Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Geminiviridae: A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).Malvaceae: The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Abelmoschus: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE, order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae best known for okra.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Ipomoea: A plant genus in the family CONVOLVULACEAE best known for morning glories (a common name also used with CONVOLVULUS) and sweet potato.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Ageratum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that contains PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS. Yellow vein disease of Ageratum is caused by a viral DNA complex of a begomovirus (GEMINIVIRIDAE).Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Solanum nigrum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE that contains steroidal glycosides.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Crotalaria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.Cucumis: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae best known for cucumber (CUCUMIS SATIVUS) and cantaloupe (CUCUMIS MELO). Watermelon is a different genus, CITRULLUS. Bitter melon may refer to MOMORDICA or this genus.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.PakistanMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.IndiaSonchus: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Sesquiterpene lactone glucosides (SESQUITERPENES) have been found in it.Commelina: A plant genus of the family COMMELINACEAE of perennial herbs with blue flowers.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.NepalIndonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).ArchivesPlant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Togo: A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.GermanyRed Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.

DNA helicase activity is associated with the replication initiator protein rep of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus. (1/170)

The Rep protein of tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), a single-stranded DNA virus of plants, is the replication initiator essential for virus replication. TYLCSV Rep has been classified among ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+ ATPases), in superfamily 3 of small DNA and RNA virus replication initiators whose paradigmatic member is simian virus 40 large T antigen. Members of this family are DNA- or RNA-dependent ATPases with helicase activity necessary for viral replication. Another distinctive feature of AAA+ ATPases is their quaternary structure, often composed of hexameric rings. TYLCSV Rep has ATPase activity, but the helicase activity, which is instrumental in further characterization of the mechanism of rolling-circle replication used by geminiviruses, has been a longstanding question. We present results showing that TYLCSV Rep lacking the 121 N-terminal amino acids has helicase activity comparable to that of the other helicases: requirements for a 3' overhang and 3'-to-5' polarity of unwinding, with some distinct features and with a minimal AAA+ ATPase domain. We also show that the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric state of the protein.  (+info)

Synergism of a DNA and an RNA virus: enhanced tissue infiltration of the begomovirus Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) mediated by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). (2/170)

Replication of the begomovirus Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV) is restricted to phloem nuclei, generating moderate levels of virus DNA. Co-infection with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) evidently increased AbMV titers in Nicotiana benthamiana, tobacco, and tomato, resulting in synergistic symptom enhancement. In situ hybridization revealed that in double-infected leaves an increased number of nuclei contained elevated amounts of AbMV. Additionally, the begomoviral phloem-limitation was broken. Whereas CMV 3a movement protein-expressing tobacco plants did not exert any similar influence, the presence of CMV 2b silencing suppressor protein lead to enhanced AbMV titers and numbers of infected vascular cells. The findings prove that AbMV can replicate in nonvascular cells and represent the first report on a true synergism of an RNA/ssDNA virus combination in plants, in which CMV 2b protein plays a role. They indicate considerable consequences of mixed infections between begomo- and cucumoviruses on virus epidemiology and agriculture.  (+info)

Suppressor of RNA silencing encoded by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel. (3/170)

The Israeli isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV-Is) is a major tomato pathogen, causing extensive crop losses both in the New and Old World. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of TYLCV-Is interactions with tomato cells. Here, we have identified a TYLCV-Is protein, V2, which acts as a suppressor of RNA silencing and which is unrelated to presently known viral suppressors. Specifically, V2, but not other proteins of TYLCV-Is, inhibited RNA silencing of a reporter transgene, GFP. This inhibition elevated the cellular levels of the GFP transcript and the GFP protein, but it had no apparent effect on the accumulation of GFP-specific short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), suggesting that TYLCV-Is V2 targets a step in the RNA silencing pathway which is subsequent to the Dicer-mediated cleavage of dsRNA. Visualization of the sub-cellular localization of TYLCV-Is V2 in plant protoplasts and tissues showed that this protein is associated with cytoplasmic strands and inclusion bodies in the cortical regions of the cell.  (+info)

Founder effect, plant host, and recombination shape the emergent population of begomoviruses that cause the tomato yellow leaf curl disease in the Mediterranean basin. (4/170)

Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD)-associated viruses present a highly structured population in the western Mediterranean basin, depending on host, geographical region and time. About 1,900 tomato and common bean samples were analyzed from which 111 isolates were characterized genetically based on a genome sequence that comprises coding and non-coding regions. Isolates of three distinct begomoviruses previously described were found (Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, TYLCV, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus, TYLCSV, and Tomato yellow leaf curl Malaga virus, TYLCMalV), together with a novel recombinant virus. Mixed infections were detected in single plants, rationalizing the occurrence of recombinants. Except for TYLCV-type strain, single, undifferentiated subpopulations were present for each virus type, probably the result of founder effects. Limited genetic variation was observed in genomic regions, with selection against amino acid change in coding regions.  (+info)

Tomato yellow spot virus, a tomato-infecting begomovirus from Brazil with a closer relationship to viruses from Sida sp., forms pseudorecombinants with begomoviruses from tomato but not from Sida. (5/170)

