Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Varroidae: A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Colony Collapse: The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.Nosema: A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Nosematidae. Some species are pathogenic for invertebrates of economic importance while others are being researched for possible roles in controlling pest INSECTS. They are also pathogenic in humans.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Acaricides: A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.Propolis: A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.ColoradoPaintingsAustriaDelivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Dehumanization: The process by which a person or group of persons comes to be regarded or treated as lacking in human qualities.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.New YorkFalconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.New York CityPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Butyrylthiocholine: A sulfur-containing analog of butyrylcholine which is hydrolyzed by butyrylcholinesterase to butyrate and thiocholine. It is used as a reagent in the determination of butyrylcholinesterase activity.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Planets: Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.MichiganSex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.

Differential expression of mitochondrial genes between queens and workers during caste determination in the honeybee Apis mellifera. (1/1920)

The nourishment received by female honeybee larvae determines their differentiation into queens or workers. In this study, we report the first molecular analysis of differences that occur between queens and workers during the caste-determination process. RNA-differential display experiments identified a clone that encodes for a gene that is homologous to the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial translation initiation factor (AmIF-2mt). Semi-quantitative analysis by reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) throughout honeybee development detected a higher level of expression of this gene in queen larvae than in worker larvae. Analysis of two other genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX-1; mitochondrial-encoded) and cytochrome c (cyt c; nuclear-encoded) also showed differential expression of these two genes between queens and workers. In particular, the cyt c transcript is more abundant in queen larvae and throughout the metamorphosis of the queen. These results indicate that the higher respiratory rate previously documented in queen larvae is accomplished through a higher level of expression of both nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded genes for mitochondrial proteins.  (+info)

IA in Kenyon cells of the mushroom body of honeybees resembles shaker currents: kinetics, modulation by K+, and simulation. (2/1920)

Cultured Kenyon cells from the mushroom body of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, show a voltage-gated, fast transient K+ current that is sensitive to 4-aminopyridine, an A current. The kinetic properties of this A current and its modulation by extracellular K+ ions were investigated in vitro with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. The A current was isolated from other voltage-gated currents either pharmacologically or with suitable voltage-clamp protocols. Hodgkin- and Huxley-style mathematical equations were used for the description of this current and for the simulation of action potentials in a Kenyon cell model. Activation and inactivation of the A current are fast and voltage dependent with time constants of 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms (means +/- SE) at +45 mV and 3.0 +/- 1.6 ms at +45 mV, respectively. The pronounced voltage dependence of the inactivation kinetics indicates that at least a part of this current of the honeybee Kenyon cells is a shaker-like current. Deactivation and recovery from inactivation also show voltage dependency. The time constant of deactivation has a value of 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms at -75 mV. Recovery from inactivation needs a double-exponential function to be fitted adequately; the resulting time constants are 18 +/- 3.1 ms for the fast and 745 +/- 107 ms for the slow process at -75 mV. Half-maximal activation of the A current occurs at -0.7 +/- 2.9 mV, and half-maximal inactivation occurs at -54.7 +/- 2.4 mV. An increase in the extracellular K+ concentration increases the conductance and accelerates the recovery from inactivation of the A current, affecting the slow but not the fast time constant. With respect to these modulations the current under investigation resembles some of the shaker-like currents. The data of the A current were incorporated into a reduced computational model of the voltage-gated currents of Kenyon cells. In addition, the model contained a delayed rectifier K+ current, a Na+ current, and a leakage current. The model is able to generate an action potential on current injection. The model predicts that the A current causes repolarization of the action potential but not a delay in the initiation of the action potential. It further predicts that the activation of the delayed rectifier K+ current is too slow to contribute markedly to repolarization during a single action potential. Because of its fast activation, the A current reduces the amplitude of the net depolarizing current and thus reduces the peak amplitude and the duration of the action potential.  (+info)

Biological activities of C-terminal 15-residue synthetic fragment of melittin: design of an analog with improved antibacterial activity. (3/1920)

Melittin, the 26-residue predominant toxic peptide from bee venom, exhibits potent antibacterial activity in addition to its hemolytic activity. The synthetic peptide of 15 residues corresponding to its C-terminal end (MCF), which encompasses its most amphiphilic segment, is now being shown to possess antibacterial activity about 5-7 times less compared to that of melittin. MCF, however, is 300 times less hemolytic. An analog of MCF, MCFA, in which two cationic residues have been transpositioned to the N-terminal region from the C-terminal region, exhibits antibacterial activity comparable to that of melittin, but is only marginally more hemolytic than MCF. The biophysical properties of the peptides, like folding and aggregation, correlate well with their biological properties.  (+info)

A PCR detection method for rapid identification of Paenibacillus larvae. (4/1920)

American foulbrood is a disease of larval honeybees (Apis mellifera) caused by the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Over the years attempts have been made to develop a selective medium for the detection of P. larvae spores from honey samples. The most successful of these is a semiselective medium containing nalidixic acid and pipermedic acid. Although this medium allows the growth of P. larvae and prevents the growth of most other bacterial species, the false-positive colonies that grow on it prevent the rapid confirmation of the presence of P. larvae. Here we describe a PCR detection method which can be used on the colonies that grow on this semiselective medium and thereby allows the rapid confirmation of the presence of P. larvae. The PCR primers were designed on the basis of the 16S rRNA gene of P. larvae and selectively amplify a 973-bp amplicon. The PCR amplicon was confirmed as originating from P. larvae by sequencing in both directions. Detection was specific for P. larvae, and the primers did not hybridize with DNA from closely related bacterial species.  (+info)

Differential gene expression between developing queens and workers in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. (5/1920)

Many insects show polyphenisms, or alternative morphologies, which are based on differential gene expression rather than genetic polymorphism. Queens and workers are alternative forms of the adult female honey bee and represent one of the best known examples of insect polyphenism. Hormonal regulation of caste determination in honey bees has been studied in detail, but little is known about the proximate molecular mechanisms underlying this process, or any other such polyphenism. We report the success of a molecular-genetic approach for studying queen- and worker-specific gene expression in the development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Numerous genes appear to be differentially expressed between the two castes. Seven differentially expressed loci described here belong to at least five distinctly different evolutionary and functional groups. Two are particularly promising as potential regulators of caste differentiation. One is homologous to a widespread class of proteins that bind lipids and other hydrophobic ligands, including retinoic acid. The second locus shows sequence similarity to a DNA-binding domain in the Ets family of transcription factors. The remaining loci appear to be involved with downstream changes inherent to queen- or worker-specific developmental pathways. Caste determination in honey bees is typically thought of as primarily queen determination; our results make it clear that the process involves specific activation of genes in workers as well as in queens.  (+info)

The role of orientation flights on homing performance in honeybees. (6/1920)

Honeybees have long served as a model organism for investigating insect navigation. Bees, like many other nesting animals, primarily use learned visual features of the environment to guide their movement between the nest and foraging sites. Although much is known about the spatial information encoded in memory by experienced bees, the development of large-scale spatial memory in naive bees is not clearly understood. Past studies suggest that learning occurs during orientation flights taken before the start of foraging. We investigated what honeybees learn during their initial experience in a new landscape by examining the homing of bees displaced after a single orientation flight lasting only 5-10 min. Homing ability was assessed using vanishing bearings and homing speed. At release sites with a view of the landmarks immediately surrounding the hive, 'first-flight' bees, tested after their very first orientation flight, had faster homing rates than 'reorienting foragers', which had previous experience in a different site prior to their orientation flight in the test landscape. First-flight bees also had faster homing rates from these sites than did 'resident' bees with full experience of the terrain. At distant sites, resident bees returned to the hive more rapidly than reorienting or first-flight bees; however, in some cases, the reorienting bees were as successful as the resident bees. Vanishing bearings indicated that all three types of bees were oriented homewards when in the vicinity of landmarks near the hive. When bees were released out of sight of these landmarks, hence forcing them to rely on a route memory, the 'first-flight' bees were confused, the 'reorienting' bees chose the homeward direction except at the most distant site and the 'resident' bees were consistently oriented homewards.  (+info)

Update on the status of Africanized honey bees in the western states. (7/1920)

The Africanized honey bee (AHB), Apis mellifera scutella--perhaps better known as the "killer bee"--has arrived in the western United States and in southern California, following a nearly 50-year north-ward migration across South and Central America. First detected near Hidalgo, Texas in October 1993, the bees continue to advance 100 to 300 miles per year by colonizing existing hives or forming new hives in the wild. Although the AHB's "killer" reputation has been greatly exaggerated, the presence of AHBs will increase the chances of people being stung.  (+info)

Mass envenomations by honey bees and wasps. (8/1920)

Stinging events involving honey bees and wasps are rare; most deaths or clinically important incidents involve very few stings (< 10) and anaphylactic shock. However, mass stinging events can prove life-threatening via the toxic action of the venom when injected in large amounts. With the advent of the Africanized honey bee in the southwestern United States and its potential for further spread, mass envenomation incidents will increase. Here we review the literature on mass stinging events involving honey bees and wasps (i.e., yellowjackets, wasps, and hornets). Despite different venom composition in the two insect groups, both may cause systemic damage and involve hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. Victim death may occur due to renal failure or cardiac complications. With supportive care, however, most victims should be able to survive attacks from hundreds of wasps or approximately 1000 honey bees.  (+info)

*Puck of Pook's Hill

The Bee Boy's Song[edit]. A poem which explains how honey bees must be told all the news or else they will cease to produce ... The song of the Picts explaining how although they have always been defeated by the Romans, they will win in the end. ...

*List of birds of Uzbekistan

Bee-eaters[edit]. Order: Coraciiformes Family: Meropidae The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family ... Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the ... The following tag has been used to highlight a category. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into this category. ... Bee-eaters • Typical rollers • Hoopoes • Woodpeckers and allies ...

*Forensic entomology

Bees and wasps have been seen feeding on the body during the early stages.[citation needed] This may cause problems for murder ... Wasps, ants, and bees[edit]. Wasps, ants, and bees (order Hymenoptera) are not necessarily necrophagous. While some feed on the ... Although physical characteristics and sizes at various instars have been used to estimate fly age, a more recent study has been ... Immature instars have been used as forensic markers in several cases where submerged corpses were found.[15] ...

*List of birds of Malaysia

Bee-eaters[edit]. Order: Coraciiformes Family: Meropidae The bee-eaters are a group of near passerine birds in the family ... The avifauna of Malaysia include a total of 781 species, of which four are endemic, three have been introduced by humans and ... Rollers resemble crows in size and build, but are more closely related to the kingfishers and bee-eaters. They share the ... They are named for the greater honeyguide which leads traditional honey-hunters to bees' nests and, after the hunters have ...

*User talk:User-duck

Vlokia ater, which you submitted to Articles for creation, has been created.. The article has been assessed as Start-Class, ... Helichrysum thianschanicum, which you submitted to Articles for creation, has been created.. The article has been assessed as ... Your thread has been archived[edit]. Hi User-duck! You created a thread called Cropping images. at Wikipedia:Teahouse, but it ... Your thread has been archived[edit]. Hi User-duck! You created a thread called Removed/Missing URL. at Wikipedia:Teahouse, but ...

*Haplodiploidy

Sex-determination in honey bees[edit]. Honey bee workers are unusually closely related to their full sisters (same father) ... The male bees' genetic makeup is therefore entirely derived from the mother, while the genetic makeup of the female worker bees ... Batches of worker bees are short lived and are constantly being replaced by the next batch, so this kin selection is possibly a ... In developing bees, if the conditions are that the individual is heterozygous for the csd gene, they will develop into females ...

*Diascia (plant)

... which is collected in the wild by at least 8 species of bees of the genus Rediviva. The bees appear to have coevolved with the ... Coevolution with Rediviva bees[edit]. The two spurs found on the back of a Diascia flower (from which it gets the common name ... As a result, local populations of R. neliana have been found to differ from each other, as each has developed legs that match ... Rediviva longimanus has also been observed pollinating D. longicornis in the Western Cape.[11] ...

*Anachronisms in the Book of Mormon

The Mayans used Melipona beecheii, a stingless bee, for honey, but this is not the same as the actual honey bee, which is from ... Mayan stingless bee hive.. A piece of hollow log provides a home for meliponine bees in Belize. ... The compass is widely recognized to have been invented in China around 1100 AD, and remains of a compass have never been found ... One explanation has been offered by Brian D. Stubbs, who said that though the language of the Mulekites is not put forward in ...

*Catholic Church in Nigeria

Nigerians who have been canonized[edit]. *Blessed Cyprian Michael Iwene Tansi, from Anambra State Beatified by Pope John Paul ...

*Oriental hornet

... are bee hives.[8] Oriental hornets have been known to cause serious damage to bee colonies.[8] They are the primary pest that ... Conflict with bees[edit]. The best place for hornets to find a combination of animal proteins (bees or larvae) and ... attacks honey bee colonies in many countries.[10] In defense, Japanese honey bees have been shown to kill predatory hornets by ... The hornets are a primary pest to honey bees, attacking bee colonies to obtain honey and animal proteins.[10] The sting of an ...

*Talk:Forsvarets Spesialkommando

And notable references have been removed.. There have been at least 3 articles in national print newspapers, regarding former ... This article has been checked against the following criteria for B-Class status:. *. Referencing and citation: criterion not ... The original post has been vandalized. Here is a copy of the text:[edit]. "Hey, it says that there are less than 50 soldiers on ... Meier had been kidnapped by a criminal gang on August 18 while working for Ora International. [The Norwegians had snipers on ...

*Queen bee

The queen bee's abdomen is longer than the worker bees surrounding her and also longer than a male bee's. Even so, in a hive of ... The term "queen bee" is typically used to refer to an adult, mated female that lives in a honey bee colony or hive; she is ... The term "queen bee" can be more generally applied to any dominant reproductive female in a colony of a eusocial bee species ... Thelytoky occurs in the Cape bee, Apis mellifera capensis, and has been found in other strains at very low frequency. ...

*Lighter aboard ship

The first ship of a series of three Sea Bee ships was SS Doctor Lykes, followed by SS Almeria Lykes and SS Tillie Lykes all of ... The "Sea Bee" vessels had three decks and could transport 38 lighters (12 on the lower decks and 14 on the upper deck). The ... Another related system was the Sea Bee, which had a lifting system located at the stern of the carrier ship. The lift, known as ... The system was similar to the Sea Bee, but the lighters were smaller and had an individual load-carrying capacity of only 140 ...

