavior were greater for more susceptible teens. Of note, substance use was also ...
"Addictive Behaviors. 35 (1): 42-5. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.07.002. PMC 2763929 . PMID 19733441.. ... Worry behavior prevention requires patients to monitor the behaviors that caused them worry and are then asked to prevent ... "Behavior Therapy. 41 (1): 59-72. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2008.12.005. PMC 2827339 . PMID 20171328.. ... heighten dissonance between behaviors that are not desired and values that are not consistent with those behaviors, (3) move ...
Addictive Behaviors. 12 (3): 263-267. doi:10.1016/0306-4603(87)90037-2. PMID 3310529.. ... REST, when combined with other effective smoking cessation methods (for example: behavior modification) resulted in long-term ...
Addictive Behaviors. 35 (12): 1102-4. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.08.004. PMID 20805016.. ... Alternatively, questions that ask "how many" or "how often" implicitly imply an expectation of the behavior, and may thus ... questions may contribute to lower sensitivity on certain measures by inhibiting disclosure of less socially desirable behaviors ...
Denson, TF; Earleywine, M (2006). "Decreased depression in marijuana users". Addictive Behaviors. 31 (4): 738-42. doi:10.1016/j ... McKim, William A (2002). Drugs and Behavior: An Introduction to Behavioral Pharmacology (5 ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 400. ISBN ... Ghodse, Hamid (2010). Ghodse's Drugs and Addictive Behaviour. Cambridge University Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-139-48567-8.. ... and delinquent behavior in adolescence".[113] A report prepared for the Australian National Council on Drugs concluded cannabis ...
Rosenthal, B.; McSweeney, F. K. (1979). "Modeling influences on eating behavior". Addictive Behaviors. 4 (3): 205-214. doi: ... Awareness Although the presence and behavior of others can have a strong impact on eating behavior, many individuals are not ... Social scientists have developed different conceptual frameworks of food choice behavior. Theoretical models of behavior ... Presence and behavior of others[edit]. There is a substantial amount of research indicating that the presence of others ...
"Addictive Behaviors. 42: 36-43. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.10.030. ISSN 1873-6327. PMC 4272863 . PMID 25462652.. ... One 2001 definition from the publication Psychology of Addictive Behavior states that 5 drinks for men and 4 drinks for women ... violent behavior as well as suicide. The more often a child or adolescent binge drinks and the younger they are the more likely ... Additionally the risk-taking behavior associated with adolescence promotes binge drinking.[50] ...
G. Alan Marlatt; Katie Witkiewitz (2009). Addictive Behaviors: New Readings on Etiology, Prevention, and Treatment. American ... Dennis M. Donovan; G. Alan Marlatt (26 December 2007). Assessment of Addictive Behaviors. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-59385-640- ... Maintenance Strategies in the Treatment of Addictive Behaviors. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-59385-641-0.. ... "Journal of Addictive Diseases. 28 (2): 145-157. doi:10.1080/10550880902772464. PMC 2746426. PMID 19340677.. ...
"Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 26 (3): 609-614. doi:10.1037/a0026916. PMC 3431456. PMID 22288976.. ... During the first six months of that year, the patients were examined for suicidal behavior including suicidal ideation. The ... "Prefatory remarks on outcome of sex reassignment in 24 cases of transexualism." Archives of sexual behavior 1.2 (1971): 163-165 ... 2011). "Effect of antidepressant medication treatment on suicidal ideation and behavior in a randomized trial: An exploratory ...
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 24 (2): 209-219. doi:10.1037/a0018746. Boorstein, Michelle (6 December 2008). "Study of ...
Addictive Behaviors, 32, 1237-1251. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.08.010 *^ a b c Godley, S.H., Garner, B.R., Smith, J.E., Meyers, ...
Addictive Behavior. June 100 (4): 427-448. Sher, K. "Characteristics of Children of Alcoholics: Putative Risk Factors, ... Children of alcoholics often incorporate behaviors learned as children into their marital relationships. These behaviors lead ... Poor behavior modeling by alcoholic parents contributes to inadequate understanding of how to engage in opposite gender ... All of these can limit the quality of interactions with family, friends and can lead to harmful behavior towards self and ...
Addictive Behaviors. 65: 179-184. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.10.021. ISSN 0306-4603. PMC 5140675 . PMID 27816664. Clapp, Phillip ...
"Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior. Retrieved 2 December 2014.. *^ Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular ... Addictive drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines exert their effects primarily on the dopamine system. The addictive opiate ... It promotes the "cognitive control" of behavior: the selection and successful monitoring of behavior to facilitate attainment ... Regulated cognitive processes and behaviors. Noradrenaline system. [24][25][26][27][28][29]. Noradrenergic pathways: *Locus ...
