Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Drug-Seeking Behavior: Activities performed to obtain licit or illicit substances.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Information Seeking Behavior: How information is gathered in personal, academic or work environments and the resources used.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.United StatesPlay and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Schools: Educational institutions.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mice, Inbred C57BLCocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Stereotypic Movement Disorder: Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immobility Response, Tonic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Housing, AnimalSocial Facilitation: Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.

Evidence for an eye-centered spherical representation of the visuomotor map. (1/2056)

During visually guided movement, visual coordinates of target location must be transformed into coordinates appropriate for movement. To investigate the representation of this visuomotor coordinate transformation, we examined changes in pointing behavior induced by a local visuomotor remapping. The visual feedback of finger position was limited to one location within the workspace, at which a discrepancy was introduced between the actual and visually perceived finger position. This remapping induced a change in pointing that extended over the entire workspace and was best captured by a spherical coordinate system centered near the eyes.  (+info)

Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia. (2/2056)

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

Behavioral and physiological effects of remifentanil and alfentanil in healthy volunteers. (3/2056)

BACKGROUND: The subjective and psychomotor effects of remifentanil have not been evaluated. Accordingly, the authors used mood inventories and psychomotor tests to characterize the effects of remifentanil in healthy, non-drug-abusing volunteers. Alfentanil was used as a comparator drug. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in which they received an infusion of saline, remifentanil, or alfentanil for 120 min. The age- and weight-adjusted infusions (determined with STANPUMP, a computer modeling software package) were given to achieve three predicted constant plasma levels for 40 min each of remifentanil (0.75, 1.5, and 3 ng/ml) and alfentanil (16, 32, and 64 ng/ml). Mood forms and psychomotor tests were completed, and miosis was assessed, during and after the infusions. In addition, analgesia was tested at each dose level using a cold-pressor test. RESULTS: Remifentanil had prototypic micro-like opioid subjective effects, impaired psychomotor performance, and produced analgesia. Alfentanil at the dose range tested had more mild effects on these measures, and the analgesia data indicated that a 40:1 potency ratio, rather than the 20:1 ratio we used, may exist between remifentanil and alfentanil. A psychomotor test administered 60 min after the remifentanil infusion was discontinued showed that the volunteers were still impaired, although they reported feeling no drug effects. CONCLUSIONS: The notion that the pharmacodynamic effects of remifentanil are extremely short-lived after the drug is no longer administered must be questioned given our findings that psychomotor effects were still apparent 1 h after the infusion was discontinued.  (+info)

Postoperative behavioral outcomes in children: effects of sedative premedication. (4/2056)

BACKGROUND: Although multiple studies document the effect of sedative premedication on preoperative anxiety in children, there is a paucity of data regarding its effect on postoperative behavioral outcomes. METHODS: After screening for recent stressful life events, children undergoing anesthesia and surgery were assigned randomly to receive either 0.5 mg/kg midazolam in 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43) or 15 mg/kg acetaminophen orally (n = 43). Using validated measures of anxiety, children were evaluated before and after administration of the intervention and during induction of anesthesia. On postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14, the behavioral recovery of the children was assessed using the Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire. RESULTS: The intervention group demonstrated significantly lower anxiety levels compared with the placebo group on separation to the operating room and during induction of anesthesia (F[1,77] = 3.95, P = 0.041). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, the authors found that the presence or absence of postoperative behavioral changes was dependent on the group assignment (R = 0.18, P = 0.0001) and days after operation (R = -0.20, P = 0.0001). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that during postoperative days 1-7, a significantly smaller number of children in the midazolam group manifested negative behavioral changes. At week 2 postoperatively, however, there were no significant differences between the midazolam and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Children who are premedicated with midazolam before surgery have fewer negative behavioral changes during the first postoperative week.  (+info)

Genomic imprinting: implications for human disease. (5/2056)

Genomic imprinting refers to an epigenetic marking of genes that results in monoallelic expression. This parent-of-origin dependent phenomenon is a notable exception to the laws of Mendelian genetics. Imprinted genes are intricately involved in fetal and behavioral development. Consequently, abnormal expression of these genes results in numerous human genetic disorders including carcinogenesis. This paper reviews genomic imprinting and its role in human disease. Additional information about imprinted genes can be found on the Genomic Imprinting Website at  (+info)

Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad. (6/2056)

The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household.  (+info)

Saccadic performance characteristics and the behavioural neurology of Tourette's syndrome. (7/2056)

OBJECTIVE: To better understand the neuropathological correlates of Tourette's syndrome (TS), measures of saccadic eye movement performance were examined among patients with TS. METHODS: A case-control design was used. Twenty one patients with DSM-IV TS (mean age 40.6 years (SD 11.0); 38% female) mainly recruited from UCSD Psychiatry Services, and a community based sample of 21 normal subjects (mean age 34.6 years (SD 13.4); 43% women) participated in this study. Participants were administered ocular motor tasks assessing visual fixation, and the generation of prosaccades, predictive saccades, and antisaccades. Saccadic reaction time, amplitude, duration, and mean and peak velocity were computed. Intrusive saccades during visual fixation and the proportion of correct antisaccade responses were also evaluated. RESULTS: The groups had similar visual fixation performance. Whereas patients with TS generated prosaccades with normal reaction times and amplitudes, their saccade durations were shorter and their mean velocities were higher than in normal subjects. During a prosaccade gap task, patients with TS exhibited an increased proportion of anticipatory saccades (RTs<90). The proportion of "express" saccades (90+info)

Changes in behavioural characteristics of elderly populations of local authority homes and long-stay hospital wards, 1976-7. (8/2056)

Behavioural characteristics of the elderly populations of seven local authority residential homes and three long-stay hospital wards were assessed in 1976 and 1977 with the Crichton Royal behavioural rating scale. In 1977 the levels of behavioural problems had increased in the residential homes, but declined in the hospital wards. Differences between the homes had decreased as the overall level of problems increased. The findings suggested that the additional burden of caring for increasing numbers of severely disabled elderly people was affecting the balance of institutional care, and a radical reappraisal of present patterns of care may be necessary to meet their future needs.  (+info)