Geminiviruses are characterized by a circular, single-stranded DNA genome and twinned icosahedral particles. Begomoviruses (whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses) are a major constraint to crop production worldwide. In Brazil, tomato-infecting begomoviruses emerged as serious pathogens over the last 10 years, due to the introduction of a new biotype of the insect vector. Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV) is a newly described begomovirus originally isolated from tomato, but phylogenetically closer to viruses from Sida sp. A study was performed to determine the viability of pseudorecombinants formed between the DNA components of ToYSV and other weed- and tomato-infecting begomoviruses from Brazil. Despite its closer relationship to weed-infecting viruses, ToYSV was only capable of forming viable pseudorecombinants with tomato viruses. An infectious pseudorecombinant formed between ToYSV DNA-A and tomato crinkle leaf yellows virus (TCrLYV) DNA-B induced severe symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. This was attributed, at least in part, to the fact that the origins of replication of both components had identical Rep-binding sequences. However, this was not the case for another infectious pseudorecombinant formed between tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) DNA-A and ToYSV DNA-B, which have different Rep-binding sequences. These results reinforce the notion that pseudorecombinant formation cannot be explained solely on the basis of phylogenetic relationships and conserved iteron sequences, and suggest that the TGMV Rep protein may be more versatile in terms of recognizing heterologous DNA components than that of ToYSV.  (+info)

Tomato chlorotic mottle virus is a target of RNA silencing but the presence of specific short interfering RNAs does not guarantee resistance in transgenic plants. (6/170)

Tomato chlorotic mottle virus (ToCMoV) is a begomovirus found widespread in tomato fields in Brazil. ToCMoV isolate BA-Se1 (ToCMoV-[BA-Se1]) was shown to trigger the plant RNA silencing surveillance in different host plants and, coinciding with a decrease in viral DNA levels, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific to ToCMoV-[BA-Se1] accumulated in infected plants. Although not homogeneously distributed, the siRNA population in both infected Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato plants represented the entire DNA-A and DNA-B genomes. We determined that in N. benthamiana, the primary targets corresponded to the 5' end of AC1 and the embedded AC4, the intergenic region and 5' end of AV1 and overlapping central part of AC5. Subsequently, transgenic N. benthamiana plants were generated that were preprogrammed to express double-stranded RNA corresponding to this most targeted portion of the virus genome by using an intron-hairpin construct. These plants were shown to indeed produce ToCMoV-specific siRNAs. When challenge inoculated, most transgenic lines showed significant delays in symptom development, and two lines had immune plants. Interestingly, the levels of transgene-produced siRNAs were similar in resistant and susceptible siblings of the same line. This indicates that, in contrast to RNA viruses, the mere presence of transgene siRNAs corresponding to DNA virus sequences does not guarantee virus resistance and that other factors may play a role in determining RNA-mediated resistance to DNA viruses.  (+info)

The oligomeric Rep protein of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a likely replicative helicase. (7/170)

Geminiviruses replicate by rolling circle mode of replication (RCR) and the viral Rep protein initiates RCR by the site-specific nicking at a conserved nonamer (TAATATT downward arrow AC) sequence. The mechanism of subsequent steps of the replication process, e.g. helicase activity to drive fork-elongation, etc. has largely remained obscure. Here we show that Rep of a geminivirus, namely, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), acts as a replicative helicase. The Rep-helicase, requiring > or =6 nt space for its efficient activity, translocates in the 3'-->5' direction, and the presence of forked junction in the substrate does not influence the activity to any great extent. Rep forms a large oligomeric complex and the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric conformation ( approximately 24mer). The role of Rep as a replicative helicase has been demonstrated through ex vivo studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in planta analyses in Nicotiana tabacum. We also establish that such helicase activity is not confined to the MYMIV system alone, but is also true with at least two other begomoviruses, viz., Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV).  (+info)

Distinct viral sequence elements are necessary for expression of Tomato golden mosaic virus complementary sense transcripts that direct AL2 and AL3 gene expression. (8/170)

Transient expression studies using Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts and plants have identified sequences important for transcription of complementary sense RNAs derived from Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) DNA component A that direct expression of AL2 and AL3. Transcription of two complementary sense RNAs, initiating at nucleotides 1,935 (AL1935) and 1,629 (AL1629), is directed by unique sequences located upstream of each transcription initiation site. One element is located between 28 and 124 nucleotides (nt) upstream of the AL1935 transcription start site, which differs from a second element located 150 nt downstream, between 129 and 184 nt upstream of the AL1629 transcription start site. Transcription initiation at nucleotide 1,935 is lower than that at nucleotide 1,629 as determined by run-on transcription assays, and the resulting transcript is only capable of expressing AL3. The transcript initiating at nucleotide 1,629 is capable of directing expression of both AL2 and AL3, although expression of AL3 is up to fourfold greater than that for AL2. Nuclear factors purified from tobacco suspension cells bind to sequences upstream of both AL1935 and AL1629, correlating with the ability of these sequences to direct gene expression. Thus, in tobacco, regulatory sequences direct transcription of two unique TGMV messenger RNAs that differentially express AL2 and AL3.  (+info)