*List of birds of Spain

305 are accidental and 23 have been introduced by humans. Eight are endemic to Spanish islands, two have been extirpated, and ... The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence. The (A), (E - xxx), and (I) tags are from Bird ... An additional 72 species have been recorded by Bird Checklists of the World by early 2018.[2] Of the 658 species listed here, ...

*Talk:Alcohol/Archive 1

Bees and inebriation. Please take a look at my rough draft at User talk:Filll/beedrunk and give me your opinion.--Filll 21:29, ... Jorge, I've been trying to fill in the Hebrew reference, but I've only found the following: ןומיטנא = antimon (antimun?). which ... The article text has not been changed in any way; Some of these suggestions may be wrong, some may be right; Any edits to this ... Can link pre-historic: ...f [[alcoholic beverage]]s has been consumed by humans since pre-historic times, for a variety of ...

*User talk:Difference engine

Battle of Dalinghe, which you submitted to Articles for creation, has been created.. The article has been assessed as Start- ... The note has been corrected. Thank you for your reminding.. I don't think the present version need a specific source because ... I've been looking through Gary Lee Todd's other photos and have finally found examples of some of the Chinese weapons that ... Hello! Your submission of Day for night at the Did You Know nominations page has been reviewed, and some issues with it may ...

*Antibiotic use in livestock

Specific resistance that has been identified[edit]. At this time,[when?] the most well-documented impact on humans is foodborne ... Historically, this has been to prevent alteration or contamination of meat, milk, eggs and other products with toxins that are ... There also has been an increase in the number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including MRSA ... The effects of antibiotic usage in livestock transferring to humans has been well documented for over 40 years.[19] It was ...

*User talk:Jmv2009

There have been reports that Porifera are the base taxa, which has been the traditional view, but there has been recent ... Several papers have been published where the same data has been reanalyzed by a different methodology and different results ... I have been in touch which several researchers and there is some information due to come out but the papers are currently ... I am impressed by how nice the discourse has been. If you ever need help with an article or information on sponges/porifera ...

*User talk:Shaddack

Category:Bubbles has been nominated for discussion[edit]. Category:Bubbles, which you created, has been nominated for possible ... An article that you have been involved in editing-Guanín (bronze) -has been proposed for merging with another article. If you ... A tag has been placed on flame retardants, requesting that it be speedily deleted from Wikipedia. This has been done for the ... A tag has been placed on Naomi Internet Filter, requesting that it be speedily deleted from Wikipedia. This has been done under ...

*Bee Gees' 1st - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

Best of Bee Gees · Best of Bee Gees, Volume 2 · Bee Gees Gold · Bee Gees Greatest · Tales from the Brothers Gibb: A History in ... The Bee Gees Sing and Play 14 Barry Gibb Songs · Spicks and Specks · Bee Gees' 1st. · Horizontal · Idea · Odessa · Cucumber ... Bee Gees. Barry Gibb. Maurice Gibb (falecido) · Colin Petersen · Vince Melouney · Geoff Bridgeford · Alan Kendall · Dennis ... Here at Last... Bee Gees... Live · One Night Only. Compilações. Turn Around, Look at Us · Rare, Precious and Beautiful · Rare, ...

*Fairyfly

Apidae (honey bees, bumblebees, cuckoo bees, carpenter bees, orchid bees, stingless bees) ... Mymaridae include the genera listed below.[47][48] Allomymar and Metanthemus has been transferred to the family Aphelinidae. ... In Hawaii, Anagrus optabilis has been successfully used to control the sugarcane planthopper (Perkinsiella saccharicida).[31] ... Their fossils have been found from the Early Cretaceous up to the Miocene epoch. It is, in fact, the only family of chalcid ...

*User talk:Jevansen

This has been done under section C1 of the criteria for speedy deletion, because the category has been empty for seven days or ... This has been done under section C1 of the criteria for speedy deletion, because the category has been empty for seven days or ... Adam Voges has historically been the only batsman to come close to this, and has been compared by numerous people (not just one ... Ken Seymour has been nominated for Did You Know[edit]. Hello, Jevansen. Ken Seymour, an article you either created or ...

*Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Fishes/Archive 3

So should we move a good many fish to scientific names? I've been doing that a little with whitefish, and User:Ucucha has been ... A bot has been written by me that can fill them in using data from paleodb.org and Sepkoski. The task is currently stalled due ... Shark has been nominated for a good article reassessment. Please leave your comments and help us to return the article to good ... The article has been updated, but it needs to be moved to the appropriate lemma. Regards, --Dbr de (talk) 16:07, 5 April 2013 ( ...

*Ichneumonidae

Apidae (honey bees, bumblebees, cuckoo bees, carpenter bees, orchid bees, stingless bees) ... The hosts of many species are unknown; host information has been summed up by e.g. Aubert,[9][10][11] Perkins.[12][13] and ... Charles Darwin named them as an example of animal life that, to his mind, could not have been created by an all-powerful, good ... For example, a species of ichneumonid has been found to lay eggs in African sugarcane borer larva, a moth common in sub-Saharan ...

*Osmia lignaria

... , commonly known as the orchard mason bee or blue orchard bee,[1] is a megachilid bee that makes nests in reeds ... How to Manage the Blue Orchard Bee (PDF). 2001.. [page needed] *^ Dogterom, Margeriet (2002). Pollination with Mason Bees. ... Mason bees. Further reading[edit]. *. Bosch, Jordi; Kemp, William P. (2001). How to Manage the Blue Orchard Bee. Sustainable ... Orchard mason bees, like all mason bees, are very shy and only sting if they perceive serious danger. They do not attack to ...

