Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Varroidae: A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Colony Collapse: The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.Nosema: A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Nosematidae. Some species are pathogenic for invertebrates of economic importance while others are being researched for possible roles in controlling pest INSECTS. They are also pathogenic in humans.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Acaricides: A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.Propolis: A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.ColoradoPaintingsAustriaDelivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Schools: Educational institutions.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Colubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)School Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Dehumanization: The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.

Differential expression of mitochondrial genes between queens and workers during caste determination in the honeybee Apis mellifera. (1/1920)

The nourishment received by female honeybee larvae determines their differentiation into queens or workers. In this study, we report the first molecular analysis of differences that occur between queens and workers during the caste-determination process. RNA-differential display experiments identified a clone that encodes for a gene that is homologous to the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial translation initiation factor (AmIF-2mt). Semi-quantitative analysis by reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) throughout honeybee development detected a higher level of expression of this gene in queen larvae than in worker larvae. Analysis of two other genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX-1; mitochondrial-encoded) and cytochrome c (cyt c; nuclear-encoded) also showed differential expression of these two genes between queens and workers. In particular, the cyt c transcript is more abundant in queen larvae and throughout the metamorphosis of the queen. These results indicate that the higher respiratory rate previously documented in queen larvae is accomplished through a higher level of expression of both nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded genes for mitochondrial proteins.  (+info)

IA in Kenyon cells of the mushroom body of honeybees resembles shaker currents: kinetics, modulation by K+, and simulation. (2/1920)

Cultured Kenyon cells from the mushroom body of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, show a voltage-gated, fast transient K+ current that is sensitive to 4-aminopyridine, an A current. The kinetic properties of this A current and its modulation by extracellular K+ ions were investigated in vitro with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. The A current was isolated from other voltage-gated currents either pharmacologically or with suitable voltage-clamp protocols. Hodgkin- and Huxley-style mathematical equations were used for the description of this current and for the simulation of action potentials in a Kenyon cell model. Activation and inactivation of the A current are fast and voltage dependent with time constants of 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms (means +/- SE) at +45 mV and 3.0 +/- 1.6 ms at +45 mV, respectively. The pronounced voltage dependence of the inactivation kinetics indicates that at least a part of this current of the honeybee Kenyon cells is a shaker-like current. Deactivation and recovery from inactivation also show voltage dependency. The time constant of deactivation has a value of 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms at -75 mV. Recovery from inactivation needs a double-exponential function to be fitted adequately; the resulting time constants are 18 +/- 3.1 ms for the fast and 745 +/- 107 ms for the slow process at -75 mV. Half-maximal activation of the A current occurs at -0.7 +/- 2.9 mV, and half-maximal inactivation occurs at -54.7 +/- 2.4 mV. An increase in the extracellular K+ concentration increases the conductance and accelerates the recovery from inactivation of the A current, affecting the slow but not the fast time constant. With respect to these modulations the current under investigation resembles some of the shaker-like currents. The data of the A current were incorporated into a reduced computational model of the voltage-gated currents of Kenyon cells. In addition, the model contained a delayed rectifier K+ current, a Na+ current, and a leakage current. The model is able to generate an action potential on current injection. The model predicts that the A current causes repolarization of the action potential but not a delay in the initiation of the action potential. It further predicts that the activation of the delayed rectifier K+ current is too slow to contribute markedly to repolarization during a single action potential. Because of its fast activation, the A current reduces the amplitude of the net depolarizing current and thus reduces the peak amplitude and the duration of the action potential.  (+info)

Biological activities of C-terminal 15-residue synthetic fragment of melittin: design of an analog with improved antibacterial activity. (3/1920)

Melittin, the 26-residue predominant toxic peptide from bee venom, exhibits potent antibacterial activity in addition to its hemolytic activity. The synthetic peptide of 15 residues corresponding to its C-terminal end (MCF), which encompasses its most amphiphilic segment, is now being shown to possess antibacterial activity about 5-7 times less compared to that of melittin. MCF, however, is 300 times less hemolytic. An analog of MCF, MCFA, in which two cationic residues have been transpositioned to the N-terminal region from the C-terminal region, exhibits antibacterial activity comparable to that of melittin, but is only marginally more hemolytic than MCF. The biophysical properties of the peptides, like folding and aggregation, correlate well with their biological properties.  (+info)

A PCR detection method for rapid identification of Paenibacillus larvae. (4/1920)