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The behaviorist perspective is a theory of psychology that states that human behaviors are learned, not innate. The behaviorist approach asserts that human beings have no free will and that all...
London, UK, from 5-8 April The European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association (EHBEA) is an interdisciplinary society that supports the activities of European researchers with an interest in evolutionary accounts of human cognition, behaviour and society.
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The unsustainability of human behaviour is reflected in the dramatic deterioration of the earths land, which is already affecting between 1,5 to 2 billion people
George Soros: Betting Big on Human Behavior, Stocks: LBRDK,AABA,CACQ,TWX,TIVO,EQT,MDLZ,KHC,VIAV,EPC,AMZ, George Soros, release date:Dec 14, 2017
Harvesting lab-raised zebrafish based on their size led to differences in the activity of more than 4,000 genes, as well as changes in allele frequencies of those genes, in the fish that remained.. 0 Comments. ...
The statistical analysis of behavioral data follows the collection and checking of the data, and is aimed at assessing the effect of treatments on the observed behaviors
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
This research focuses on sensing context, modeling human behavior and developing a new architecture for a cognitive phone platform. We combine the latest positioning technologies and phone sensors to capture human movements in natural environments and use the movements to study human behavior. Contexts in this research are abstracted as a Context Pyramid which includes six levels: Raw Sensor Data, Physical Parameter, Features/Patterns, Simple Contextual Descriptors, Activity-Level Descriptors, and Rich Context. To achieve implementation of the Context Pyramid on a cognitive phone, three key technologies are utilized: ubiquitous positioning, motion recognition, and human behavior modeling. Preliminary tests indicate that we have successfully achieved the Activity-Level Descriptors level with our LoMoCo (Location-Motion-Context) model. Location accuracy of the proposed solution is up to 1.9 meters in corridor environments and 3.5 meters in open spaces. Test results also indicate that the motion states are
... publishes research of outstanding significance into individual and collective human behaviour from a broad range of social and natural sciences.
... : This New York Times article describes shocking human behavior control studies conducted by the CIA. Full article included with links for verification.
The five types of human behavior, according to My PTSD are passive-aggressive, assertive, aggressive, passive and the lesser-known alternator, a pattern of behavior where an individual switches from...
By audaciously pursuing an abandoned area of research, Ana María Cuervo discovered how cells selectively break down their waste, and revealed the health consequences when that process malfunctions.. 0 Comments. ...
Are human beings responsible for their personal conduct? Some contend they are not. Others, though claiming that people *are* morally responsible for their actions, teach ideas that are inconsistent with personal accountability.
An introduction to brain and behavior by Bryan Kolb; 1 edition; First published in 2010; Subjects: Neurophysiology, Verhalten, Gehirn, Human behavior, Brain
•What are the implications of labeling human behaviors (and by extension, human beings) as normal or abnormal? •What are some of the consequences of labeling in the workplace? ◦Provide an example of how specific abnormal.
OkCupid records and publishes data on the interactions, profiles, and preferences of its members. This information has plenty of implications for the social-scientific quest to understand human behavior.
The reticular activating system (RAS) is one of the most important parts of the brain. This article is a short introduction to the systems functions and the way it influences human behavior.
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Human Behaviour Speakers | Contact A-Speakers to uncover complex behavioral enigmas and get a better understanding of those around you.
What is the effect of two payment mechanism (fee-for-service and capitation) on provider behaviour? What is the impact of deductibles and co-payments on patients health seeking. Neuro-Organizational Culture: A new approach to understanding human behavior and interaction in the workplace (9783319221465): Garo D. Reisyan: Books
Our understanding of human behavior advances as our humanoid robotics work progresses-and vice versa. This teams work focuses on trajectory formation and
... is a scholarly journal dedicated to examining the use of computers from a psychological perspective. Original theoretical...
Here is the best resource for homework help with MBA 1021 : Human Behaviour at IIT Kanpur. Find MBA1021 study guides, notes, and practice tests from IIT
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Combining modeling and gaming for predictive analytics : Our most significant security challenges involve people. While human behavior has long been studied, computational modeling of human behavior is early in its development. An inherent challenge in modeling of human behavior is efficient and accurate transfer of knowledge from humans to models, and subsequent retrieval. The simulated real-world environments of games present one avenue for knowledge
Video created by The Pennsylvania State University for the course Epidemics - the Dynamics of Infectious Diseases. The videos accessible in this module are responses to questions that have been posed in previous sessions of this course. We ...
In our indefatigable quest for enemies, Americans have now targeted the obese. Even though Im living in Australia, I can get the 6:30pm CBS News from America live at 11:30am the following day. And even though Ill have read all the major news online, I like to watch the meagre 20 minutes of heavily scripted network…
So happy I read this. For a good cause I will say bad teeth have ruined my looks for now :) but reading this I know I have a little tooth fa ...
2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Curr Opin Struct Biol, ISSN 0959-440X, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 21-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published ... is a psychology news website dedicated to reporting research related to human behavior, cognition and society. (READ MORE...) ... is a psychology news website dedicated to reporting research related to human behavior, cognition and society. (READ MORE...) ...
When shelter-in-place orders went into effect in California, human activity ground to a halt. What impact does this change in human behavior have on the rest of the ecosystem?
The Department of Human Behavior, Ecology and Culture investigates the role of culture in human evolution and adaptation. The evolution of fancy social learning in humans accounts for both the nature of human adaptation and the extraordinary scale and variety of human societies. The integration of ethnographic fieldwork with mathematical models and advanced quantitative methods is the departments methodological focus.
Rent Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment 9th Edition instead of buying and save up to 90%. Your textbook rental source since 2007.
Social physics first emerged over 200 years ago as an attempt to understand society and human behavior using laws similar to those of the physical sciences. But, it wasnt until the past two decades that we finally had enough data,...
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Trouvez tous les livres de Wood, James W. - Dynamics of Human Reproduction: Biology, Biometry, Demography (Foundations of human behavior). Sur,vous pouvez commander des livres anciens et neufs.COMPARER ET acheter IMMÉDIATEMENT au meilleur prix. 0202011798
[Archive] 575 Dog Collars, Best Friends Animal Sanctuary: Bad HUMAN Behavior & Lame Excuses On topic - Pet chat, opinions, feelings and rants
All about THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR 2 Volumes by Robt M. Goldenson. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers
The Field Poll and the Times/USC Poll sample voters off of lists derived from the state s official voter registration rolls, as did virtually every private poll conducted for a political campaign in California in 2010. This gives the poll a number of advantages. First, it enables interviewers to ask to speak to a specific individual by name and if that individual is not available, the interviewer can make an appointment to call back that voter at a later time. Also, because the sample of names is derived from lists of known voters, we know by definition that the person we are seeking is indeed a registered voter. Working off a voter list also provides the pollster with the voter s actual party registration, as well as his or her frequency of voting in past elections, since this information is contained on the official voting records. This information can also be used to ensure that the sample is aligned properly to the state s actual party registration and in identifying which voters are most ...
Our primary objective is to draw together faculty and students who are interested in the interdisciplinary field of Behavioral Neuroscience, which focuses on brain mechanisms and how they give rise to behavioral functions in humans and animals.. ...
Hastie, R., Schkade, D.A., & Payne, J.W. (1998). A study of juror and jury judgments in civil cases: Deciding liability for punitive damages. Law and Human Behavior, 22, 287-314. (Also: Hastie, R., Schkade, D.A., & Payne, J.W. (1999). Reply to Vidmar. Law and Human Behavior, 23, 715-718)CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
When it comes to stealth technology, you know for sure that ninjas are the pioneers in many a folklore. Solid Snake, too, does pretty well in being...
Ask Doggit is my new favorite subreddit. Its a forum on reddit just for dogs modeled on the popular /r/askreddit. Dogs use it to share ideas and reason out human behavior. I have yet to figure out my own dogs username, but Im sure hes there somewhere.Link...