*Eusociality

Bees have been model organisms for the study of reversal to solitarity, because of the diversity of their social systems. Each ... These pheromones may act across different species, as observed in Apis andreniformis (black dwarf honey bee), where worker bees ... Similar inhibitory effects of lowering JH were seen in halictine bees and polistine wasps, but not in honey bees.[55] ... In another species of sweat bees, L. calceatum, social phenotype has been predicted by altitude and micro-habitat composition, ...
The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is of global importance as a pollinator. Over the past 30 years an increase in colonies lost during winter has occurred, particularly in the northern hemisphere. These losses are attributed to the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor that acts as a vector of RNA viruses, most notably Deformed wing virus (DWV). Three master variants of the DWV have been discovered; Type-A, B, and C. The increase in overwinter colony losses are closely linked to DWV. At the same time DWV may also offer protection to colonies via superinfection exclusion (SIE), which may be linked to Varroa-tolerant colonies. However, the role of each DWV variant in colony survivorship and mite-tolerance is limited, so the main thrust of the thesis is to address this issue ...
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the most important insect for pollination of crops and wildflowers [1-3], but they have experienced increasing colony die-offs during the past two decades [4-6]. Varroa destructor is widely considered the most serious risk factor for honey bee colony mortality worldwide [7-10]. These large ectoparasitic mites are associated with a condition known as parasitic mite syndrome (PMS), or "Varroosis". In colonies exhibiting PMS or "Varroosis", pathogens, including brood diseases and viruses, are present at unusually high levels [11-13]. Varroa mites feed on the hemolymph of the larva, pupa and adults, and the open wounds caused by mite feeding can allow microorganisms to enter and weaken the host [14]; Mites themselves are vectors for viruses and perhaps other bee pathogens [13]. The Varroa mites life cycle consists of two phases, the phoretic phase, during which the adult female mite lives, feeds, and disperses on the adult bee, and the reproductive phase in which ...
... uality Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has
A sublethal concentration of imidacloprid can cause chronic toxicity in bees and can impact the behavior of honey bees. The nectar- and water-collecting, and climbing abilities of bees are crucial to the survival of the bees and the execution of responsibilities in bee colonies. Besides behavioral impact, data on the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of imidacloprid, especially by the way of RNA-seq at the transcriptomic level, are limited. We treated Apis mellifera L. with sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid (0.1, 1 and 10 ppb) and determined the effect on behaviors and the transcriptomic changes. The sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid had a limited impact on the survival and syrup consumption of bees, but caused a significant increase in water consumption. Moreover, the climbing ability was significantly impaired by 10 ppb imidacloprid at 8 d. In the RNA-seq analysis, gene ontology (GO) term enrichment indicated a significant down-regulation of muscle-related genes, which might
In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (Brassica napus). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP60) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP30 (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what
Deformed wing virus (DWV) in association with Varroa destructor is currently attributed to being responsible for colony collapse in the western honey bee (Apis mellifera). The appearance of deformed individuals within an infested colony has long been associated with colony losses. However, it is unknown why only a fraction of DWV positive bees develop deformed wings. This study concerns two small studies comparing deformed and non-deformed bees. In Brazil, asymptomatic bees (no wing deformity) that had been parasitised by Varroa as pupae had higher DWV loads than non-parasitised bees. However, we found no greater bilateral asymmetry in wing morphology due to DWV titres or parasitisation. As expected, using RT-qPCR, deformed bees were found to contain the highest viral loads. In a separate study, next generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to compare the entire DWV genomes from paired symptomatic and asymptomatic bees from three colonies on two different Hawaiian islands. This revealed no ...
A laying worker bee is a worker bee that lays unfertilized eggs usually in the absence of a queen bee (cf gamergates in ants). Only drones develop from the eggs of laying worker bees (with some exceptions, see thelytoky). A beehive cannot survive with only a laying worker bee. Even in a normal hive, about 1% of workers have ovaries developed enough to lay eggs. However the usual number of the laid eggs is very small. Only eight eggs (seven moderately and one fully developed) were found after examining of 10,634 worker bees (strong colony contains about 100,000). Workers eventually lay significant numbers of eggs only in queenless colonies. Laying workers develop in the absence of open brood as produced by a healthy adult queen. Normally, pheromones from the brood - known as brood recognition pheromones - prevent development of the workers ovaries. Laying workers can develop after the colonys queen has been lost to swarming, or in the presence of a failing queen which has yet to be superseded. ...
The mite Varroa destructor is one of the most dangerous parasites of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) causing enormous colony losses worldwide. Various chemical treatments for the control of the Varroa mite are currently in use, which, however, lead to residues in bee products and often to resistance in mites. This facilitated the exploration of alternative treatment methods and breeding for mite resistant honeybees has been in focus for breeders in many parts of the world with variable results. Another approach has been applied to a honeybee population on Gotland (Sweden) that was exposed to natural selection and survived Varroa-infestation for more than 10 years without treatment. Eventually this population became resistant to the parasite by suppressing the reproduction of the mite. A previous QTL mapping study had identified a region on chromosome 7 with major loci contributing to the mite resistance. Here, a microsatellite scan of the significant candidate QTL regions was used to ...
The honey bee Apis mellifera plays an important role for the pollination of fruit and vegetable plants, besides its significance for the production of honey and wax. Losses of entire bee colonies during winter have economic and - in particular - ecological consequences as pollinators are missing in spring during blossom. Apiculture in North America and Europe is especially affected by partly massive losses. Only during the winter months of 2014/2015, up to fifty per cent of all bee colonies in some Austrian regions collapsed.. The main trigger of this bee mortality does not seem to be the use of pesticides in modern agriculture. Many studies have shown that the survival of bee colonies strongly depends on the infestation with Varroa mites, widespread blood-sucking parasites, and the transmission of deformed wing virus by these mites. A research group from the Institute of Virology at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna has developed a new laboratory system, which enabled them to make ...
The European honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been the object of considerable scientific curiosity and has served as the classical model organism in diverse fields such as behaviour, navigation, sensory biology, ecology and pollination biology for almost a century (Frisch, 1914; Frisch, 1927). Apis mellifera has eight congeners, all of which are Asian, and about which much less is known. Of the Asian honeybees, the cavity-nesting Apis cerana and the less well known species Apis koshevnikovi, Apis nigrocincta and Apis nuluensis are closely related to A. mellifera whereas the giant honeybees (Apis dorsata, Apis dorsata binghami and Apis laboriosa) and the dwarf honeybees (Apis florea and Apis andreniformis) form separate groups (Arias and Sheppard, 2005; Raffiudin and Crozier, 2007). Although A. mellifera is found in Africa, the Urals and Central Asia, it is allopatric to the south and south-east Asian species, many of which are sympatric in several tropical areas of Asia. For instance, in the ...
Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Honey bee head (Apis mellifera). Wikipedia reference: The western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. It has a defined social caste system and complex communication behaviours, such as intricate dance routines to indicate food availability. It is frequently maintained by beekeepers for its honey product. This species is widely distributed and an important pollinator for agriculture, though it is currently threatened by colony collapse disorder. It is also an important organism for scientific studies on social insects, especially as it now has a fully sequenced genome. Magnification: x5 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3783
Apis mellifera, the European honey bee, has many subspecies. Apis mellifera adami, classified by Ruttner, 1975 - Crete Apis mellifera carnica, classified by Pollmann, 1879 - Carniola region of Slovenia, the Eastern Alps, and northern Balkans - better known as the Carniolan honey bee - popular with beekeepers due to its extreme gentleness. The Carniolan tends to be quite dark in color, and the colonies are known to shrink to small populations over winter, and build very quickly in spring. It is a mountain bee in its native range, and is a good bee for colder climates. Apis mellifera cecropia, classified by Kiesenwetter, 1860 - Southern Greece Apis mellifera cypria, classified by Pollmann, 1879 - The island of Cyprus - This sub-species has the reputation of being very fierce compared to the Italian sub-species, from which it is isolated by the Mediterranean Sea Apis mellifera iberiensis (often misspelled as iberica), classified by Engel, 1999 - the bee from the Iberian peninsula (Spain and ...
Citation: Schmid, M.R., Brockmann, A., Perk, C.W., Stanley, D.W., Tautz, J. 2008. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) abandon hemocytic, but not phenoloxidase-based immunity. Journal of Insect Physiology. 54:215-221. Interpretive Summary: Honey bee Colony Collapse Disorder is exerting tremendous impact on honey bee colonies. This is a devastating, yet poorly understood, crisis for commercial beekeepers and crop growers who depend on honey bees to pollinate their crops. The problem, however, may be related to an unknown disease or perhaps to impaired honey bee immunity to diseases. One approach to understanding the problem is to more thoroughly research honey bee immunology. With this goal, we are investigating the capacity for immunity in adult honey bees. In this paper we report on changes in honey bee blood cells, the cells that protect honey bees from infection. We show for the first time that adult queens, workers and drones naturally lose their hemocytes. This work with entirely healthy ...
This paper proposes a global multi-level thresholding method for image segmentation. As a criterion for this, the traditional method uses the Shannon entropy, originated from information theory, considering the gray level image histogram as a probability distribution, while we applied the Tsallis entropy as a general information theory entropy formalism. For the algorithm, we used the artificial bee colony approach since execution of an exhaustive algorithm would be too time-consuming. The experiments demonstrate that: 1) the Tsallis entropy is superior to traditional maximum entropy thresholding, maximum between class variance thresholding, and minimum cross entropy thresholding; 2) the artificial bee colony is more rapid than either genetic algorithm or particle swarm optimization. Therefore, our approach is effective and rapid.
When it becomes warm again in spring and the first blossoms and bushes begin to bloom, the bees also begin to swarm. There is a lot to tell about bees that is worth knowing and is exciting and interesting.. Like ants and wasps, bees belong to the order of hymenoptera ("membrane-winged"). The bee family is divided into honeybees and bumblebees. It is especially interesting that bees live together in a large colony. There is a queen bee, and she is the only bee that lays eggs, from which the offspring are hatched. Besides a few males (the so-called drones), a bee colony consists primarily of female worker bees that have different tasks. During her life, a worker bee repeatedly takes on new tasks, depending on her age. At the beginning of her life, a bee looks after the honeycomb cells and prepares them for the queens eggs. She then becomes a nurse bee and feeds the larvae (= bee babies) with nectar. Later she can then produce wax with the glands on her posterior and build honeycombs. There are ...
Unless we take decisive action to protect our bees, we could be faced with massive bee deaths, a horticultural industry in crisis, food shortages and escalating food prices.. The honey bee is indispensable to our horticulture, our ecology and our economy. Yet the honey bee is in crisis all around the world, with bee populations being decimated by a phenomenon known as Colony Collapse Disorder, where entire colonies of bees disappear.. In the US beekeepers have been experiencing annual losses ranging from 30 to 90% of their commercially managed hives for the past five years. And tens of thousands of bee colonies have been wiped out in Europe, Asia and the Middle East.. Similar losses in New Zealand would be disastrous for our horticultural industries that depend on bees for pollination, and so we need to take steps to protect our bees before it is too late. We cannot wait until bees are dying en masse before we act.. Colony Collapse Disorder hasnt been detected in New Zealand yet, but there have ...
So, how long do honey bees live? Do beekeepers need to buy new bees every few months? Answer: Absolutely not! This is one of the great things about honey bees. Unlike other animals (cows, goats, sheep, etc.) which eventually die, the honey bee colony really never dies! Well almost never - in the winter, about 5% of colonies may expire. In the spring, the beekeeper simply catches swarms that leave the good, strong hives that survived the winter - free of charge! Good beekeepers can keep their bees alive for many years by simply catching those wayward swarms or splitting good hives to replace any losses. Effectively, a beekeeper may never spend money on bees or queens - once the bee business is established. You have to think of the honey bees colony - with its queen, drones, and workers - as a single living creature. On its own, a single bee (even a cluster of a hundred bees) is useless for producing honey or pollinating flowers. It takes the team work of the entire hive to make honey. This means ...
Gamma irradiation is known to inactivate various pathogens that negatively affect honey bee health. Bee pathogens, such as Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Nosema spp., have a deleterious impact on foraging activities and bee survival, and have been detected in combs. In this study, we assessed the effects of gamma irradiation on the flight activities, pathogen load, and survival of two honey bee stocks that were reared in irradiated and non-irradiated combs. Overall, bee genotype influenced the average number of daily flights, the total number of foraging flights, and total flight duration, in which the Russian honey bees outperformed the Italian honey bees. Exposing combs to gamma irradiation only affected the age at first flight, with worker bees that were reared in non-irradiated combs foraging prematurely compared to those reared in irradiated combs. Precocious foraging may be associated with the higher levels of DWV in bees reared in non-irradiated combs and also with the lower amount of pollen
Background In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes
A honey bee that is away from the hive foraging for nectar or pollen will rarely sting, except when stepped on or roughly handled. Honey bees will actively seek out and sting when they perceive the hive to be threatened, often being alerted to this by the release of attack pheromones (below). Although it is widely believed that a worker honey bee can sting only once, this is a partial misconception: although the stinger is in fact barbed so that it lodges in the victims skin, tearing loose from the bees abdomen and leading to its death in minutes, this only happens if the skin of the victim is sufficiently thick, such as a mammals.[3] Honey bees are the only hymenoptera with a strongly barbed sting, though yellow jackets and some other wasps have small barbs. Bees with barbed stingers can often sting other insects without harming themselves. Queen honeybees and bees of many other species, including bumblebees and many solitary bees, have smoother stingers with smaller barbs, and can sting ...
Citation: Chen, Y., Smith, Jr., I.B., Collins, A.M., Pettis, J.S., Feldlaufer, M.F. 2004. Detection of deformed wing virus infection in honey bees Apis mellifera L. in the United States. American Bee Journal. 144(7):557-559. Interpretive Summary: The honey bee is an important beneficial insect assisting in the pollination of a wide variety of crops with an annual added market value exceeding 14 billion dollars. Honey bees, however, are threatened by a myriad of parasites and diseases and the occurrence of honey bee viruses and their effect on bees is not particularly well understood. We now report the detection of a honey bee virus not previously known to exist in the U. S., and demonstrate the utility of using molecular techniques for this area of research. The results of this research will be used by other scientists investigating honey bee viruses and by federal regulatory personnel involved in the worldwide trade in honey bees. Ultimately, this research will benefit beekeepers by improving ...
Causes of bee. Commonly many types of insect are useful to people but some insects are harmful. One of that harmful insect is bees. Bee provides honey and also it causes some diseases. It is the flying stinging insects. Various type of bees are available, they are honey bees, hornets, wasps and yellow jackets. These different types of bees are differed in shape, structure and their characters. The most common properties of bees are bite. If anybody disturbed, the bees will bite them. If bees bite your skin, then skin changes in reddish color. The swelling of bees causes infection. Sometimes you feel itching in entire body. Many harmful bees are in this world, if it bites it causes breathing problem and shock also. The fire ant sting is one of the common bees. It swollen immediately causes pain on that location and changes dark red color. In case of swollen which is easily disappears within 45 minutes, does not required any treatment. But in some cases it will take long time to cure. View the bee ...
When we think of pollination we imagine a honey bee foraging on a flower, collecting nectar or pollen, and inadvertently transferring some of the pollen to the next flower she visits.. Ive always thought that solitary bees might be more efficient pollinators for several reasons. For example, solitary bees seem to fly faster between flowers, collect pollen more quickly, and take little nectar compared to honey bees. In addition, solitary bees carry their pollen in its natural fluffy state that is readily usable by flowers.. On the other hand, honey bees and bumble bees glue their pollen loads together with nectar, making a tightly-packed pellet that is useless for pollination. In fact, most of the pollen that honey bees transfer from flower to flower is stuck to their bodies in random places. When foraging on the next flower, some of this pollen rubs onto the stigma and pollinates the flower, but the pollen in the pellets doesnt budge.. Other habits of honey bees make them excellent ...
Summary Arkansas bee virus, bee virus X and slow paralysis virus, isolated from adult honey bees, have isometric particles, contain RNA and are serologically unrelated to each other or to the other known bee viruses. Arkansas bee virus particles are 30 nm in diam. sediment at 128S, have a buoyant density in CsCl of 1.37 g/ml and kill bees injected with them in about 3 weeks. Bee virus X particles are 35 nm in diam., sediment at 187S, have a buoyant density of 1.36 g/ml, multiply when fed to young bees kept at 30 °C but not at 35 °C nor when injected, and have not by themselves been associated with symptoms or mortality, although they killed bees when injected in combination with sacbrood virus. Slow paralysis virus particles are 30 nm in diam., sediment at about 176S, have a buoyant density of 1.35 g/ml and kill bees injected with them in about 12 days.
April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. A new study suggests that the reason worker bees are such a highly skilled and specialized workforce is that the genes controlling their behavior are re-shuffled frequently, helping evolution build a better bee.. The new research from York University, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), sheds light on how sterile worker bees evolved charismatic and cooperative behaviors. These behaviors include nursing young bees, collecting food for the colony, defending it against intruders, and dancing to communicate the location of profitable flowers to nest mates.. By examining the honey bee genome, the team noticed that the genes associated with worker behavior were found in the area of the genome known to have the highest rate of recombination, which is basically a shuffling of the genetic deck. Biology Professor Amro Zayed says that because of such shuffling, the bees can be strongly varied. For example the ...