American foulbrood is a disease of larval honeybees (Apis mellifera) caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Over the years attempts have been made to develop a selective medium for the detection of P. larvae spores from honey samples. The most successful of these is a semiselective medium containing nalidixic acid and pipermedic acid. Although this medium allows the growth of P. larvae and prevents the growth of most other bacterial species, the false-positive colonies that grow on it prevent the rapid confirmation of the presence of P. larvae. Here we describe a PCR detection method which can be used on the colonies that grow on this semiselective medium and thereby allows the rapid confirmation of the presence of P. larvae. The PCR primers were designed on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene of P. larvae and selectively amplify a 973-bp amplicon. The PCR amplicon was confirmed as originating from P. larvae by sequencing in both directions. Detection was specific for P. larvae, and the primers did not hybridize with DNA from closely related bacterial species.  (+info)

Differential gene expression between developing queens and workers in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. (5/1920)

Many insects show polyphenisms, or alternative morphologies, which are based on differential gene expression rather than genetic polymorphism. Queens and workers are alternative forms of the adult female honey bee and represent one of the best known examples of insect polyphenism. Hormonal regulation of caste determination in honey bees has been studied in detail, but little is known about the proximate molecular mechanisms underlying this process, or any other such polyphenism. We report the success of a molecular-genetic approach for studying queen- and worker-specific gene expression in the development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Numerous genes appear to be differentially expressed between the two castes. Seven differentially expressed loci described here belong to at least five distinctly different evolutionary and functional groups. Two are particularly promising as potential regulators of caste differentiation. One is homologous to a widespread class of proteins that bind lipids and other hydrophobic ligands, including retinoic acid. The second locus shows sequence similarity to a DNA-binding domain in the Ets family of transcription factors. The remaining loci appear to be involved with downstream changes inherent to queen- or worker-specific developmental pathways. Caste determination in honey bees is typically thought of as primarily queen determination; our results make it clear that the process involves specific activation of genes in workers as well as in queens.  (+info)

The role of orientation flights on homing performance in honeybees. (6/1920)

Honeybees have long served as a model organism for investigating insect navigation. Bees, like many other nesting animals, primarily use learned visual features of the environment to guide their movement between the nest and foraging sites. Although much is known about the spatial information encoded in memory by experienced bees, the development of large-scale spatial memory in naive bees is not clearly understood. Past studies suggest that learning occurs during orientation flights taken before the start of foraging. We investigated what honeybees learn during their initial experience in a new landscape by examining the homing of bees displaced after a single orientation flight lasting only 5-10 min. Homing ability was assessed using vanishing bearings and homing speed. At release sites with a view of the landmarks immediately surrounding the hive, 'first-flight' bees, tested after their very first orientation flight, had faster homing rates than 'reorienting foragers', which had previous experience in a different site prior to their orientation flight in the test landscape. First-flight bees also had faster homing rates from these sites than did 'resident' bees with full experience of the terrain. At distant sites, resident bees returned to the hive more rapidly than reorienting or first-flight bees; however, in some cases, the reorienting bees were as successful as the resident bees. Vanishing bearings indicated that all three types of bees were oriented homewards when in the vicinity of landmarks near the hive. When bees were released out of sight of these landmarks, hence forcing them to rely on a route memory, the 'first-flight' bees were confused, the 'reorienting' bees chose the homeward direction except at the most distant site and the 'resident' bees were consistently oriented homewards.  (+info)

Update on the status of Africanized honey bees in the western states. (7/1920)

The Africanized honey bee (AHB), Apis mellifera scutella--perhaps better known as the "killer bee"--has arrived in the western United States and in southern California, following a nearly 50-year north-ward migration across South and Central America. First detected near Hidalgo, Texas in October 1993, the bees continue to advance 100 to 300 miles per year by colonizing existing hives or forming new hives in the wild. Although the AHB's "killer" reputation has been greatly exaggerated, the presence of AHBs will increase the chances of people being stung.  (+info)

Mass envenomations by honey bees and wasps. (8/1920)

Stinging events involving honey bees and wasps are rare; most deaths or clinically important incidents involve very few stings (< 10) and anaphylactic shock. However, mass stinging events can prove life-threatening via the toxic action of the venom when injected in large amounts. With the advent of the Africanized honey bee in the southwestern United States and its potential for further spread, mass envenomation incidents will increase. Here we review the literature on mass stinging events involving honey bees and wasps (i.e., yellowjackets, wasps, and hornets). Despite different venom composition in the two insect groups, both may cause systemic damage and involve hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. Victim death may occur due to renal failure or cardiac complications. With supportive care, however, most victims should be able to survive attacks from hundreds of wasps or approximately 1000 honey bees.  (+info)