Rivers, P. Clayton; Nathan, Peter E. (1987). Alcohol & Addictive Behavior. U of Nebraska Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780803238800. ...
"Mechanisms of transgenerational inheritance of addictive-like behaviors". Neuroscience. 264: 198-206. PMC 3872494 . PMID ... Also, multiple modifications may occur at the same time, and these modifications may work together to change the behavior of ... Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of addictive phenotypes has been noted to occur in preclinical studies.[142][143] ... it is possible to evaluate the addictive potential of current medications (119), as well as use it as a biomarker for assessing ...
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. 28: 943-951. doi:10.1037/a0036283. Cortina, L. M.; Swan, S.; Fitzgerald, L. F.; Waldo, C. ( ...
Denson, TF; Earleywine, M (2006). "Decreased depression in marijuana users". Addictive behaviors. 31 (4): 738-42. doi:10.1016/j ... It is widely accepted that the neonatal survival of many species "is largely dependent upon their suckling behavior, or ... ISBN 0-914171-51-8. McKim, William A (2002). Drugs and Behavior: An Introduction to Behavioral Pharmacology (5 ed.). Prentice ... ISBN 978-0-7637-3166-3. Ghodse, Hamid (2010). Ghodse's Drugs and Addictive Behaviour. Cambridge University Press. p. 97. ISBN ...
Addictive Behaviors. 39: 365-368. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.10.025. Griffin, Jessica A.; Umstattd, M. Renée; Usdan, Stuart L. ( ... The following behaviors are influenced by risk taking when a person is experiencing the effects of alcohol myopia. Alcohol ... Those under the influence of alcohol myopia are often unaware of the consequences of their behavior as well as its risky nature ... However, the drunk brain is unable to regulate the urges for excessive behavior. By leading the brain to overreact to present ...
Addictive behaviors. 30 (6): 1135-43. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.11.002. PMID 15925123. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ...
Addictive Behaviors. 35 (1): 42-5. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.07.002. PMC 2763929 . PMID 19733441. Lee, S.; Wu, J.; Ma, Y. L.; ... Worry behavior prevention requires patients to monitor the behaviors that caused them worry and are then asked to prevent ... heighten dissonance between behaviors that are not desired and values that are not consistent with those behaviors, (3) move ... These goals are attained by switching the person's attempt to control events to working towards changing their behavior and ...
First-year behavior outcomes". Addictive Behaviors. 27 (4): 619-632. doi:10.1016/S0306-4603(01)00197-6. PMID 12188596. Grossman ... Hawkins, J. D.; Catalano, R. F.; Arthur, M. W. (2002). "Promoting science-based prevention in communities". Addictive Behaviors ... These behaviors are considered protective factors, just as smoking, high blood pressure, and a family history of heart disease ... Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The social development model: A theory of antisocial behavior. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed ...
Urberg, K.; Shyu, S. J.; Liang, J. (1990). "Peer influence in adolescent cigarette smoking". Addictive Behaviors. 15 (3): 247- ... Before packaging, the tobacco is often combined with other additives in order to enhance the addictive potency, shift the ... The reasons given by some smokers for this activity have been categorized as addictive smoking, pleasure from smoking, tension ... Another study's results indicated that peer pressure was significantly associated with smoking behavior across all age and ...
"Motivational Interviewing for adolescent substance use: A review of the literature". Addictive Behaviors. 37 (12): 1325-1334. ... In some cases criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long term ... A number of studies using the Iowa gambling task as a measure for impulsive behavior found that drug using populations made ... Immigrants and refugees may bring the substance use and abuse patterns and behaviors of their country of origin, or adopt the ...
addictive behavior - a behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing. *addictive drug - a drug that is both rewarding and ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). ... Shettleworth, S. J. (2010). Cognition, Evolution and Behavior (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ... Similarly, reward sensitization to a particular addictive drug often results in reward cross-sensitization, which entails ...
Behavior, and Treatment". Helpguide.org. Retrieved 2013-11-29. "Addictive Behaviors, Compulsions and Habits". Umass.edu. ... These feelings, thoughts, and behaviors can include normal sexual behaviors or behaviors that are considered illegal and/or ... Obsessive-compulsive disorder Addictive behavior#Compulsion vs addiction Compulsive lying "Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD ... This type of compulsive behavior is characterized by feelings, thoughts, and behaviors about anything related to sex. These ...