Begomoviruses have emerged as serious problem for vegetable and fiber crops in the recent past, frequently in tropical and subtropical region of the world. The association of begomovirus with eggplant yellow mosaic disease is hitherto unknown apart from one report from Thailand. A survey in Nagpur, Central India, in 2009-2010 showed severe incidence of eggplant yellow mosaic disease. Here, we have identified and characterized a begomovirus responsible for the newly emerging yellow mosaic disease of eggplant in India. The complete DNA-A and DNA-B genomic components of the causative virus were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA-A showed that it shared highest 97.6% identity with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-India[India:Udaipur:Okra:2007] and lowest 87.9% identity with Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-India[India:NewDelhi:Papaya:2005], while DNA-B showed highest 94.1% identity with ToLCNDV-IN[IN:UD:Ok:07] and lowest 76.2% identity with ToLCNDV-India[India:Lucknow]. Thus, it
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a DNA virus from the genus Begomovirus and the family Geminiviridae. TYLCV causes the most destructive disease of tomato, and it can be found in tropical and subtropical regions causing severe economic losses. This virus is transmitted by an insect vector from the family Aleyrodidae and order Hemiptera, the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, commonly known as the silverleaf whitefly or the sweet potato whitefly. The primary host for TYLCV is the tomato plant, and other plant hosts where TYLCV infection has been found include eggplants, potatoes, tobacco, beans, and peppers. Due to the rapid spread of TYLCV in the last few decades, there is an increased focus in research trying to understand and control this damaging pathogen. Some interesting findings include virus being sexually transmitted from infected males to non-infected females (and vice versa), and an evidence that TYLCV is transovarially transmitted to offspring for two generations. This virus consists of ...
A Simple and Reliable Molecular Detection Method for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Solanum lycopersicum without DNA Extraction - Detection;Duplex PCR;Internal Control;Tomato;TYLCV;
Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) exert an essential function in the transduction of signals from the cell exterior to the cell interior, acting as important regulators of plant development and responses to environmental conditions. A growing body of evidence suggests that RLKs may play relevant roles in plant-virus interactions, although the details and diversity of effects and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The C4 protein from different geminiviruses has been found to interact with RLKs in the CLAVATA 1 (CLV1) clade. However, whether C4 can interact with RLKs in other subfamilies and, if so, what the biological impact of such interactions might be, is currently unknown. In this work, we explore the interaction landscape of C4 from the geminivirus Tomato yellow leaf curl virus within the Arabidopsis RLK family. Our results show that C4 can interact with RLKs from different subfamilies including, but not restricted to, members of the CLV1 clade. Functional analyses of the interaction of C4 with
Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses) are a major limiting factor for the production of numerous dicotyledonous crops throughout the world. Begomoviruses differ in the number of components that make up their genomes and association with satellites, and yet they cause strikingly similar phenotypes, such as leaf curling, chlorosis and stunted plant growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs that regulate plant growth and development. The study described here was aimed at investigating the effects of each virus encoded gene on the levels of developmental miRNAs to identify common trends between distinct begomoviruses. All genes encoded by four distinct begomoviruses (African cassava mosaic virus [ACMV], Cabbage leaf curl virus [CbLCuV], Tomato yellow leaf curl virus [TYLCV] and Cotton leaf curl virus/Cotton leaf curl betasatellite [CLCuV/CLCuMB]) were expressed from a Potato virus X (PVX) vector in Nicotiana benthamiana. Changes in the levels of ten miRNAs in response to the virus
Read "Distribution and genetic diversity of tomato-infecting begomoviruses in Brazil *, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Read "Molecular diversity of the DNA-β satellites associated with tomato leaf curl disease in India, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
A divergent isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus from Oman with an associated DNAb satellite: an evolutionary link between Asian and the Middle Eastern virus-satellite complexes, 2008 ...
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8;105(1):157-61. Epub 2007 Dec 28. Interaction with host SGS3 is required for suppression of RNA silencing by tomato yellow leaf curl virus V2 protein. Glick E, Zrachya A, Levy Y, Mett A, Gidoni D, Belausov E, Citovsky V, Gafni Y ...
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 8;105(1):157-61. Epub 2007 Dec 28. Interaction with host SGS3 is required for suppression of RNA silencing by tomato yellow leaf curl virus V2 protein. Glick E, Zrachya A, Levy Y, Mett A, Gidoni D, Belausov E, Citovsky V, Gafni Y ...
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Geminiviruses are serious plant pathogens infecting dicotyledonous plants, among them important crop plants. They are characterized by small geminate particles containing single-stranded circular DNA molecules. Because geminiviruses replicate in the nucleus, viral DNA has to cross the nuclear envelope and the plasmodesmata for systemic spread. Two genes are required for inter- and intracellular transport of bipartite begomoviruses: ORF BV1 (syn. BR1) encodes a nuclear shuttle protein (NSP), and ORF BC1 (syn. BL1) the movement protein (MP). The mechanism of geminiviral intra- and intercellular transport is still a matter of debate and the transport complex is unknown. We want to identify host factors involved in viral intra- and intercellular transport by a proteomic approach to gain further insight in the underlying mechanism of virus movement. ...