Nothing is more disconcerting to horse owners than a horse behavior that is both repetitive and harmful. A stall vice is one such behavior. Stall vices can affect your horses dependability and/or health, and once a vice is set, its hard to break. ...
Buy or Rent Neurobiology and Behavior as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print.
By default, when you close the Debugger window it attempts to abort, that is to call the abort restart.. Uncheck the Abort When Closed option only if you want to turn off this behavior.. ...
There is a new initiative at my job to incorporate Behavior Driven Design. Please explain how this works. This will be for a C# WinForms project. Thanks.
Behavior that will create a simple PopUp and run some ICommands when closed; Author: defwebserver, hisowa; Updated: 1 Sep 2010; Section: Silverlight; Chapter: Web Development; Updated: 1 Sep 2010
Up for sale is this VHS of Strange Behavior!It is inbrand newcondition and still sealed. Please pay with paypal at the end of the product unless other
Aim and material. The aim of this paper is to present a case of patient with BvFTD and gait disturbance as a main reported symptom masking behavioural changes and cognitive function impairment. Gait disturbance commonly occurs at the late stage of dementia disorders. It results from gait apraxia, extrapyramidal syndrome or motor neuron dysfunction. However, it is not a predominant symptom of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia excluding terminal stage of the disease ...
The Department of Human Behavior, Ecology and Culture investigates the role of culture in human evolution and adaptation. The evolution of fancy social learning in humans accounts for both the nature of human adaptation and the extraordinary scale and variety of human societies. The integration of ethnographic fieldwork with mathematical models and advanced quantitative methods is the departments methodological focus.
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Get Voter Turnout essential facts. View Videos or join the Voter Turnout discussion. Add Voter Turnout to your topic list or share. Voter Turnout at
OH SIT!, The CWs amped-up, fast-paced version of musical chairs, will return for a second season Monday, April 15, 8:00-9:00 p.m. ET. THE CARRIE DIARIES will conclude its 13-episode first season the previous week, Monday, April 8, 8:00-9:00 p.m. ET. OH SIT! is a fun, high-stakes, high-octane musical chairs competition ...
News is increasingly being produced and consumed online, supplanting print and broadcast to represent nearly half of the news monitored across the world today by Western intelligence agencies.
Escalation of commitment, let me count the ways Escalation of commitment is a normal human behavior in which a group faces a pattern of unsatisfactory outcomes from a past decision or investment but nevertheless continues on rather than altering course.. Doesnt this clinical definition sound strikingly similar to the observed behavior pattern over the course of programmatic history? For example, programmatic spend went from practically zero in 2008 to an estimated $70 billion in 2018. If you draw a straight line between $0 and $70 billion over the last 10 years, the total comes to $350 billion. Thats a lot of escalated commitment after having been presented with a mountain of unsatisfactory outcomes. Let me count the ways.. I peg the escalating starting point to 2008 when Yahoo acquired Right Media for $680 million, sparking a hype cycle even though "[Right Media] was the most duct-taped system youve ever seen" (Disclosure: I used to manage a large Right Media-Yahoo team in Europe and saw the ...
QUOTE: "Recognizing that any compound under the appropriate conditions can induce adverse reactions, including behavioral disturbances, it becomes necessary to evaluate each compound or class of compounds on the basis of benefit compared with risk. … colors and flavors have no nutritional value whatsoever. If they were removed from our food supply, nothing nutritionally would be lost. Therefore, on balance, the risk outweighs the benefit.". Full Text. ...
(Medical Xpress)-The capacity for group behavior affects the success of innumerable species, and its a notable feature of human behavior. All major human achievements, from lunar exploration to moving a couch up a flight ...
Psychology is primarily concerned with understanding individual human behavior. In contrast, sociology is primarily concerned with understanding the behavior of larger groups (families, organizations, societies, cultures).
Why do some people act heroically? Once again, social context proves critical in determining human behavior, though a highly developed self-perception can help
Sometimes, your dogs odd behavior may baffle you. There are various reasons for such strange behavior in dogs. Some of them are uncovered here.
The following keywords control the behavior of the delivery process itself. They do not affect the delivered applications behavior or the debugging information generated.. ...
Qualitative behavior of f(T) - g(T). Qualitative behavior of f(T) - g(T): none (a), two (b) and four (c) solutions. In (d), we show two positive solutions not b
Some people think it’s unfair to have more eligible voters in one legislative district than in another. But the number of eligible voters in each district is far from the only difference that might matter to voters.
Use these tips for handling rude behavior the next time you are confronted with a line-cutter or an inconsiderate cell-phone user.
IntelliCage is an automated system for recording the behavior of a group of mice housed together. It produces rich, detailed behavioral data calling for new methods and software for their analysis. He
Mo 10-17 in VHF-380; Mo 10-17 in VHF-380; Di 10-17 in VHF-380; Di 10-17 in VHF-380; Mi 10-17 in VHF-380; Mi 10-17 in VHF-380; Do 10-16 in VHF-380; Do 10-17 in VHF-380; Fr 10-16 in VHF-380; Fr 10-17 in VHF-380 ...
use YAML; # This module is slow! # So if you want to try a faster one first: use Best qw(YAML::Syck YAML); print Dump({ some =, hash }); # Dumping provided by Best Possible YA +ML module ...
Well, Ive been playing around with MD2 models today and an getting annoyed at a few things. I finally managed to get my model in (Just a cube for practice) ...
Hello All! I just wanted first off to say I am new to this group, but am looking forward to helping and being helped as well. I have a 5 year old daughter that.....
The seven steps to healing will give you an overview of the changes you must make to take you from where you are to where you want to be. These steps will help you overcome the ten most common relationship-sabotaging behaviors.
A silver scroll found in Jordan is a reminder of how big the market for magic objects was in ancient Christianity, Islam, and Judaism.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We developed and validated the Mini-Addenbrookes Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) in dementia patients. Comparisons were also made with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). METHOD: The M-ACE was developed using Mokken scaling analysis in 117 dementia patients [behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), n = 25; primary progressive aphasia (PPA), n = 49; Alzheimers disease (AD), n = 34; corticobasal syndrome (CBS), n = 9] and validated in an independent sample of 164 dementia patients (bvFTD, n = 23; PPA, n = 82; AD, n = 38; CBS, n = 21) and 78 controls, who also completed the MMSE. RESULTS: The M-ACE consists of 5 items with a maximum score of 30. Two cut-offs were identified: (1) ≤25/30 has both high sensitivity and specificity, and (2) ≤21/30 is almost certainly a score to have come from a dementia patient regardless of the clinical setting. The M-ACE is more sensitive than the MMSE and is less likely to have ceiling effects. CONCLUSION: The M-ACE is a brief and
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We developed and validated the Mini-Addenbrookes Cognitive Examination (M-ACE) in dementia patients. Comparisons were also made with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). METHOD: The M-ACE was developed using Mokken scaling analysis in 117 dementia patients [behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), n = 25; primary progressive aphasia (PPA), n = 49; Alzheimers disease (AD), n = 34; corticobasal syndrome (CBS), n = 9] and validated in an independent sample of 164 dementia patients (bvFTD, n = 23; PPA, n = 82; AD, n = 38; CBS, n = 21) and 78 controls, who also completed the MMSE ...
Virtually all psychologists accept the premise that human behavior is orderly. The order that they see, however, varies considerably from group to group, and the aspects of behavior in which these orders appear differ as well. The clinician and the personality psychologist observe their fellow men and see need-presses, repressions, and aggressive drives. The experimental psychologist finds his order in the rates at which nonsense syllables are learned, or at which conditioned eyelid reflexes are acquired. If he is physiologically oriented, he is apt to concern himself with muscle twitches and even with the secretion of saliva. It is in terms of such variables that psychologists have set their descriptions of, and their predictions about, the actions of people.. All of us, whether psychologists or not, observe people acting. We learn rules of "practical psychology." Some of us, especially the novelists and playwrights, do a remarkably good job of giving plausible accounts of behavior, often in ...
The study of rational decisions is useful in identifying and explaining vaccination behaviour and its interaction with the epidemiology of a disease. However, there is a multitude of other behavioural changes that can influence the spread of infectious diseases, such as reductions in the number of potentially infectious contacts, wearing of face masks or practice of better hygiene. A number of studies have recently considered behavioural changes which do not completely remove those that change their behaviour from the susceptible population, but instead assume the actions to either change disease parameters or change networks of infectious contacts.. Behavioural traits which affect disease transmission can be transferred between individuals. Tanaka et al. (2002) studied a model where two different types of behaviour exist and their frequencies in the population change over time according to social interaction. The authors were particularly interested in the evolution of behaviour and found that ...