  • One-third of the food we eat requires pollinators, and commercial beekeepers transport honey bees hundreds of miles each year to pollinate almond trees and other crops. (
  • Researchers have been working for well over a decade to enhance the health of pollinators and now beekeepers, citizen scientists, and anyone interested in pollinator health can join in using a new online tool, Beescape . (
  • This is of great concern to the agriculture industry because about 75 percent of specialty crops depend on the services of pollinators - of which bees are the most economically important. (
  • Bees are the most important pollinators in the Northeastern United States, fertilizing plants as they fly from flower to flower on pollen-collecting missions. (
  • The assembled records document changes in the status of bee pollinators, including the sudden declines of several bumble bees,' Ascher said. (
  • Flowering strips - pollinator-friendly rows of plants that increase foraging habitat for bees - can help offset pollinator decline but may also bring risks of higher pathogen infection rates for pollinators foraging in those strips. (
  • Bees are excellent pollinators for many of the plants that bear fruits, nuts and vegetables that humans consume daily. (
  • It's been an important issue for years, but events recently have catapulted pollinators to the top of many agencies' agendas," she said. (
  • This mixture of chemicals is passed individually from bee to bee throughout the entire hive as they share food. (
  • A honey bee that is away from the hive foraging for nectar or pollen will rarely sting, except when stepped on or roughly handled. (
  • Honey bees will actively seek out and sting when they perceive the hive to be threatened, often being alerted to this by the release of attack pheromones (below). (
  • The release of alarm pheromones near a hive may attract other bees to the location, where they will likewise exhibit defensive behaviors until there is no longer a threat, typically because the victim has either fled or been killed. (
  • The queen bee has a barbed but smoother stinger and can, if need be, sting skin-bearing creatures multiple times, but the queen does not leave the hive under normal conditions. (
  • The foragers spit out the nectar in the hive, where it is ingested by the hive bees. (
  • The hive bees process the nectar in their honey stomachs and bring it to the honeycombs, where they deposit ripe honey. (
  • Several plant protection products disturb the bees' sense of direction, so that they cannot return to their hive. (
  • I tried the Warre method and didn't find that the bees were willing to build comb below the existing hive body. (
  • I am stuck with my single Warre hive with bees in it, but from what I have experienced, they are a waste of time and energy. (
  • I was not able to order one more hive worth of bees (which I'll explain below) last spring to start one of the Top Bar hives I purchased, but from what I can see, they have some of the same problems I experienced with the Warre hive. (
  • Because there is no frame, the bees will attach part of the comb to the walls of the hive. (
  • The forager bee then takes the nectar back to the hive, regurgitating the nectar directly into the crop of a "processor" bee at or near the entrance to the hive. (
  • While the forager heads back to the flowers for more nectar, the processor bee takes the nectar to the honeycomb, which tends to be near the top of the hive, and regurgitates it into a hexagonal wax cell. (
  • The queen bee has a smooth stinger and can, if need be, sting skin-bearing creatures multiple times, but the queen does not leave the hive under normal conditions. (
  • The queen bee is the only egg laying bee in an entire hive. (
  • Once the bee has come out of the cell, it must find food within a few hours or it runs the risk of not becoming a healthy and productive bee in the hive. (
  • The bee population of a hive is made up of 15% drone bees. (
  • Drones are the only male bees in the hive and they hatch from unfertilized eggs. (
  • Drone bees leave the hive six days after emerging from their cell. (
  • Varroa mites are parasites that take over a honey bee hive and feed on the products of adult bees, pupae, and larvae. (
  • Honey bees will normally build a hive in an open covered area of your building where there is no insulation. (
  • If you believe you have a hive of honey bees in your Zebulon home more than likely they are in between the floors of your home. (
  • Our process for removing the honey bees is to go into the hive from underneath keeping your repair bill down with only drywall repair. (
  • The pollen is collected and brought to the hive, where the bees add enzymes and nectar to the pollen. (
  • The bees use the propolis, along with beeswax, to construct the hive. (
  • This has been heartbreaking for beekeepers who often share a connection to their colony's. (
  • It currently costs $400 for beekeepers who have clearly been affected by Pesticides or these fast acting chemicals to have their bees tested? (
  • This may seem logical to many bee scientists, but may come as something as a shock for many beekeepers who believe that purchased queens are likely to be in some way "better" than the bees that they already have in their own hives. (
  • This phenomenon is also used to kill a queen perceived as intruding or defective, an action known to beekeepers as balling the queen, named for the ball of bees formed. (
  • Dale Richter's The Buzz Fuzz and/or a team of beekeepers can remove honey bees and take them to a safe place. (
  • Not only the sweetness of honey , but also the tremendous health benefits offered by bee pollen, propolis, and royal jelly. (
  • Bee pollen comes from the male germ cell of flowering plants. (