Geminiviruses infect crops, ornamentals and weeds and cause substantial agro-economical losses around the world. The incidence and severity of geminivirus diseases has greatly increased in the past 20 years. The family Geminiviridae is one of the largest and most important families of plant viruses. The DNA genomes of geminiviruses encode only for 5-7 proteins that redirect host machineries and processes to establish a productive infection. These interactions reprogram plant cell cycle and transcriptional controls, inhibit cell death pathways, interfere with cell signaling and protein turnover, and suppress defense. The genome of bipartite begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae) consists of two circular ssDNA molecules: DNA A and DNA B. Both genome components are relatively small (2.5 - 3.0 kb per single-stranded DNA circle) and replicate within the plant nucleus. Thus, systemic infection requires the permeation across two cellular barriers, the nuclear envelope and plasmodesmata. The two DNA ...
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On 17 February the Progressive Youth Alliance organised its city convention of Multan at the Multan Tea House hall. More than 200 students from various colleges and universities of Multan participated in this meeting.
Meet the Curl Enhancing Styling Mousse by Living Proof at COSMANIA! Other products dont have the right combination of hold and conditioning to enhance and shape weaker curl patterns and waves. Plus most mousses come with all sorts of tradeoffs - like stiff, sticky or crunchy hair. Yuck.. The Curl Enhancing Styling Mousse shapes and defines natural waves and curls that need a boost. Extended Curl Memory technology combines with contracting resins to give you touchable, enhanced curls that stay beautiful and frizz free longer. The Curl Enhancing Styling Mousse repels humidity for superior frizz protection, your curls last 2x longer. Also it provides residue-free cuticle smoothing for long-lasting curl definition and delivers touchable hold for long-lasting, resilient curls.. When the complete Curl line is used together, curls are beautiful, defined, and frizz-free - and they stay that way 2 times longer. Silicone free and color safe ...
Avoid leaf curl through destruction of the plant, careful application of herbicides, or proper watering habits. There is no cure for leaves that are already...
BUmug-1 mung bean was released in Bangladesh in 2000 for stable and high yield with combined resistance to Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) (caused by Cercospora cruenta Sac. or Cercospora canescens Ellis & Martin). BUmug-1 is an early maturing, bold-seeded material with synchronous pod maturity. ...
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Affecting peaches and nectarines, leaf curl (Taphrina deformans) is one of the most common disease problems found in backyard orchards.
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I cant wait to try this on born my daughters when they get home. My 6 yr old has very long volume straight hair down to her bum and my 8yr old has very straight sleek shoulder length hair. My little one begs for me too curl hair bc when she was a baby she had very pretty ringlets but as it got long the curls came out then I eventually had to trim it at 4 yrs bc it was interfering with potty stuff and the last curls at the ends were cut off and never came back. Ive tried ion hot rollers and I have a curling iron and neither girls curls stay for even an hour. . I hope this works! Ill update after and let you girls know how it held up. ReplyDelete ...
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Dumbbell bicep curls - Can I stunt my growth by doing bicep curls with 10 pound dumbbells? I do 5 sets of 20 push ups, 20 bicep curls, 20 squats, 20 sit ups. Can that stunt my growth? No. No. It wont stunt your growth.
today while doing back and bis i witnessed a dude do 15 sets of curls. when i started my back routine, he was doing barbell curls. i counted 3 sets, then moved over to the squat rack to do another 3-4 sets. followed by a few sets of incline curls, hammer curls, and then concentration curls. he then asked one of the jock dudes he was with if he knew of any other curls exercises! i dont think he did anything else but curls and be up on this guys junk. it was really funny when i was discussing curls with my partner and how i only had 4 sets to do. he then said to me, why so little, dont you want to have big guns ...
Question: My potted (in Sea Soil) tomato plant is growing and thriving nicely on my very warm patio. I guess it likes that kind of heat. However, even
The local bourse paused for breath on Tuesday after tapping fresh record highs for five sessions straight, edging lower as Woolworths closed above $40 for the first time.
A short walk down the road we came across some other smaller trees which Wren wanted to "not climb I hang on". I lifted him up and then left him hanging while I took the picture. He was yelling "AAAAH" at this point. It was not more than a foot if he let go but he thought I he might be dangling over the Niagara Falls and hung on tight. I thought it was ok to let him hang a bit as payback for all the bossiness he has been displaying ...
Finding ingredients to keep your curls soft this winter might not be as tricky as you think! These 5 ingredients can help keep your curls moisturized.
Ezy Bar Curl - Phase 4 - Hypertrophy Phase 2 - Day 4: The Ezy Bar Curl was named not for its degree of difficulty but for the particular type of equipment that it uses; the Ezy bar. Remember to activate the core on this exercise as well, pulling in your navel towards your spine. This exercise is ver
Lung, Cell, Cells, Role, Mice, Tomato, Virus, Inflammation, mRNA, Treatment, Genome, Transient, Birth, Genes, Injury, Transcription Factor, Begomoviruses, DNA, Ventilation, Epithelial Cells
This biceps guide teaches you the proper method for the alternating dumbbell curls exercise with photos and instructions to help you build big arms.
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The species page of Taphrina deformans. Also know as peach leaf curl fungus. Information about genome files, completeness, GC-content, size, N50-values, and sequencing methods are listed.
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Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) is a bipartite whitefly transmitted begomovirus, responsible since 2013 of severe damages in cucurbit crops in Southeastern Spain. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) is the most affected species, but melon (Cucumis melo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) are also highly damaged by the infection. The virus has spread across Mediterranean basin and European countries, and integrated control measures are not being enough to reduce economic losses. The identification of resistance genes is required to develop resistant cultivars. In this assay, we studied the inheritance of the resistance to ToLCNDV previously identified in two Cucurbita moschata accessions. We generated segregating populations crossing both resistant pumpkins, an American improved cultivar Large Cheese (PI 604506) and an Indian landrace (PI 381814), with a susceptible C. moschata genotype (PI 419083). The analysis of symptoms and viral titers of all populations established the same monogenic recessive genetic