Buy or Rent Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Macro, National, and International Perspective as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print.
Behavior pattern definition, a recurrent way of acting by an individual or group toward a given object or in a given situation. See more.
Not too long ago, Deschutes County Republicans enjoyed a nearly 10,000-voter edge over Democrats. Republicans running for county commissioner trounced their opponents by 2-to-1 margins from the early 1990s through 2008. But voter registration data show the gap between Democrats and Republicans has narrowed by about half. Bends population boom has brought people from all over the country to Deschutes County, while more voters have shed either major party label. And the 2008 presidential election,
Human behavior results both from natural (biological) as well as exogenous (psycho-social) factors. This course will examine the basic structure, organization and function of the human nervous system particularly as these affect or modify behavior. We will specifically study the following topics: anatomy of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles; structure and function of neurons; the effect of neuro-transmitters, hormones, and other endocrinological factors. We will also examine the interactions of these biological systems and their effects on behavior. The neuro-physiological basis of specific behaviors such asleep, reproduction, memory, aggression, communication as well as mental disorders will be studied in detail. In addition we will review current research projects and findings that relate to the above ...
Did They Mind the Gap? Voter/Party Ideological Proximity between the BQ, the NDP and Quebec Voters, 2006-2011 - Volume 49 Issue 2 - Jean-Philippe Gauvin, Chris Chhim, Mike Medeiros
3 Credit Hours • 45 Contact Hours (Lecture). Prerequisite: CCR 092. Note: This course transfers to CSU-Pueblo. Focus in this course is on an understanding and analysis of larger social systems which include the family, groups, communities and organizations. Emphasis is on social systems as an organizing theoretical framework for understanding social functioning and change.. ...
Studies on the effect of bilingualism on executive functioning have sometimes failed to find significant differences between performance of monolingual and bilingual young adults. This paper examines the interpretation of these null findings and considers the role of three factors: definition of bilingualism, appropriateness of statistical procedures and interpretations, and the range of data considered. The conclusion is that a correct interpretation of this important issue will require careful consideration of all the data and scrupulous attention to design details.
I found the article to be incredibly insightful and in exploring a couple of the principles further I had a question about the term mistake versus error in context to human behavior. Principle 3, "People Make Mistakes" uses the terms interchangeably but do you feel there is a difference between the two? (Regardless of how you define the two, I feel the advice to be no less relevant or valuable.). In my initial research I found "mistake" is often defined as an "error"; however, within the definition of error (on Wikipedia of course) I found mention of a differentiation between mistake and error in context to human behavior. Basically the term mistake was defined as an error caused by fault; fault being in that a human was either careless or thoughtless but had the information to know better. In contrast, an error is a deviation from accuracy resulting from a misinterpretation of a potentially ambiguous instruction or an exclusion of the necessary information needed to attain said ...
I found the article to be incredibly insightful and in exploring a couple of the principles further I had a question about the term mistake versus error in context to human behavior. Principle 3, "People Make Mistakes" uses the terms interchangeably but do you feel there is a difference between the two? (Regardless of how you define the two, I feel the advice to be no less relevant or valuable.). In my initial research I found "mistake" is often defined as an "error"; however, within the definition of error (on Wikipedia of course) I found mention of a differentiation between mistake and error in context to human behavior. Basically the term mistake was defined as an error caused by fault; fault being in that a human was either careless or thoughtless but had the information to know better. In contrast, an error is a deviation from accuracy resulting from a misinterpretation of a potentially ambiguous instruction or an exclusion of the necessary information needed to attain said ...
Explores strategies for better managing our time and choosing settings in which we function more effectively. Students taking the course often have no previous experience in the psychology of human-environment interaction. The course is useful to any field of study dealing with human behavior (e.g., environmental studies; education and communication; health education and behavior; conservation psychology; resource policy, planning, and management; organizational and institutional studies; landscape architecture and urban planning; green and sustainable business) ...
Explores strategies for better managing our time and choosing settings in which we function more effectively. Students taking the course often have no previous experience in the psychology of human-environment interaction. The course is useful to any field of study dealing with human behavior (e.g., environmental studies; education and communication; health education and behavior; conservation psychology; resource policy, planning, and management; organizational and institutional studies; landscape architecture and urban planning; green and sustainable business) ...
There are only two days left to vote early but it seems confusion over the new voter ID law in Texas is just as much a problem at the polls as it was when early voting began.
The group that could decide the Alabama race? African-American voters ... but itll all come down to voter turnout. CNNs Alex Marquardt has the report.
Now that we have identified the three key types of businesses, lets identify cost behaviors and apply them to the business environment. In managerial acco
Read Get in Control! Feel Emotions, Choose Behavior by Julie Prescott with Rakuten Kobo. Our behavior is chosen by how we interpret the emotion of the situation. It is this action parents worry about most -- w...
|p|The SAGE Encyclopedia of Political Behavior explores the intersection of psychology, political science, sociology, and human behavior. This encyclopedia inte Some people here say this never happens, yet there are an abundance of online vidoes proving it does. Time for voter id laws, this is getting ridiculous.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND HUMAN DECISION PROCESSES 50, 179-211 (1991) The Theory of Planned Behavior ICEK AJZEN University of Massachusetts at Amherst
Alix Spiegel has worked on NPR's Science Desk for 10 years covering psychology and human behavior, and has reported on everything from what it's
Post 37 -by Gautam Shah (Blog 7 in lecture series Space and Human Behaviour) . Size and Shape of a space are two independent qualitative factors. A space can have many different shapes irrespective of the size, and so it is an absolute function. The size can manifest in many different forms but remains relative…
Behaviors of networks[edit]. Biological neurons are connected to each other in a complex, recurrent fashion. These connections ...
Behavior[edit]. African pygmy squirrels live in trees, they are diurnal squirrels that spend time searching for food, due to ...
Mate searching behavior and male-male conflict[edit]. A female attracts males by perching atop the host plant feeding area and ... The term "armyworm" can refer to several species, often describing the large-scale invasive behavior of the species' larval ... and differences in reproductive behavior. The reproductive differences can be divided into two causes: difference in the timing ...
Such behavior can also suggest deep learning algorithms, in particular when mapping of such swarms to neural circuits is ... Czirók, A.; Vicsek, T. (2006). "Collective behavior of interacting self-propelled particles". Physica A. 281: 17-29. arXiv:cond ... Swarm intelligence (SI) is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, natural or artificial. The concept ... As with most artificial life simulations, Boids is an example of emergent behavior; that is, the complexity of Boids arises ...
Behavior[edit]. Capable of climbing reeds and stalks, this species is often found basking on top of flowers and terminal leaves ...
Behavior and ecology[edit]. This nocturnal and terrestrial snake has an inoffensive disposition. When disturbed, it coils ...
Behavior[edit]. Male excavating a nest hole. These birds mainly eat insects, especially carpenter ants and wood-boring beetle ...
"California Condor Behavior". U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge. Archived from the ... Researchers and breeders take advantage of this behavior to double the reproductive rate by taking the first egg away for ... competitive play behavior, and a variety of hisses and grunts. This social hierarchy is displayed especially when the birds ...
Behavior and ecology[edit]. Closeup of the head showing forcipules. Scutigera coleoptrata resting on a wall. The antennae are ...
Social behavior[edit]. Adults typically do not survive cold northern winters, but larvae overwinter and moths begin to appear ... The adults will feed on different flowers depending on its behavior and on whether they are diurnal or nocturnal. It the adults ...