... Honey Bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) Beekeeping activities, especially queen trading, have shaped the distribution of honey bee (Apis mellifera) subspecies in Europe, and have resulted in extensive introductions of two eastern European C-lineage subspecies (A. m. ligustica and A. m. carnica) into the native range of the M-lineage A. m. mellifera subspecies in Western Europe. As a consequence, replacement and
The demand for honey and other beehive products has necessitated different methods of hunting ranging from wild to modern beekeeping methods. The influence of two different nesting habitats on the gut enzyme activities and heavy metal content of honey-bee workers was investigated in this study. Worker bees of Apis mellifera L. were randomly collected from the wild and Kenya top bar hives were analysed for the presence of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn and Cu). Gut enzymes (cellulase, amylase, α-glucosidase, proteinase and lipase) assay was also determined in worker bees from the two habitats. Worker bees from the Kenya top bar hives recorded significantly higher heavy metals in their body than worker bees from the wild. Similarly, no Cd and Pb were detected in the body of worker bees from the wild. The gut enzymes assay of worker bees from Kenya top bar hives revealed the presence of cellulase, amylase, glucosidase, proteinase and lipase with a significantly higher enzymes activities (1.10, 1.65, 0.89, 0
The bees are important pollinators of night-blooming plants and the female bees can nest alone or live in small colonies. A colony is typically made up of two to four individuals - a queen and her offspring.. Behavioral observations showed that non-reproductive foragers and guards are significantly smaller than the queen bee in a nest, although the relative size of individual bees varied from nest to nest. Heres where the flies apparently fit in and are affecting the bees behavior. The bees nest in hollowed twigs and sticks hanging in the tropical understory and the flies flick their eggs into the entrance to the bee nests. Some of these eggs randomly fall into cells, or chambers, prepared by the bees, each to hold a larva and pollen that the larva eats. The cells are then sealed, so if a cell does contain fly eggs the young flies are competing with the bee larva for a limited amount of food.. "There is a natural size variation in bees and this is based in part on the amount of food available ...
Are Western Honey Bees Apis mellifera really the worlds most important pollinator? This is the claim made in a recently published paper in the proceedings of the Royal Society of Biological Sciences 10th January 2018. The authors claims are based upon existing published datasets consisting of observations of bees on flowering plants in natural environments around the globe and based upon the abundance of Honey bees recorded during the study have come to the conclusion that they are therefore the most important pollinator in the world.. The claim that a single species can be solely relied upon or referred to as the most important pollinator in the world has been widely criticised by academics who have been quick to point out that many other recent studies show that wild bees are responsible for a greater proportion of the pollination service previously attributed to domesticated honey bees and that in addition there are many crop plants that can only be pollinated by a restricted number of ...
Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced
Eleven new species of bees, including four from New York City and its suburbs, have been discovered with the help of the vast digital and physical bee collections at the American Museum of Natural History. The newly described sweat bees - small-to-medium-sized bees named for their attraction to the salt in human sweat - are presented by Cornell University postdoctoral researcher Jason Gibbs in a paper in the journal Zootaxa. One of the new species found in New York City - in the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx and in the Brooklyn Botanic Garden - was given an especially fitting name: Lasioglossum gotham.. Declines in honey bees and other bees have received a lot of attention in recent years, but it is not generally appreciated that bee species entirely new to science are still being discovered even within our largest cities. New York City has a surprising diversity of bees, with more than 250 described species recorded, said John Ascher, a research scientist in the Museums Division of ...
Background In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), queen and workers have different behavior and reproductive capacity despite possessing the same genome. The primary substance that leads to this differentiation is royal jelly (RJ), which contains a range of proteins, amino acids, vitamins and nucleic acids. MicroRNA (miRNA) has been found to play an important role in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes and cell biology. In this study, we characterized the miRNAs in RJ from two honey bee sister species and determined their possible effect on transcriptome in one species. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the miRNAs in RJ either from A. mellifera (RJM) or A. cerana (RJC). We then determined the global transcriptomes of adult A. mellifera developed from larvae fed either with RJM (mRJM) or RJC (mRJC). Finally we analyzed the target genes of those miRNA that are species specific or differentially expressed in the two honey bee species. We show that there were differences in miRNA
Di, N., K. R. Hladun, K. Zhang, T.-X. Liu, and J. T. Trumble. 2016. Laboratory bioassays on the impact of cadmium, copper and lead on the development and survival of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae and foragers. Chemosphere 152: 530-538.. Prager, S. M., G. Kund and J.T. Trumble. 2016. Low input, low cost IPM program helps manage potato psyllid. California Agriculture 70 (2): 89-95.. Pennington, M.J., S.M. Prager, W.E. Walton, and J.T. Trumble. 2016. (Culex quinquefasciatus) larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants. Nature Scientific Reports 6:21969 , DOI: 10.1038/srep21969.. Burden, C. M., C. Elmore, K. R. Hladun, J. T. Trumble, and B. H. Smith. 2016. Acute exposure to selenium disrupts associative conditioning and long-term memory recall in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 127: 71-79.. Hladun, K.R., N. Di, T.-X. Liu, and J.T. Trumble. 2016. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: consequences for whole ...
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While honey hunting for wild bees nests was probably common throughout the ancient world, the Egyptians were among the first to attempt keeping bees in artificial hives. Barges loaded with colonies of Apis mellifera lamarkii would travel up and down the Nile River, following the seasonal abundance of flora. As beekeeping methods spread, most ancient cultures are known to have kept the bees that were endemic to their regions. As Europeans explored and colonized other parts of the globe, they have transported and established the western honey bee on every continent except Antarctica. These bees adapted and thrived in many places while in others, they succumbed to parasites and diseases originally adapted to other bee host species. In the early 1600s, English colonists brought hives of Apis mellifera mellifera to the Jamestown settlement. These bees thrived in the old growth forests of the New World, and spread west in advance of the pioneers. These bees were said to be easily excitable, "runny" ...
It has been well established that the use of toxic pesticides and disease outbreaks are the main driver of the declining bee population. However, a new study from North Carolina State University revealed that the increasing urban temperatures can also contribute to the decreasing bee population.. The study, published in the journal Biology Letters, showed that almost all of the 15 most common wild bee species in the southeastern cities can be negatively affected by the increasing temperatures in urban heat islands.. "This is certainly relevant for urban heat islands, but it may also help us understand potential effects of global climate change on bee species," said Elsa Youngsteadt, a research associate at NC State and co-lead author of the study, in a press release. "If species that have a lower CTmax are most sensitive to urban warming, they may also be most sensitive to warming in other environments.". For the study, the researchers first determined the so-called CTmax, or the critical ...
Carpenter bees have taken up residence in my shed and stables. What is the best way to get rid of the bees without harming my horse if he comes into contact with the insecticide used? A. Carpenter bees are important pollinators and do not aggressively defend their galleries, but the large bees are intimidating and, when abundant, can cause extensive structural damage. This can be compounded by woodpeckers that drill holes in the wood in search of carpenter bee larvae.. The weathered, slightly roughened surfaces of soft woods in barns and sheds provide ideal nesting sites for carpenter bees. Every spring, carpenter bees that have spent the winter in their tunnels emerge to expand established tunnels or begin to chew new ones, often nearby. These bees stock their tunnels with pollen as food for their developing larvae. Large aggregations of carpenter bees can accumulate in a structure over time.. Structures with exposed soft wood always attract carpenter bees, so management will be a continuous ...
Those bees that sometimes buzz around the pool area or outside apartment windows may appear to be an inconvenience to residents, but property owners need to think twice before getting out the swatter or planning a pesticide assault.. Its believed that bees pollinate around a third of the food we eat, and that they are crucial to sustaining the world food chain. Bees are excellent pollinators for many of the plants that bear fruits, nuts and vegetables that humans consume daily. Thank a bee when you take a bite of that cucumber salad at your next apartment conference.. But honey bees are vanishing from hives. There is no clear conclusion on the cause of the disappearance but a 2012 report from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) suggests factors may include "disease, arthropod pests (parasitic mites), pesticides, poor nutrition and beekeeping practices." They identified the varroa mite as "the single most detrimental pest of honey bees and can ...
Keep The Bee In Business and Washington in Bloom. You can Help! Honey bees make it possible for fruit, vegetable and seed crops to add billions of dollars in harvest value to Washingtons economy, nearly $3 billion from tree fruit and berries alone. The bees themselves add nearly $4 billion from honey sales, but their chief value is as pollinators.. Recently, the Honey Bee Work Group set many priorities to the Washington State Legislature to help bees, including:. Provide Adequate Forage - Honey bees are flower feeders. They get protein from pollen and carbohydrates from nectar. They need plants for forage from early spring to late fall to have enough food to live on and store for winter. Healthy well fed honey bees are needed to pollinate many crops in Washington, and this requires natural forage. Current State land management practices remove much of this valuable bee forage. Read More…. Expand Local Research - More information is needed to monitor and improve health of honey bees in ...
Stingless beekeeping (meliponiculture) is a unique eco-friendly agro-practice with the potential for environmental amelioration, employment and income generation. Meliponiculture would be ideal for generation of supplementary income to resource-poor farmers around forests, in addition to conservation of stingless bees. Assessment of the knowledge of stingless bees by community around Kakamega forest indicated that most people know stingless bees but they do not undertake any active conservation measures. Results obtained from this study indicated that two genera of stingless bees, Meliponula and Hypotrigona occur in Kakamega forest. The community around Kakamega forest identifies stingless bees by their morphological features, nesting architecture and taste, smell and colour of their honey. Trials on queen rearing process of H. gribodoi indicated that this species rears queens in two ways: (i) using a special queen cell which is bigger than other brood cells (ii) through emergency queen rearing ...
In a study that shows the importance of climate change on critical pollinators, North Carolina State University researchers found that earlier and longer flowering seasons can have poor effects on the bumble bees that rely on these flowers to live and thrive.. "We wanted to understand how climate change is affecting bee populations - specifically three species of bumble bees that live at higher altitudes and are important pollinators," said Rebecca Irwin, an NC State professor of applied ecology and co-principal investigator on the study, which is published in the journal Ecology Letters. "We asked whether variation in snowmelt timing and summer precipitation directly affected bumble bee colonies and their survival, or if the snowmelt and precipitation effects on flowers were more important. It turns out that the effects on flowers played a more critical role in affecting bee populations.". Irwin and colleagues examined bee, flower and climate data collected at the Rocky Mountain Biological ...
i svenska Our Aim: A SUSTAINABLE, bee conservation zone. A disease-free, insecticide-free, herbicide-free, bee sanctuary. Deep in the sparsely populated forest of "the wild outback" of Sweden.. We are developing a Honey Bee Conservation Zone.. We keep our bees in the lovely areas of north Värmland and south Dalarna, in Sweden. At present we have about 80 bee societies that are disease-free and living in an amazing forest area that is free from chemicals, dense traffic and the side effects of mono-agriculture. The only farming that occurs locally is sustainable forestry.. Our basic idea is to make this a protected area where bees can do what they do best: pollinate and make high quality honey that is great for them and for people, without fear of incursion from any of the variables that we know can prevent bees from flourishing. We are more than just certified organic bee-keepers, for we wish for our bees to stay protected, and to extend that protection to others. We are seeking a way forward to ...
Explosives detection using bees. Researchers working with security guards at an airport, using honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect chemical explosives. Honey bees are sensitive to the smell of flower nectar and pollen, but here have been trained to detect the smells from chemical explosives. Sniffer tubes are exposing the bees (in the blue box) to chemicals on the baggage, and their response is observed on a computer monitor (lower right). This work is being carried out by the UK research company Insense. Photographed at Charles de Gaulle airport, Paris, France. - Stock Image C002/6645
Scientists suspect that a parasitic fly that preys on honey bees could be the cause behind the alarming phenomenon known as colony collapse disorder (CCD), in which thousands of worker bees exhibit bizarre behavior before suddenly vanishing from their colony.. Since the problem was first observed in the U.S. in 2006, experts have been attempting to explain the strange ℠zombie-like´ behavior in usually robotically predictable worker bees. European scientists have also joined in to solve the mystery as affected colonies have also been observed in increasing numbers across western Europe in recent years.. In a number of the studied cases, colonies died out entirely as up to 90 percent of its worker bee abruptly abandoned their hives and died, causing a collapse of the hive´s rigidly structured division of labor.. Previously, scientists had focused their research efforts on investigating various viral and fungal infections as well toxic chemicals in pesticides as potential causes behind the bees ...
ID A0A0M8ZWI8_9HYME Unreviewed; 533 AA. AC A0A0M8ZWI8; DT 09-DEC-2015, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 09-DEC-2015, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 16. DE SubName: Full=Potassium voltage-gated channel protein Shaw {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KOX72560.1}; GN ORFNames=WN51_02089 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KOX72560.1}; OS Melipona quadrifasciata. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Ecdysozoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; OC Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Hymenoptera; Apocrita; Aculeata; OC Apoidea; Apidae; Melipona. OX NCBI_TaxID=166423 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KOX72560.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053105}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KOX72560.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000053105} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=0111107301 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KOX72560.1}; RC TISSUE=Whole body {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KOX72560.1}; RA Pan H., Kapheim K.; RT "The genome of Melipona quadrifasciata."; RL Submitted (JUL-2015) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. CC -!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the potassium channel ...
First let me back up a step. How exactly do I do this? You would be surprised at how easy it is to start bees. You order what are called "package bees" from one of dozens of suppliers online, and believe it or not, they mail you the bees, using USPS generally. Your local post office will probably call you frantic that you have to come pick up your bees, because they have never dealt with this before, but once you have the bees in hand it is pretty simple. Inside the box will be about 3 lbs of worker bees, and one impregnated queen bee, in her own little "queen cage." You spray your bees down with sugar syrup, made in a spray bottle with half and half sugar and water, and then, after you remove a couple of frames from your hive, literally shake the bees into the hive. Then you can just put some frames back and brace the queen cage in between a couple. Close up the hive and check it in a couple of days. If the bees have not freed the queen by eating the candy plug at the end of her cage, you ...
Bees are considered to be the "queens of biodiversity" but bee populations continue to decline as a result of a broken industrial agricultural system which intensively uses chemicals and large monoculture plantations -- a system which is promoted by a few agrochemical companies like Bayer, Syngenta and BASF.. Taking the next step in our campaign to save the bees and agriculture, we continue exposing the failure of the current farming model and its impacts on bees. Greenpeace has today released a scientific report entitled: The Bees Burden - an analysis of pesticide residues in comb pollen (beebread) and trapped pollen from honey bees. The study found that more than two-thirds of pollen collected in the fields and brought back to the hive by worker bees was contaminated with up to 17 different toxic chemicals. A total of 53 different chemical compounds were detected in the course of the study. They represented a wide range of pesticides. This research was one of the largest projects of its ...
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Package vs swarms. Package - Most common method of getting bees (and certainly not the best) is to purchase a package of bees. A package is an artificial swarm created by a beekeeper by shaking bees out of a hive and adding a queen. Because the bees were not planning on swarming they do not build up as fast as a swarm.. Swarm - A swarm is the honey bees natural reproductive method. The bees are programed to create comb and the queen will lay very quickly. Bees produce many swarms as in the wild they have a low chance of survival. Proper care can increase their chances, but the first few weeks are critical. The issue with the swarm is that the health and genetics of the bees are unknown. The unknowns are more difficult the less experience the beekeeper has. It is a good low cost way to get bees, but the bees have diseases or poor genetics which lead to spiciness or poor mite resistance.. Nucs vs Full sized hives. Nucs - A nuc is short for Nucleus colony which is the smallest colony which with ...
Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) is a swarm based stochastic search algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of honeybees. Due to the simplicity of implement
In recent years, much attention has been focused on the global problem of honey bee colony losses. Among the many explanations for these losses, variability in the genetic makeup and vitality of honey bee populations might help to explain some of the variability in honey bee colony losses experienced in different regions. This has led to the innovative honey bee Genotype-Environment Interactions (GEI) experiment carried out by members of the international honey bee research association COLOSS. The results are published today in a Special Issue of the Journal of Apicultural Research.. A total of 621 colonies of 16 different genetic origins were set up in 21 apiaries in 11 different European countries managed by 15 research partners. Each location housed the local strain of bee together with two of "foreign" origins. The colonies were set up in the summer of 2009 and were managed and evaluated according to a standard protocol used by all participants until 2012.. IBRA Science Director Norman ...
The distribution of deformed wing virus infection within the honey bee reproductive castes (queens, drones) was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistology from paraffin embedded sections. Digoxygenin or CY5.5 fluorochrome end-labelled nucleotide probes hybridizing to the 3 portion of the DWV genome were used to identify DWV RNA, while a monospecific antibody to the DWV-VP1 structural protein was used to identify viral proteins and particles. The histological data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR of dissected organs. Results showed that DWV infection is not restricted to the digestive tract of the bee but spread in the whole body, including queen ovaries, queen fat body and drone seminal vesicles.