During the last few decades, many virus species have emerged, often forming dynamic complexes within which viruses share common hosts and rampantly exchange genetic material through recombination. Begomovirus species complexes are common and represent serious agricultural threats. Characterization of species complex diversity has substantially contributed to our understanding of both begomovirus evolution, and the ecological and epidemiological processes involved in the emergence of new viral pathogens. To date, the only extensively studied emergent African begomovirus species complex is that responsible for cassava mosaic disease. Here we present a study of another emerging begomovirus species complex which is associated with serious disease outbreaks in bean, tobacco and tomato on the south-west Indian Ocean (SWIO) islands off the coast of Africa. On the basis of 14 new complete DNA-A sequences, we describe seven new island monopartite begomovirus species, suggesting the presence of an extraordinary
Severe mosaic symptoms, accompanied by yellow spots, abnormally small leaves, fruit malformation and cracking, reduced plant growth, and high levels of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1) infestation were observed in passionflower (Passiflora edulis) orchards in southwestern Bahia, Brazil. The aim of this work was to identify the species of begomovirus infecting the passionflowers, its prevalence in southwestern Bahia, and the spatial and temporal dynamics of the disease. Leaf samples from symptomatic plants collected at 57 orchards located in ten counties were evaluated by PCR for begomovirus infection. Complete nucleotide sequences of DNA-A for two isolates revealed 97 % identity with Passionfruit severe leaf distortion virus (PSLDV). The occurrence of PSLDV in 57 orchards was evaluated based on the presence of characteristic disease symptoms. Approximately 235,000 visually assessed plants exhibited symptoms characteristic of begomovirus infection. Epidemiological studies, conducted in two ...
Cotton Leaf Curl Disease is among the most destroying viral catastrophe that causes tremendous loss to cotton yield particularly in Pakistan during the past 20
There are quite a few famous Neurologists in Multan. Some of the best Neurologists in Multan are . Some of the diseases & procedures that Neurologists in Multan cure or deal with are: Meningitis, Apraxia, Athetosis, Cerebral palsy, Chorea, Epilepsy treatment, ICP Monitoring. Contact the MyZindagi Multan health advisors for any information or advice relating to Neurologists in Multan.. ...
Geminiviruses constitute a group of plant viruses that infect vegetable crops all over the world. Among the Geminiviridae family, the genera Mastrevirus, Begomovirus and Curtovirus are the most abundant. Suppression of gene silencing is a key mechanism for viral infection in plants. In begomovirus, V2 is a strong posttranscriptional gene silencing suppressor. We recently showed that, despite the lack of sequence homology with V2 from begomovirus, V2 from curtovirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is also a PTGS suppressor by impairing the RDR6/SGS3 pathway. In order to identify the domains involved the suppression activity and viral pathogenicity, we analysed the aminoacidic sequence, performing an alignment of several begomovirus and curtovirus V2 proteins. A protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation motif essential for suppression activity in begomovirus (P1) was founded in a similar position in all analysed sequences. Besides, other two putative CK2 and PKC phosphorilation motifs (P2 and P3) were ...
Conclusions and Recommendations. The study revealed that three viruses, TMV, begomovirus and TEV, were associated with viral disease outbreaks in tomato in Trinidad in 2003. The other viruses tested for (CMV, PVY, PLRV, and TSWV) were not detected, which indicates that that they were absent, occurred at too low a frequency or in titers too low to be detected by the sampling and/or testing method employed in this study. As this survey was conducted only in the dry season and in a single year (2003), a role for the other viruses in tomato viral disease in Trinidad cannot be ruled out. The results indicated an overall high incidence of begomovirus infection. This suggests that begomovirus(es) may be the most important viral pathogen in tomato in Trinidad. As there no detected weed hosts of begomovirus (PYMTV) detected in Trinidad (16), it is likely that infected tomato plants are the primary inoculum source for begomovirus. This is also supported by a failure to detect virus infection in ...
The LBR:GFP marker was used in transient expression experiments in tobacco plants to visualize the plant nuclear envelope (PNE). The LBR:GFP marker consists of the first 238 amino acids of the human lamin B receptor (LBR), fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP fluorescence accumulated only at the PNE of leaf epidermal cells, although plants do not possess any lamin proteins. Abutilon mosaic virus (AbMV; genus begomovirus) induce alteration of plant nuclear architecture which can be monitored by the LBR:GFP marker. Co-expression experiments have shown that the two transport proteins of AbMV (MP and NSP) are responsible for those alterations, e.g. intense necking, vesicle formation and budding. Successful LBR:GFP targeting anchoring in PNE suggests, that underlying mechanism may be common in plants and humans. We predicted that NSP and MP also re-localize LBR in the human cell and therefore we addressed the question and investigate if the begomoviral transport proteins also have a ...
Begomoviruses are economically important viruses with ssDNA containing monopartite or bipartite genomes, encapsulated in twinned particles belonging to family Geminiviridae. Currently, a total seven...
Geminiviruses are small DNA viruses that use plant replication machinery to amplify their genomes. Microarray analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcriptome in response to cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) infection uncovered 5,365 genes (false discovery rate ,0.005) differentially expressed in infected rosette leaves at 12 d postinoculation. Data mining revealed that CaLCuV triggers a pathogen response via the salicylic acid pathway and induces expression of genes involved in programmed cell death, genotoxic stress, and DNA repair. CaLCuV also altered expression of cell cycle-associated genes, preferentially activating genes expressed during S and G2 and inhibiting genes active in G1 and M. A limited set of core cell cycle genes associated with cell cycle reentry, late G1, S, and early G2 had increased RNA levels, while core cell cycle genes linked to early G1 and late G2 had reduced transcripts. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting of nuclei from infected leaves revealed a ...