Behavior[edit]. Social behavior[edit]. Risso's dolphins do not require cutting teeth to process their cephalopod prey, which ... "Behavior patterns of pilot whales and Risso's dolphins off Santa Catalina Island, California" (PDF). Aquatic Mammals. 21.3: pg ...
... and in turn naturally embrace patterns of prosocial behavior.[20] These monkeys engage in such behavior by acting ... This suppresses sexual behavior and delays puberty.[22][23] Unrelated males that join the group can release the females from ... Estrada, A. (2006). New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates: Distribution, Ecology, Behavior, and Conservation. ... Functionally, this behavior may inform other tamarins of the actions the caller will take in a feeding context and whether a ...
Behavior[edit]. The titan triggerfish can move relatively large rocks when feeding and is often followed by smaller fish, in ... This behavior of female triggerfish is called 'tending,' and males rarely perform this behavior. A male triggerfish stays ... Male and female triggerfish perform certain pre-spawning behaviors: blowing and touching.[8] A male and female blow water on ... Kawase, H. (2003). "Spawning behavior and biparental egg care of the crosshatch triggerfish, Xanthichthys mento (Balistidae)". ...
Males are more likely to engage in agonistic behaviors,[29] such as slowly circling each other, chasing, or actual fighting.[14 ... M.; Miranda Mourão, G. de; Camilo-Alves, C. de S. e; Mourão, G (2008). "Anteater behavior and ecology". In Vizcaíno, S. F; ... Shaw, J. H.; Machado-Neto, J.; Carter, T. J. (1987). "Behavior of Free-Living Giant Anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)". ... the hunters were agitating and wounding cornered animals and the attacks appeared to be defensive behaviors.[38] In April 2007 ...
... and rocking behavior.[58] A calorie restriction regimen may also lead to increased aggressive behavior in animals.[57] ... Behavior[edit]. Observations in some accounts of animals undergoing calorie restriction have noted an increase in stereotyped ... behaviors.[57] For example, monkeys on calorie restriction have demonstrated an increase in licking, sucking, ...
Behavior[edit]. General overview[edit]. Though this varies in intensity from species to species, foxes operate within a ... True foxes exhibit hoarding behavior or caching where they store away food for another day out of sight from other animals.[23] ... a b c Harris, Steven (2010). "Understand fox behavior". ...
Ecology and behavior[edit]. Diet[edit]. Prairie dogs are chiefly herbivorous, though they eat some insects. They feed primarily ... Behaviors that signal that a female is in estrus include underground consorting, self-licking of genitals, dust-bathing, and ... Alarm response behavior varies according to the type of predator announced. If the alarm indicates a hawk diving toward the ... Tynes, Valarie V. (7 September 2010). Behavior of Exotic Pets. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780813800783. .. ...
Protective coloration and behavior[edit]. Cryptic and mimicking color and behavior[edit]. ... Male-male behaviors[edit]. Lekking[edit]. Male butterflies exhibit behaviors for defending territories. Females choose males ... 7 Protective coloration and behavior *7.1 Cryptic and mimicking color and behavior ... Mate searching behavior[edit]. When it comes time to mate, male and female H. semele meet above a solitary tree in a wide and ...
Symbolic behavior is, perhaps, one of the most difficult aspects of modern human behavior to distinguish archaeologically. When ... and symbolic behavior.[1] Many of these aspects of modern human behavior can be broken down into more specific categories, ... Evidence for modern human behavior[edit]. See also: Behavioral modernity. There have been a number of theories proposed ... Characteristically modern human behaviors, such as the making of shell beads, bone tools and arrows, and the use of ochre ...
Ecology and behavior[edit]. As sun bears occur in tropical regions with year-round available foods, they do not hibernate. ... In captivity, they exhibit social behavior, and sleep mostly during the day.[14] ...
Social behavior[edit]. Spicebush swallowtails often engage in puddling, a type of behavior which occurs while adults are flying ... Feeding behavior[edit]. Spicebush swallowtails (along with P. palamedes) are able to thermoregulate their thoraxes better than ... Mating behavior[edit]. In general, both sexes will copulate with several mates during mating season. However, each time a ... Puddling reflects the fact that while engaging in either feeding or mating behavior, i.e. when they are away from home, ...
Evidence based on the fossil record, serology, karyology, behavior, anatomy, and reproduction reflect closer affinities with ...
Behavior and ecology[edit]. Feeding and diet[edit]. Ratite chicks tend to be more omnivorous or insectivorous; similarities in ...
Hunting behavior[edit]. This is a typical harrier, which hunts on long wings held in a shallow V in its low flight during which ...
Behavior[edit]. Spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus). The caimans are predators and, like the alligators and the crocodiles, ...
These feelings, thoughts, and behaviors can include normal sexual behaviors or behaviors that are considered illegal and/or ... This type of compulsive behavior is characterized by feelings, thoughts, and behaviors about anything related to sex. These ... While not all compulsive behaviors are addictions, some such as compulsive sexual behavior (intercourse) have been identified ... Behavior, and Treatment". Retrieved 2013-11-29. "Addictive Behaviors, Compulsions and Habits". ...
Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviors. Health consequences include HIV, STDs, and teen pregnancy. ... Many Young People Engage in Sexual Risk Behaviors. Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviors and experiences that can ... Sexual risk behaviors place youth at risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and unintended ... Resources and Strategies for Preventing Sexual Risk Behavior Among Youth. Fact Sheets. *How CDC Prepares Healthy Youth for ...
... including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended ... unhealthy dietary behaviors; inadequate physical activity. YRBSS also measures the prevalence of obesity and asthma among youth ... monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and ... The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of health-related behaviors that contribute to the ...
Newly identified genomic causes of severe compulsive behavior in dogs could further understanding of human OCD ... OCD is often characterized by distressing thoughts and time-consuming, repetitive behaviors, while canine compulsions may ... professor in clinical sciences and section head and program director of animal behavior at Cummings School of Veterinary ...
Overview of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). ... Assess whether health behaviors increase, decrease, or stay the ... These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include. *Behaviors that contribute to unintentional ... What is the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)?. The YRBSS was developed in 1990 to monitor health behaviors that ... A 2010 study to measure physical activity and nutrition-related behaviors and determinants of these behaviors among a ...
The author asserts that if it is true that body chemistry plays a role in abnormal behavior, that it is largely a waste of time ... Physiology and Behavior 1997; 62(2)327-329. Stresses the importance of the study of different metal ratios and their ... Physiol Behavior 1997;49(1):327-329. Research spanning a period of 20 years has revealed abnormal trace metal concentrations in ... The group with the highest levels of lead present in blood samples was found to score the highest in Total Problem Behavior ...
... dietary behaviors, physical activity, and behaviors associated with intentional or unintentional injuries. Since 2007, the ... Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) - in collaboration ... The Massachusetts YRBS (MYRBS) focuses on the major risk behaviors that threaten the health and safety of young people. This ... Data from the MYRBS provide accurate estimates of the prevalence of risk behaviors among public high school students in the ...
Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior (EEB). The EEB Research Group strives to understand the natural world through the lens of ... Research areas offered by the EEB group are designed to understand major concepts in ecology, evolution, behavior, and ...
This annual report outlines and monitors the trends of health behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death ... This annual report outlines and monitors the trends of health behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death ...
The purpose of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that put Alaskan youth at ... Health and Social Services , Public Health , Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS ... The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is part of an epidemiological surveillance system that was established in 1990 by the ... sexual behaviors that can result in HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancies ...
Social behavior[edit]. Main article: Social behavior. Behavior informatics[edit]. Behavior informatics[4] also called behavior ... Human behavior[edit]. Main article: Human behavior. Human behavior is believed to be influenced by the endocrine system and the ... Consumer behavior[edit]. Consumers behavior Consumer behavior refers to the processes consumers go through, and reactions they ... Positive behaviors help promote health and prevent disease, while the opposite is true for risk behaviors.[15] Health behaviors ...