The new analysis, Pollinators in Peril: A systematic status review of North American and Hawaiian native bees, reveals that more than 700 species are in trouble from a range of serious threats, including severe habitat loss and escalating pesticide use. Key findings include: (1) among native bee species with sufficient data to assess (1,437), more than half (749) are declining; (2) nearly 1 in 4 (347 native bee species) is imperiled and at increasing risk of extinction; (3) many of the bee species lacking sufficient data are also likely declining or at risk of extinction, highlighting the urgent need for additional research; and, (4) the declines are caused primarily by habitat loss, heavy pesticide use, climate change and urbanization.. These findings come as a growing body of research has revealed that more than 40 percent of insect pollinators are highly threatened globally, including many of the native bees critical to crop and wildflower pollination across the U.S. Many studies link ...
Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood) and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates). We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel
    Varroa mites are widely considered the biggest honey bee health problem worldwide [1-4]. Until recently, Varroa jacobsoni has been found to live and reproduce only in Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) colonies, while V. destructor successfully reproduces in both A. cerana and A. mellifera colonies. However, we have identified an island population of V. jacobsoni that is highly destructive to A. mellifera, the primary species used for pollination...
Hives with lesser populations of bees require particular attention. Examining one weak hive revealed a small population with no worker brood. I found the queen shown in todays photo surrounded by a retinue of attendant workers constantly stroking her abdomen. However, the queen was damaged; her wings were incomplete. The queen appeared to be afflicted with Deformed Wing Virus, one of more than a dozen viral diseases commonly vectored by parasitic Varroa mites. A queen with deformed wings would have been unable to make her mating flights as a young adult. An unmated queen cannot lay the fertilized eggs needed to produce worker bees or queens. Without these bees, the colony is doomed to collapse. This deformed queen evidently emerged the previous fall. The workers in the hive were long-lived bees produced by this queens mother. Deformed Wing Virus affects drones and workers more frequently than queens. It is likely that a female Varroa mite entered the queen cell before it was capped, and then ...
The deformed wing virus (DWV), known to be ubiquitous in honey bees, has now been detected in bumblebees. In addition, the neogregarine Apicystis bombi has been discovered to be more prevalent than previously thought. Here, we assess for the first time the lethal and sublethal effects of these parasites during single and mixed infections of worker bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, we find that A. bombi exhibits both lethal and sublethal effects. DWV causes lethal effect and may reduce the sub lethal effects imposed by A. bombi. The results show that both parasites have significant, negative effects on bumblebee health, making them potentially of conservation concern. more here: http://graystock.info/publications/single-and-mixed-infections-of-apicystis-bombi-and-deformed-wing-virus-2015/. ...
Beyond Pesticides, April 3, 2012) Last week, the journal Science published two new studies linking neonicotinoid pesticide exposure to bee health. These two studies, one French, one British, add to a growing body of scientific literature and strengthen the case for removing pesticides toxic to bees from the market. The French study shows that pesticides interfere with honey bee brains, affecting their ability to navigate. The British research finds that pesticides prevent bumble bees from collecting enough food to produce new queens. These studies were released on the heels of an emergency legal petition by beekeepers and environmental groups, including Beyond Pesticides, that calls for the ban of the bee-killing pesticide clothianidin.. Neonicitinoids are highly toxic to a range of insects, including honey bees and other pollinators. They are taken up by a plants vascular system and expressed through pollen, nectar and gutation droplets from which bees forage and drink. They are particularly ...
An introduction to understanding honeybees, the origins of honeybees and the evolution of honeybees.. The history of honeybees:. Bees of all kinds belong to the order of insects known as Hymenoptera, literally "membrane wings". This order, comprising some 100,000 species, also includes wasps, ants, ichneumons and sawflies. Of the 25,000 or more described species of bees (more are recognised every year) the majority are solitary bees most of which lay their eggs in tunnels, which they excavate themselves. In some species small numbers of females may share a single tunnel system and in other cases there may be a semi/social organisation involving a hierarchical order among the females. These bees provide a supply of food (honey and pollen) for the larvae, but there is no progressive feeding of the larvae by the adult bees.. Honeybees belong to the family of social bees which includes bumble bees and the tropical stingless bees of the genus Meliponinae. The social bees nest in colonies headed by a ...
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Honey bee The honey bee brain is extraordinary. In the same way that the human brain expands in size from birth to adulthood, as we are exposed to experiences, so too does the honey bee brain. It expands to absorb memories, scents, experiences and information increasing in size over spring and summer, and literally shrinks over winter, when there is less sensory overload.. Two new research papers from Monash University researchers reveal the way the honey bee controls aggression and form memories. The discoveries have important implications for the way the human brain controls aggression and forms memories, and loses memory with age.. Honey bees offer great insight into the way the human brain works. For instance, honey bees use memory to find their way back to pollen-laden fields, and they communicate in a sophisticated language to tell other bees about danger and new sources of food.. The importance of the honey bee to neuroscience has led to Monash University opening (beginning of December) a ...
The Foundation for the Preservation of Honey Bees Scholarship Awardees (6 talks). 2. Using video-tracking as a risk assessment tool to evaluate the sublethal effects of pesticide exposure to the honey bee. Erin Ingram, University of Nebraska, 3115 "E" Street, Lincoln, NE 68510. 3. Contributions of brood communication and mite-exposure to hygienic behavior in Apis mellifera. Kaira Wagoner, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, 706 Northridge Street, Greensboro, NC.. 4. Molecular, physiological and behavioral responses of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to Nosema infection. Holly L. Holt. Pennsylvania State University, Department of Entomology, University Park, PA. 5. Synergistic effects of pesticides, poor/rich pollen nutrition, diseases and temperature on honey bees. Simone Tosi, University of Bologna, via Zaniboni 15, Bologna, 40129, Italy. 6. Cell culture as a tool to improve our understanding of bee biology and diseases. Mike Goblirsch, University of Minnesota; Dept. of Entomology. Mike ...
Honeybees have gotten a great deal of negative press lately as a result of the so-called "Killer Bees" (more appropriately called Africanized honeybees). Lets not forget that the European honeybee you and I are familiar with today has served us well for many years. There is no better time than now, during National Honey Month, to give them credit. European honeybees, the honeybees we see every day buzzing from flower to flower, were not a common sight to the American Indians. In fact, the first honeybees were brought over by the early settlers and were called the "White mans fly" by the Indians. Imagine how terrified they must have been of this new insect. As time passed, we began to understand, respect and manage this creature. European honeybees have been kept in managed hives for more than two centuries in the Unites States and have been selected for behavioral characteristicts that make them easy and profitable to handle (gentleness, high honey production, etc.). When we think of the ...
Despite the fungal abundance in honey and bee bread, little is known about the fungal gut community of the honey bee and its effect on host fitness. Using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS2 region amplicons, we analysed the bacterial and fungal gut communities of the honey bee as affected by the host social status. Both communities were significantly affected by the host social status. The bacterial gut community was similar to those characterised in previous studies. The fungal gut communities of most worker bees were highly dominated by Saccharomyces but foraging bees and queens were colonised by diverse fungal species and Zygosaccharomyces, respectively. The high fungal density and positive correlation between Saccharomyces species and Lactobacillus species, known yeast antagonists, were only observed in the nurse bee; this suggested that the conflict between Saccharomyces and Lactobacillus was compromised by the metabolism of the host and/or other gut microbes. PICRUSt analysis revealed
This is the first study of the seasonal effects of a natural propolis envelope on the immune system of honey bees. Our results from summer and autumn extend those of Simone et al. (2009), who reported a decrease in the expression of two immune-related genes in bees after only 7 days exposure to propolis-extract solution experimentally coated inside the walls of small colonies. Organic solvent extracts of propolis may not contain all active compounds, and this is not how bees are exposed to propolis naturally; thus, we allowed the bees to construct their own propolis envelope. We found the natural propolis envelope served to lower immune gene transcription in individual bees over the summer and autumn months. The immune system is one of the most costly physiological systems to maintain in animals (Evans and Pettis, 2005; Schmid-Hempel, 2005). Therefore, a decrease in energetic costs associated with the maintenance of an up-regulated immune system will help bees to allocate their energy to ...
Bees are collapsing around Australia due to a malignant system that is allowing deadly chemicals into our suburbs as well as agricultural areas. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) is currently putting our lives at risk. Kareena Arthy as executive officer, please be aware and intervene. This has been heartbreaking for beekeepers who often share a connection to their colonys. Bees are the canary in the coal mine if these chemicals are killing bees inevitably they will kill us. With a degree in economics you ought to release how crucial bees are to the economy and our food system. Examples of beekeepers who have lost their bees include Jack Stone, who has lost colonies in Brisbane https://instagram.com/p/BErp7vsx60V/ , Chelsea Fox in Killarney Victoria http://www.standard.net.au/story/3790222/bees-buzz-no-more-after-chemical-hit/ and Adrian Agel in Oakbank South Australia https://instagram.com/p/BDUmJQ8OqxI/ Beekeepers - commercial and hobbyists - are united in ...
But never let it be said that Gwyneth Paltrow isnt willing to suffer for her beliefs, as shes recently revealed her latest interest is apitherapy, specifically the practice of deliberately getting bees to sting her, to supposedly get rid of inflammation and scarring.. Theres a lot to question about this claim. Firstly, using bee stings to get rid of inflammation is like using petrol bombs to get rid of a house fire. Bee stings, like most insect venom, cause inflammation ! If youve ever been stung by anything, you know this, as the sting site swells up like a small-but-angry red balloon.. Secondly, many people have pointed out that its a bit much, at a time when bees are under threat , for a millionaire to kill them en-masse for a beauty treatment with no basis in logic or reality? This is a semi-valid criticism, based on the notion that bees die as soon as they sting you. This is onlypartially true ; its usually only honey bees that this applies to, so it depends on the bees used ...
One important note: Many will tell you that they can identify Africanized bees, based on behavior or morphology (what they look like). Let me assure you that these are false claims. I have a Masters degree in Entomology, with a stinging insect specialization. I employ an entomologist who has spent years in Africa, keeping hundreds of African bee hives. My partner is an entomologist with years of honey bee experience. Even we cant ID AHB by casual observation. We have to perform a lengthy test involving ~50 bees, dissections, measurements and calculations to get even a probability of Africanization. And like I mentioned before, swarms & newly established colonies (European & AHB) are usually non-defensive, so that is useless as a means of identification. Our website has some info on swarms that might be helpful, although it mainly deals with Springtime bee swarms, a totally different process:Honey Bee Swarm Info ...
The tiny Bumble Bee Snail benefits most marine reef aquariums in big ways. Heralded for their small size and beautiful coloration, Engina sp. can get into small crevices and tight locations between rockwork. Here, they clean away detritus, including uneaten meaty foods and decomposing organisms. This tiny member of the Buccinidae family also burrows into your sand bed, consumes sand-dwelling worms, and helps aerate your substrate. Plus, with its striking black shell, striped in elegant white to yellow bands, the Bumble Bee Snail is indeed beautiful to observe. For best care, offer ample hiding places with large areas to roam. The Bumble Bee Snail prefers to consume foods off of live rock and deep sand beds where it can forage for food undisturbed. Like other invertebrates, the Bumble Bee Snail is sensitive to copper-based medications, high nitrate levels, and even the slightest fluctuation in water parameters. Though peaceful, keep in mind that the Bumble Bee Snail is a carnivore. If there is ...
Honey bees were thought to respond to different disease organisms in entirely different ways, but we have learned that they mostly rely on a core set of genes that they turn on or off in response to any major pathogenic challenge," said Robert Paxton, professor of zoology at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg and a member of iDiv. "We can now explore the physiological mechanisms by which pathogens overcome their honey bee hosts, and how honey bees can fight back against those pathogens.". The implications of the findings are not limited to honey bees. The team found that the core genes are part of conserved pathways -- meaning they have been maintained throughout the course of evolution among insects and therefore are shared by other insects. According to Doublet, this means that the genes provide important knowledge for understanding pathogen interactions with other insects, such as bumble bees, and for using pathogens to control insect pests, such as aphids and certain moths.. "This ...
Using Bees for Landmine Detection: How It Works. Bees have an acute sense of smell, which enables them to find food. Taking advantage of this trait, a group of scientists, led by Jerry Bromenshenk and Joseph Shaw, have conditioned bees to interpret the scent of chemicals used in explosives as food. The association is established by adding traces of explosive by-products to bee feed.. Once the bees have been conditioned, the hungry swarm is let loose and tracked using lidar, a type of remote sensing that uses laser light. This technique is similar to sonar, which uses sound, and radar, which uses radio waves for tracking purposes.. Conditioned bees have shown a 97% or greater accuracy in finding landmines. Using similar conditioning methods, bees can also be used to detect bombs, drugs, and decomposing bodies. Although promising, the honey bee technique is subject to a couple of limitations:. ...
Besides size, another way that you can tell how Bumble Bee is different from Honey Bee is that Bumble Bees nest is a mess. Bumble Bees have fewer members in their colonies than Honey Bee. Also, They do not store large amounts of honey. Unlike Honey Bees, Bumble Bees rarely sting unless their nest is threatened ...
In response to the increasing call for industry to be more transparent, Syngenta took the decision to publish the pivotal honeybee field studies that supported the honey bee safety of thiamethoxam. These field studies included 12 separate pollen and nectar field residue trials and five long-term (4 consecutive years) field effects studies on honeybees carried out in four geographically widespread locations in France. The primary purpose of these field trials was to investigate and test the bee safety of thiamethoxam. As such these studies have to be carefully designed to avoid as far as is possible any other potential confounding factors, e.g. exposure to other insecticides. In response to the criticism of Hoppe et al. (2105) that the "design and adherence to the protocol was described inadequately" and that it was "doubtful whether the study was implemented in a traceable way", it should be noted that these studies also have to comply with the strict, legally enforceable, quality control ...
Follow me on Instagram at sharpharmade! . Saturday August 20, 2016 is World Honey Bee Day. "World Honey Bee Day, previously known as Honey Bee Awareness Day, is an idea put together by beekeepers in the USA, who petitioned the USDA in 2009 for an official day to honor honey bees and beekeeping. A few years down the line, people across the globe are holding a date of observation every year. Honey Bee awareness enthusiasts will likely put a bee in your bonnet and say this is not so much a day to celebrate honey bees, as it is to promote their involvement in sustainable farming. On this day, bee lovers everywhere decorate their gardens with lavender, borage and marjoram, the bees knees in pollinator lures. If you have the time and patience, bake some honey chippers and make your own honey fruit cobbler. And because youve been as busy as a bee all day, sit back and watch Hitchcocks The Bees. Youll count your blessings honey bees are nothing like South American killer bees." . ^sPm - ...
Natural News) Bees might not be a priority for you, but did you know that without these small pollinators, you wouldnt be able to enjoy various crops like fruits and nuts?. Honey bee colonies in the U.S. are dying off because of various factors like disease, parasites, pesticides, and poor nutrition. When bees die off, beekeepers have to work twice as hard to save entire colonies.. In 2017, an alarming 40 percent of U.S. honey bee colonies died, indicating a 33 percent increase compared to 2016. While this doesnt necessarily mean fewer bees since beekeepers can still salvage a dead colony, the loss of colonies are linked to labor and production costs.. In an interview with USA Today, Dennis van Engelsdorp, an assistant professor at the University of Maryland, said that when colonies die, beekeepers have to charge farmers more for pollinating their crops. This could then cause a drop-off in fruits and nuts that need to be pollinated. Bees pollinate one out of every three bites of food eaten in ...
Honeybees, wild species of bees and also insects pollinate many crops but certain crops can be pollinated more effectively and efficiently by bumblebees. Their use as pollinators was discovered in the 1980s. Nowadays between 40-50,000 commercially reared bumblebee colonies, each containing up to 100 worker bees are imported annually to the UK. Worldwide more than one million colonies are sold each year.. Some types of bumblebees have long tongues so they are well suited to pollinating crop flowers that other bees cant reach into. The bumblebee also buzz pollinates by placing its upper body close to the anthers of a flower, vibrates its flight muscles and this vibration shakes the pollen from the anthers, enabling more efficient pollination.. Bumblebees are also very fast pollinators! Studies have demonstrated that 5 colonies of bumblebees produced yields equal to using 7.5 honey bee colonies per hectare, despite the significantly greater size of honey bee colonies. Bumblebees also work longer ...
The MAJORITY Of Ontario. Bee Health Working Group. Will VOTE IN FAVOUR. Of Arbitrary Prohibition. Against Neonicotinoid. Insecticides In Ontario. ――――――――――――――――――――. Background Information. From An Independent Perspective. ――――――――――――――――――――. Background Information From An Independent Perspective. Is There Any Connection Between Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Long-Term Honey Bee Losses In Canada ?. There is NO EVIDENCE TO SUGGEST A LINK between neonicotinoid insecticides and long-term honey bee losses in Canada.. There is NO GEOGRAPHICAL CORRELATION between long-term bee losses and insecticide use.. Although some neonicotinoid insecticides are toxic to bees upon direct con-tact ( as are many insecticides ), they are used in a way that MINIMIZES ANY DIRECT EXPOSURE TO BEES.. Under normal field use, THE EXPOSURE TO BEES IS AT VERY LOW LEVELS, FAR TOO LOW TO CAUSE HARMFUL EFFECTS.. Independent, long-term, controlled ...
By Emma BathaLONDON, Jan 9 (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Honey bees areattracted to a fungicide used in agriculture with unsettlingimplications for global food production, a scientist said onTuesday.Tests carried out by a team from the University of Illinoisshowed bees preferred to collect sugar syrup laced with thefungicide chlorothalonil over sugar syrup alone.The finding follows other studies linking fungicides to aworldwide plunge in honey bee and wild bee populations which arecrucial for pollinating crops.Bees are kind of like humans in that they sometimes likethings that arent necessarily good for them, said Universityof Illinois entomology professor May Berenbaum, who led theresearch.She said fungicides were bad news for bees because theycould exacerbate the toxicity of pesticides and kill offbeneficial fungi in hives.Her team set up two feeding stations in an enclosureallowing the bees to choose sugar syrup laced with a testchemical or without. The chemicals included three fungicides