Geminivirus AC2 is a multifunctional protein that acts as a pathogenicity factor. Transcriptional regulation by AC2 appears to be mediated through interaction with a plant specific DNA binding protein, PEAPOD2 (PPD2), that specifically binds to sequences known to mediate activation of the CP promoter of Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) and Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV). Suppression of both basal and innate immune responses by AC2 in plants is mediated through inactivation of SnRK1.2, an Arabidopsis SNF1 related protein kinase, and adenosine kinase (ADK). An indirect promoter targeting strategy, via AC2-host dsDNA binding protein interactions, and inactivation of SnRK1.2-mediated defense responses could provide the opportunity for geminiviruses to alter host gene expression and in turn, reprogram the host to support virus infection. The goal of this study was to identify changes in the transcriptome of Arabidopsis induced by the transcription activation function of AC2 and the inactivation of ...
Multan Institute of Cardiology (MIC) is the original name of Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi Institute of Cardiology. It is located in Multan city in Pakistan. It was established by Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi former chief minister of Punjab province of Pakistan in 2006. The project of establishing a state of the art tertiary care center for cardiac patients went through various ups and downs in its early days. It was the desire of millions of people living in south Punjab yet was delayed by bureaucracy. In early 2003, Ch Pervaiz Elahi, the honorable Chief Minister of Punjab, took it the center as one of his top priority development projects. The seriousness of his resolve manifested itself when he appointed Col. (Ret) Prof M A Cheema as the Project Director of MIC. Prof. M A Cheema is one of the pioneers of cardiac surgery in Pakistan and had previously established Cardiac Surgery in the Mayo Hospital and Punjab Institute of Cardiology Lahore. Under his leadership the project moved forward with great success ...
Nair, R M and Götz, M and Winter, S and Giri, R R and Boddepalli, V N and Sirari, A and Bains, T S and Taggar, G K and Dikshit, H K and Aski, M and Boopathi, M and Swain, D and Rathore, A and Anil Kumar, V and Lii, E C and Kenyon, L (2017) Identification of mungbean lines with tolerance or resistance to yellow mosaic in fields in India where different begomovirus species and different Bemisia tabaci cryptic species predominate. European Journal of Plant Pathology. pp. 1-17. ISSN 0929-1873 War, A R and Taggar, G K and War, M Y and Hussain, B (2016) Impact of climate change on insect pests, plant chemical ecology, tritrophic interactions and food production. International Journal of Clinical and Biological Sciences, 01 (02). pp. 16-29. ISSN 2455-6858 ...
AM948961) from Nawab Shah, Pakistan (Fig. 2).. Defective (df) DNAs are often associated with the geminiviral diseases, which are derived from a partial deletion of viral genomes (Patil and Dasgupta, 2006). These defective molecules have nonanucloetide sequence, which suggests that these df molecules are trans-replicated by the helper virus, resulting in reduction of the viral symptoms, thus referred as defective interfering molecules (Patil and Dasgupta, 2006). Reduction in disease symptoms is either due to initiation of host RNAi mechanism (Bach and Jeske, 2014) or by the competition of df molecules with the helper virus for the cellular resources (Stanley et al., 1990). Along with the full-length begomovirus, two defective begomoviruses were also cloned from the sample. Complete sequencing of defective begomoviruses, having nonanucloetide sequence revealed DNA molecules of half and a quarter of the full-length begomovirus, 1459 and 714 nt respectively. The sequences are available in the ...
O receptor LRR-RLK (Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase), designado NIK1 (NSP-interacting kinases), está envolvido na resposta imunológica em plantas contra Germinivirus. NIK1 foi inicialmente descrito por interagir com a proteína viral NSP (nuclear shuttle protein), proteína que participa do transporte de DNA viral do núcleo para o citoplasma de células infectadas. Com alta similaridade estrutural a NIK1, BAK1 (Brassinosteroid Insensitive Associated Kinase1), também conhecida como SERK3 (Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase3), é um receptor LRR-RLK de membrana que desempenha um duplo papel em vias de sinalização, podendo atuar como um coreceptor de BRI1 na presença de BR ou mediar respostas de defesa contra patógenos. Na via de crescimento desencadeada por brassinosteróides (BRs), BAK1 interage com BRI1 (Brassinosteroid-insensitive1) na membrana plasmática e ativa a função de cinase desta proteína. Recentemente, através de dados de RNA-seq, foi demonstrado que ...
The inability of begomoviruses to systemically infect several Nicotiana species is likely due to inhibition of virus movement rather than replication and provides a novel model to study virus-host interactions in resistant/susceptible hosts.
So far the Institute has developed and released 60 high yielding open pollinated varieties and 15 F1 hybrids in 24 vegetable crops resistant to pests and diseases for commercial cultivation, Arka Manik of Watermelon - triple resistant to pests and diseases, Arka Anamika in okra resistant to Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus and Arka Komal of French bean resistant to rust has spread to the length and breadth of the nation. High yielding varieties of tomato Arka Vikas, Arka Kalyan and Arka Niketan in onion have made significant impacts. In the recent years, the Institute has released tomato hybrid Arka Ananya, with combined resistant to Tomato Leaf Curl Virus and Bacterial wilt, chilli hybrids Arka Meghana tolerant to thrips and viruses, Arka Harita and Arka Suphal of chilli tolerant to powdery mildew, high yielding male sterility base chilli hybrid Arka Swetha, bacterial wilt brinjal hybrid Arka Anand, high yielding onion hybrids based on male sterility Arka Lalima and Arka Kirthima are a few which have ...
Latest Jobs in Ibn e Sina Hospital and Research Institute, Multan Medical and Dental College, Health Department Punjab, posted on 27-Dec-2017 | Jobs in Pakistan
Hardy grape ivy can make a great houseplant if its given the proper care. Sometimes, though, it still gets sick and develops yellow leaves. Find out how to care for a grape ivy with yellow leaves in this article.
Hassler M. 2017. Abutilon theophrasti World Plants: Synonymic Checklists of the Vascular Plants of the World (version Aug. 2017). In: Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., Nieukerken E. van, Zarucchi J., Penev L., eds. 2017. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Published on the internet. Accessed: 2017 July 23 ...