How you can help... I hope you enjoyed these pages and found them useful in some way. Now, heres how you can help. Some of you have expressed a desire to help support these pages financially, I thought about it, and here it is... All Im asking is a small donation ($3.00 - $5.00). Use of these pages is still free, no charge, you may continue to use them free of charge, as much as you want, as often as you want, anytime you want... But you can also use the links below to donate and help keep these pages here, and help the site expand. You may use your PayPal account, or most any credit card. Thank you for your continued support ...
Determinants on Volunteering Behavior. [To the Bottom of This Page]. Abstract. Volunteering behavior was examined by conducting ... Volunteering behavior has been of considerable interest to researchers in the last 40 or 50 years. There have been numerous ... Behavior was examined based on two factors, situational and personality. The two hypotheses were that: subjects would imitate ... Other factors that have been linked to the volunteering behavior is a persons birth-order. It was shown by Schachter (1959) ...
Current research in verbal behavior is published in The Analysis of Verbal Behavior[54] (TAVB), and other Behavior Analytic ... The Behavior Analyst Today. 6 (3): 178-85. doi:10.1037/h0100069.. *^ Skinners analysis of verbal behavior is not specifically ... Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior Intervention[59] and the Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior ... Behavior Modification. 25: 698-724. doi:10.1177/0145445501255003.. *^ Sundberg, M.L. (2008). "Verbal Behavior Milestones ...
... Rift lake cichlids have a rather complex behavior, primarily expressed through color and movement. Although ... If you know the genders of the fish, interpreting behavior is easier. Male-male and female-female interactions are almost ...
Hmm ... One might suggest "going to see a movie as bad as Disturbing Behavior," except for the fact that, much to MGM/UAs ... rated film Disturbing Behavior. The studios baroque word-of-mouth campaign entailed hiring teen scenesters like Seattles " ... passes were given away to kids who could best explain what their parents would say is their childs most disturbing behavior. ...
What is Rational Behavior. A rational behavior decision-making process is based on making choices that result in the most ... Rational behavior within the economy is a portion of behavioral finance that focuses on the behavior of individuals within the ... BREAKING DOWN Rational Behavior. While it is likely more financially lucrative for an executive to stay on at a company ... Rational behavior does not necessarily require a person to attempt to get the highest return as it does allow for the ...
... Updated: April 17, 2012. Applies To: Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows ... Before you can run the DS behavior subcommand, you need to connect to a specific AD Ds or AD LDS instance by using the ... connections [{allow passwd op on unsecured connection , deny passwd op on unsecured connection , list current ds-behavior}] ... Modifies AD DS or AD LDS behavior to allow password operations over an unsecured connection. ...
A modern and positive approach to treating animal behaviour problems, based on principles of kindness and fairness, and learning within a safe environment.
What is the best way we can reach you. Please include a phone number or email (Type anonymous if you wish to remain anonymous ...
Cyber Behavior 2nd. International Symposium on Cyber Behavior (2nd. CB2012). (In conjunction with International Conference on ... The International Symposium on Social Network Behavior will be held on December 27-29, 2012, at the Grand Hotel, Taipei (http ... This symposium aims to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to exchange research results on cyber behavior. ...
UC Davis Prof Steps Down from Chair-ship over his own misogynist treatment of grad students: A while back ...a department chair in the veterinary school at the University of California at Davis had polled a class on what grade he should give to a student who had to miss some quizzes because she had given birth. This week,
Behavior presents experimental and theoretical contributions and critical reviews concerning fundamental processes of learning ... and behavior in nonhuman and human animals. Topics covered include sensation, ... ... Learning & Behavior publishes experimental and theoretical contributions and critical reviews concerning fundamental processes ... Get the table of contents of every new issue published in Learning & Behavior. ...
In the April 14 SN: Killer heat, mass insect migrations, the latest Saturn updates, rethinking the Nobel Prize, tectonics on Venus, the science of mass shootings, ancient tool trends and more. ...
... Take a survey and have a chance to win an amazon gift card (odds: 47/500)! This brief survey will ...
  • Wikipedia defines compulsive behavior as performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to an actual reward or pleasure. (
  • This anonymous survey includes questions about tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual behaviors that might lead to unintended pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease, dietary behaviors, physical activity, and behaviors associated with intentional or unintentional injuries. (
  • The prevalence of some health behaviors remains high and puts youth at higher risk for negative health outcomes and poor academic performance . (
  • YRBSS also measures the prevalence of obesity and asthma and other health-related behaviors plus sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts. (
  • In addition, the YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma and other health-related behaviors plus sexual identity and sex of sexual contacts. (
  • Determine the prevalence of health behaviors. (
  • Data from the MYRBS provide accurate estimates of the prevalence of risk behaviors among public high school students in the Commonwealth, and are used to determine statewide changes in the prevalence of these behaviors over time. (
  • The purpose of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that put Alaskan youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during adolescence and adulthood, in order to assist in prevention and intervention planning and evaluation. (
  • The National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey conducted in 1998 among a representative sample of almost 9,000 students in alternative high schools. (
  • The National College Health Risk Behavior Survey conducted in 1995 among a representative sample of about 5,000 undergraduate students. (
  • The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) - in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (DPH) - conducts the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) in randomly selected public high schools in every odd-numbered year. (
  • The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is part of an epidemiological surveillance system that was established in 1990 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . (
  • Spirit of Youth , an Alaska youth organization, created a video message for Alaska teens and parents about the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. (
  • Researchers have found that vitamin and mineral tests can be a good indicator of violent behavior. (
  • The distribution of vitamin and mineral supplements was a significant factor in promoting less violent behavior. (
  • Fifth graders who participated in a school-based social-and-emotional development program, called Positive Action, for one to four years were about half as likely to engage in substance abuse, violent behavior, or sexual activity as those who did not take part in the program, according to a study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, a component of the National Institutes of Health, in Bethesda, Md. (
  • This study provides compelling evidence that intervening with young children is a promising approach to preventing drug use and other problem behaviors," said Dr. Nora Volkow, the director of NIDA, in a statement. (
  • Even though FBA is required under limited circumstances it is good professional practice to use a problem-solving approach to managing problem behaviors in the school setting (Crone & Horner 2003). (
  • Although normative standards continue to have some influence on the direction in which activities unfold, the interaction is characterized by relatively greater spontaneity, volatility, and transitoriness than it would be if the behavior of the participants were more securely anchored in recognized norms. (
  • Collective behavior takes many forms but generally violates societal norms (Miller 2000, Locher 2002). (
  • Individuals learn appropriate behavior within an organization as the code of values, roles, attitudes, and norms of behavior of that work environment become apparent (Wood, 1999). (
  • The acceptability of behavior depends heavily upon social norms and is regulated by various means of social control. (
  • Social norms also impact behavior. (
  • Social norms, the often-unspoken rules of a group, shape not just our behaviors but also our attitudes. (
  • The institutionalization of norms is, however, inherent in human society perhaps as a direct result of the desire to be accepted by others, which leads humans to manipulate their own behavior in order to 'fit in' with others. (
  • Workplace deviance is behavior at work that violates norms for appropriate behavior. (
  • Also, there are cultural examples of compulsive behavior. (
  • Examples of especially good deeds and behaviors were announced for all to hear. (
  • Some examples of counterproductive behavior are: Intimate partner violence: Intimate partner violence is occurring more often in the workplace. (
  • These are the examples of counterproductive behavior that people confront in their daily life. (
  • These are examples of allelomimetic behavior Other examples in nature include collective decisions in social insects, such as pheromone-based path selection in ants, where the choice of only one path drives all the workers towards the same food source, or the choice of a single aggregation site by cockroaches. (