Abstract: Insect colonies have been traditionally regarded as closed societies comprised of completely sterile workers ruled over by a single once-mated queen. However, over the past 15 years, microsatellite studies of parentage have revealed that this perception is far from the truth (Beekman & Oldroyd 2008). First, we learned that honey bee queens are far more promiscuous than we had previously imagined (Estoup et al. 1994), with one Apis dorsata queen clocked at over 100 mates (Wattanachaiyingcharoen et al. 2003). Then Oldroyd et al. (1994) reported a honey bee colony from Queensland, where virtually all the males were sons of a single patriline of workers - a clear case of a cheater mutant that promoted intra-colonial reproductive parasitism. Then we learned that both bumble bee colonies (Lopez-Vaamonde et al. 2004) and queenless honey bee colonies (Nanork et al. 2005, 2007) are routinely parasitized by workers from other nests that fly in and lay male-producing eggs that are then reared by ...
The bee Apocalypse Im sure I am not the only person whos fed up of hearing or reading about the looming bee apocalypse?. All too frequently mis-informed journalists are spitting out articles which help perpetuate the myth that our honey bees are facing imminent threat of extinction.. Just this week Ive read 3 different articles which refer to the UK losing 1/3 of its honey bee colonies this past year and several others referring to 40% losses in the USA resulting in honey bees facing possible extinction. However none of them cite the source for the information which raises the question of the validity of their statements. So where is the evidence?. Im also getting quite fed up with the fictitious quote supposedly made by Einstein being quoted which wrongly says "If the bee disappeared off the face of the Earth, man would only have four years left to live." The fact is there is absolutely no evidence that Einstein ever made this statement, and even if he did its not true - whilst true ...
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Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids ...
Another product of the hive is royal jelly, a rich creamy substance made by the worker bees and used in the feeding of the larvae. While the youngsters which are destined to become worker bees receive royal jelly in combination with other food sources, its believed that when a new queen is needed, it will be feed exclusively on royal jelly. This is believed to trigger the mechanism which causes a your bee to develop into a queen ...
An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae), and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood ...
existing test protocols and possible new protocols that take account of the exposure of bees to pesticides through nectar and pollen.. The document proposes two separate assessment schemes: one for honey bees, and one for bumble bees and solitary bees. In the initial stage it is suggested to include toxicity testing that covers an exposure period of seven to ten days for adult bees and larvae. Both life stages can involve exposure of longer than one day, a risk that is not covered by standard tests.. EFSAs pesticides experts also recommend improvements to existing laboratory, semi-field (cages, tunnels and tents) and field testing procedures. Several exposure routes (intermittent and prolonged exposure of adult bees, exposure through inhalation and the exposure of larvae) are not currently evaluated in laboratory tests, and the effects of "sub-lethal" doses of pesticides are not covered fully.. In field and semi-field testing, the experts identify several weaknesses that lead to uncertainties ...
Honey bees are highly valued for their pollination services in agricultural settings, and recent declines in managed populations have caused concern.. Colony losses following a major pollination event in the United States, almond pollination, have been characterized by brood mortality with specific symptoms, followed by eventual colony loss weeks later. ...
Ecology and evolutionary advantages of pollen specialization in bees: Many bee species collect pollen from one or a few plant host species even when other plants in the same community are also flowering. Why these specialist bee species do not use other plants remains an open question. At present, it is easier to rule out what does not explain host specificity in bees than it is to identify a single factor. Hypotheses not supported include: 1) that pollens contain secondary compounds that require physiological adaptations by the adult or larvae to properly digest them; 2) flower shapes or rewards are highly modified in ways that might deter visitation by generalist bee species; and, 3) pollens are unusually nutritious. Rather, many plant species that host specialist bees are unusually attractive to generalist bee species in the same community, have flowers that are open and seemingly easy to forage from, and produce abundant floral resources (nectar and pollen).. In an ongoing project with Tai ...
Knowledge of microbiota composition, persistence, and transmission as well as the overall function of the bacterial community is important and may be linked to honey bee health. This study aimed to investigate the inter-individual variation in the gut microbiota in honey bee larvae and pupae. Individual larvae differed in the composition of major bacterial groups. In the majority of 5th instar bees, Firmicutes showed predominance (70%); however, after larval defecation and during pupation, the abundance decreased to 40%, in favour of Gammaproteobacteria. The 5th instar larvae hosted significantly more (P | 0.001) Firmicutes than black pupae. Power calculations revealed that 11 and 18 replicate-individuals, respectively, were required for the detection of significant differences (P | 0.05) in the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes abundance between stages, while higher numbers of replicates were required for Actinobacteria (478 replicates) and Gammaproteobacteria (111 replicates). Although sample processing
Propolis is a sticky substance that bees make which is better known as "bee glue". The process begins when an expert propolis-making bee gathers resin from cone-producing evergreen trees or from the buds of trees. The bee will gather this sticky sap when the proper weather makes it pliable and soft. After the bee gathers enough, he blends the resin with wax flakes that he stores in the gland of his abdomen. After the bee has shaped it into a ball, he tucks it into the pollen basket that is attached to his leg. The bee will continue until the basket is full, then take it back to the hive. At this point, the propolis is unloaded and used to patch up holes in the hive. Bees also use propolis as an antiseptic barrier covering invaders with the sticky substance to prevent hive contamination. ...
Its decorative gourd season, ladies and gentlemen. If you are anything like me then you should be reveling in the tastes, smells, and overall pleasing aesthetics of the fruit of the family Cucurbitaceae. If so, then you must pay your respects to a hard working bee that is responsible for the sexual efforts of these vining plants. Im not talking about the honeybee, no no. I am talking about the squash bees. If were being technical, the squash bees are comprised of two genera, Peponapis and Xenoglossa. They are not the hive forming bees we generally think of. Instead, these bees are solitary in nature. After mating (which usually occurs inside squash flowers) the females will dig a tunnel into the ground. Inside that tunnel she places balls of squash pollen upon which she will lay an egg. The larvae consume the protein-rich pollen as they develop. The story of squash bees and Cucurbitaceae is a North American story. Long before squash was domesticated, these bees were busy pollinating their ...
A Queen Honeybee is a very special creature. She is the mother of all of bees of the beehive. There is only one queen in a colony of honeybees that may number up to 80,000 members. Without constant egg laying by the queen, the bee colony would soon die. Genetically speaking, the queen is responsible for contributing her own characteristics, (along with the male drones), to the bees of the hive. Thus, the bees of the hive are, indeed, "made from the same mold" as the Queen.. Biologists interested in nutrition point to the queen as an example of how diet can make an incredible difference in the development of an animal. The only difference between a Queen Bee and a worker bee is that the queen eats Royal Jelly for the whole duration of her life, while the worker bees eat Royal Jelly for only the first three days of their larval stage. The Royal Jelly diet accounts for some rather remarkable differences in the physiology and behaviour of the Queen.. The Queen Bee is different from a normal worker ...
It all started when one Brazilian beekeeper tried to make his European honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica) more viable. To do this, he purchased 26 Tanzanian bee queens (A.m. scutellata). He proceeded to breed them in an attempt to make a new bee that was stronger...faster...and more adaptable to the rain forest climate! (Actually, I have seen mixed things about this; some sources say that the hybridization was intentional at first, others say it occurred after the bees escaped ...
Bees represent some of the most resilient, adaptable and enterprising insects on earth. Not only that, they pollinate about one-third of all the food we eat. So when honey bees began dying or disappearing at alarming rates in the U.S. and around the world more than four years ago, scientists such as Nifty Fifty Speaker Dennis vanEngelsdorp, as the acting Pennsylvania state apiarist (beekeeper) and one of the nations most prominent advocates and researchers of bees, was naturally deeply concerned. "Bees and other pollinators are a barometer and referendum on the state of our environment," says Dennis, who serves as a senior extension associate in the Department of Entomology at Penn State Universitys College of Agricultural Sciences. "Theyre a reminder of the brilliant and frightening interdependence of our ecosystem.". Dennis and other researchers have traced part of the mysterious disappearance and death of bees to what they term Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a complex condition where ...
Worker bees are infertile females; however, in some circumstances they may lay infertile eggs, and in one subspecies these eggs may be fertile. Worker bees secrete the wax used to build the hive, clean and maintain the hive, raise the young, guard the hive and forage for nectar and pollen.. In honeybees, the worker bees have a modified ovipositor called a stinger with which they can sting to defend the hive. Unlike other bees of any other genus (and even unlike the queens of their own species), the stinger is barbed. Contrary to popular belief, the bee will not always die soon after stinging: this is a misconception based on the fact that a bee will usually die after stinging a human or other mammal. The sting and associated venom sac are modified so as to pull free of the body once lodged (autotomy), and the sting apparatus has its own musculature and ganglion that allow it to keep delivering venom once detached. It is presumed that this complex apparatus, including the barbs on the sting, ...
The Hadza consume honey and larvae of both stingless bees and stinging bees, including the African killer bee (Apis mellifera). The Hadza locate the hives with the assistance of a wild African bird, the aptly named honey guide (Indicator indicator). The honey guide bird and the Hadza honey hunter communicate back and forth through a series of whistles and the bird guides the honey hunter, tree by tree, to the bee hive. Once the honey hunter has located the hive, he pounds wooden pegs ito the trunk of the tree, climbs to the top where the hive is located, chops into the tree to expose the hive, and smokes it out by placing burning brush into the opening. Smoking the hive acts to pacify the bees by dulling the senses of the guard bees who protect the opening of the hive. The bees see the smoke as a habitat threat and focus on collecting enough honey to rebuild their hive elsewhere. This allows the hunter to collect the honeycomb without being stung by the killer bees. The honey guide bird ...
Propolis from stingless bees is well known for its biologic properties; however, few studies have demonstrated these effects. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the chemical composition and antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of propolis from the stingless bee Melipona orbignyi, found in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. the chemical composition of the ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) indicated the presence of aromatic acids, phenolic compounds, alcohols, terpenes and sugars. the EEP was active against the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Candida albicans. the EEP showed antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and inhibiting hemolysis and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. Additionally, EEP promoted cytotoxic activity and primarily necrotic death in K562 erythroleukemia cells. Taken together, these results indicate that propolis from M. orbignyi has therapeutic potential for the treatment and/or prevention of ...
Male euglossine bees collect fragrances from various sources, which they store and use for as yet unknown purposes. They are attracted, often specifically, to single odor compounds and blends thereof.
Queen honey bees, like workers, are female. They are created at the decision of the worker bees by feeding a larva only royal jelly throughout its development, rather than switching from royal jelly to pollen once the larva grows past a certain size. Queens are produced in oversized cells and develop in only 16 days. Queens have a different morphology and behavior from worker bees. In addition to the greater size of the queen, she has a functional set of ovaries, and a spermatheca, which stores and maintains sperm after she has mated. The sting of queens is not barbed like a workers sting, and queens lack the glands that produce beeswax. Once mated, queens may lay up to 2,000 eggs per day. They produce a variety of pheromones that regulate behavior of workers, and helps swarms track the queens location during the migratory phase. ...
Background Melissococcus plutonius is an entomopathogenic bacterium that causes European foulbrood (EFB), a honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) disease that necessitates quarantine in some countries. In Czechia, positive evidence of EFB was absent for almost 40 years, until an outbreak in the Krkonose Mountains National Park in 2015. This occurrence of EFB gave us the opportunity to study the epizootiology of EFB by focusing on the microbiome of honeybee workers, which act as vectors of honeybee diseases within and between colonies. Methods The study included worker bees collected from brood combs of colonies (i) with no signs of EFB (EFB0), (ii) without clinical symptoms but located at an apiary showing clinical signs of EFB (EFB1), and (iii) with clinical symptoms of EFB (EFB2). In total, 49 samples from 27 honeybee colonies were included in the dataset evaluated in this study. Each biological sample consisted of 10 surface-sterilized worker bees processed for DNA extraction. All subjects were analyzed using
Looking for online definition of colony collapse disorder in the Medical Dictionary? colony collapse disorder explanation free. What is colony collapse disorder? Meaning of colony collapse disorder medical term. What does colony collapse disorder mean?
Also known as the Vampire Mite, Varroa Mite, Varroa Destructor and often mislabeled as Varroa Jacobsoni.. The Varroa Mite is a parasitic mite that can cause serious trouble to beekeepers and their bees alike. This tick-like mite, around the sized of a pinhead, does its damage by feeding on the bees hemolymph fluid (akin to bee blood). Mites attach themselves to foraging workers in order to spread themselves from one hive to another. This mite can severally weaken a hive through vampire-like action and through the spread of disease and bacteria. An unchecked mite population will almost certainly lead to the premature death of a honeybee colony.. Within the United States, Varroa Mites have the largest impact when compared to other pests within the beekeeping industry. The Varroa Mite is also nearly completely responsible for the decimation and loss of feral honeybee colonies. Some beekeepers have resorted to reverting to small cell beekeeping and many hobbyist are moving towards top bar hives in ...
Acacia honey, adular, lskling, amour, andromedotoxin-containing honey, Apis mellifera (honey bee), apitherapy product, azaleas honey, bee products, blackberry honey, blueberry honey, borage honey, buckwheat honey, chou, cielo, citrus sinensis osbeck, clarified honey, clover honey, coisa doce, deli bal, endulzar, falar docemente, feng mi, flavonoids, grayanotoxin honey, hachimitsu, honeydew, honig, honing, honingkleur, honung, HY-1, iets beeldigs, jelly bush honey, kamahi honey, kanuka honey, lastig portret, lavender honey, Leptospermum honey, lief doen, liefje (aanspreekvorm), ling honey, ljuvhet, mad honey, madu, Manuka honey, mel, mel depuratum, melliferous products, miel, miel blanc, miele, mi vida, moeilijk probleem, mooi praten, mountain laurel honey, namorado, nectar, Nigerian citrus honey, nodding thistle honey, orange blossom honey, pasture honey, purified honey, rata honey, raw honey, rewarewa honey, rhododendron honey, schatz, sm ra, sourwood honey, strained honey, sunflower honey, ...
Bee pollen produced from Schisandra chinensis plants is described to exert potent antioxidant effects and to be a free radical scavenger. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of therapeutic treatment with Schisandra chinensis bee pollen extract (SCBPE) on liver and kidney injury induced by CP. The rats were intragastrically administrated with different doses of SCBPE (400mg/kg/day, 800mg/kg/day, 1200mg/kg/day) and vitamin C (400mg/kg/day, positive control group) for 12days, and the liver and kidney injury models were established by single intraperitoneal injection of CP (8mg/kg) at seventh day ...
HIGHLIGHTS. All accepted papers will be published by Springer and made available through Springer-Link Digital Library, one of the worlds largest scientific libraries.. CONFERENCE TOPICS. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING AND APPLICATIONS: Artificial intelligence, Quantum computing, Artificial Neural Networks, Self - Organizing, Fuzzy logic, Membrane computing, Evolutionary computation, Learning theory, Probabilistic methods, Image processing Computer vision, Speech recognition, Big data, Evolutionary algorithm, Randomness Monte Carlo methods, Algorithmic probability, Chaos theory, Cryptography, Game theory, Information theory, Pattern recognition, Natural computing, Evolutionary robotics Knowledge-based system, Machine learning, Unsupervised learning, Computational finance, Computational economics, and DNA computing. OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATIONS: Ant colony optimization, Artificial bee colony, Artificial immune systems, Artificial neural networks, Automatic computing, Bacterial foraging, Biological ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased expression of osteopontin is associated with long-term bee venom immunotherapy. AU - Konno, Satoshi. AU - Golden, David B.K.. AU - Schroeder, John. AU - Hamilton, Robert G.. AU - Lichtenstein, Lawrence M.. AU - Huang, Shau Ku. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Background: Venom allergen immunotherapy (VIT) is proven to be highly effective for insect allergy, but the mechanisms and the biomarkers associated with clinical efficacy remain elusive. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify candidate biomarkers associated with successful VIT. Methods: Gene chip array and clustering analyses of PBMCs from subjects with or without VIT were performed. Results: From gene chip array and clustering analyses, an increased expression of osteopontin was found in patients who completed 5 to 6 years of VIT and discontinued therapy for 3 to 6 years (completed treatment group) compared with the untreated group. A significantly higher level of serum osteopontin was found in the ...
This Y.S. Eco Bee Farms Raw Honey is an excellent product: its 100% pure, raw, unprocessed, unpasteurized, unfiltered, very delicious, and has a smooth and creamy texture (which proves that its genuine). This product is truly a superfood loaded with health benefits. Rich in manganese, iron, copper, pota ssium, zinc, selenium, calcium, magnesium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, vitamin C, niacin, folate, pantothenic acid, its beneficial in treating infections, colds, flu, fever, respiratory tract conditions, nasal congestion, sore throat, bronchitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, asthma, gastritis, acid reflux, Helicobacter pylori, indigestion, stomach ulcers, IBS, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, hay fever, high cholesterol, cardiovascular conditions, heart disease, diabetes, kidney and liver disease, arthritis, rheumatism, osteoporosis, aching muscles, earache, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraines and headaches, stress, anxiety, insomnia, cataracts, diabetic foot ulcers, sunburn, acne, rashes, ...
Algae: EC50 0.02-13.6 mg/l for three freshwater algae and two diatom species.Bees:Not toxic to bees; LD50 (contact and oral) ,100µg/bee.Birds:Acute oral LD50 for Japanese quail 2223, bobwhite quail 2825, mallard ducks ,2510, Pekin ducks ,6000 mg/kg. LC50 (8 d) for Japanese quail ,1000, bobwhite quail ,5620, mallard ducks ,Daphnia: EC50 4.8 mg/l.Fish: LC50 (96 h) for carp 6.8, rainbow trout 5.3, golden orfe 5.1, spot 2.6 mg/l.Worms:No toxic effects against Lumbricus rebellus.Other aquatic spp.: LC50 (96 h) for crayfish 42 mg/l. EC50 (96 h) for mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) 0.5 mg/l.Other beneficial spp.:Under field conditions, not expected to have any significant impact ...