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Ok I have the same issue. I had soft natural ringlets and over time I noticed they began to soften and flatten and though I love henna I really didnt like the results it had on my curls at all. I tried the amla and wasnt really too impressed. I mean I didnt see much of a change after using it once in a henna mix and another time by itself on my hair. That being the issue, I have been using henna only on my roots and doing a whole head treatment every three months and this has helped somewhat BUT it hasnt completely restored the original curl. So unless there is a solution to have your original curl and henna loveliness, you have to decide whats more important, if you want to use henna once a month you will find that the curls will be dramatically loose over time. If you do what I do you will (whole head every three months and only roots once a month) you will find that there is a little more curl and bounce but not as it was so to speak. There is another option I am considering which is to ...
Ok I have the same issue. I had soft natural ringlets and over time I noticed they began to soften and flatten and though I love henna I really didnt like the results it had on my curls at all. I tried the amla and wasnt really too impressed. I mean I didnt see much of a change after using it once in a henna mix and another time by itself on my hair. That being the issue, I have been using henna only on my roots and doing a whole head treatment every three months and this has helped somewhat BUT it hasnt completely restored the original curl. So unless there is a solution to have your original curl and henna loveliness, you have to decide whats more important, if you want to use henna once a month you will find that the curls will be dramatically loose over time. If you do what I do you will (whole head every three months and only roots once a month) you will find that there is a little more curl and bounce but not as it was so to speak. There is another option I am considering which is to ...
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... (NGO) have its headquarters in Multan City in south Punjab while covering the Districts Multan, Muzaffarghar, Dera Ghazi Khan and RajnPur including rural areas respectively, Further now we are exploringing our work in all provinces (Punjab ,Sind ,Balouchistan,NWFP as well as FATA and related Valleys / Agencies) of Pakistan Country. In the long term, Hasaan foundation(NGO)hopes to gradually expand its work in other countries of the world ...
MULTAN: Multan Development Authority Chairman Rana Abdul Jabbar said that site identification survey for the PMs housing scheme was underway in the district.Talking here on Saturday, he said...
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1 review for Pantene No Crunch Curls Whip. swtlemon says: While it made my hair soft and crunch-free, I had to stop using this because I realized this was the culprit to my greasy, dull curls.I had been using this almost daily, and I found that my curls were…
A while ago I was going curls with the z bar with enough weight that it was pretty difficult to do. I may have dropped/slammed the bar onto the preacher rack and that hurt my forearm a little bit. This was about a month ago or more. Yesterday I was doing curls with dumbells with much lesser weight and when I put it down and released it, i could feel the pain in the forearm again. Ive taking it slow, if do hammer curls instead which dont hurt.
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Strain - sativa freezeland # of Plants - 105 Grow Type - coco Grow Stage - Vegetative Bucket Size - 2 Gallon Lights - (6) 1000 Watt HPS Nutrients - bo
With their green foliage and luscious, fragrant blooms, roses (Rosa spp.) are perennial favorites in home and public gardens. Although known for sometimes being difficult to cultivate, roses are less ...
Why do beans curl? You thought you had them all sorted, before the fruits started curling. Read here to find out why bean pods curl while growing and what you can do about snap bean problems.
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Tyra Banks Lookbook: Tyra Banks wearing Medium Curls with Bangs (1 of 11). Tyra Banks styled her hair in carefree curls and wispy bangs while attending the 2011 New Front Conference.
When I realized that Q had naturally curly hair, I was THRILLED! I have always had very straight hair, and of course, always wanted curly. But my next thought was - "Oh NO! I have no idea how to care for curly hair!" So I set our on a mission to learn all the ins and outs of curls. My desire is for her to grow up Loving the curls God gave her! But in order to do that, I figure I have to learn it all myself and then teach her how to manage it - before its managing her! lol ...
Syed Saleem Shezad is many thing reliable he is not. Baitullah Masud is now not in S Waziristan but in Bajuar someplace. He is about 6 months behind the times. The Army is still is S Waziristan it was never withrawn from there (14 Div is back in Multan now, but it is replaced by a newly raised formation whose name escapes me). Darra Adam Khel, is part of Kohat district which is something like 400 km from S Waziristan. Swat is no where near waziristan, and its issues are seperate, and there Ill concede, they have a point ...
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Ideally uploaded logos must have a transparent background. If your logo does not have this property you can optionally have its background be made transparent provided it is white (or near white) by entering a transparency threshold value. A threshold value of 0 will make transparent all pixels with RGB values where the R, G, and B components are all exactly 255, i.e., only white pixels will be transparent. On the other hand, a non-zero value, say N, will make transparent all pixels with RGB values where the R, G, and B components have values from (255-N) to 255, i.e., white as well as near white pixels will be transparent ...
Ideally uploaded logos must have a transparent background. If your logo does not have this property you can optionally have its background be made transparent provided it is white (or near white) by entering a transparency threshold value. A threshold value of 0 will make transparent all pixels with RGB values where the R, G, and B components are all exactly 255, i.e., only white pixels will be transparent. On the other hand, a non-zero value, say N, will make transparent all pixels with RGB values where the R, G, and B components have values from (255-N) to 255, i.e., white as well as near white pixels will be transparent ...