  • Mead's description of language as communication through significant symbols and concepts of "me" and "I" are examples of his contributions to symbolic behavior perspective. (
  • But there are examples of animals that can learn behaviors, such as dogs and cats. (
  • Examples include favoring kin in altruistic behaviors, female selection of the most fit male, and defending a territory or harem from rivals. (
  • OCD is often characterized by distressing thoughts and time-consuming, repetitive behaviors, while canine compulsions may include repetitive tail chasing, excessive grooming and flank and blanket sucking. (
  • Daranas Serrano's credits include the short "Los últimos gaiteros de la Habana" and the features "¿La Vida en Rosa? (
  • These communication behaviors include eye gaze, facial expression, vocalization, body posture (including movements of bodies and limbs) and gustatory communication (scents, pheromones and taste). (
  • Behavior management include all of the actions and conscious in actions to enhance the probability people, individually and in groups, choose behaviors which are personally fulfilling, productive, and socially acceptable. (
  • For behavior trees important emergent properties include the integrated behavior of the system implied by the requirements the coherent behavior of each component referred to in the requirements. (
  • Costs of mobbing behavior include the risk of engaging with predators, as well as energy expended in the process. (
  • In order for techniques to work in decreasing undesired behavior, they should include: feasibility, desirability, and effectiveness. (
  • These include aggression towards other animals or humans, self-injury and stereotypies, phobias, isolation and separation-related stress behaviors, destructiveness, making excessive noise, and resource guarding. (
  • The terms "bullying" and "mobbing" are sometimes used interchangeably, but "bullying" is more often used to refer to lower levels of antisocial behavior that do not include workgroup participation. (
  • Mechanisms of altering the host's behavior include infection of the host's central nervous system and altered neurochemical communication. (
  • These might include altruistic behaviors which do not favor kin, adoption of unrelated young, and being a subordinate in a dominance hierarchy. (
  • Numerous studies conducted in juvenile correctional institutions have reported that violence and serious antisocial behavior have been dramatically reduced after implementing nutrient dense diets. (
  • Supplementation and antisocial behavior in institutions. (
  • Brain function requires adequate nutrition, and correction of chronic undernutrition can improve antisocial behavior. (
  • The study focused on whether genes are likely to cause a person to become a life-course persistent offender, which is characterized by antisocial behavior during childhood that can later progress to violent or serious criminal acts later in life. (
  • Volunteering behavior has been of considerable interest to researchers in the last 40 or 50 years. (
  • This symposium aims to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to exchange research results on cyber behavior. (
  • The Children's Eating Laboratory, located inside the Metabolic Research Unit, provides a controlled but child-friendly environment in which researchers can study the eating behaviors, food preferences, and eating interactions of infants, children and their families. (
  • In an effort to understand how the motivation to exercise is linked to behavior, the researchers examined college students' intentions to be physically active as well as their actual activity levels. (
  • The researchers said their findings suggest that recess breaks "may be an important element of classroom management and behavior guidance. (
  • In exploring the benefits of affect on voting, researchers have argued that affective states such as anxiety and enthusiasm encourage the evaluation of new political information and thus benefit political behavior by leading to more considered choices. (
  • believed that Lhermitte's experiments led the patients to perform the behaviors that they thought were expected of them as the researchers either placed the objects in the patients hands or enticed them to pick up the objects. (
  • Cognitive (thoughts) - what is to be accomplished Affective (feelings) - what the searcher was feeling Actions (physical) - what the searcher did Strategies (physical) - what the searcher was trying to achieve Investigated the behavior of researchers in the physical and social sciences and engineers and research scientists through semi-structured interviews using a grounded theory approach, with a focus on describing the activities rather than a process. (
  • Again, the researchers recorded talking and out-of-seat behavior during 30-minute observation sessions. (
  • Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviors and experiences that can result in unintended health outcomes. (
  • To say that elementary collective behavior occurs spontaneously is to point to the role played in its initiation by individuals who experience greater subjective freedom or psychological compulsion to express unconventional ideas, to engage in unconventional behavior, or otherwise to deviate from established standards. (
  • Abstainers represent a smaller number of people who don´t engage in any deviant behavior. (
  • Collective behavior is always driven by group dynamics, encouraging people to engage in acts they might consider unthinkable under typical social circumstances (Locher 2002). (
  • The book Verbal Behavior is almost entirely theoretical, involving little experimental research in the work itself. (
  • In addition, a growing body of research has developed on structural topics in verbal behavior such as grammar. (
  • Behavior Research Methods is a publication of the Psychonomic Society. (
  • Behavior Research Methods is committed to upholding principles of integrity in scientific publishing and practice. (
  • Neuroscience portal Behavior Genetics Journal of Neurogenetics Molecular Psychiatry Neurogenetics Psychiatric Genetics Twin Research and Human Genetics Pagel, Mark (7 May 2004). (
  • The study was conducted with a single cylinder Cooperative Fuels Research engine, of simple combustion chamber geometry, and thus, the results are of value primarily for their fundamental content, and for comparison of behavior. (
  • The Livestock Behavior Research Unit studies animal well-being and pre-harvest food safety in dairy cattle, poultry and swine. (
  • The framework for the research was based on the developmental taxonomy of anti-social behavior, a theory derived by Dr. Terri Moffitt, who identified three groups, or pathways, found in the population: life-course persistent offenders, adolescent-limited offenders and abstainers. (
  • However, research following the Cypriot referendum of 2004, identified four distinct voting behaviors depending on the election type. (
  • The differential effect of several specific emotions have been studied on voting behavior: Surprise - Recent research suggests that the emotion of surprise may magnify the effect of emotions on voting. (
  • The questions studied in travel behavior are broad, and are probed through activity and time-use research studies, and surveys of travelers designed to reveal attitudes, behaviors and the gaps between them in relation to the sociological and environmental impacts of travel. (
  • BCC employs a systematic process beginning with formative research and behavior analysis, followed by communication planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. (
  • A successful BCC requires lots of research and meticulous planning about the knowledge content of the subject and behavior/attitude pattern of the target group. (
  • Attitude-behavior consistency is an important concept for social science research because claims are often made about behavior based on evidence which is really about attitudes. (
  • Research methods that directly observe behaviors avoid the attitudinal fallacy as a matter of course. (
  • Internet research makes it possible to study a wide array of behaviors that leave traces online. (
  • Further research regarding the precise antecedents, processes, and consequences of positive psychological behavior is needed. (
  • Research indicates that DBT might have some effect on patients who present varied symptoms and behaviors associated with spectrum mood disorders, including self-injury. (
  • The Behavior Genetics Association (BGA) is a learned society established in 1970 and which promotes research into the connections between heredity and behavior, both human and animal. (
  • In the 1950s, W. Grey Walter, an English scientist with a background in neurological research, built a pair of vacuum tube-based robots that were exhibited at the 1951 Festival of Britain, and which have simple but effective behavior-based control systems. (
  • The Massachusetts YRBS (MYRBS) focuses on the major risk behaviors that threaten the health and safety of young people. (
  • Collective behavior is the field of sociology that focuses on the sequences and patterns of interaction that emerge in problematic situations. (
  • Therefore, in this more theoretical sense, collective behavior is in fact ubiquitous, and every analysis that focuses on the dynamic (and therefore problematic) aspects of interaction deals to that extent with collective behavior phenomena. (
  • UBA tools use a specialized type of security analytics that focuses on the behavior of systems and the people using them. (
  • DBT focuses on the client acquiring new skills and changing their behaviors, with the ultimate goal of achieving a "life worth living," as defined by the patient. (
  • It focuses on the use of behavior chain analysis, which combines the process of functional analysis with a greater focus on each element in the behavior stream. (
  • It focuses on neuroendocrine and endocrine mechanisms affecting the development of behavior and on the ecological and evolutionary significance of hormone-behavior relationships. (