Addictive Behaviors is an international peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality human research on addictive behaviors and ... Addictive Behaviors Reports, an open-access journal for research in addictive behaviors.. Eating Behaviors An International ... Addictive Behaviors is an international peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality human research on addictive behaviors and ... Addictive Behaviors is an international peer-reviewed journal publishing high quality human research on addictive behaviors and ...
Here you can read summaries of all the latest updates from Addictive Behaviors ... PMID: 30080480 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Addictive Behaviors). Source: Addictive Behaviors - August 7, 2018 Category: ... PMID: 29914718 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Addictive Behaviors). Source: Addictive Behaviors - June 28, 2018 Category: ... PMID: 29940390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Addictive Behaviors). Source: Addictive Behaviors - June 19, 2018 ...
An addictive behavior is a behavior, or a stimulus related to a behavior (e.g., sex or food), that is both rewarding and ... Addiction ANNK1 and addictive behaviors Behavioral addiction Habituation Nestler EJ (December 2013). "Cellular basis of memory ... Addictions involving addictive behaviors are normally referred to as behavioral addictions. Compulsions and addictions are ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ...
... social policy or treatment of addictive behaviors. The journal has published some high impact papers in addictive behaviors, ... Addictive Behaviors is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published 12 times per year by Elsevier. It was established in 1975 ... doi:10.1016/0306-4603(78)90024-2. Harvey A. Skinner (1982). "The Drug Abuse Screening Test". Addictive Behaviors. 7 (4): 363- ... "Addictive Behaviors". 2016 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2017. Karl O. Fagerström ( ...
... induces long-term changes to the reward circuitry that are responsible for addictive behaviors. Alban de Kerchove dExaerde ... A gene required for addictive behavior Researchers show that mice lacking the Maged1 gene are unable to acquire cocaine ... Evidence that addictive behaviors have strong links with ancient retroviral infection University of Oxford ... an increased effect of the drug following repeated doses or addictive behavior like seeking up places where the animal expects ...
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors is a peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Psychological Association that publishes ... "Psychology of Addictive Behaviors". American Psychological Association. August 8, 2017. Retrieved 2012-07-20. "Journals Ranked ... original articles related to the psychological aspects of addictive behaviors 8 times a year. The current editor-in-chief is ... and other excessive behaviors (e.g., gambling, sexual addiction) The journal is abstracted and indexed by MEDLINE/PubMed and ...
9781593852788 Our cheapest price for Introduction to Addictive Behaviors, Third Edition is $0.01. Free shipping on all orders ... Introduction to Addictive Behaviors, Third Edition. by Thombs, Dennis L. *ISBN13: 9781593852788. ... The focus of his scholarship is addictive behavior, with special interests in the epistemology of addiction and in alcohol and ... CHAPTER 1 The Multiple Conceptions of Addictive Behavior and Professional Practice Today. 1. (17). ...
Addictive Behaviors Reports Note from the Editor-in-Chief... ... Editor-in-Chief, Addictive Behaviors Reports. Note from the ... would like to thank both the editorial board members and all our reviewers for their efforts in supporting Addictive Behaviors ... The first virtual special issue, on Free Will and Addictive Behaviours, is edited by Dr Antony Moss, Professor Roy Baumeister ... The second virtual special, on Social identity and Addictive Behaviours, is edited by Professor Ian Albery, Dr Daniel Frings, ...
... of the Eliminating Your Addictive Behavior by Sheldon Birnbaum at Barnes & Noble. FREE Shipping on $25.0 or more! ... Eliminating Your Addictive Behavior is a new guide that takes a comprehensive look at addictive behavior, its roots, and how to ... You can beat your addictive behavior.. Doesnt eliminating your addictive behavior sound good?. Obviously, you want to beat ... Addictive behavior is a symptom of an illness. Thats right, youre sick. I know thats probably NOT what you wanted to hear, ...
A new study from the Yale School of Public Health finds that such dependence is also associated with other addictive behaviors. ... A new study from the Yale School of Public Health finds that such dependence is also associated with other addictive behaviors. ... Study reveals link between tanning dependence and other addictive behaviors. *Download PDF Copy ... Or it may be that we will eventually find out that these individuals have more of an addictive or risk-taking personality type ...
... December 19, 2011 • By A GoodTherapy.org News Summary .fb-share- ... of them exhibiting addictive consumption behaviors. Puhl said, "A history of bingeing on fat, then, can lead to long-term ... As these same foods increase bingeing behavior in humans too! I have seen it all too often. Once you get started on those fried ... "Importantly, the present study provides compelling evidence that fat is not addictive, but the way in which fat is consumed can ...
"Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.. Hebebrand J1, Albayrak Ö1, ... We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. ... Addictive disorders; Eating addiction; Fat addiction; Food addiction; Motivation; Obesity; Reward system; Salt addiction; Sugar ... "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that ...
Scientists from NIDAs Intramural Research Program show that neural mechanisms that control appetitive aggressive behavior are ... Appetitive aggressive behavior in humans refers to positive feelings being associated with committing violent behavior. In ... www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/science-highlight/similarities-between-aggressive-addictive-behaviors. May 5, 2020 ... www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/science-highlight/similarities-between-aggressive-addictive-behaviors ...
The Addictive Behaviors Counseling Program is an Approved Institution of Higher Education Provider for the Addictive Disorders ... Addictive Behaviors Counseling and Prevention is a two-degree program: the Bachelor of Science degree and the Associate of Arts ... Addictive Behaviors BS majors may minor in any discipline. However, they are encouraged to select minors in Criminal Justice, ... The goal of the Addictive Behaviors Counseling Program is to provide comprehensive, academic opportunities for students in a ...
... into how acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions are being successfully used to treat a variety of addictive behaviors, ... Each article illuminates the mindfulness and acceptance-based treatments that work best for particular addictive behaviors, ... and context are vital resources in reducing the seemingly intractable suffering caused by addictive behavior.". -Zindel Segal, ... and students of addictive behaviors and their treatment. This very substantive book is refreshingly diverse in both theoretical ...
Dowling, S. (1995). The Psychology and Treatment of Addictive Behavior. The Psychology and Treatment of Addictive Behavior, 1- ... Dowling, S. (1995). The Psychology and Treatment of Addictive Behavior. 1-225. International Universities Press, Inc. Madison ... The Psychology and Treatment of Addictive Behavior , 1-225. . International Universities Press, Inc. Madison Connecticut . ... Compulsiveness and Conflict: The Distinction Between Description and Explanation in the Treatment of Addictive Behavior. ...
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On the one hand, the work group deals with aetiopathological processes and risk analyses within the framework of basic research in order to understand resilient or vulnerable persons with regard to …
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ...
Oleson is the Chair of the Department of Psychology and the Division of Behavior Medicine at the California Graduate Institute ...
Home » News & Events » News Releases » Study shows impact of social interactions on addictive behavior ... Study Shows Impact of Social Interactions on Addictive Behavior. To read NIDA Director Dr. Nora Volkows blog, go to: New NIDA ... www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2018/10/study-shows-impact-social-interactions-addictive-behavior. October 15, 2018 ... www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/news-releases/2018/10/study-shows-impact-social-interactions-addictive-behavior ...
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Traditional Psychotherapy and Addictive Behaviors scheduled on April 23-24, 2020 in April 2020 in Tokyo is for the researchers ... Traditional Psychotherapy and Addictive Behaviors. ICTPAB 2020: 14. International Conference on Traditional Psychotherapy and ... ICTPAB 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Traditional Psychotherapy and Addictive Behaviors. A number of ... Addictive behaviors. Development and applications of psychotherapy. Psychological dysfunction. Services of mental health. ...