Bee Venom FAQBee Venom FAQ

It is on bee venom therapy and I have the permission of the author to post it here. Bee Venom - Frequently Asked Questions Bee ... 1. How is bee venom collected? Since the middle 1950s, the electric shock method has been used to stimulate the bees to sting. ... 8. Is bee venom solution as effective as bee stings? Bee venom has many active components, however, during its collection it ... 9. Has bee venom solution been reported to be effective in treating multiple sclerosis? In the early 1980s bee venom solution ...
more infohttp://www.ibiblio.org/pub/academic/agriculture/entomology/beekeeping/general/venom_therapy/bevenfaq.html

Bee, beekeeping, collecting, flower, pollen icon | Icon search engineBee, beekeeping, collecting, flower, pollen icon | Icon search engine

Download bee, beekeeping, collecting, flower, pollen icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by Ion Popa found in the icon ... Bee, beekeeping, collecting, flower, pollen icon. * Basic license · Categories: Agriculture, farming, & gardening Styles: Glyph ...
more infohttps://www.iconfinder.com/icons/1213087/bee_beekeeping_collecting_flower_pollen_icon

Honing in on bee colony collapse disorder | western FarmPressHoning in on bee colony collapse disorder | western FarmPress

... new or reemerging pathogens and a virus that targets the bees immune systems, said Keith Delaplane, an entomologist with the ... Nearly 30 percent of all honey bees literally disappeared last winter, fleeing their hives never to return. Researchers have ... "There seems to be a trigger that when they stress the bees, the viruses the bee has been carrying are suddenly awakened," ... Honing in on bee colony collapse disorder. Nearly 30 percent of all honey bees literally disappeared last winter, fleeing their ...
more infohttp://www.westernfarmpress.com/orchard-crops/honing-bee-colony-collapse-disorder

PPT - Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6736874PPT - Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6736874

Population crashes have been common place since the 1980s but have become disastrous since 2006, with 1/3 of honeybee colonies ... Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder. Colony Collapse Disorder. ... Queen Bee Saves Honey Bee -By andrea thomas. queen bee saves ... africanized honey bees. w. h. kern jr. africanized honey bees. same species as the european honey bee the sting has the same ... Managing Bees and a few other things…………….. Starting a colony of honey bees Presented By The Ohio State Beeke -Managing bees ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/solomon-burch/honey-bee-colony-collapse-disorder

Approaches and Challenges to Managing Nosema in Honey Bee Colonies - American Honey ProducersApproaches and Challenges to Managing Nosema in Honey Bee Colonies - American Honey Producers

Bee, butterfly, and bat populations are in decline across the globe. Even the honey bee, perhaps the best-studied pollinator, ... This can accelerate a bees normal development, causing worker bees to mature earlier into foragers - but poor ones at that. ... Nosema-infected bees take longer rests, are less efficient at gathering pollen and nectar, and are more likely to become ... Nosema species, two of which are known to infect honey bees, belong to a group of fungi known as microsporidians. These fungal ...
more infohttp://americanhoneyproducers.org/approaches-and-challenges-to-managing-nosema-in-honey-bee-colonies/

The role of resistance to varroa destructor and deformed wing virus in the European honey bee (apis mellifera)  - University of...The role of resistance to varroa destructor and deformed wing virus in the European honey bee (apis mellifera) - University of...

The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is of global importance as a pollinator. Over the past 30 years an increase in colonies ... Varroa tolerant bees also had DWV loads similar to Varroa treated colonies, a result which suggests mite-tolerant traits evolve ... Secondly, I used the new assay to survey the three DWV master variants in English and Welsh honey bee colonies. DWV type-B was ... Kevill, J 2019, The role of resistance to varroa destructor and deformed wing virus in the European honey bee (apis mellifera) ...
more infohttp://usir.salford.ac.uk/id/eprint/49779/?template=banner

The Bee PageThe Bee Page

While worker bees only live about 6 weeks, queen bees can live up to 9 years. Worker bees are female bees that are not allowed ... Bees use the sun as a compass. Even when the sun is obscured by clouds, bees can detect its posistion from the light in ... Wonderful Bee Honey Honey is the sweet liquid produced by bees from the nectar of flowers. The color and flavor of the honey ... Bees belong to the same order as wasps. Like wasps, bees have mouth parts with a tongue longer than the wasps better suited for ...
more infohttp://azuregardens.tripod.com/bees.html

Kelley Beekeeping - BlogKelley Beekeeping - Blog

Tetra-Bee & Veterinary Feed Directives (VFD). What is Tetra-Bee & why does it require a veterinary feed directive? Tetra-Bee is ... Bees die. But spring is the season of renewal. Finding a dead hive is discouraging, but please dont give up. Bees need us. So ... Bees sting! As wonderful as honey bees are, they have the ability to inflict a great deal of pain with their venomous sting. ... Since 1924, weve been a leader in providing beekeepers with quality products and excellent customer service. We are excited to ...
more infohttps://www.kelleybees.com/blog/?page=11

Neonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees | PNASNeonicotinoid clothianidin adversely affects insect immunity and promotes replication of a viral pathogen in honey bees | PNAS

... and 30 ng/bee for imidacloprid; and 0, 30, 60 120, 250, and 350 ng per bee for chlorpyriphos. Bees were then transferred into ... Losses of honey bee colonies have been reported in many regions of the northern hemisphere (1, 2). In the United States these ... DWV Replication in Bees As Affected by Insecticide Exposure.. Newly emerged bees were treated by using a micropipette to apply ... 2009) Bee cups: Single-use cages for honey bee experiments. J Apic Res 48(4):300-302. ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/110/46/18466

Towards Learning from Losing Aaron Swartz: Part 2 | Center for Internet and SocietyTowards Learning from Losing Aaron Swartz: Part 2 | Center for Internet and Society

This reality is discomfiting enough when your client has been caught red-handed with a car full of cocaine. But when the facts ... You will not see a confirmation message once you hit the Save button but please be assured your comment has been submitted and ... However, if he plead guilty to a felony, he could have been sentenced to as many as 5 years, despite the governments agreement ... It is that Swartzs actions, had they been completed, might reasonably be thought to have put JSTOR out of business entirely, ...
more infohttp://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/blog/2013/01/towards-learning-losing-aaron-swartz-part-2

Has a second person with HIV been cured? | Science | AAASHas a second person with HIV been cured? | Science | AAAS

Its been too long.. Timothy Ray Brown In some of the past transplant failures, the donor did not have a mutated CCR5, but the ... Her group has been working on a way to mutate the CCR5 gene directly in the bone marrow of a person to simulate the effect of ... Its been too long. I think its a movement in the right direction and proves that cure of HIV is possible but I think lots ... "Its been 10 years since the last success, and I was totally prepared for failure of the graft or return of the lymphoma," he ...
more infohttps://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/03/has-second-person-hiv-been-cured

Vaccines Do Not Cause Autism | Concerns | Vaccine Safety | CDCVaccines Do Not Cause Autism | Concerns | Vaccine Safety | CDC

One vaccine ingredient that has been studied specifically is thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative used to prevent ... However, no links have been found between any vaccine ingredients and ASD. ... there have been nine CDC-funded or conducted studies pdf icon[PDF - 357 KB] that have found no link between thimerosal- ... estimates from CDCs Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network found that about 1 in 54 children have been ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/autism.html

Carpenter BeesCarpenter Bees

Along with bumble bee queens, carpenter bees (genus Xylocopa) are the largest native bees in the United States. There are ... However, unlike honey bees and bumble bees there are no queen or worker castes, only individual males and females. ... Carpenter bees land on flower blossoms they become living tuning forks. Using their powerful thoracic muscles carpenter bees ... Carpenter bees are long lived, up to three years and there can be one or two generations per year. Often newly hatched ...
more infohttps://www.fs.fed.us/wildflowers/pollinators/pollinator-of-the-month/carpenter_bees.shtml

BUMBLE BEESBUMBLE BEES

The type specimens of B. nobilis have also been in some doubt (Richards, 1968). In the same publication as the description of B ... TAXONOMIC STATUS: Several of these nominal taxa have been treated as separate species. At least B. dentatus [Himalaya] may ... TAXONOMIC STATUS: Several of these nominal taxa have been treated as separate species. However, aside from differences in ... TAXONOMIC STATUS: Several of these nominal taxa have been treated as separate species. ...
more infohttp://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/bombus/ag.html

Busy Bees Delivery LLCBusy Bees Delivery LLC

"If the bee disappeared off the surface of the globe, then man would have only four years of life left. No more bees, no more ... Busy Bees Delivery LLC P.O. Box 333 Silt CO 81652 Phone 970-456-8392 [email protected] Fax 253-323-6047. ... Busy Bees Delivery LLC provides notary service at your location! Affordable rates for one of our notaries to come to your home ... If you need animal transportation services, call Busy Bees Delivery to see if that service is available in your area. Medical/ ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/busybeesdeliverycom/