  • It is important to recognize that one teaspoon of bee pollen would take a single bee working eight hours a day for one month to gather. (
  • Bee pollen is often referred to as "nature's most perfect food. (
  • In fact, bee pollen is higher in protein content than any animal source and about half of its protein is in the form of free amino acids that are ready to be used directly by the body. (
  • Little research has been done on bee pollen , probably because financial rewards to justify such an investment are lacking. (
  • Alaska saw increases in the number of farms with cut flowers, hogs, layers, vegetables, bees and honey, bedding plants, food crops grown under cover and more. (
  • Honey bee decline could not only lead to world economic losses but also be associated with an immense global health burden: a modelling analysis 4 indicated that pollinator loss causes a shortage of pollinator-dependent crops and their replacement with other crops may have implications for human health. (
  • Bees don't just provide honey in Australia - they also pollinate many of our crops. (
  • Farmers are able to rent bee hives from outside businesses or other farmers in order to ensure that their crops are being pollinated at a rate that will provide the appropriate yield of their crop. (
  • Honey bees were and still are sought after for their ability to pollinate many varieties of crops as well as their production of honey. (
  • Like mentioned before, at this point in the growth of the bee is when the fat bodies like lipids, glycogen, amino acids, and mitochondria are used to help the pupa become an adult bee. (
  • Those bees that sometimes buzz around the pool area or outside apartment windows may appear to be an inconvenience to residents, but property owners need to think twice before getting out the swatter or planning a pesticide assault. (
  • Recent instances where bees were found to be killed by pesticide treatments have raised awareness that that these little food generators could be destroyed when aiming that sprayer. (
  • That incident was followed by the loss of thousands of bees near Minneapolis in September because of exposure to fipronil, another pesticide. (
  • NPMA says it's extremely important that the applicator know the potential pesticide toxicity to bees for the products that are being used. (
  • The queen bee can be recognized by her abdomen, which is usually smooth and elongated, extending well beyond her folded wings. (
  • A queen bee can live for up to five years, but her period of usefulness rarely exceeds two or three years. (
  • If a queen bee is removed from a colony, the workers will notice her absence within several hours because of the drop in the level of this pheromone. (
  • There is a queen bee, and she is the only bee that lays eggs, from which the offspring are hatched. (
  • The queen bee is fed her diet for the entirety of her development stage. (
  • This hormone helps the female bee when developing the anatomy of a queen bee. (
  • Once the queen bee is developed her job is to mate with drone bees and lay eggs for the rest of her life span. (
  • The normal life span of a queen bee is normally 2-5 years. (
  • The main purpose of drone bees is to mate with the virgin or newly mated queen bee. (
  • In a prior study, we evaluated 15 plant species by putting the same amount of C. bombi on each, letting a bee forage, and then seeing whether and how bad of an infection it developed," said Lynn S. Adler, professor of biology at UMass Amherst and the corresponding author of the paper. (
  • The bees were all infected with the same amount of pathogen and then allowed to forage, so the plants could increase or decrease infection," Adler said. (
  • Many thanks to David Tarpy , associate professor of entomology at NC State and director of the Beekeeper Education & Engagement System , for taking the time to talk with me about bees and honey. (
  • Declines in honey bees and other bees have received a lot of attention in recent years, but it is not generally appreciated that bee species entirely new to science are still being discovered even within our largest cities. (
  • The bees have to make the entire comb, and because there is no frame, if you damage the comb while extracting honey, which is usually the case, they have to make it all over again. (
  • The bees thrived, but they really haven't been productive, despite months of feeding to build the initial comb. (
  • What's in the comb seems to be a huge amount even for a healthy colony of say, 40,000 bees. (
  • In the case of some honey bees species in the wild, this takes the form of a 'Mexican wave' which spreads as a ripple across a layer of bees densely packed on the surface of a comb when a threat is perceived, and consists of bees momentarily arching their bodies and flicking their wings. (
  • Nobody can say for sure, but those of us who are experimenting with sustainable beekeeping systems believe that the answer lies in a low-tech, low-impact approach, that allows bees to build comb according to their own design, eliminating the artificial constraints imposed on them by the use of frames and foundation. (
  • Learning to keep bees is not inexpensive, but it is a hobby that will pay you back dividends once you get going, and there is nothing mysterious about it. (
  • That makes bees critically valuable to humans' existence. (
  • Secondly, many people have pointed out that it's a bit much, at a time when bees are under threat , for a millionaire to kill them en-masse for a beauty treatment with no basis in logic or reality? (
  • After the female bees hatch, they spend around 6 days in the larval stage. (
  • There are also guard bees, who protect the beehive against foreign invaders, and forager bees, who fly out to transport sweet plant nectars in a honey sack back to the beehive. (
  • Some of these bees are "forager" bees, which collect nectar from flowering plants. (