  • The Mindfulness Workbook for Addiction offers readers an effective program for working through their addiction and grief with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). (johnreedbooks.com.au)
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is becoming increasingly widespread and research continues to suggest that it is an effective treatment for a broad range of problems. (psychcentral.com)
  • What Is Dialectical Behavior Therapy? (psychcentral.com)
  • The concept of EA is explicitly described and targeted in more recent CBT modalities including acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), and behavioral activation (BA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The implications of this study are that split-second dopamine changes are sufficient to influence drug-taking behavior," Phillips told UPI. (hscareers.com)
  • Miller and Rollnick later elaborated on these fundamental concepts and approaches in 1991, in a more detailed description of clinical procedures.Motivational Interviewing is a method that works on facilitating and engaging intrinsic motivation within the client in order to change behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motivational interviewing, which is designed to increase patient motivation to change behavior and enter treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • He provided the rats with one of four dietary options in order to see if the rats that were given only limited access to fatty foods would develop more addiction-like behaviors than those who had free access to foods high in sugar and fat. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Researchers believe that individuals with a record of binge eating may also present additional addiction-like behaviors. (psychcentral.com)
  • The problem of addictive behaviors and unhealthy lifestyles spans all cultures and is becoming increasingly acute as globalization spreads. (mrsikhnet.com)
  • One of the most effective steps that others can help with at this stage is to encourage them to become more mindful of their decision making and more conscious of the multiple benefits of changing an unhealthy behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • People in this stage progress by being taught techniques for keeping up their commitments such as substituting activities related to the unhealthy behavior with positive ones, rewarding themselves for taking steps toward changing, and avoiding people and situations that tempt them to behave in unhealthy ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important for people in this stage to be aware of situations that may tempt them to slip back into doing the unhealthy behavior-particularly stressful situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The socially reactive path includes behavioral willingness, descriptive normative perceptions, and favorable images of individuals who engage in health-risk behavior (prototype favorability) as important predictors of health behaviors. (medworm.com)
  • however, in addiction, the desire and motivation to use a substance or engage in a behavior arises because it is rewarding (i.e., the compulsions that occur in addiction develop through positive reinforcement). (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a mediation-analytical approach with three age- and gender-matched groups - overweight/obese adults with ( n = 42) and without ( n = 104) BED, and normal-weight control participants ( n = 73) - we tested the hypothesis that adults with BED would engage in more addictive behaviors and have higher scores on a personality-risk index than the two control groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Contrary to expectation, BED participants did not engage in more addictive behaviors or have higher personality-risk scores than their weight-matched counterparts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Learn how certain medications used to treat Parkinson's disease can cause patients to engage in addictive behaviors, such as gambling and engaging in risky sexual activity. (thedoctorstv.com)
  • Even after availing themselves of HIV-CTS, seronegative clients may continue to engage in behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • For a behavior to be free, the individual must have the relevant physical and psychological abilities to partake in it, and must know they can engage in it at the moment, or in the near future. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not always clear, to an observer, or the individuals themselves, if they hold a particular freedom to engage in a given behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Emotion-motivated reasoning has been shown to influence addictive behaviours via selecting outcomes that minimize negative affective states while maximizing positive affective states. (wikipedia.org)
  • That's probably because you can imagine what life would be like if you weren't constantly fighting cravings and repeating behaviors that leave you feeling hollow and sad. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Addictive Behaviors Reports , an open-access journal for research in addictive behaviors. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, research specialists were invited to provide concise reviews of addictive actions and behaviors as they particularly affect women. (docplayer.net)
  • In my research, I've found four main "camps" that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. (psychologytoday.com)
  • New NIDA-supported research shows that while a low dose of the medication activates receptors associated with lowered drug-seeking behavior, a higher dose appears to activate receptors associated with increased drug-seeking behavior. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Research shows that five basic factors promote positive social development: opportunities for developmentally appropriate involvement, skills, recognition for effort, improvement and achievement, strong social bonds, and clear, consistent standards for behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research from the past two decades has established that addictive behaviour is strongly correlated to the attentional bias for substance-related cues, in how the latter characterizes the former. (wikipedia.org)
  • The social norms approach has shown signs of countering misperceptions, however research on changes in behavior resulting from changed perceptions varies between mixed to conclusively nonexistent. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the anti-addictive properties displayed might be due to CBD's protective effect on stress and neurotoxicity, the review also mentions the need for more research. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is substantial evidence that traumatic experiences in childhood increase the likelihood of mood pathology and addictive behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood. (frontiersin.org)
  • The current study was conducted to study the effect of physical or psychological prenatal stress on addictive and anxiety-like behavior of male and female offspring during their adolescence period (postnatal day (PND) 40). (tu-dortmund.de)
  • Binge drinking during adolescence is associated with traffic accidents and other types of accidents, violent behavior as well as suicide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adolescence is the time when a person is most susceptible to peer pressure because peers become an important influence on behavior during adolescence, and peer pressure has been called a hallmark of adolescent experience. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depression in childhood and adolescence is similar to adult major depressive disorder, although young sufferers may exhibit increased irritability or aggressive and self-destructive behavior, rather than the all-encompassing sadness associated with adult forms of depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we report on an approach to prevention that attempts to counteract peer influence by interrupting the process of deviant peer clustering, in which socially marginalized youth self-aggregate and reinforce delinquent behavior, including substance use. (medworm.com)
  • The prevention of health and behavior problems in young people requires, at its foundation, the promotion of the factors required for positive development. (wikipedia.org)
  • These main factors are: impulsivity value on nonconformity combined with weak commitment to socially valued goals for achievement sense of social alienation and tolerance for deviance heightened stress and lack of coping skills Some advocate for the existence of an "addictive belief system" that leads people towards being more likely to develop addictions. (wikipedia.org)