St Bees School - WikipediaSt Bees School - Wikipedia

"Independent Schools Inspectorate - St Bees Report" (PDF). Retrieved 29 May 2011.. *^ "St Bees School Website. Why St Bees?". ... Bees 1583-1939: a souvenir of the 350th anniversary of the opening of St. Bees School. London: Buck & Wooton. OCLC 223279332.. ... Listed buildings in St Bees. Citations[edit]. *^ "St. Bees Village Website - School History". Archived from the original on 4 ... "Rescue St Bees School" website - retrieved 23 March *^ ""Rescue St Bees School" website - retrieved 23rd March". Archived from ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Bees_School

Save the BeesSave the Bees

Protect bees and other pollinators by choosing organic food, grown without toxic insecticides, and by planting bee-friendly ... This beginners guide clearly explains everything you need to know to keep bees successfully, from getting your first bees to ... You can help protect bees by choosing organic food, grown without these toxic insecticides, and planting bee friendly gardens. ... Neonicotinoid pesticides weaken the bees immune system and cause disorientation, damaging the bees ability to find its way ...
more infohttps://www.organicconsumers.org/campaigns/save-bees?date=2018-02

Why Are Bees Disappearing? | HuffPostWhy Are Bees Disappearing? | HuffPost

The History of Honey Bees. Humans have been collecting honey from Apis mellifera, the Western honey bee, for millennia. Native ... the amount of food for bees decreased. The natural diet of bees is honey and bee bread, which is fermented pollen. Fewer wild ... Plant flowers that bees like in your garden, if you have one. Help undo the damage of habitat loss by giving bees a source of ... Like all animals, bees get sick, and like all farmers, beekeepers will do whatever is necessary to keep their bees healthy and ...
more infohttps://www.huffingtonpost.com/quora/why-are-bees-disappearing_b_6304112.html

PEMay2013 Buzz on Honey BeesPEMay2013 Buzz on Honey Bees

The month of May always makes us think of flowers, and flowers makes us think of bees, and bees make us think of Honeybees. ... When they are young they are called house bees and work in the hive doing comb construction, taking care of young bees, tending ... Drone bees are all male and have no stinger. They live about eight weeks. Only a few hundred are ever present in a hive. Their ... Worker bees are the most numerous in the hive and do all the different jobs needed to maintain and operate the hive. They are ...
more infohttps://docs.google.com/document/d/1kwQSjgoTS5jK2LbXNIMS6OI6P4aRVONN1OBr1JfoLJk/pub

Bees, Wasps, and Hornets | NIOSH | CDCBees, Wasps, and Hornets | NIOSH | CDC

Bees, wasps, and hornets are most abundant in the warmer months. Nests and hives may be found in trees, under roof eaves, or on ... Bees release a chemical when they sting, which may attract other bees.) *Go indoors. ... Bees, wasps, and hornets are most abundant in the warmer months. Nests and hives may be found in trees, under roof eaves, or on ... If a worker is stung by a bee, wasp, or hornet:. *Have someone stay with the worker to be sure that they do not have an ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/insects/beeswasphornets.html

Killer Bees? (TV Short 1999) - IMDbKiller Bees? (TV Short 1999) - IMDb

Directed by Tom Kleespie. With Don Collier. The danger to people and pets from Africanized (killer) honeybee colonies in the American Southwest.
more infohttp://www.imdb.com/title/tt0296708/

Parasite turns honey bees into zombiesParasite turns honey bees into zombies

The parasite nests in the stomach of the bees and causes them to walk in circles, sometimes pursuing bright lights, before ... A fly parasite is being blamed for an epidemic that has struck the honey bee population around the world. ... Bees usually just sit in one place, sometimes curling up before they die, said Core. But the parasitised bees were still alive ... "When we observed the bees for some time, the ones that were alive, we found that they walked around in circles, often with no ...
more infohttps://www.yahoo.com/news/blogs/sideshow/parasite-turns-honey-bees-zombies-212258832.html

Honey bee - WikipediaHoney bee - Wikipedia

Africanized bee[edit]. Main article: Africanized bee. Africanized bees (known colloquially as "killer bees") are hybrids ... "Bee castes". Visual Dictionary, QA International. 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2017.. *^ a b c d e f g h "Getting Started: Honey Bee ... bumble bees, other native bees. The stingless bees mentioned by Jefferson are distant relatives of the honey bees, in the genus ... Borneo honey bee[edit]. The Koschevnikovs bee (Apis koschevnikovi) is often referred to in the literature as the "red bee of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honey_Bee

Waxing Eloquent on Native BeesWaxing Eloquent on Native Bees

Few people realize that native bees are crucial to the ecology and the economy of the United States; Frank Parker and others ... "Its not new technology.") Not much money has been applied to studying native bees, either--of the five federal bee labs in the ... Native bees dont belong to the same species as Africanized bees, so they dont mate with them. Nor are they vulnerable to ... The only documented bee extinctions in the country occurred in Hawaii, which has lost 12 species of the bee genus Hylaus, says ...
more infohttps://www.nwf.org/en/Magazines/National-Wildlife/2001/Waxing-Eloquent-on-Native-Bees

Bugged about bees - Washington TimesBugged about bees - Washington Times

Now the government is spending billions to clean up the mess and the do-gooders have moved on to save the bees by banning ... Bees land on the sunflowers to pollinate. They pick up the pesticide. They die. The predictable response of the European Union ... Now the government is spending billions to clean up the mess and the do-gooders have moved on to save the bees by banning ... The sad story of the missing bees and the unproven link to pesticides is propped up only by junk science. "Rather than a ...
more infohttps://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/may/1/bugged-about-bees/
  • The bee losses are especially distressing in light of a study last year that concluded that pollinators such as bees, birds and bats affect 35 percent of the world's crop production, increasing the output of 87 of the leading food crops worldwide. (treehugger.com)
  • Our results shed light on a further level of regulation of the immune response in insects and have implications for bee conservation. (pnas.org)
  • Some insects (particularly Africanized Honey Bees) are known to hover above the water, continuing to sting once you surface for air. (cdc.gov)
  • After the war, the club became The Bees and have been involved every season from 1948 until the loss of Brandon stadium shortly before the start of the 2017 season, during which they ran a series of challenge matches at other tracks. (wikipedia.org)
  • We park the car, and Parker strides into the rabbitbrush, distributing plastic picnic bowls he's filled with soapy water to trap bees. (nwf.org)
  • Step away from the bee colony as quickly as possible, and then make another quart of soapy water. (ehow.com)
  • Wait 24 hours and then douse the former bee colony again with soapy water to kill any survivors. (ehow.com)
  • They also contain glands that produce beeswax and have straight barbed stingers that can be used only once after which it rips out of their abdomen and kills the bee. (google.com)
  • Some of them are gorgeous: One orchid bee is metallic gold with a blue abdomen and a red and gold thorax. (nwf.org)
  • Unlike carpenter bees, bumble bees have a very hairy abdomen with yellow markings and they also have large pollen baskets on their hind legs. (osu.edu)
  • The new bee species from Panama's Coiba Island, Melipona insularis, is a larger bee with fuzzy yellow hairs on its abdomen. (earthtimes.org)
  • Eusocial bees live in large hives, each of which has a single queen, together with workers and drones. (redorbit.com)
  • Bumblebees are referred to as quasisocial because the queen bee is typically able to survive on her own for at least a short time (unlike queens in eusocial species who must be cared for at all times). (redorbit.com)
  • European honey bees were imported to the United States a few centuries ago, where they adapted well to the local plants. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Using natural methods to get rid of the bees is a great way to solve the pest issue without relying on toxic chemicals that may harm plants near the colony. (ehow.com)
  • The next time you are out in the field and see bees busy at their days work, think of their wonderful connection to flowers, and the many animals, including humans, that benefit from this wonderful relationship of the natural world. (google.com)
  • Most species have historically been cultured or at least exploited for honey and beeswax by humans indigenous to their native ranges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Honey bees are exposed to a wealth of synergistically interacting stress factors, which may induce colony losses often associated with high infection levels of pathogens. (pnas.org)
  • Neonicotinoid insecticides have been reported to enhance the impact of pathogens, but the underlying immune alteration is still obscure. (pnas.org)
  • A stronger impact of pathogens in honey bees exposed to neonicotinoid insecticides has been reported, but the causal link between insecticide exposure and the possible immune alteration of honey bees remains elusive. (pnas.org)
  • The European Commission's own top veterinarian, Dr. Alberto Laddomada, identifies certain pathogens as the major threat to bees. (washingtontimes.com)
  • And while the parasite may be causing immense damage to the honey bees population, there is an upside to their discovery, according to the Mirror, "Scientists discovered the parasite by accident but they believe it may help them discover what is causing colony collapse disorder which is devastating honey bees in Europe and America cutting some populations in half. (yahoo.com)
  • An inveterate collector known to colleagues as "Bring-'em-back-on-pins Parker," he has found hundreds of new bee species in the United States and Latin America. (nwf.org)
  • There's more kinds of bees than there are birds and fish put together! (nwf.org)
  • The Chancellor and her colleagues don't need a lesson in the birds and the bees of statecraft, but they must appease the cries of domestic anti-American outrage. (usingenglish.com)
  • What does 'a leeson in the birds and the bees of statecraft' means? (usingenglish.com)
  • The 'birds and the bees' is the talk that parents have with children about sex. (usingenglish.com)
  • Bees are either solitary or may live in various sorts of communities. (redorbit.com)
  • You can help protect bees by choosing organic food, grown without these toxic insecticides, and planting bee friendly gardens. (organicconsumers.org)
  • The origin of these prehistoric honey bees does not necessarily indicate Europe as the place of origin of the genus, only that the bees were present in Europe by that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large carpenter bees belong to the genus Xylocopa . (osu.edu)
  • For several years, excitement has been building over the Atlantic presence of Manta birostris and Manta cf birostris/ this is the classification system trying to tell us of a potential new species that is related to genus Manta. (earthtimes.org)
  • St Bees offers external lettings of the Business Management Centre, School's Swimming Pool and Sports Centre to the local community. (wikipedia.org)
  • St Bees Swimming Pool offers a wide range of activities and swim sessions for all ages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Male and female carpenter bees emerge in the spring (April and early May) and mate. (osu.edu)
  • After another week (again, depending on species), it will emerge an adult bee. (redorbit.com)
  • This fact sheet primarily pertains to X. virginica , with the common name of carpenter bee. (osu.edu)
  • Carpenter bee, Xylocopa virginica . (osu.edu)
  • Numerous carpenter bees often occupy the same piece of wood, with nest galleries occurring close to each other (Figure 2), but each carpenter bee behaves independently of the other bees. (osu.edu)
  • Although the females of most bee species have stingers, bees tend to be less aggressive the less social they are. (nwf.org)
  • Carpenter bees get their common name due to the females' habit of excavating galleries in wood to create nest sites for their young. (osu.edu)
  • Bees have antennae made up of thirteen segments in males and twelve in females. (redorbit.com)
  • Bees are fuzzy and carry an electrostatic charge, thus aiding in the adherence of pollen. (redorbit.com)
  • However this was not officially confirmed by the BSPA despite announcements by Peterborough and Coventry bees co-promoter, Allen Trump. (wikipedia.org)
  • We tested the possibility that resistant bees may be better able to groom mites from their bodies. (usda.gov)
  • Bees of two stocks, one resistant and one susceptible to mites, were compared when we impaired their ability to groom themselves. (usda.gov)
  • The parasite nests in the stomach of the bees and causes them to walk in circles , sometimes pursuing bright lights, before eventually dying. (yahoo.com)
  • When we observed the bees for some time, the ones that were alive, we found that they walked around in circles, often with no sense of direction," said San Francisco State University's Andrew Core lead author on the bee parasite study in the journal Plos One . (yahoo.com)
  • Scientists are still figuring out exactly how the parasite works, but an early theory by San Francisco State Professor John Hafernik holds that the parasite changes the bees' "body clocks," which causes their erratic behavior and deaths. (yahoo.com)
  • Whether it's bank deposits, daily warehouse sweeps, interoffice deliveries or more, Busy Bee Delivery is ready to be there when you need us delivering your courier packages door to door. (google.com)
  • She is the only fertile female, and deposits all the eggs from which the other bees are produced. (redorbit.com)
  • A. mellifera has been cultivated at least since the time of the building of the Egyptian pyramids , and only that species has been moved extensively beyond its native range. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each female bee creates a series of provisioned brood cells in a gallery. (osu.edu)
  • Not only do we escape getting stung, we don't even find any bees. (nwf.org)
  • The predictable response of the European Union to this somewhat imaginative tale is to ban the pesticide, though there's no good evidence that anything used has anything to do with the death of bees. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Atkins EL, Macdonald RL, Greywood-Hale EA (1975) Repellent additives to reduce pesticide hazards to honey bees: field tests. (springer.com)
  • Their sole function is to mate with the queen bee. (google.com)
  • The life cycle of bumblebee begins in the spring when the queen bee rises from hibernation. (redorbit.com)
  • Get rid of bees safely and effectively without harsh chemicals. (ehow.com)
  • Drone bees are all male and have no stinger. (google.com)
  • Busy Bees Delivery LLC provides local courier service for the pick up and delivery of your time sensitive packages. (google.com)
  • Let Busy Bees Delivery provide on time, accurate same day delivery of your supplies and specimen. (google.com)
  • The aim of St Bees School is to provide an opportunity for all pupils to have an appreciation of the arts and to experience the benefit of time on stage and behind the scenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the USA, the Almond Board successfully lobbied Congress to allow the importation of bees from Australia, which was illegal at the time to prevent the importation of foreign bee diseases. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • But some wild bees have a way to deal with such scarcity: Only part of each generation emerges at any given time, a phenomenon called parsivoltinism. (nwf.org)
  • The bees seem to win the argument for the geologists, but I'm plain glad to see all new species at a time when we're losing so many. (earthtimes.org)
  • During this time, Quimby read one of Burt Shavitz's 19th-century books about bee-keeping which included home-made personal care recipes and Burt's Bees entered into the personal care products industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little progress has been made on this W. Atlantic species of oceanic manta, but it can t be long before we can confirm new knowledge of parenting and juvenile growth in at least the main species, which seems to live alongside the potential new manta. (earthtimes.org)
  • Carpenter bees have a dense brush of hairs on their hind legs. (osu.edu)