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Doing barbell curls behind the back is your initial exercise. The best way to do this is at a barbell rack, or with the set weight barbells. We shall assume you are at the barbell rack for this example. Try not to use the smith machine for this exercise unless you are limited on time and need to make use of the only piece of equipment accessible. Set your body so the bar is positioned beneath your waist, so you have to bend over at the knees to grab the weight. Get your correct weight, and then grab the barbell, similar to how you would for back shrugs. With your arms pushed up against your body for stability, curl the bar upwards ensuring you primarily use your forearms. Slowly lower the bar and then repeat. This is best performed x3 sets of x10-x15 repetitions ...
Is there such a thing? haha. Im talking about a supplement that would shuttle protein into the muscle. My body doesnt utilize protein/carbs very
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Als Virus-Taxonomie bezeichnet man die international verbindliche Benennung von Viren, Virusfamilien und -gattungen. Die Entscheidung über verschiedene Taxa wird von einem internationalen Gremium, dem International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), beraten und getroffen. Die Virus-Taxonomie ist ein an die Taxonomien von Pflanzen und Tieren angelehnter Versuch, die Vielfalt viraler und subviraler Entitäten (auch Prionen und Retrotransposons) systematisch und einheitlich zu ordnen. Sie darf nicht mit der weiter gefassten Virusklassifikation verwechselt werden, bei der verschiedene Eigenschaften von Viren zur Einteilung herangezogen werden können (zum Beispiel nur Genomstruktur, Baltimore-Klassifikation, Wirtsspecies, Übertragungsart etc.). In der offiziellen Veröffentlichung des ICTV (Stand März 2019, Master Species List 2018b.v2)[1] finden sich etliche sonst übliche Bezeichnungen nicht, da über deren taxonomische Zuordnung noch keine einheitliche Meinung gefunden werden konnte. ...
The symptom is associated with the presence of a begomovirus. This virus, designated OxYVV, is transmitted by the whitefly ... Herrera, Favio; Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina; Valverde, Rodrigo A. (2015). "A begomovirus associated with yellow vein symptoms ...
... (AbMV) is a virus of the genus Begomovirus. It infects Abutilon species, notably the flowering maple, ...
They do not appear to cause disease in plants or to alter the course of infection by the begomovirus. They may be able to ... Kumar J, Kumar A, Roy JK, Tuli R, Khan JA (August 2010). "Identification and molecular characterization of begomovirus and ... Xie Y, Wu P, Liu P, Gong H, Zhou X (2010). "Characterization of alphasatellites associated with monopartite begomovirus/ ... Alphasatellites associated with the begomoviruses require a begomovirus for movement in plants and insect transmission but are ...
The viruses are members of the Family Geminiviridae and the Genus Begomovirus. The first report of cassava mosaic disease (CMD ... This highly virulent virus was later discovered to be a chimaera of two distinct begomovirus species. Currently, CMD is managed ... Because different species of begomovirus produce different variants of this suppressor protein, co-infection by multiple ...
Xie Y, Wu P, Liu P, Gong H, Zhou X (2010). "Characterization of alphasatellites associated with monopartite begomovirus/ ... Alphasatellites are small circular single strand DNA viruses that require a begomovirus for transmission. Betasatellites are ... small linear single stranded DNA viruses that require a begomovirus to replicate. Phylogenetic relationships between these ...
... (TYLCV) is a DNA virus from the genus Begomovirus and the family Geminiviridae. TYLCV causes the ... ViralZone-Geminiviridae: http://viralzone.expasy.org/viralzone/all_by_species/109.html ViralZone-Begomovirus: http://viralzone. ...
Inoue-Nagata AK, Albuquerque LC, Rocha WB, Nagata T (2004). "A simple method for cloning the complete begomovirus genome using ...
பெகோமோ நுண்மம் - Begomovirus- Bean Golden mosiac virus - பீன் தங்க மொசைக் நுண்மம். ... X. Cui, G. Li, D. Wang, D. Hu and X. Zhou, A begomovirus DNA encoded protein binds DNA, function as a suppressor of RNA ... Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease in India caused by association of a DNA β satellite with a begomovirus, Virology 305 (2003), ... a monopartite begomovirus. Virus Research,Volume 123, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 9-18. ...
Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a bipartite begomovirus from the family geminiviridae and is reported to be the ... Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a representative of the genus begomovirus / Begomoviridae, which is prevalent in ... namely Begomovirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus and Mastrevirus, depending on their genomes, mode of transmission and host range. ... and other South Asian countries is transmitted by geminiviruses belonging to the family Geminiviridae and genus the Begomovirus ...
Begomovirus Abutilon Brazil virus Abutilon mosaic Bolivia virus Abutilon mosaic Brazil virus Abutilon mosaic virus African ...
... especially genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. One of the most notable types is peach leaf curl, caused by the ...
These molecules are regarded as satellite molecules as they depend on the helper begomovirus to support one or more stages of ... Corresponding author: DrAndrew Geering (2007) Cotton leaf curl Multan virus and others genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae ... All begomovirus species causing cotton leaf curl disease have geminate particles, approximately 18-20 nm in diameter and 30 nm ...
The Geminiviridae family consists of seven genera (Curtovirus, Mastrevirus, Topocuvirus, Begomovirus, Becurtovirus, Eragrovirus ...
Begomovirus Abutilon Brazil virus Abutilon mosaic Bolivia virus Abutilon mosaic Brazil virus Abutilon mosaic virus African ...
Species include: Alfalfa mosaic virus Beet mosaic virus Cassava mosaic virus (in the begomovirus genus) Cowpea mosaic virus ...
Barnyardlikevirus Batrachovirus Bcep22likevirus Bcep78likevirus Bcepmulikevirus Bdellomicrovirus Becurtovirus Begomovirus ...
Notes on Genus: Begomovirus MicrobiologyBytes: Plant Viruses Proposed Strategies for Begomovirus Disease Management in Tomato ... The genus Begomovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Geminiviridae. They are plant viruses that as a group have a very ... More than 133 begomovirus species having monopartite genomes are known: all originate from the Old World. No monopartite ... Tomato yellow mosaic virus (ToYMV) is a Begomovirus, first identified in the late 1980s, that causes an infection in tomatoes. ...

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