  • Skinner presents verbal behavior as a function of controlling consequences and stimuli, not as the product of a special inherent capacity. (
  • Misconceptions of invulnerability and the practice of ignoring long-term consequences of their behavior tend to promote risky sexual behavior. (
  • Risky sexual behaviors can lead to serious consequences both for person and their partner(s). (
  • Functional behavior assessments (FBAs) clearly describe behaviors, identify the contexts (events, times, and situation) that predict when behavior will and will not occur, and identify consequences that maintain the behavior. (
  • If practically and ethically possible, the consultant will observe the animal engaging in the problem behavior and identify the antecedents and consequences of that behavior. (
  • The teacher must respond to such problematic behaviors neutrally and unemotionally, and the person who committed the breach is not called out or given "consequences. (
  • Administrative Behavior: a Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization is a book written by Herbert A. Simon (1916-2001). (
  • Symbolic behavior perspective proposes that individuals are faced with uncertainty when introduced to an organization. (
  • Stories/myths: As stories are continually repeated, they provide analogies for individuals and serve to guide behavior within the organization. (
  • Because clothing can influence perceptions of both behavior and intent (Galin, 1990, p. 51), the dress code of an organization can impact their overall image. (
  • Patients with frontal lobe injury may have problems in the selection, production, and organization of goal-directed behavior. (
  • Contextual performance is defined as non-task related work behaviors and activities that contribute to the social and psychological aspects of the organization (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993). (
  • Both also require that these behaviors contribute to the overall success of the organization. (
  • POB is defined as behavior within an organization that is aimed at improving the welfare of an individual, a group or an organization (Brief & Motowidlo, 1986). (
  • ERB is defined as "behavior that attempts to benefit the organization and that goes beyond existing role expectations" (Organ et al. (
  • Learning & Behavior publishes experimental and theoretical contributions and critical reviews concerning fundamental processes of learning and behavior in nonhuman and human animals. (
  • Turner and Killian (1957) were the first sociologists to back their theoretical propositions with visual evidence in the form of photographs and motion pictures of collective behavior in action. (
  • In 1976, theoretical sociologist Donald Black introduced a general sociological theory of law in his book The Behavior of Law. (
  • The analysis of the most cited publications on information behavior during the first years of this century shows its theoretical nature. (
  • they are meant simply to illustrate the focal differences between these three approaches to genetics and behavior (see Table 1), the latter two of which will be the focus here. (
  • and aid in the dissemination of knowledge concerning genetics and behavior, and its implications, such as in health. (
  • and to aid in the dissemination and interpretation to the general public of knowledge concerning the interrelationship of genetics and behavior, and its implications for health and human development and education. (
  • As information seeking continues to migrate to the Internet, and artificial intelligence continues to advance the analysis of user behavior on the Internet across a range of user interactions, information receiving moves to the heart of the process, as systems "learn" what users like, want and need, as well as their search habits. (
  • Boredom: Jobs that require individuals to do the same task on a daily basis can lead to counterproductive behaviors. (
  • It has been proposed that a person-by-environment interaction can be utilized to explain a variety of counterproductive behaviors. (
  • \end{document} Though I don't know the cause of this 'strange behavior' but is you change you definition of '\E' then you get always 'lower' variant. (
  • Strange Behavior is an album by Animotion released by Casablanca Records. (
  • citation needed] Compulsive behaviors could be an attempt to make obsessions go away. (
  • citation needed] Compulsive behaviors are a need to reduce apprehension caused by internal feelings a person wants to abstain from or control. (
  • citation needed] When people do not follow the conventional social and moral rules of their society, the behavior is considered abnormal. (
  • Flocking behavior was first[citation needed] simulated on a computer in 1987 by Craig Reynolds with his simulation program, Boids. (
  • The General Behavior Inventory (GBI) is a 73-question psychological self-report assessment tool designed by Richard Depue[not in citation given] and colleagues to identify the presence and severity of manic and depressive moods in adults, as well as to assess for cyclothymia. (
  • The GBI shows high reliability whether completed as a self report or as a caregiver report about youth behavior[citation needed]. (
  • Neuroscience portal Physiology & Behavior is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier. (
  • What initially attracted much interest to collective behavior was the element of drama almost invariably present in certain "mass" phenomena, whether in the form of novelty, bizarre behavior, exaggerated emotionality, violence, extremist ideology, or some kind of oddity. (
  • But fascination with and criticism of these unusual and "irrational" aspects of collective behavior soon gave way to more basic sociological concerns. (
  • The nature of collective behavior. (
  • Hence, what happens in collective behavior is spontaneous in that it is rarely the product of prior consensus or design. (
  • Behavior theory can refer to: The collective behavior theory, in sociology, the social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure, but which emerge in a "spontaneous" way. (
  • The expression collective behavior was first used by Franklin Henry Giddings (1908) and employed later by Robert E. Park (1921), Herbert Blumer (1939), Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian (1957), and Neil Smelser (1962) to refer to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws, conventions, and institutions), but which emerge in a "spontaneous" way. (
  • Collective behavior can be tremendously destructive, as with riots or mob violence, silly, as with fads, or anywhere in between. (
  • Here are some instances of collective behavior: the Los Angeles riot of 1992, the hula-hoop fad of 1958, the stock market crashes of 1929, and the "phantom gasser" episodes in Virginia in 1933-34 and Mattoon, IL in 1944 (Locher 2002, Miller 2000). (
  • Although there are several other schema that may be used to classify forms of collective behavior the following four categories from Blumer (1939) are generally considered useful by most sociologists. (
  • Scholars differ about what classes of social events fall under the rubric of collective behavior. (
  • Clark McPhail is one of those who treats crowds and collective behavior as synonyms. (
  • just when bird's bin is found in O ( 1 ) {\displaystyle O(1)} Lee Spector, Jon Klein, Chris Perry and Mark Feinstein studied the emergence of collective behavior in evolutionary computation systems. (
  • Nutritional influences on aggressive behavior. (
  • Evidence is emerging that iron deficiency among adolescent males has been shown to be directly associated with aggressive behavior. (
  • Aggressive behavior also generally results in small injuries to the participants. (
  • Another source characterizes passive-aggressive behavior as: "A personality trait marked by a pervasive pattern of negative attitudes and characterized by passive, sometimes obstructionist resistance to complying with expectations in interpersonal or occupational situations. (
  • In conflict theory, passive-aggressive behavior can resemble a behavior better described as catty, as it consists of deliberate, active, but carefully veiled hostile acts which are distinctively different in character from the non-assertive style of passive resistance. (
  • Passive-aggressive behavior from workers and managers is damaging to team unity and productivity. (
  • If managers are Passive-aggressive in their behavior, it can end up stifling team creativity. (
  • Passive-aggressive behavior was first defined clinically by Colonel William Menninger during World War II in the context of men's reaction to military compliance. (
  • According to some psychoanalytic views, noncompliance is not indicative of true passive-aggressive behavior, which may instead be defined as the manifestation of emotions that have been repressed based on a self-imposed need for acceptance. (
  • Other factors significantly linked to aggression are sex and trait anger, with men and individuals with higher levels of trait anger showing more aggressive behaviors. (
  • The main problem with this definition however is that psychologists cannot agree on the boundaries that define what is 'functioning' and what is 'adequately', as some behaviors that can cause 'failure to function' are not seen as bad, for example firemen risking their lives to save people in a blazing fire. (
  • In addition, since the behavior of a given DEVS model needs to define how the state transition change both when time is passed by and when an event occurs, it has been described by a much general formalism, called general system [ZPK (
  • Depending on how the total state and the external state transition function of a DEVS model are defined, there are two ways to define the behavior of a DEVS model using Timed Event System. (
  • While the teacher can define the behaviors to be reduced, the game can be just as effective when students define the behaviors to be reduced to make a better learning environment. (
  • The downside is that after this flag has been set, it is no longer possible to compact the array of behaviors. (